Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 40.863
Filtrar
1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 459-479, sept. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008268

RESUMO

Neuronal cell damage is often caused by prolonged misuse of Methylphenidate (MPH). Topiramate (TPM) carries neuroprotective properties but its assumed mechanism remains unclear. The present study evaluates in vivo role of various doses of TPM and its mechanism against MPH-induced motor activity and related behavior disorder. Thus, we used domoic acid (DOM), bicuculline (BIC), Ketamine (KET), Yohimibine (YOH) and Haloperidole (HAL) as AMPA/kainite, GABAA, NMDA, ɑ2 adrenergic and D2 of dopamine receptor antagonists respectively. Open Field Test (OFT), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Forced Swim Test (FST) were used to study motor activity, anxiety and depression level. TPM (100 and 120 mg/kg) reduced MPH-induced rise and inhibited MPH-induced promotion in motor activity disturbance, anxiety and depression. Pretreatment of animals with KET, HAL, YOH and BIC inhibited TPM- improves anxiety and depression through the interacting with Dopaminergic, GABAA, NMDA and ɑ2-adrenergic receptors.


El daño a las células neuronales a menudo es causado por el uso prolongado de metilfenidato (MPH). El topiramato (TPM) tiene propiedades neuroprotectoras, pero su mecanismo de acción no es claro. El presente estudio evalúa el papel in vivo de varias dosis de TPM y su mecanismo contra la actividad motora inducida por MPH y el trastorno de comportamiento relacionado. Utilizamos ácido domoico (DOM), bicuculina (BIC), ketamina (KET), yohimbina (YOH) y haloperidol (HAL), así como antagonistas AMPA/kainato, GABAA, NMDA, ɑ2-adrenérgico y D2 dopaminérgicos, respectivamente. Se utilizaron las pruebas de campo abierto (OFT), elevación de laberinto (EPM) y natación forzada (FST) para estudiar la actividad motora, la ansiedad y el nivel de depresión. El TPM (100 y 120 mg/kg) redujo el aumento inducido por MPH e inhibió la promoción inducida por MPH en la alteración de la actividad motora, la ansiedad y la depresión. El tratamiento previo de animales con KET, HAL, YOH y BIC inhibió el TPM, mejora la ansiedad y la depresión a través de la interacción con los receptores dopaminérgicos, GABAA, NMDA y ɑ2-adrenérgico.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , /farmacologia , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Metilfenidato/efeitos adversos , Ratos Wistar , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/induzido quimicamente , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 693-707, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367970

RESUMO

Crop domestication and selective breeding have altered plant defense mechanisms, influencing insect-plant interactions. A reduction in plant resistance/tolerance against herbivory is generally expected in domesticated species, however, limited efforts have been made to compare inducibility of plant defenses between wild and domesticated genotypes. In the present study, the inducibility of several plant defense mechanisms (e.g. defensive chemicals, trichomes, plant volatiles) were investigated, and the performance and preference of the herbivore Helicoverpa zea were measured in three different tomato genotypes; a) wild tomato, Solanum pimpinellifolium L. (accession LA 2093), b) cherry tomato, S. lycopersicum L. var. cerasiforme (accession Matts Wild Cherry), and c) cultivated tomato, S. lycopersicum L. var. Better Boy). Enhanced inducibility of defensive chemicals, trichomes, and plant volatiles in the cultivated tomato, and a higher level of constitutive plant resistance against herbivory in the wild genotype was observed. When comparing the responses of damaged vs. undamaged leaves, the percent reduction in larval growth was higher on damaged leaves from cultivated tomato, suggesting a higher induced resistance compared to other two genotypes. While all tomato genotypes exhibited increased volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions in response to herbivory, the cultivated variety responded with generally higher levels of VOCs. Differences in VOC patterns may have influenced the ovipositional preferences, as H. zea female moths significantly preferred laying eggs on the cultivated versus the wild tomato genotypes. Selection of traits during domestication and selective breeding could alter allocation of resources, where plants selected for higher yield performance would allocate resources to defense only when attacked.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Mariposas/fisiologia , Solanum/química , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Herbivoria , Larva/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Solanum/genética , Solanum/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
3.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 715-724, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385154

