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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1733, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741938

RESUMO

From cells in tissue, to bird flocks, to human crowds, living systems display a stunning variety of collective behaviors. Yet quantifying such phenomena first requires tracking a significant fraction of the group members in natural conditions, a substantial and ongoing challenge. We present a comprehensive, computational method for tracking an entire colony of the honey bee Apis mellifera using high-resolution video on a natural honeycomb background. We adapt a convolutional neural network (CNN) segmentation architecture to automatically identify bee and brood cell positions, body orientations and within-cell states. We achieve high accuracy (~10% body width error in position, ~10° error in orientation, and true positive rate > 90%) and demonstrate months-long monitoring of sociometric colony fluctuations. These fluctuations include ~24 h cycles in the counted detections, negative correlation between bee and brood, and nightly enhancement of bees inside comb cells. We combine detected positions with visual features of organism-centered images to track individuals over time and through challenging occluding events, recovering ~79% of bee trajectories from five observation hives over 5 min timespans. The trajectories reveal important individual behaviors, including waggle dances and crawling inside comb cells. Our results provide opportunities for the quantitative study of collective bee behavior and for advancing tracking techniques of crowded systems.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Redes Neurais de Computação
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1110, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597518

RESUMO

In complex societies, individuals' roles are reflected by interactions with other conspecifics. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) generally change tasks as they age, but developmental trajectories of individuals can vary drastically due to physiological and environmental factors. We introduce a succinct descriptor of an individual's social network that can be obtained without interfering with the colony. This 'network age' accurately predicts task allocation, survival, activity patterns, and future behavior. We analyze developmental trajectories of multiple cohorts of individuals in a natural setting and identify distinct developmental pathways and critical life changes. Our findings suggest a high stability in task allocation on an individual level. We show that our method is versatile and can extract different properties from social networks, opening up a broad range of future studies. Our approach highlights the relationship of social interactions and individual traits, and provides a scalable technique for understanding how complex social systems function.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Abelhas/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Fatores Etários , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Modelos Teóricos
3.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(2): 259-265, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495637

RESUMO

Short-term memory is associated with persistent neural activity that is maintained by positive feedback between neurons. To explore the neural circuit motifs that produce memory-related persistent activity, we measured coupling between functionally characterized motor cortex neurons in mice performing a memory-guided response task. Targeted two-photon photostimulation of small (<10) groups of neurons produced sparse calcium responses in coupled neurons over approximately 100 µm. Neurons with similar task-related selectivity were preferentially coupled. Photostimulation of different groups of neurons modulated activity in different subpopulations of coupled neurons. Responses of stimulated and coupled neurons persisted for seconds, far outlasting the duration of the photostimuli. Photostimuli produced behavioral biases that were predictable based on the selectivity of the perturbed neuronal population, even though photostimulation preceded the behavioral response by seconds. Our results suggest that memory-related neural circuits contain intercalated, recurrently connected modules, which can independently maintain selective persistent activity.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Camundongos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 364, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441541

RESUMO

Temporal dynamics and mechanisms underlying epigenetic changes in Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting the striatum, remain unclear. Using a slowly progressing knockin mouse model, we profile the HD striatal chromatin landscape at two early disease stages. Data integration with cell type-specific striatal enhancer and transcriptomic databases demonstrates acceleration of age-related epigenetic remodelling and transcriptional changes at neuronal- and glial-specific genes from prodromal stage, before the onset of motor deficits. We also find that 3D chromatin architecture, while generally preserved at neuronal enhancers, is altered at the disease locus. Specifically, we find that the HD mutation, a CAG expansion in the Htt gene, locally impairs the spatial chromatin organization and proximal gene regulation. Thus, our data provide evidence for two early and distinct mechanisms underlying chromatin structure changes in the HD striatum, correlating with transcriptional changes: the HD mutation globally accelerates age-dependent epigenetic and transcriptional reprogramming of brain cell identities, and locally affects 3D chromatin organization.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doença de Huntington/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Cromatina/genética , Corpo Estriado/citologia , Corpo Estriado/fisiopatologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Doença de Huntington/diagnóstico , Doença de Huntington/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos/genética
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 539, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483482

