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1.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5738, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982106

RESUMO

Natural behaviors occur in closed action-perception loops and are supported by dynamic and flexible beliefs abstracted away from our immediate sensory milieu. How this real-world flexibility is instantiated in neural circuits remains unknown. Here, we have male macaques navigate in a virtual environment by primarily leveraging sensory (optic flow) signals, or by more heavily relying on acquired internal models. We record single-unit spiking activity simultaneously from the dorsomedial superior temporal area (MSTd), parietal area 7a, and the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Results show that while animals were able to maintain adaptive task-relevant beliefs regardless of sensory context, the fine-grain statistical dependencies between neurons, particularly in 7a and dlPFC, dynamically remapped with the changing computational demands. In dlPFC, but not 7a, destroying these statistical dependencies abolished the area's ability for cross-context decoding. Lastly, correlational analyses suggested that the more unit-to-unit couplings remapped in dlPFC, and the less they did so in MSTd, the less were population codes and behavior impacted by the loss of sensory evidence. We conclude that dynamic functional connectivity between neurons in prefrontal cortex maintain a stable population code and context-invariant beliefs during naturalistic behavior.


Assuntos
Macaca mulatta , Neurônios , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Animais , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
2.
Dev Psychobiol ; 66(6): e22524, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38973227

RESUMO

Alloparenting refers to the practice of caring for the young by individuals other than their biological parents. The relationship between the dynamic changes in psychological functions underlying alloparenting and the development of specific neuroreceptors remains unclear. Using a classic 10-day pup sensitization procedure, together with a pup preference and pup retrieval test on the EPM (elevated plus maze), we showed that both male and female adolescent rats (24 days old) had significantly shorter latency than adult rats (65 days old) to be alloparental, and their motivation levels for pups and objects were also significantly higher. In contrast, adult rats retrieved more pups than adolescent rats even though they appeared to be more anxious on the EPM. Analysis of mRNA expression using real-time-PCR revealed a higher dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) receptor expression in adult hippocampus, amygdala, and ventral striatum, along with higher dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1) receptor expression in ventral striatum compared to adolescent rats. Adult rats also showed significantly higher levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A (HTR2A) receptor expression in the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, ventral striatum, and hypothalamus. These results suggest that the faster onset of alloparenting in adolescent rats compared to adult rats, along with the psychological functions involved, may be mediated by varying levels of dopamine DRD1, DRD2, and HTR2A in different forebrain regions.


Assuntos
Prosencéfalo , RNA Mensageiro , Receptor 5-HT2A de Serotonina , Receptores de Dopamina D1 , Receptores de Dopamina D2 , Animais , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Masculino , Ratos , Feminino , Receptores de Dopamina D1/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D1/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptor 5-HT2A de Serotonina/metabolismo , Receptor 5-HT2A de Serotonina/genética , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Empatia/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Caracteres Sexuais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo
3.
Spinal Cord Ser Cases ; 10(1): 44, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977671

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: prospective case series of Yucatan miniature pig spinal cord contusion injury model with comparison to human cases of spinal cord injury (SCI). OBJECTIVES: to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of spinal cord lesion severity along with estimates of lateral corticospinal tracts spared neural tissue in both a less severe and more severe contusion SCI model, as well as to describe their corresponding behavioral outcome changes. SETTING: University laboratory setting. METHODS: Following a more severe and less severe SCI, each pig underwent spinal cord MRI to measure lesion characteristics, along with locomotor and urodynamics outcomes testing. RESULTS: In the pig with more severe SCI, locomotor and urodynamic outcomes were poor, and both the spinal cord lesion volume and damage estimates to the lateral corticospinal tracts were large. Conversely, in the pig with less severe SCI, locomotor and urodynamic outcomes were favorable, with the spinal cord lesion volume and damage estimates to the lateral corticospinal tracts being less pronounced. For two human cases matched on estimates of damage to the lateral corticospinal tract regions, the clinical presentations were similar to the pig outcomes, with more limited mobility and more limited bladder functional independence in the more severe case. CONCLUSIONS: Our initial findings contribute valuable insights to the emergent field of MRI-based evaluation of spinal cord lesions in pig models, offering a promising avenue for understanding and potentially improving outcomes in spinal cord injuries.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Porco Miniatura , Animais , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia , Suínos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Humanos , Feminino , Tratos Piramidais/diagnóstico por imagem , Tratos Piramidais/patologia , Masculino , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Espinal/patologia , Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Locomoção/fisiologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14058, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977716