RESUMO

Plants emit a specific blend of volatiles in response to herbivory and these volatiles, which often attract predators and parasitoids function as an indirect plant defense. The impact of plant volatiles in shaping herbivore defenses is unclear. Here, we report that specific plant volatiles induce immune responses in the polyphagous herbivore, Spodoptera litura. We characterized the hemocyte profile and established their functional significance with respect to ontogeny and exposure to specific plant volatiles. Fifth instar larvae showed the highest number and hemocytes diversity. We characterized seven different types of hemocytes, of which granulocytes performed phagocytosis, oenocytoids showed melanization activity, and plasmatocytes along with granulocytes and oenocytoids were found to be involved in encapsulation. Among the six volatiles tested, exposure to (E)-ß-ocimene caused the highest increase in total hemocytes number (THC) followed by linalool and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate exposure. Although THC did not differ between these three volatile treatments, circulating hemocytes diversity varied significantly. (E)-ß-ocimene exposure showed higher number of plasmatocytes and phenol oxidase activity. The interaction of the parasitic wasp Bracon brevicornis with (E)-ß-ocimene exposed larvae was poor in terms of delayed paralysis and lower egg deposition. In choice assays, the wasp showed clear preference towards control larvae indicating (E)-ß-ocimene treatment renders the host unattractive. Hemocyte profiles post-parasitoid exposure and (E)-ß-ocimene treatment were similar indicating cue-based priming. When challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis, linalool exposure resulted in the highest survival as compared to other volatiles. Our results show that specific HIPVs can modulate cellular immunity of S. litura, revealing a new role for HIPVs in tri-trophic interactions.


Assuntos
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Alcenos/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/citologia , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Larva/fisiologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/parasitologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Vespas/imunologia
4.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 657-666, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407199

RESUMO

The box tree moth, Cydalima perspectalis, is an invasive pest in Europe causing damage on Buxus species. In this study, we aimed to develop a "bisexual" lure to attract both female and male moths. Based on a previous screening bioassay we tested methyl salicylate, phenylacetaldehyde and eugenol as potential attractants in different combinations. The trapping results showed that both binary and ternary blends attracted male and female moths. Catches with these blends were comparable to catches with the synthetic pheromone. Subsequently we carried out single sensillum recordings, which proved the peripheral detection of the above-mentioned compounds on male and female antennae. To identify synergistic flower volatiles, which can be also attractive and can increase the trap capture, we collected flower headspace volatiles from 12 different flowering plant species. Several components of the floral scents evoked good responses from antennae of both females and males in gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection. The most active components were tentatively identified by gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry as benzaldehyde, cis-ß-ocimene, (±)-linalool and phenethyl alcohol. These selected compounds in combination did not increase significantly the trap capture compared to the methyl salicylate- phenyacetaldehyde blend. Based on these results we discovered the first attractive blend, which was able to attract both adult male and female C. perspectalis in field conditions. These results will yield a good basis for the optimization and development of a practically usable bisexual lure against this invasive pest.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/fisiologia , Feromônios/farmacologia , Animais , Eugenol/química , Eugenol/farmacologia , Feminino , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Controle de Insetos , Masculino , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Feromônios/análise , Robinia/química , Robinia/metabolismo , Rosa/química , Rosa/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 312: 108775, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369746