RESUMO

Humans maintain extensive social ties of varying preferences, providing a range of opportunities for beneficial cooperative exchange that may promote collective action and our unique capacity for large-scale cooperation. Similarly, non-human animals maintain differentiated social relationships that promote dyadic cooperative exchange, but their link to cooperative collective action is little known. Here, we investigate the influence of social relationship properties on male and female chimpanzee participations in a costly form of group action, intergroup encounters. We find that intergroup encounter participation increases with a greater number of other participants as well as when participants are maternal kin or social bond partners, and that these effects are independent from one another and from the likelihood to associate with certain partners. Together, strong social relationships between kin and non-kin facilitate group-level cooperation in one of our closest living relatives, suggesting that social bonds may be integral to the evolution of cooperation in our own species.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Predomínio Social , Animais , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Masculino , Pan troglodytes/psicologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 607, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504797

RESUMO

Motor function depends on neural dynamics spanning multiple spatiotemporal scales of population activity, from spiking of neurons to larger-scale local field potentials (LFP). How multiple scales of low-dimensional population dynamics are related in control of movements remains unknown. Multiscale neural dynamics are especially important to study in naturalistic reach-and-grasp movements, which are relatively under-explored. We learn novel multiscale dynamical models for spike-LFP network activity in monkeys performing naturalistic reach-and-grasps. We show low-dimensional dynamics of spiking and LFP activity exhibited several principal modes, each with a unique decay-frequency characteristic. One principal mode dominantly predicted movements. Despite distinct principal modes existing at the two scales, this predictive mode was multiscale and shared between scales, and was shared across sessions and monkeys, yet did not simply replicate behavioral modes. Further, this multiscale mode's decay-frequency explained behavior. We propose that multiscale, low-dimensional motor cortical state dynamics reflect the neural control of naturalistic reach-and-grasp behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Macaca mulatta , Modelos Neurológicos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
7.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 174(1): 49-65, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871028

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primate foot has been extensively investigated because of its role in weight-bearing; however, the calcaneus has been relatively understudied. Here we examine entire gorilla calcaneal external shape to understand its relationship with locomotor behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Calcanei of Gorilla gorilla gorilla (n = 43), Gorilla beringei graueri (n = 20), and Gorilla beringei beringei (n = 15) were surface or micro-CT scanned. External shape was analyzed through a three-dimensional geometric morphometric sliding semilandmark analysis. Semilandmarks were slid relative to an updated Procrustes average in order to minimize the bending energy of the thin plate spline interpolation function. Shape variation was summarized using principal components analysis of shape coordinates. Procrustes distances between taxa averages were calculated and resampling statistics run to test pairwise differences. Linear measures were collected and regressed against estimated body mass. RESULTS: All three taxa exhibit statistically different morphologies (p < .001 for pairwise comparisons). G. g. gorilla demonstrates an anteroposteriorly elongated calcaneus with a deeper cuboid pivot region and mediolaterally flatter posterior talar facet. G. b. beringei possesses the flattest cuboid and most medially-angled posterior talar facets. G. b. graueri demonstrates intermediate articular facet morphology, a medially-angled tuberosity, and an elongated peroneal trochlea. DISCUSSION: Articular facet differences separate gorillas along a locomotor gradient. G. g. gorilla is adapted for arboreality with greater joint mobility, while G. b. beringei is adapted for more stereotypical loads associated with terrestriality. G. b. graueri's unique posterolateral morphology may be due to a secondary transition to greater arboreality from a more terrestrial ancestor.