RESUMO

Dogs exhibit human-analogue attachment to their owners, with similar function and mechanisms to that of infant-mother bond, but its origin is unclear. Comparative studies on socialised wolves and dogs emphasise genetic influence in dogs' preparedness for attachment to humans. We aimed to reveal if this genetic effect stems from general domestication or artificial selection that increased dogs' dependence on humans. We assessed and compared behavioural patterns of young companion pigs and dogs using a Strange Situation Test. Dogs but not pigs exhibited distinct behaviours towards their owner and a stranger along attachment-specific variables, so only dogs' relevant behaviours fulfilled attachment criteria. From the observed behaviours, three factors were formed: Attachment (to the owner), Anxiety (in a strange situation), and Acceptance (of a stranger). Results indicate (1) higher Attachment scores in dogs than pigs, (2) greater Acceptance scores in pigs, (3) positive correlation of Attachment and Anxiety in both, (4) similar time tendency of pigs' Attachment and Acceptance scores. These suggest that in pigs, domestication and early exposure to human social stimuli did not trigger attachment to humans. Thus, along with species predispositions, the unique dog-owner attachment can be facilitated by artificial selection that increased dogs' dependence on humans.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Domesticação , Vínculo Humano-Animal , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Suínos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia
5.
Biol Lett ; 20(6): 20240181, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949039

RESUMO

More than a decade of study since the personality pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypotheses were first proposed, there is little support for it within species. Lack of experimental control, insufficient sampling in the face of highly labile behavioural and metabolic traits, and context dependency of trait correlations are suggested as reasons. Here, I argue that artificial selection and/or use of existing selected lines represents a powerful but under-used approach to furthering our understanding of the POLS. To illustrate this potential, I conducted a focussed review of studies that compared the behaviour, metabolism, growth and survival of an artificially selected fast-growing rainbow trout relative to wild unselected strains, under varying food and risk conditions in the laboratory and field. Resting metabolic rate, food intake, and behaviours that enhance feeding but increase energy expenditure (activity, aggression, boldness), were all higher in the fast strain in paired contrasts, under all food and risk conditions, both in the laboratory and the field. Fast-strain fish grew faster in almost every food and risk situation except where food was highly limited (or absent), had higher survival under low or zero predation risk, but had lower survival under high risk. Several other traits rarely considered in POLS studies were also higher in the fast strain, including maximum swimming speed, and hormones (growth hormone (GH), thyroid hormone (T3) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)). I conclude: (i) assumptions and predictions of the POLS hypothesis are well supported, and (ii) context-dependency was largely absent, but when present revealed trade-offs between food acquisition and predation risk. This focused review highlights the potential of artificial selection in testing POLS ideas, and will hopefully motivate further studies using other animals.


Assuntos
Oncorhynchus mykiss , Personalidade , Animais , Oncorhynchus mykiss/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Metabolismo Energético
6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5522, 2024 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38951506

RESUMO

Failure to appropriately predict and titrate reactivity to threat is a core feature of fear and anxiety-related disorders and is common following early life adversity (ELA). A population of neurons in the lateral central amygdala (CeAL) expressing corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) have been proposed to be key in processing threat of different intensities to mediate active fear expression. Here, we use in vivo fiber photometry to show that ELA results in sex-specific changes in the activity of CeAL CRF+ neurons, yielding divergent mechanisms underlying the augmented startle in ELA mice, a translationally relevant behavior indicative of heightened threat reactivity and hypervigilance. Further, chemogenic inhibition of CeAL CRF+ neurons selectively diminishes startle and produces a long-lasting suppression of threat reactivity. These findings identify a mechanism for sex-differences in susceptibility for anxiety following ELA and have broad implications for understanding the neural circuitry that encodes and gates the behavioral expression of fear.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Núcleo Central da Amígdala , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina , Medo , Neurônios , Reflexo de Sobressalto , Animais , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Medo/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Camundongos , Feminino , Masculino , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Central da Amígdala/metabolismo , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(28): e2320796121, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959036