RESUMO

Postnatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) in rodents induces autism-like neurobehavioral defects which are comparable to the motor and cognitive deficits observed in humans with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Histamine H3 receptor (H3R) and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) are involved in several cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, anxiety, and narcolepsy, all of which are comorbid with ASD. Therefore, the present study aimed at evaluating effect of the novel dual-active ligand E100 with high H3R antagonist affinity and balanced AChE inhibition on autistic-like repetitive behavior, anxiety parameters, locomotor activity, and neuroinflammation in a mouse model of VPA-induced ASD in C57BL/6 mice. E100 (5, 10, and 15 mg/kg) dose-dependently and significantly ameliorated repetitive and compulsive behaviors by reducing the increased percentages of nestlets shredded (all P < 0.05). Moreover, pretreatment with E100 (10 and 15 mg/kg) attenuated disturbed anxiety levels (P < 0.05) but failed to restore the hyperactivity observed in the open field test. Furthermore, pretreatment with E100 (10 mg/kg) the increased microglial activation, proinflammatory cytokines and expression of NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2 in the cerebellum as well as the hippocampus (all P < 0.05). These results demonstrate the ameliorative effects of E100 on repetitive compulsive behaviors in a mouse model of ASD. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo demonstration of the effectiveness of a potent dual-active H3R antagonist and AChE inhibitor against autistic-like repetitive compulsive behaviors and neuroinflammation, and provides evidence for the role of such compounds in treating ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H3/farmacologia , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H3/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Ácido Valproico/toxicidade
6.
Biol Bull ; 237(1): 48-62, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441698

RESUMO

Anthropogenic activities and climate change have resulted in an increase of hypoxic conditions in nearshore ecosystems worldwide. Depending on the persistence of a hypoxic event, the survival of aquatic animals can be compromised. Temperate fish exposed to hypoxia display a reduction in the probability of eliciting startle responses thought to be important for escape from predation. Here we examine the effect of hypoxia on the probability of eliciting fast-startle responses (fast-starts) of a tropical fish, the white grunt (Haemulon plumieri), and whether hypoxia has a prolonged impact on behavior once the fish are returned to normoxic conditions. White grunts collected from the San Juan Bay Estuary in Puerto Rico were exposed to an oxygen concentration of 2.5 mg L-1 (40% dissolved oxygen). We found a significant reduction in auditory-evoked fast-starts that lasted for at least 24 hours after fish were returned to normoxic conditions. Accessibility to the neuronal networks that underlie startle responses was an important motivator for this study. Mauthner cells are identifiable neurons found in most fish and amphibians, and these cells are known to initiate fast-starts in teleost fishes. The assumption that most of the short-latency responses in this study are Mauthner cell initiated provided the impetus to characterize the white grunt Mauthner cell. The identification of the cell provides a first step in understanding how low oxygen levels may impact a single cell and its circuit and the behavior it initiates.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Perciformes/fisiologia , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Reflexo de Sobressalto/efeitos dos fármacos , Clima Tropical
7.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(7): 588-597, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342233

RESUMO

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens produce pheromones responsible for mediating both male mating behavior and many critical facets of worker social organization within their colony. These pheromones are dynamic multi-component blends, allowing the communication of detailed information. Indeed, variation in the queen's mating and reproductive state is associated with significant changes in her pheromone profiles, and these different pheromone profiles elicit different behavioral and physiological responses in female workers. Here we evaluate behavioral responses of male drones to the chemical blends produced by two exocrine glands in queens, and determine if the blends and responses are altered by the queen's mating and reproductive state. We find that drone attraction to the chemical blends of mandibular glands produced by mated, laying queens versus virgin queens is reduced, suggesting that the queens produce a reliable signal of their mating receptivity. Interestingly, while the chemical blends of mating, laying queens and virgins queens largely overlap, mated, laying queens produce a greater number of chemicals and greater quantities of certain chemicals than virgin queens, suggesting that these chemicals may serve to inhibit behavioral responses of drones to mated, laying queens. Thus, our results highlight the importance of considering chemical cues and signals that serve to both stimulate and inhibit behavioral responses during social interactions in animals.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feromônios/farmacologia , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Abelhas , Glândulas Exócrinas/química , Glândulas Exócrinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Masculino , Feromônios/análise , Reprodução/fisiologia
8.
Chem Biol Interact ; 310: 108738, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283913