Assuntos
Variação Anatômica/fisiologia , Calcâneo/anatomia & histologia , Gorilla gorilla/anatomia & histologia , Gorilla gorilla/fisiologia , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/anatomia & histologia , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Antropologia Física , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Calcâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcâneo/fisiologia , Feminino , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/fisiologia , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
8.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 175-195, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189250

RESUMO

Reptile behavior varies widely among the approximately 11,000 species of this class. The authors' objective is to allow practitioners to discriminate between normal and abnormal behaviors in reptiles. Some of the most common reasons for presentation of behavioral issues are discussed, including hyperactivity, self-mutilation, biting, repetitive behaviors, and postural abnormalities. Medical problems and suboptimal husbandry causing abnormal behaviors should be ruled out by attending veterinarians. Addressing behavior issues involves determining a differential diagnosis through a systematic approach, which then allows implementation of necessary environmental changes including enrichment, developing plans for behavior modification and biomedical training, and medication when appropriate.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Animais de Estimação , Répteis/fisiologia , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais
9.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 229-251, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189253

RESUMO

Invertebrate animals comprise more than 95% of the animal kingdom's species and approximately 40 separate phyla. Yet, invertebrates are an artificial taxon, in which all members simply possess a single negative trait: they lack a vertebral column (backbone). In fact, some invertebrates are more closely related to vertebrates than to their "fellow" invertebrates. For the purpose of this veterinary article, we have elected to review a handful of important groups: Coelenterates, Gastropods, Cephalopods, Chelicerates, Crustaceans, Insects, and Echinoderms. We have primarily included behaviors that may have an impact on clinical case outcome, or be of interest to the veterinary clinician.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Animais de Estimação , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais
10.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 37-51, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189255

RESUMO

Domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) are common zoologic companion animals and display specific body language and vocalizations. Social interactions, play behavior, and resting periods are important keystone in domestic ferret behavior. Specific housing and environmental enrichment are recommended to preserve the expression of normal behavior and physiology in ferrets. Presence of abnormal behaviors, including aggression, urination and defecation outside the litter box, stereotypies, and absence of play behavior, should be carefully monitored by veterinarians and ferret owners to assess ferret wellness. Specific considerations, such as deafness, poor vision, and hybridation with other mustelids, may play a role in ferret behavior.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Furões , Animais , Abrigo para Animais , Animais de Estimação
11.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 53-62, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189256

RESUMO

Rabbits are the third most common mammalian pet in the United States. They make good pets because they generally are nonaggressive and are playful, active, and curious. They form strong social bonds, both with rabbits they live with in the household and with the humans who care for them. They have several behaviors derived from their wild counterparts that can cause problems, if not properly allowed for, or be beneficial, such as their proclivity to use a specific site for elimination.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Coelhos , Animais , Abrigo para Animais , Animais de Estimação
12.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 63-86, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189257

RESUMO

Miniature pet pigs bond readily to people and can make excellent pets as long as they are given an appropriate environment and their behavioral needs are met. They are intelligent and highly social with a strong exploratory drive so, if they are not properly trained and their behavior directed appropriately, they can be destructive and even aggressive in some cases. Most problem behaviors are not a result of behavioral disorder but typically represent normal swine behaviors that people find unacceptable.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Animais de Estimação , Porco Miniatura , Animais , Abrigo para Animais , Suínos
13.
Neuron ; 109(3): 420-437.e8, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340448

RESUMO

In mammalian animal models, high-resolution kinematic tracking is restricted to brief sessions in constrained environments, limiting our ability to probe naturalistic behaviors and their neural underpinnings. To address this, we developed CAPTURE (Continuous Appendicular and Postural Tracking Using Retroreflector Embedding), a behavioral monitoring system that combines motion capture and deep learning to continuously track the 3D kinematics of a rat's head, trunk, and limbs for week-long timescales in freely behaving animals. CAPTURE realizes 10- to 100-fold gains in precision and robustness compared with existing convolutional network approaches to behavioral tracking. We demonstrate CAPTURE's ability to comprehensively profile the kinematics and sequential organization of natural rodent behavior, its variation across individuals, and its perturbation by drugs and disease, including identifying perseverative grooming states in a rat model of fragile X syndrome. CAPTURE significantly expands the range of behaviors and contexts that can be quantitatively investigated, opening the door to a new understanding of natural behavior and its neural basis.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Asseio Animal/fisiologia , Ratos
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2201: 259-265, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975807