RESUMO

Phoresy is an interspecies interaction that facilitates spatial dispersal by attaching to a more mobile species. Hitchhiking species have evolved specific traits for physical contact and successful phoresy, but the regulatory mechanisms involved in such traits and their evolution are largely unexplored. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans displays a hitchhiking behavior known as nictation during its stress-induced developmental stage. Dauer-specific nictation behavior has an important role in natural C. elegans populations, which experience boom-and-bust population dynamics. In this study, we investigated the nictation behavior of 137 wild C. elegans strains sampled throughout the world. We identified species-wide natural variation in nictation and performed a genome-wide association mapping. We show that the variants in the promoter of nta-1, encoding a putative steroidogenic enzyme, underlie differences in nictation. This difference is due to the changes in nta-1 expression in glial cells, which implies that glial steroid metabolism regulates phoretic behavior. Population genetic analysis and geographic distribution patterns suggest that balancing selection maintained two nta-1 haplotypes that existed in ancestral C. elegans populations. Our findings contribute to further understanding of the molecular mechanism of species interaction and the maintenance of genetic diversity within natural populations.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis elegans , Neuroglia , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Esteroides/metabolismo , Esteroides/biossíntese
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14833, 2024 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961126

RESUMO

Stegosaur tracks were unknown until the identification of Deltapodus more than 20 years ago. Currently, the Iberian Peninsula, especially Teruel Province, is one of the areas globally with the most occurrences of these tracks. However, their identification, based on the global record, is problematic due to their similarities with sauropod tracks. A review of the largest number of analyzed Deltapodus tracks globally, including the holotype of D. ibericus and a description of new occurrences, has been carried out. Our research shows substantial morphological variations, but all the studied tracks can be considered D. ibericus based on the manus morphology and the morphometric data. These variations are related to substrate differences and/or different dynamic foot postures (possibly ontogenetically related) during locomotion, as evidenced by changes within the same trackway. We provide detailed comparisons via 3D modeling with sauropod tracks, and our data show that they generally have proportionally longer manus and wider pes because of the differences in the metapodial bones. The scarcity of stegosaur trackways in the fossil record has prevented the identification of gregarious behavior in this group of herbivorous dinosaurs. Two of the studied tracksites show evidence of this behavior, being the only examples among stegosaurs described thus far in the fossil record.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Dinossauros , Fósseis , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Dinossauros/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0304257, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959233

RESUMO

An animal's environment contains many risks causing animals to scan their environment for potential predators and threats from conspecifics. How much time they invest in such vigilance depends on environmental and social factors. Most vigilance studies have been conducted in a foraging context with little known about vigilance in other contexts. Here we investigated vigilance of Gouldian finches at waterholes considering environmental and social factors. Gouldian finches are colour polymorphic with two main head colours in both sexes co-occurring in the same population, black-headed and red-headed. Data collection was done on birds sitting in trees surrounding waterholes by measuring the frequency of head movements, which reflects how frequently they change their field of view, i.e., scan different areas in their environment. A higher frequency generally reflects higher vigilance. Gouldian finches had a higher frequency of head movements when at small waterholes and when sitting in open, leafless trees. Moreover, head movements were higher when birds were alone in the tree as compared to groups of birds. Finally, birds in same head colour morph groups had a higher frequency of head movements than birds in mixed head colour groups. Results indicate heightened vigilance with increased perception of predation risk (small waterholes, open exposed perch, when alone) but that social vigilance also played a role (group composition) with particularly the aggressive red-headed birds being more vigilant when together with other red-headed birds. Future research should investigate the effect of smaller waterholes as global warming will cause smaller waterholes to become more common for longer periods of time, which can increase stress in the birds.


Assuntos
Tentilhões , Árvores , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Tentilhões/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Movimentos da Cabeça/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia
10.
Dev Psychobiol ; 66(6): e22523, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970242