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke and reperfusion injury are a common and serve medical situation in the elderly population. H2S is a gas neuromodulator which also possesses anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and is found to play neuroprotective effect in neurodegenerative diseases. This study investigated the effect of endogenous and exogenous H2S in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. 129P2-Cbstm1Unc/J mice with heterozygous mutants in H2S generating enzyme cystathionine ß-synthase were used to study the effect of endogenous H2S. H2S donor NaHS was used as exogenous H2S. Animals were pretreated with H2S and then subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery. Behavioral outcome was evaluated by novel object recognition test. Inflammatory cytokines were measured using ELISA. Western blot was used to detect the activation of NF-κB. Aged 129P2-Cbstm1Unc/J mice showed exaggerated inflammation and more severe cognitive impairment after ischemia, while exogenous H2S treatment inhibited inflammation and attenuated behavioral impairment. The anti-inflammatory effect of H2S was mediated by inhibiting NF-κB. Our findings suggest that both endogenous and exogenous H2S are involved in the neuroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion-induced cerebral injury.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico , Precondicionamento Isquêmico/métodos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/complicações , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle
9.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 684-692, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289990

RESUMO

Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are important cues for natural enemies to find their hosts. HIPVs are usually present as blends and the effects of combinations of individual components are less studied. Here, we investigated plant volatiles in a tritrophic system, comprising the parasitoid wasp Lytopylus rufipes Nees (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), the Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and Japanese pear, Pyrus pyrifolia 'Kosui', so as to elucidate the effects of single components and blends on wasp behaviors. Bioassays in a four-arm olfactometer, using either shoots or their isolated volatiles collected on adsorbent, revealed that female wasps preferred volatiles from host-infested shoots over those from intact shoots. Analyses identified (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate (H), linalool (L), (E)-ß-ocimene (O), (E)-3,8-dimethyl-1,4,7-nonatriene (D), and (E,E)-α-farnesene (F). Among them, only F was induced by infestation with G. molesta. When tested singly, only O and D elicited positive responses by L. rufipes. Binary blends of HO and DF elicited a positive response, but that of HD elicited a negative one, even though D alone elicited a positive response. Remarkably, wasps did not prefer either the ODF or HL blends, but showed a highest positive response to a quinary blend (HLODF). These results show that synergism among volatiles released from host-infested plants is necessary for eliciting high behavioral responses in L. rufipes, enabling L. rufipes to find its host efficiently.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Busca por Hospedeiro/efeitos dos fármacos , Pyrus/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Alcenos/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Herbivoria , Mariposas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/parasitologia , Pyrus/metabolismo , Pyrus/parasitologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
10.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 667-672, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313134

RESUMO

Agriotes ustulatus is an economically important click beetle in Europe. A female-produced pheromone, (E,E)-farnesyl acetate, has been identified and is used for monitoring and detecting males. More recently, a floral lure targeting females with modest, but significant, activity has been described. Based on preliminary data, we hypothesized, that similar to the effects on the congeneric A. brevis, addition of the pheromone to the floral lure should improve female A. ustulatus catches. Also, as click beetles have been reported to respond to white light, we studied possible interactions between visual and chemical cues. In field trials, the addition of the synthetic pheromone to the floral lure resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of females trapped, whereas male catches remained unaffected and equal to those in traps baited with pheromone only. A white visual cue did not influence trap catches. Maximum catches of both sexes of A. ustulatus can be achieved using the pheromone and the floral lure inside the same trap. Furthermore, the compounds can be formulated in a single polyethylene bag dispenser, making handling of the trap easier. Due to a much larger proportion of females in the catch, this improved trap may be a promising tool for semiochemical-based, environmentally sound agricultural practice against this important pest.