RESUMO

The evaluation of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during isolation in 6-8-day-old mouse pups can give an indication of the perception of pups' discomfort and need for caretaker presence to overcome the unpleasant condition. Time spent vocalizing changed according to opioid activation, stress exposure, and genetic profile of pups. Deficits in attachment suggest altered opioid functioning and predisposal for long-term defective social behaviors and reward processes.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Analgésicos Opioides/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Privação Materna , Camundongos , Receptores Opioides mu/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Ultrassom
15.
Elife ; 92020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325370

RESUMO

AKT is implicated in neurological disorders. AKT has three isoforms, AKT1/AKT2/AKT3, with brain cell type-specific expression that may differentially influence behavior. Therefore, we examined single Akt isoform, conditional brain-specific Akt1, and double Akt1/3 mutant mice in behaviors relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders. Because sex is a determinant of these disorders but poorly understood, sex was an experimental variable in our design. Our studies revealed AKT isoform- and sex-specific effects on anxiety, spatial and contextual memory, and fear extinction. In Akt1 mutant males, viral-mediated AKT1 restoration in the prefrontal cortex rescued extinction phenotypes. We identified a novel role for AKT2 and overlapping roles for AKT1 and AKT3 in long-term memory. Finally, we found that sex-specific behavior effects were not mediated by AKT expression or activation differences between sexes. These results highlight sex as a biological variable and isoform- or cell type-specific AKT signaling as potential targets for improving treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Isoformas de Proteínas , Caracteres Sexuais , Comportamento Espacial/fisiologia
16.
Elife ; 92020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350385

RESUMO

Understanding the regulatory architecture of phenotypic variation is a fundamental goal in biology, but connections between gene regulatory network (GRN) activity and individual differences in behavior are poorly understood. We characterized the molecular basis of behavioral plasticity in queenless honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies, where individuals engage in both reproductive and non-reproductive behaviors. Using high-throughput behavioral tracking, we discovered these colonies contain a continuum of phenotypes, with some individuals specialized for either egg-laying or foraging and 'generalists' that perform both. Brain gene expression and chromatin accessibility profiles were correlated with behavioral variation, with generalists intermediate in behavior and molecular profiles. Models of brain GRNs constructed for individuals revealed that transcription factor (TF) activity was highly predictive of behavior, and behavior-associated regulatory regions had more TF motifs. These results provide new insights into the important role played by brain GRN plasticity in the regulation of behavior, with implications for social evolution.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Animais , Individualidade , Fenótipo , Comportamento Social , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0225023, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326450

RESUMO

Dog training methods range broadly from those using mostly positive punishment and negative reinforcement (aversive-based) to those using primarily positive reinforcement (reward-based). Although aversive-based training has been strongly criticized for negatively affecting dog welfare, there is no comprehensive research focusing on companion dogs and mainstream techniques, and most studies rely on owner-reported assessment of training methods and dog behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aversive- and reward-based training methods on companion dog welfare within and outside the training context. Ninety-two companion dogs were recruited from three reward-based schools (Group Reward, n = 42), and from four aversive-based schools, two using low proportions of aversive-based methods (Group Mixed, n = 22) and two using high proportions of aversive-based methods (Group Aversive, n = 28). For evaluating welfare during training, dogs were video recorded for three sessions and six saliva samples were collected, three at home (baseline levels) and three after training (post-training levels). Video recordings were used to examine the frequency of stress-related behaviors (e.g., lip lick, yawn) and the overall behavioral state of the dog (e.g., tense, relaxed), and saliva samples were analyzed for cortisol concentration. For evaluating welfare outside the training context, dogs participated in a cognitive bias task. Results showed that dogs from Group Aversive displayed more stress-related behaviors, were more frequently in tense and low behavioral states and panted more during training, and exhibited higher post-training increases in cortisol levels than dogs from Group Reward. Additionally, dogs from Group Aversive were more 'pessimistic' in the cognitive bias task than dogs from Group Reward. Dogs from Group Mixed displayed more stress-related behaviors, were more frequently in tense states and panted more during training than dogs from Group Reward. Finally, although Groups Mixed and Aversive did not differ in their performance in the cognitive bias task nor in cortisol levels, the former displayed more stress-related behaviors and was more frequently in tense and low behavioral states. These findings indicate that aversive-based training methods, especially if used in high proportions, compromise the welfare of companion dogs both within and outside the training context.