RESUMO

The current literature suggests that relaxin-3/relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 3 (RLN-3/RXFP-3) system is involved in the pathophysiology of affective disorders because the results of anatomical and pharmacological studies have shown that the RLN-3 signaling pathway plays a role in modulating the stress response, anxiety, arousal, depression-like behavior, and neuroendocrine homeostasis. The risk of developing mental illnesses in adulthood is increased by exposure to stress in early periods of life. The available data indicate that puberty is especially characterized by the development of the neural system and emotionality and is a "stress-sensitive" period. The presented study assessed the short-term changes in the expression of RLN-3 and RXFP-3 mRNA in the stress-dependent brain regions in male pubertal Wistar rats that had been subjected to acute stress. Three stressors were applied from 42 to 44 postnatal days (first day: a single forced swim; second day: stress on an elevated platform that was repeated three times; third day: restraint stress three times). Anxiety (open field, elevated plus maze test) and anhedonic-like behavior (sucrose preference test) were estimated during these tests. The corticosterone (CORT) levels and blood morphology were estimated. We found that the RXFP-3 mRNA expression decreased in the brainstem, whereas it increased in the hypothalamus 72 h after acute stress. These molecular changes were accompanied by the increased levels of CORT and anxiety-like behavior detected in the open field test that had been conducted earlier, that is, 24 h after the stress procedure. These findings shed new light on the neurochemical changes that are involved in the compensatory response to adverse events in pubertal male rats and support other data that suggest a regulatory interplay between the RLN-3 pathway and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in the mechanisms of anxiety-like behavior.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Encéfalo , RNA Mensageiro , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G , Estresse Psicológico , Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Relaxina/metabolismo , Relaxina/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso
11.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5544, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956015

RESUMO

Goal-directed tasks involve acquiring an internal model, known as a predictive map, of relevant stimuli and associated outcomes to guide behavior. Here, we identified neural signatures of a predictive map of task behavior in perirhinal cortex (Prh). Mice learned to perform a tactile working memory task by classifying sequential whisker stimuli over multiple training stages. Chronic two-photon calcium imaging, population analysis, and computational modeling revealed that Prh encodes stimulus features as sensory prediction errors. Prh forms stable stimulus-outcome associations that can progressively be decoded earlier in the trial as training advances and that generalize as animals learn new contingencies. Stimulus-outcome associations are linked to prospective network activity encoding possible expected outcomes. This link is mediated by cholinergic signaling to guide task performance, demonstrated by acetylcholine imaging and systemic pharmacological perturbation. We propose that Prh combines error-driven and map-like properties to acquire a predictive map of learned task behavior.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Córtex Perirrinal , Animais , Camundongos , Córtex Perirrinal/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Vibrissas/fisiologia , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Feminino
12.
Curr Biol ; 34(13): R616-R618, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38981423

RESUMO

Time is a ubiquitous dimension of behaviour. A new study demonstrates that low-dimensional temporal drift in rodent anterior cingulate ensembles encodes cumulative experience. These data provide fresh insight into how neurons encode extended periods of time to guide high-level behaviours.


Assuntos
Giro do Cíngulo , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Animais , Neurônios/fisiologia , Ratos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15143, 2024 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956228

RESUMO

Laboratory mice are typically housed in "shoebox" cages with limited opportunities to engage in natural behaviour. Temporary access to environments with increased space and complexity (playpens) may improve mouse welfare. Previous work by our group has shown that mice are motivated to access and use these environments, but it is unknown how other aspects of welfare are impacted. Female C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and DBA/2J mice (n = 21; 7 mice per strain) were housed in mixed-strain trios and given temporary access to a large playpen with their cage mates three times per week. Control mice (n = 21; 7 mice per strain) remained in their home cages. Home cage behaviour (development of stereotypic behaviour over time, aggression following cage-changing) and anxiety tests were used to assess how playpen access impacted welfare. Contrary to our predictions, we found increased time spent performing stereotypies in playpen mice; this difference may be related to negative emotional states, increased motivation to escape the home cage, or active coping strategies. Playpen access resulted in strain-dependent improvements in aggression and some measures of anxiety. Aggression was lower for C57BL/6J mice in the playpen treatment following cage changing than it was for C57BL/6J control mice, while playpen mice, and particularly the C57BL/6J strain, spent more time in the center of the open field test and produced fewer fecal boli during anxiety testing, supporting other research showing that strain differences play an important role in behaviour and stress resiliency.