Assuntos
Besouros/fisiologia , Feromônios/química , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Acroleína/química , Acroleína/farmacologia , Animais , Anisóis/química , Anisóis/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Farneseno Álcool/análogos & derivados , Farneseno Álcool/química , Farneseno Álcool/farmacologia , Feminino , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Controle de Insetos , Masculino , Feromônios/farmacologia , Estereoisomerismo
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108758, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348919

RESUMO

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in children. It is diagnosed by two main behavioral phenotypes i.e. social-communication impairments and repetitive behavior. ASD is complex disorder with unsolved etiology due to multiple genes involvement, epigenetic mechanism and environmental factors. The clinical and preclinical studies have been indicating the association of propionic acid with autism spectrum disorder. Numerous studies suggest the potential therapeutic effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) in different brain disorders. This research evaluates the utility of selective agonist of PPAR-γ, pioglitazone in postnatal propionic acid induced ASD related symptomatology in male Wistar rats. PPA (250 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered to male offspring for three consecutive days from postnatal 21st day to 23rd day. PPA induced social impairment, repetitive behavior, hyperlocomotion, anxiety and low exploratory activity in rats. Also, postnatal propionic acid-treated rats showed higher levels of oxidative stress (increased in thiobarbituric acid reactive species and decreased in reduced glutathione) as well as inflammation (increased in interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and decreased in interleukin-10) in the cerebellum, brainstem and prefrontal cortex. The rats were treated daily with pioglitazone (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) from postnatal 24th day to end of the study. Treatment with pioglitazone, significantly attenuated the postnatal propionic acid-induced social impairment, repetitive behavior, hyperactivity, anxiety and low exploratory activity. Furthermore, pioglitazone also reduced the postnatal propionic acid-induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in aforementioned brain regions. Hence, pioglitazone improved the propionic acid-induced neurobehavioral and biochemical impairments in rats.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/agonistas , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Animais , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Pioglitazona/uso terapêutico , Propionatos/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 54(7): 580-589, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266377

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the toxicity for fish of two active ingredients (lambda-cyhalothrin-20 g L-1, a pyrethroid, and acetamiprid-15 g L-1, a neonicotinoid) which are components of a commercial insecticide (Acer 35 EC) used in cotton crop in many West African countries. The juveniles of Oreochromis niloticus (4.01 ± 0.34 g, mean body weight) were exposed for 96 h to increasing concentrations of active ingredients (lambda-cyhalothrin and acetamiprid) or a mixture similar to Acer 35 EC (composed by 20 g of chemical compound lambda-cyhalothrin and 15 g of acetamiprid dissolved in 1 L of acetone). The experiments were carried out under controlled conditions in aquaria according to OECD Guidelines. During the experiments, the behavioral responses (loss of balance, color change, hyperactivity, etc.) that usually precede death were observed in exposed fish. Mortalities were recorded in each aquarium and the LC50-96h of each chemical was determined. The LC50-96h obtained were respectively 0.1268, 0.0029, 182.9 and 0.5685 ppm for Acer 35 EC, lambda-cyhalothrin, acetamiprid and mixture. All insecticides used in this study had profound impact on Nile tilapia behavior which may confirm the neurotoxicity of each single active compound as well as of their mixture.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Dose Letal Mediana , Mortalidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 278-283, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323573