Assuntos
Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Reforço Psicológico , Afeto/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Condicionamento Psicológico/fisiologia , Cães , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Punição/psicologia , Recompensa , Saliva/química , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gravação em Vídeo
18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243937, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332425

RESUMO

Translocated captive-bred predators are less skilled at hunting than wild-born predators and more prone to starvation post-release. Foraging in an unfamiliar environment presents many further risks to translocated animals. Knowledge of the diet and foraging behaviour of translocated animals is therefore an important consideration of reintroductions. We investigated the diet of the endangered meso-predator, the eastern quoll Dasyurus viverrinus. We also opportunistically observed foraging behaviour, enabling us to examine risks associated with foraging. Sixty captive-bred eastern quolls were reintroduced to an unfenced reserve on mainland Australia (where introduced predators are managed) over a two year period (2018, 2019). Quolls were supplementary fed macropod meat but were also able to forage freely. Dietary analysis of scats (n = 56) revealed that quolls ate macropods, small mammals, birds, invertebrates, fish, reptiles and frogs, with some between-year differences in the frequency of different diet categories. We also observed quolls hunting live prey. Quolls utilised supplementary feeding stations, indicating that this may be an important strategy during the establishment phase. Our study demonstrated that, in a novel environment, captive-bred quolls were able to locate food and hunt live prey. However, foraging was not without risks; with the ingestion of toxic substances and foraging in dangerous environments found to be potentially harmful. Knowledge of the diet of reintroduced fauna in natural landscapes is important for understanding foraging behaviour and evaluating habitat suitability for future translocations and management.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Marsupiais/fisiologia , Animais , Anuros/fisiologia , Austrália , Ecossistema , Carne , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239616, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007023

RESUMO

Foraging animals have to evaluate, compare and select food patches in order to increase their fitness. Understanding what drives foraging decisions requires careful manipulation of the value of alternative options while monitoring animals choices. Value-based decision-making tasks in combination with formal learning models have provided both an experimental and theoretical framework to study foraging decisions in lab settings. While these approaches were successfully used in the past to understand what drives choices in mammals, very little work has been done on fruit flies. This is despite the fact that fruit flies have served as model organism for many complex behavioural paradigms. To fill this gap we developed a single-animal, trial-based decision making task, where freely walking flies experienced optogenetic sugar-receptor neuron stimulation. We controlled the value of available options by manipulating the probabilities of optogenetic stimulation. We show that flies integrate reward history of chosen options and forget value of unchosen options. We further discover that flies assign higher values to rewards experienced early in the behavioural session, consistent with formal reinforcement learning models. Finally, we also show that the probabilistic rewards affect walking trajectories of flies, suggesting that accumulated value is controlling the navigation vector of flies in a graded fashion. These findings establish the fruit fly as a model organism to explore the genetic and circuit basis of reward foraging decisions.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Optogenética , Reforço Psicológico , Recompensa
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5350, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093442

RESUMO

Sociality is among the most important motivators of human behaviour. However, the neural mechanisms determining levels of sociality are largely unknown, primarily due to a lack of suitable animal models. Here, we report the presence of a surprising degree of general sociality in Drosophila. A newly-developed paradigm to study social approach behaviour in flies reveal that social cues perceive through both vision and olfaction converged in a central brain region, the γ lobe of the mushroom body, which exhibite activation in response to social experience. The activity of these γ neurons control the motivational drive for social interaction. At the molecular level, the serotonergic system is critical for social affinity. These results demonstrate that Drosophila are highly sociable, providing a suitable model system for elucidating the mechanisms underlying the motivation for sociality.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Corpos Pedunculados/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/fisiologia
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