Assuntos
Agressão , Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento Animal , Abrigo para Animais , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Animais , Camundongos , Feminino , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Ansiedade , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Comportamento Estereotipado
14.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0301137, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865297

RESUMO

Dogs are often housed alone in shelter settings to reduce injury and disease spread. However, social isolation can be a stressor for dogs. Prior studies have suggested that cohousing can produce behavioral and physiological benefits. These studies have typically focused on laboratory dogs or shelter dogs that have been kenneled for several months. Thus, those results might not necessarily generalize to shelter dogs, many of which have shorter lengths of stay than those dogs studied to date, and might be cohoused soon after intake. In fact, being pair-housed could, in the short term, be more stressful as dogs have to navigate novel social situations in small spaces. We investigated the behavioral and physiological effects of single- or pair-housing shelter dogs, most of which had recently entered the shelter. We collected behavioral data on 61 dogs (30 single-housed; 31 pair-housed) daily across seven days; we also collected urine for cortisol:creatinine analysis on a subset (22 single-housed; 18 pair-housed) for eight days (each day of the seven-day study plus a baseline sample on Day 0, prior to dogs' enrollment). We found pair-housed dogs engaged in three stress-related behaviors (lip licking, whining, and ears back) significantly less frequently than single-housed dogs. When we analyzed the change in urinary cortisol:creatinine (Days 1-7 values minus Day 0 value), we found that pair-housed dogs generally showed a greater decrease in cortisol:creatinine levels than single-housed dogs. Pair-housed dogs also had significantly shorter lengths of stay, but we did not detect any effect on dog-dog skills. Overall, we found well-matched pair-housing can have both proximate and ultimate welfare benefits for shelter dogs.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento Animal , Abrigo para Animais , Hidrocortisona , Animais , Cães , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/urina , Masculino , Feminino , Creatinina/urina
15.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304563, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865313

RESUMO

Learning an olfactory discrimination task leads to heterogeneous results in honeybees with some bees performing very well and others at low rates. Here we investigated this behavioral heterogeneity and asked whether it was associated with particular gene expression patterns in the bee's brain. Bees were individually conditioned using a sequential conditioning protocol involving several phases of olfactory learning and retention tests. A cumulative score was used to differentiate the tested bees into high and low performers. The rate of CS+ odor learning was found to correlate most strongly with a cumulative performance score extracted from all learning and retention tests. Microarray analysis of gene expression in the mushroom body area of the brains of these bees identified a number of differentially expressed genes between high and low performers. These genes are associated with diverse biological functions, such as neurotransmission, memory formation, cargo trafficking and development.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Aprendizagem , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Abelhas/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Corpos Pedunculados/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Olfato/genética , Olfato/fisiologia , Odorantes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia
16.
Biol Lett ; 20(6): 20240102, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38889776

RESUMO

Social insects can sense colony size-even without visual information in a dark environment. How they achieve this is yet largely unknown. We empirically tested a hypothesis on the proximate mechanism using ant colonies. In Diacamma colonies, the monogynous queen is known to increase the effort devoted to queen pheromone transmission behaviour (patrolling) as the colony grows, as if she perceives colony size. The negative feedback hypothesis assumes that, through repeated physical contact with workers, the queen monitors the physiological state (fertility) of workers and increases her patrolling effort when she encounters more fertile workers. Supporting this hypothesis, we found that the queen increased her patrolling effort in response to a higher ratio of fertile workers under the experimental condition of constant colony size. Furthermore, chemical analyses and bioassays suggested that cuticular hydrocarbons have queen pheromone activity and can mediate the observed queen-worker communication of fertility state. Such a self-organizing mechanism of sensing colony size may also operate in other social insects living in small colonies.


Assuntos
Formigas , Feromônios , Comportamento Social , Animais , Formigas/fisiologia , Feminino , Densidade Demográfica , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Fertilidade , Comunicação Animal , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(24): e2401929121, 2024 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843183

RESUMO

Punishment such as electric shock or physical discipline employs a mixture of physical pain and emotional distress to induce behavior modification. However, a neural circuit that produces behavior modification by selectively focusing the emotional component, while bypassing the pain typically induced by peripheral nociceptor activation, is not well studied. Here, we show that genetically silencing the activity of neurons expressing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the parabrachial nucleus blocks the suppression of addictive-like behavior induced by footshock. Furthermore, activating CGRP neurons suppresses not only addictive behavior induced by self-stimulating dopamine neurons but also behavior resulting from self-administering cocaine, without eliciting nocifensive reactions. Moreover, among multiple downstream targets of CGRP neurons, terminal activation of CGRP in the central amygdala is effective, mimicking the results of cell body stimulation. Our results indicate that unlike conventional electric footshock, stimulation of CGRP neurons does not activate peripheral nociceptors but effectively curb addictive behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina , Neurônios , Núcleos Parabraquiais , Animais , Núcleos Parabraquiais/metabolismo , Núcleos Parabraquiais/fisiologia , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/metabolismo , Masculino , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Cocaína/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
18.
Cereb Cortex ; 34(6)2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879756

RESUMO

Midbrain multisensory neurons undergo a significant postnatal transition in how they process cross-modal (e.g. visual-auditory) signals. In early stages, signals derived from common events are processed competitively; however, at later stages they are processed cooperatively such that their salience is enhanced. This transition reflects adaptation to cross-modal configurations that are consistently experienced and become informative about which correspond to common events. Tested here was the assumption that overt behaviors follow a similar maturation. Cats were reared in omnidirectional sound thereby compromising the experience needed for this developmental process. Animals were then repeatedly exposed to different configurations of visual and auditory stimuli (e.g. spatiotemporally congruent or spatially disparate) that varied on each side of space and their behavior was assessed using a detection/localization task. Animals showed enhanced performance to stimuli consistent with the experience provided: congruent stimuli elicited enhanced behaviors where spatially congruent cross-modal experience was provided, and spatially disparate stimuli elicited enhanced behaviors where spatially disparate cross-modal experience was provided. Cross-modal configurations not consistent with experience did not enhance responses. The presumptive benefit of such flexibility in the multisensory developmental process is to sensitize neural circuits (and the behaviors they control) to the features of the environment in which they will function. These experiments reveal that these processes have a high degree of flexibility, such that two (conflicting) multisensory principles can be implemented by cross-modal experience on opposite sides of space even within the same animal.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica , Percepção Auditiva , Encéfalo , Estimulação Luminosa , Percepção Visual , Animais , Gatos , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Feminino , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
19.
Curr Protoc ; 4(6): e1072, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38884352

RESUMO

Working memory capacity (WMC), a crucial component of working memory (WM), has consistently drawn the attention of researchers. Exploring the underlying neurobiological mechanisms behind it is currently a prominent focus in the field of neuroscience. Previously, we developed a novel behavioral paradigm for rodents called the olfactory working memory capacity (OWMC) paradigm, which serves as an effective tool for quantifying the WMC of rodents. The OWMC task comprises five phases: context adaptation, digging training, rule-learning for nonmatching to a single sample odor (NMSS), rule-learning for nonmatching to multiple sample odors (NMMS), and capacity testing. In the first phase, mice are handled to reduce stress and acclimate to the training cage. The second phase involves training mice to dig in a bowl of unscented sawdust to locate a piece of cheese. In the third phase, mice are trained to locate the cheese pellet in a bowl with a noveal odor. The fourth phase requires mice to distinguish the novel odor among multiple scented bowls to locate the cheese pellet. Finally, in the fifth phase, mice undergo several WMC tests until they achieve a stable level of performance. In this protocol paper, we will provide detailed instructions on how to implement the behavioral paradigm. © 2024 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Context adaptation Basic Protocol 2: Digging training Basic Protocol 3: Rule-learning for NMSS Basic Protocol 4: Rule-learning for NMMS Basic Protocol 5: Capacity testing.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Odorantes , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Animais , Camundongos , Odorantes/análise , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Olfato/fisiologia , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia
20.
Sci Adv ; 10(24): eadp3623, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38875342

RESUMO

Advanced social behavior, or eusociality, has been evolutionarily profound, allowing colonies of ants, termites, social wasps, and bees to dominate competitively over solitary species throughout the Cenozoic. Advanced sociality requires not just nestmate cooperation and specialization but refined coordination and communication. Here, we provide independent evidence that 100-million-year-old Cretaceous ants in amber were social, based on chemosensory adaptations. Previous studies inferred fossil ant sociality from individual ants preserved adjacent to others. We analyzed several fossil ants for their antennal sensilla, using original rotation imaging of amber microinclusions, and found an array of antennal sensilla, specifically for alarm pheromone detection and nestmate recognition, sharing distinctive features with extant ants. Although Cretaceous ants were stem groups, the fossilized sensilla confirm hypotheses of their complex sociality.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Formigas , Comportamento Social , Animais , Formigas/fisiologia , Feromônios/metabolismo , Fósseis , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Sensilas/fisiologia
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