RESUMO

Local anaesthetics are among the most used drugs in clinical practice, but once they are released to the environment, the effects on the aquatic fauna remain uncertain. This study evaluates, for the first time, the impact of tetracaine, lidocaine and bupivacaine on the survival rate and physiological effects of cladocera Daphnia magna. Video-tracking and image processing allowed us to obtain changes in behaviour parameters like swimming average velocity and mean square displacement. We found that tetracaine shows the most severe effect. A high-speed microscopy system was also used to determine the response of D. magna heart to these drugs. Our results show that tetracaine presents dose-dependent area reduction during all cardiac cycle, while bupivacaine and lidocaine did not present significative effects on heart size. The tested drugs, at environmental high concentrations, altered behaviour, heart function and survival of D. magna.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/toxicidade , Daphnia/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia , Natação
14.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 39, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) testing is a strong tool that enables objective determination of balance functions in humans. However, it remains unknown whether cVEMP correctly expresses vestibular disorder in mice. OBJECTIVE: In this study, correlations of cVEMP with scores for balance-related behavior tests including rotarod, beam, and air-righting reflex tests were determined in ICR mice with vestibular disorder induced by 3,3'-iminodipropiontrile (IDPN) as a mouse model of vestibular disorder. METHODS: Male ICR mice at 4 weeks of age were orally administered IDPN in saline (28 mmol/kg body weight) once. Rotarod, beam crossing, and air-righting reflex tests were performed before and 3-4 days after oral exposure one time to IDPN to determine balance functions. The saccule and utricles were labeled with fluorescein phalloidin. cVEMP measurements were performed for mice in the control and IDPN groups. Finally, the correlations between the scores of behavior tests and the amplitude or latency of cVEMP were determined with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Two-tailed Student's t test and Welch's t test were used to determine a significant difference between the two groups. A difference with p < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. RESULTS: After oral administration of IDPN at 28 mmol/kg, scores of the rotarod, beam, and air-righting reflex tests in the IDPN group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The numbers of hair cells in the saccule, utricle, and cupula were decreased in the IDPN group. cVEMP in the IDPN group was significantly decreased in amplitude and increased in latency compared to those in the control group. cVEMP amplitude had significant correlations with the numbers of hair cells as well as scores for all of the behavior tests in mice. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated impaired cVEMP and correlations of cVEMP with imbalance determined by behavior tests in a mouse model of vestibular disorder.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Transtornos das Sensações/fisiopatologia , Doenças Vestibulares/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados Miogênicos Vestibulares/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Ciliadas Vestibulares/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Nitrilos/efeitos adversos , Equilíbrio Postural/efeitos dos fármacos , Sáculo e Utrículo/patologia , Transtornos das Sensações/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Vestibulares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Vestibulares/diagnóstico , Doenças Vestibulares/patologia , Potenciais Evocados Miogênicos Vestibulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Função Vestibular
15.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(7): 696-701, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of naloxone hydrochloride in dogs following intranasal (IN) and IV administration. ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs. PROCEDURES: In a blinded crossover design involving 2 experimental periods separated by a washout period (minimum of 7 days), dogs were randomly assigned to receive naloxone IN (4 mg via a commercially available fixed-dose naloxone atomizer; mean ± SD dose, 0.17 ± 0.02 mg/kg) or IV (0.04 mg/kg) in the first period and then the opposite treatment in the second period. Plasma naloxone concentrations, dog behavior, heart rate, and respiratory rate were evaluated for 24 hours/period. RESULTS: Naloxone administered IN was well absorbed after a short lag time (mean ± SD, 2.3 ± 1.4 minutes). Mean maximum plasma concentration following IN and IV administration was 9.3 ± 2.5 ng/mL and 18.8 ± 3.9 ng/mL, respectively. Mean time to maximum concentration following IN administration was 22.5 ± 8.2 minutes. Mean terminal half-life after IN and IV administration was 47.4 ± 6.7 minutes and 37.0 ± 6.7 minutes, respectively. Mean bioavailability of naloxone administered IN was 32 ± 13%. There were no notable changes in dog behavior, heart rate, or respiratory rate following naloxone administration by either route. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Use of a naloxone atomizer for IN naloxone administration in dogs may represent an effective alternative to IV administration in emergency situations involving opioid exposure. Future studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of IN naloxone administration in dogs with opioid intoxication, including a determination of effective doses.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Naloxona/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Taxa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Intranasal/veterinária , Administração Intravenosa/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Naloxona/sangue , Naloxona/farmacocinética , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/sangue , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacocinética , Distribuição Aleatória
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 923-933, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247439

RESUMO

The ecotoxicity of untreated tannery effluent (UTE) in several animal models has been reported; however, its effects on fish behavior, and neurotoxicity, remain unknown. Thus, the hypothesis that the chronic exposure to UTE can induce behavioral changes in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) representatives, even when it is highly diluted in water, was tested. Animals exposed to 0.1% and 0.3% UTE for 30 days showed behavioral changes in visual social preference tests through their co-specific and antipredator defensive responses, which had indicated neurotoxic actions. Zebrafish exposed to UTE appeared to have not co-specific preference when it is paired with Poecilia sphrenops. In addition, only animals in the control group showed aversive behavior in the presence of the herein used predatory stimulus (Oreochromis niloticus). However, Cr, Na and Mg bioaccumulation was higher in zebrafish exposed to 0.1% and 0.3% UTE, although anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects were not observed in the models exposed to UTE in the novel tank diving or aggressiveness-increase-in-the-mirror tests. This outcome allowed associating the exposure to the pollutant and bioaccumulation with the observed behavioral changes. The present study is pioneer in scientifically evidencing the sublethal impact caused by chronic exposure to UTE in experimental environment simulating realistic aquatic pollution conditions. Accordingly, results in the current research should motivate further investigations to broaden the knowledge about the real magnitude of UTE biological impacts on the aquatic biota.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Resíduos Industriais , Curtume , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Biológicos , Testes de Toxicidade
17.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 38(3): 265-270, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184313

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of lisinopril (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) on potential behavioural alterations in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Three groups of 15-17-week-old rats were investigated for 2 weeks: Wistar control group, SHR group and SHR+lisinopril group. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was normal in Wistar rats, SHR expressed hypertension and lisinopril normalized the SBP. We observed increased time spent in and increased frequency of entries to the central area of the open field in SHR, while lisinopril induced a trend to reduce the time spent in the central area of the open field and reduced the frequency of entries there. There was a positive correlation between SBP and reduced anxiety-like behaviour in normotensive rats; no correlations in the SHR or SHR+lisinopril groups were observed. We conclude that lisinopril normalized the increase in SBP and partly reversed the alterations of anxiety-like behaviour in SHR.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/psicologia , Lisinopril/farmacologia , Animais , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Wistar
18.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(7): 570-578, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209625

RESUMO

The brown spiny bug, Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is a key pest of leguminous crops in many countries in Africa, causing significant yield losses especially in cowpea, pigeon pea and common beans. Although C. tomentosicollis uses olfaction to aggregate, little is known about the identity of the aggregation pheromone. This study aimed to identify the aggregation pheromone of C. tomentosicollis and to test its potential role in the behavior of its egg parasitoid, Gryon sp. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, only male volatiles strongly attracted both sexes of C. tomentosicollis. Coupled gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry were used to identify antennally-active compounds from male volatiles. Antennae of both sexes detected identical components including a male-specific component, identified as isopentyl butanoate, which was also detected by antenna of the egg parasitoid. In olfactometer bioassays, both sexes of C. tomentosicollis and the egg parasitoid responded to isopentyl butanoate. These results suggest that isopentyl butanoate serves as an aggregation pheromone for both sexes of C. tomentosicollis and a useful kairomone to attract the parasitoid in the management of C. tomentosicollis.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/fisiologia , Himenópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hormônios de Inseto/química , Feromônios/química , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Masculino , Óvulo/química , Óvulo/metabolismo , Feromônios/isolamento & purificação , Feromônios/farmacologia , Vigna/parasitologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 576-583, June 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002261

RESUMO

Antidepressants use during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders. Animal models based on early life alterations in serotonin availability replicate some of the anatomical and behavioral abnormalities observed in autistic individuals. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the possible role of the hippocampus in autism. The aim of study is to examine the effects of neonatal antidepressant (CTM) exposure during a sensitive period of brain development on pyramidal and granule cells density of hippocampal formation. We examined the pyramidal and granular cells density of dorsal hippocampus using Nissl stained sections obtained from neonatal citalopram (CTM) exposed rats (5 mg/kg, twice daily, s.c.), from postnatal day 8 to 21 (PN8-21), saline and non-exposed rats. The density of pyramidal cells was significantly increased by 10.2 % in CA1, 10.6 % in CA3 and 13.2 % in CA4 in CTM treated compared with non-treated or saline treated animals (p<0.0001). The density of granule cells in the dentate gyrus was significantly increased by 12.0 % in CTM treated compared with non-treated or saline treated animals (p<0.0001). These findings were obtained only from male rats, suggesting a sexual dimorphism in neural development after SSRI exposure. These data suggest that the neonatal exposure to CTM may induce long-lasting changes in the hippcampal formation in adults, and such effects appear to preferentially target males.


El uso de antidepresivos durante el embarazo se asoció con un mayor riesgo de trastornos del espectro autista. Los modelos animales basados en alteraciones tempranas de la vida en la disponibilidad de serotonina replican algunas de las anomalías anatómicas y de comportamiento observadas en individuos autistas. En los últimos años ha habido un interés creciente en el posible papel del hipocampo en el autismo. El objetivo del estudio fue examinar los efectos de la exposición al antidepresivo neonatal (CTM) durante un período sensible del desarrollo cerebral en la densidad de las células piramidales y granulares de la formación del hipocampo. Examinamos la densidad de las células piramidales y granulares del hipocampo dorsal utilizando secciones teñidas con Nissl obtenidas de ratas expuestas al citalopram neonatal (CTM) (5 mg / kg, dos veces al día, sc), desde el día postnatal 8 a 21 (PN8-21), solución salina y ratas no expuestas. La densidad de células piramidales se incrementó significativamente en un 10,2 % en CA1, 10,6 % en CA3 y 13,2 % en CA4 en CTM tratados en comparación con animales no tratados o tratados con solución salina (p <0,0001). La densidad de células granulares en el giro dentado aumentó significativamente en un 12,0 % en los animales tratados con CTM en comparación con los animales no tratados o tratados con solución salina (p <0,0001). Estos hallazgos se obtuvieron solo en ratas macho, lo que sugiere un dimorfismo sexual en el desarrollo neural después de la exposición a ISRS. Estos datos sugieren que la exposición neonatal a la CTM puede inducir cambios de larga duración en la formación del hipocampo en adultos, y estos efectos parecen dirigirse preferentemente a los machos.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Ratos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Citalopram/farmacologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Transtorno Autístico/induzido quimicamente , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Citalopram/efeitos adversos , Contagem de Células , Fatores Sexuais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2620, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197165

RESUMO

Conventional drug screens and treatments often ignore the underlying complexity of brain network dysfunctions, resulting in suboptimal outcomes. Here we ask whether we can correct abnormal functional connectivity of the entire brain by identifying and combining multiple neuromodulators that perturb connectivity in complementary ways. Our approach avoids the combinatorial complexity of screening all drug combinations. We develop a high-speed platform capable of imaging more than 15000 neurons in 50ms to map the entire brain functional connectivity in large numbers of vertebrates under many conditions. Screening a panel of drugs in a zebrafish model of human Dravet syndrome, we show that even drugs with related mechanisms of action can modulate functional connectivity in significantly different ways. By clustering connectivity fingerprints, we algorithmically select small subsets of complementary drugs and rapidly identify combinations that are significantly more effective at correcting abnormal networks and reducing spontaneous seizures than monotherapies, while minimizing behavioral side effects. Even at low concentrations, our polytherapy performs superior to individual drugs even at highest tolerated concentrations.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Biológicos , Rede Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurotransmissores/farmacologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/patologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Neurotransmissores/uso terapêutico , Peixe-Zebra
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA