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1.
Anim Cogn ; 23(2): 389-403, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907679

RESUMO

Rescue behavior is considered a type of pro-social response, defined as a voluntary action directed to benefit another individual who is in a stressful or dangerous situation. In two experiments, we investigated whether dogs would rescue their owners when the person was trapped inside a wooden box and emitted clear signs of stress. The performance of these dogs was compared against that of a control group in which the owners remained calm while trapped. In addition, to assess if training modulated this behavior, we tested a group of dogs from the military trained in search and rescue tasks (Experiment 1). Results showed that dogs opened the box more frequently when the owner pretended to be stressed than when calm. Training shortened latencies to open the door but not the frequency of the behavior. In Experiment 2, we investigated if emotional contagion could be a possible mechanism underlying dogs' rescue responses by measuring dogs' behavior, heart rate, and saliva cortisol level in the stressed and calm conditions, and also controlled for obedience by having the calm owners call their pets while trapped. We replicated the findings of Experiment 1 as more dogs opened the door in the stressed owner condition than in the calm condition. In addition, we observed an increase in heart rate across trials in the stressed condition and a decrease across trials in the calm condition, but no differences in cortisol levels or stress-related behaviors between conditions. In brief, we found evidence that approximately half of the dogs without previous training showed spontaneous rescue behaviors directed to their owners. Neither was this behavior motivated by obedience nor by the motivation to re-establish social contact with the owner. We conclude that emotional contagion is a plausible mechanism underlying dogs' rescue behavior in the present protocol.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Vínculo Homem-Animal de Estimação , Estresse Psicológico , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Cães , Emoções , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Saliva
2.
J Exp Biol ; 223(Pt 2)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900346

RESUMO

Social isolation strongly modulates behavior across the animal kingdom. We utilized the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to study social isolation-driven changes in animal behavior and gene expression in the brain. RNA-seq identified several head-expressed genes strongly responding to social isolation or enrichment. Of particular interest, social isolation downregulated expression of the gene encoding the neuropeptide Drosulfakinin (Dsk), the homologue of vertebrate cholecystokinin (CCK), which is critical for many mammalian social behaviors. Dsk knockdown significantly increased social isolation-induced aggression. Genetic activation or silencing of Dsk neurons each similarly increased isolation-driven aggression. Our results suggest a U-shaped dependence of social isolation-induced aggressive behavior on Dsk signaling, similar to the actions of many neuromodulators in other contexts.


Assuntos
Agressão , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Isolamento Social , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Masculino , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Oligopeptídeos/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
3.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 116: 103265, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704156

RESUMO

Animals communicate with each other in aggregating for survival and adaptation. Solitary locusts show an olfactory transition from repulsion to attraction in aggregation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this transition is less well known. In this study, we explored differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) during locust aggregation and identified that a functional class of general metabolism encompassed the largest number of DETs among all analyzed gene classes. Within this functional class of general metabolism, oxidoreductase mediates synthesis of retinoic acid (RA) from vitamin A and other metabolites derived from carbohydrates. The expression levels of retinaldehyde hydroxylase 1 (raldh1) and retinoid X receptor (rxr), which are two crucial genes for RA synthesis and signaling, were upregulated during 4 h of crowding. Knockdown of raldh1 and rxr by RNA interference (RNAi) in the brains resulted in the loss of olfactory attraction. Moreover, inhibition of RXR by RNAi resulted in downregulated expression of Gna14, a member of the Gα subfamily that transduces signals in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pathways. Abrogating RXR signaling and Gna14 by RNAi knockdown inhibited the function of dopamine receptor 1 (DopR1) and octopamine receptor α1 (OctαR1) in modulating olfactory attraction. RXR signaling is essential for DopR1 and OctαR1 to mediate olfactory attraction. This study showed that RXR signaling mediates attraction by Gα signaling and confirmed a novel link between nuclear receptor RXR and the membrane receptor GPCRs in modulating olfactory attraction.


Assuntos
Locusta migratoria/metabolismo , Feromônios , Receptores X Retinoide/metabolismo , Olfato , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Locusta migratoria/genética , Interferência de RNA , Receptores de Amina Biogênica/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Receptores X Retinoide/genética , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113314, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761596

RESUMO

Urbanisation is increasing globally at a rapid pace. Consequently, wild species face novel environmental stressors associated with urban sprawl, such as artificial light at night and noise. These stressors have pervasive effects on the behaviour and physiology of many species. Most studies have singled out the impact of just one of these stressors, while in the real world they are likely to co-occur both temporally and spatially, and we thus lack a clear understanding of the combined effect of anthropogenic stressors on wild species. Here, we experimentally exposed captive male great tits (Parus major) to artificial light at night and 24 h noise in a fully factorial experiment. We then measured the effect of both these stressors on their own and their combination on the amount and timing of activity patterns. We found that both light and noise affected activity patterns when presented alone, but in opposite ways: light increased activity, particularly at night, while noise reduced it, particularly during the day. When the two stressors were combined, we found a synergistic effect on the total activity and the nighttime activity, but an antagonistic effect on daytime activity. The significant interaction between noise and light treatment also differed among forest and city birds. Indeed, we detected a significant interactive effect on light and noise on daytime, nighttime, dusktime and offset of activity of urban birds, but not of forest birds. These results suggest that both artificial light at night and anthropogenic noise can drive changes in activity patterns, but that the specific impacts depend on the habitat of origin. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that co-occurring exposure to noise and light can lead to a stronger impact at night than predicted from the additive effects and thus that multisensory pollution may be a considerable threat for wildlife.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Luz/efeitos adversos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Cidades , Ecossistema , Masculino , Países Baixos , Fotoperíodo , Estações do Ano , Urbanização
5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 315: 108907, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by polyglutamine (CAG) expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. The CAG140 knock-in (KI) mouse model recapitulates the progression of motor symptoms emerging at 12 months of age. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at assessing the effects of exercise, in the form of treadmill running, and examining its impact on motor behavior and markers of metabolism in the CAG140 KI mouse model of HD after motor symptoms have emerged. METHODS: CAG140 KI mice at 13-15 months of age were subjected to treadmill exercise 3 days per week for 1 h per day or remained sedentary. After 12 weeks of exercise brain tissues were analyzed for enzymatic activity including mitochondria Complexes I, II/III, and IV, transglutaminase, aconitase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and phosphofructokinase1/2. In addition, the concentration was determined for nitrate/nitrite, pyruvate carboxylase, NAD+/NADH, and glutamate as well as the ratio of mitochondria and nuclear DNA. Motor behavior was tested using the rotarod. RESULTS: Exercise resulted in increased [nitrite + nitrate] levels (surmised as nitric oxide), reduced transglutaminase activity, increased aconitase activity with increased tricarboxylic acid-generated reducing equivalents and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes activity. Mitochondrial function was strengthened by increases in glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, and anaplerosis component represented by pyruvate carboxylase. CONCLUSIONS: These changes in mitochondrial function were associated with improved motor performance on the rotarod test. These findings suggest that exercise may have beneficial effects on motor behavior by reversing deficits in mitochondrial function in a rodent model of HD.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Doença de Huntington/fisiopatologia , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Doença de Huntington/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Ácidos Tricarboxílicos/metabolismo
6.
Zoo Biol ; 39(1): 51-55, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746026

RESUMO

Positive reinforcement training (PRT) is associated with increases in species-typical behavior and decreases in stereotypic and abnormal behavior in participating animals. Physiological changes following PRT, for example, increases in oxytocin (OXT) and/or decreases in cortisol (CORT), may facilitate these behavioral changes. This study evaluated salivary OXT and salivary CORT concentrations in two adult male western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) following PRT with their primary animal care staff. Following PRT, no change in OXT was observed. CORT decreased in one subject following PRT. Changes in endogenous OXT are related to affiliative interactions and interact with strongly bonded conspecifics. PRT may not activate the oxytocinergic system because PRT is not a species-specific affiliative interaction and/or animal care staff are not viewed as conspecifics. Regardless, PRT may still be viewed as a positive interaction resulting in stress reduction via a decrease in CORT. Relationships are unique, thus these results only apply to these two gorillas and one animal caregiver. Larger population-level studies are needed to understand overall trends in human-animal interactions, and ultimately human-animal relationships. Further evaluation of physiological changes following human-animal interactions should be informative for understanding the human-animal relationship in zoos.


Assuntos
Gorilla gorilla/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/química , Ocitocina/química , Saliva/química , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Ocitocina/metabolismo
7.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(2): 140-147, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865514

RESUMO

Pesticide commercial mixtures, including the insecticide fipronil and the fungicides pyraclostrobin and methyl-thiophanate, have been used in concomitant pest control, facilitating agricultural management. Their widespread use can lead to soil and water contamination and potentially induce damages in the ecosystem, producing toxic effects in non-target organisms. Despite their toxicological potential, their effects on behavioral and biochemical parameters are not well understood. Here we investigated the effects of the mixture of fipronil and fungicides (MFF) pyraclostrobin and methyl- thiophanate on behavioral and biochemical parameters of oxidative stress in adult zebrafish. Animals exposed to the highest MFF tested concentration showed a decrease in the total distance traveled and in the number of crossings in the different zones of the tank. Furthermore, animals exposed to highest MFF tested concentration spent more time in water surface. In addition, our data showed that the exposure to this preparation promoted a decrease in non-protein thiol content as well as in catalase activity. Finally, pesticide exposure induced an increase in the superoxide dismutase/catalase ratio. Our results indicate that alterations in behavioral and oxidative parameters are involved in MFF toxicity in zebrafish. The antioxidant mechanisms analyzed were altered in concentrations that did not affect zebrafish behavior. Therefore, the assessment of oxidative stress parameters in zebrafish brains could be very useful to detect the early effects of environmental exposure to the MFF.


Assuntos
Pirazóis/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Fungicidas Industriais , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 68, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879823

RESUMO

Quadrivisio bengalensis (Stebbing Records of Indian Museum, 1, 159-161, 1907), a eurythermal (26.5-32.2 °C) and euryhaline (0.10-26.2 psu) tropical species, makes a profound contribution as a fodder organism to the benthic biomass of tropical backwaters. Studies on life span, variations in broods, fecundity, sex ratio, brooding behaviour, brood stock assessment, growth rate, antennal segments as an index of growth, moulting frequency, mortality and starvation resistance of Q. bengalensis were made for the first time under controlled laboratory conditions of 12-h photo period for 252 days on 8 pairs of specimens (male and female) collected from the field and their successive broods. The life span of females was found to be higher (maximum 220 days) than males (maximum 175 days). Number of broods varied between 5 and 15, depending on the "status of the brood" (early or late). The maximum number of juveniles in a single brood was 24 and that by a single female over the entire life span was 211. The incubation time varied between 6 and 9 days and the duration of moults (8-18 days) was found to increase with the age of the animals. Maximum growth is usually attained by the offspring arising from the 5th to 7th broods. The 4th to 7th broods were the optimal broods for the maximum number of females attaining maturity. For broods 3 to 7 of the parental set, probability of extinction (ξ) calculated on applying stochastic branching process to generation studies for the first time showed an increasing trend with number of broods while a decreasing trend for ξ for 8th and 9th broods, with least ξ for broods 5 to 7 of the 5th, 6th and 7th generations, suggesting life span and fecundity rates as functions of the "brood status" (early or late). Whether it is true with higher crustaceans remains to be explored.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estuários , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Longevidade , Anfípodes/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Feminino , Sedimentos Geológicos , Índia , Masculino
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(12): e1007550, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856162

RESUMO

Most objects and vegetation making up the habitats of echolocating bats return a multitude of overlapping echoes. Recent evidence suggests that the limited temporal and spatial resolution of bio-sonar prevents bats from separately perceiving the objects giving rise to these overlapping echoes. Therefore, bats often operate under conditions where their ability to localize obstacles is severely limited. Nevertheless, bats excel at avoiding complex obstacles. In this paper, we present a robotic model of bat obstacle avoidance using interaural level differences and distance to the nearest obstacle as the minimal set of cues. In contrast to previous robotic models of bats, the current robot does not attempt to localize obstacles. We evaluate two obstacle avoidance strategies. First, the Fixed Head Strategy keeps the acoustic gaze direction aligned with the direction of flight. Second, the Delayed Linear Adaptive Law (DLAL) Strategy uses acoustic gaze scanning, as observed in hunting bats. Acoustic gaze scanning has been suggested to aid the bat in hunting for prey. Here, we evaluate its adaptive value for obstacle avoidance when obstacles can not be localized. The robot's obstacle avoidance performance is assessed in two environments mimicking (highly cluttered) experimental setups commonly used in behavioral experiments: a rectangular arena containing multiple complex cylindrical reflecting surfaces and a corridor lined with complex reflecting surfaces. The results indicate that distance to the nearest object and interaural level differences allows steering the robot clear of obstacles in environments that return non-localizable echoes. Furthermore, we found that using acoustic gaze scanning reduced performance, suggesting that gaze scanning might not be beneficial under conditions where the animal has limited access to angular information, which is in line with behavioral evidence.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/fisiologia , Ecolocação/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Robótica/instrumentação , Acústica , Algoritmos , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Quirópteros/psicologia , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Sinais (Psicologia) , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Robótica/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Behav Processes ; 169: 103995, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698033

RESUMO

Behaviour is expected to be one of the most important factors driving urban living of bird species because it largely determines how animals interact with their environments. The contribution of different behavioural traits as facilitators of contemporary process of bird colonization of urban environments, however, is still unclear. Here we examined the differences in three behavioural traits: neophobia (avoidance of a new object) and solving success and solving latency of a problem solving test related to obtain food, in rural and urban living individuals of a common diurnal Neotropical raptor, the chimango caracara (Phalcoboenus chimango). Moreover, for solving success and solving latency behaviours, we tested the plasticity (i.e., habituation) in birds. Urban and rural chimangos showed similar neophobia of a new object. All chimangos showed an improvement in their output in problem-solving test as the five-day testing passed but urban chimangos showed higher solving capabilities than rural conspecifics as they were more successful in solving the problem test. More, urban birds shown lower solving latency than rural, as they were able to improve their test performance by opening doors in less time as the day passed; in rural birds this relation was not so abrupt. In addition, those individuals that opened more doors, opened these faster too. Lastly, both solving success and latency showed very low individual consistency (repeatability < 0.275). Our results provide evidence of plasticity in solving capabilities of chimango caracaras which reveal that a habituation process in these behavioural traits could be associated to establishment of birds in urban environments.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Aves Predatórias/fisiologia , Animais , Cidades , Fenótipo
11.
Behav Processes ; 169: 103989, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669749

RESUMO

Foraging trails of leaf-cutting ants may be exposed to plant material that interferes with foragers' flux either by physically blocking it or due to secondary metabolites which affect insect behavior. We hypothesized that plant secondary metabolites such as plant volatiles may interfere with pheromone communication, triggering clearing behavior. We impregnated small pieces of paper with different plant odors from native and exotic species and placed them in the middle of foraging trails of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lobicornis. As a control, we used papers impregnated with trail odor. The paper used as substrate for the odors did not constitute a physical obstacle based on its small surface area. Papers treated with trail odor did not interfere with ant flux and were not removed from the trail. However, when papers were treated with plant odors, they were removed from the trail in most of the cases and ant flux was reduced significantly by 15-28%. We found that ants tapped the tip of their gaster against the ground around the treated papers only when they were impregnated with foreign odors. The number of gaster tappings as well as the time between the placement of the paper and its removal increased with plant odor concentration. However, the decision to remove the paper was not correlated with the number of gaster tappings. Interestingly, clearer ants were smaller than forager ants, suggesting there is morphological differentiation in clearing behavior of the trail. Results from the current study also suggest that odors trigger clearing behavior on foraging trails and affect trail marking behavior. Our results provide information about the potential for plant compounds to constitute obstacles, even when they do not physically obstruct the trail. We conclude that odors may trigger clearing behavior by interfering with pheromone communication.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Odorantes , Olfato/fisiologia , Animais , Feromônios , Plantas
12.
Evol Anthropol ; 28(6): 321-331, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691443

RESUMO

The importance of warfare for human evolution is hotly debated in anthropology. Some authors hypothesize that warfare emerged at least 200,000-100,000 years BP, was frequent, and significantly shaped human social evolution. Other authors claim that warfare is a recent phenomenon, linked to the emergence of agriculture, and mostly explained by cultural rather than evolutionary forces. Here I highlight and critically evaluate six controversial points on the evolutionary bases of warfare. I argue that cultural and evolutionary explanations on the emergence of warfare are not alternative but analyze biological diversity at two distinct levels. An evolved propensity to act aggressively toward outgroup individuals may emerge irrespective of whether warfare appeared early/late during human evolution. Finally, I argue that lethal violence and aggression toward outgroup individuals are two linked but distinct phenomena, and that war and peace are complementary and should not always be treated as two mutually exclusive behavioral responses.


Assuntos
Agressão , Evolução Cultural/história , Guerra/etnologia , Animais , Antropologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , História Antiga , Hominidae/fisiologia , Humanos , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Comportamento Social/história
13.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(11): e8441, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721904

RESUMO

The heptapeptide Bj-PRO-7a, isolated and identified from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) venom, produces antihypertensive and other cardiovascular effects that are independent on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, possibly relying on cholinergic muscarinic receptors subtype 1 (M1R). However, whether Bj-PRO-7a acts upon the central nervous system and modifies behavior is yet to be determined. Therefore, the aims of this study were: i) to assess the effects of acute administration of Bj-PRO-7a upon behavior; ii) to reveal mechanisms involved in the effects of Bj-PRO-7a upon locomotion/exploration, anxiety, and depression-like behaviors. For this purpose, adult male Wistar (WT, wild type) and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) received intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (0.9% NaCl), diazepam (2 mg/kg), imipramine (15 mg/kg), Bj-PRO-7a (71, 213 or 426 nmol/kg), pirenzepine (852 nmol/kg), α-methyl-DL-tyrosine (200 mg/kg), or chlorpromazine (2 mg/kg), and underwent elevated plus maze, open field, and forced swimming tests. The heptapeptide promoted anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects and increased locomotion/exploration. These effects of Bj-PRO-7a seem to be dependent on M1R activation and dopaminergic receptors and rely on catecholaminergic pathways.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Venenos de Crotalídeos/química , Depressão , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Prolina/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Masculino , Oligopeptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Prolina/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(14): 4681-4690, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725167

RESUMO

Purpose: To compare the effects of reduced inhibitory neuron function in the retina across behavioral, physiological, and anatomical levels. Methods: Inhibitory neurons were ablated in larval zebrafish retina. The Ptf1a gene, which determines inhibitory neuron fate in developing vertebrates, was used to express nitroreductase. By exposing larvae to the prodrug metronidazole, cytotoxicity was selectively induced in inhibitory neurons. Visual phenotypes were characterized at behavioral, physiological, and anatomical levels using an optomotor response (OMR) assay, electroretinography (ERG), and routine histology, respectively. Nonvisual locomotion was also assessed to reveal any general behavioral effects due to ablation of other nonvisual neurons that also express Ptf1a. Results: Injured larvae showed severely reduced OMR relative to controls. Locomotor assessment showed unaltered swimming ability, indicating that reduced OMR was due to visual deficits. For ERG, injured larvae manifested either reduced (type-I) or absent (type-II) b-wave signals originating from bipolar interneurons in the retina. Histologic analysis showed altered retinal morphology in injured larvae, with reductions in synaptic inner plexiform layer (IPL) thickness and synaptic density more pronounced in type-II than type-I larvae; type-II larvae also had smaller retinae overall. Conclusions: The consequences of inhibitory neuron ablation corresponded closely across behavioral, physiological, and anatomical levels. Inhibitory neuron loss likely increases the ratio of neural excitation to inhibition, leading to hyperexcitability. In addition to modulating visual signals, inhibitory neurons may be critical for maintaining retinal structure and organization. This study highlights the utility of a multidisciplinary approach and provides a template for characterizing other zebrafish models of neurological disease.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Metronidazol/toxicidade , Neurônios Motores/efeitos dos fármacos , Retina/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Eletrorretinografia , Larva , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Nitrorredutases/metabolismo , Estimulação Luminosa , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Vet Res Commun ; 43(4): 239-247, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760569

RESUMO

Sickness behavior (SB) is considered part of the adaptive behavioral and neuroimmune changes that occur in response to inflammatory processes. However, SB is a motivational state modulated by the environmental context. The objective of this study was to evaluate if selenium could ameliorate symptoms of SB and if stress would affect these responses. We induced SB in rats using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We choose selenium based on our findings of LPS-exposure decreasing selenium levels in rats. We exposed these rats to a psychogenic stress and studied motivational modulation paradigms, such as cure of the organism, preservation of the species, and fight or flight. We studied ultrasonic vocalizations, open-field behaviors, body weight, and IL-1 beta and IFN-gamma serum levels. LPS-induced SB was evidenced by decreased motor/exploratory activity and increased proinflammatory mediators' levels. Selenium treatment did not exert beneficial effects on SB, revealing that probably the selenium deficiency was not related to SB. When analyzed with the stress paradigm, the behavior of rats was differentially affected. LPS did not affect behavior in the presence of stress. SB was abrogated during stressor events to prioritize survival behaviors, such as fight-or-flight. Contrarily, the association of LPS, selenium, and stress induced SB even during stressor events, revealing that this combination induced a cumulative toxic effect.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento de Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Animais , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Ratos , Selênio/farmacologia
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20190055, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778459

RESUMO

The immune state is an essential component of survival as it directly influences physiological performance and health status. Variation in the leukocyte profile, a significantly increase in body temperature, and a detriment of the eco-physiological performance are among the possible consequences of an unhealthy state. In this study we analyse and discuss how field body temperature, preferred body temperature, the speed for sprint and long runs, locomotor stamina, and body condition can be affected by the immunological state (i.e. leukocyte profile) in a wild population of Liolaemus sarmentoi. Juveniles and adult males with a high percentage of eosinophils, basophils, and a low percentage of monocytes preferred higher body temperatures in a thermal gradient, while pregnant females maintained thermal preferences independently of leukocyte profile. Although juveniles with a high percentage of heterophils showed less locomotor stamina, adult males and pregnant females showed no differences in locomotor performance in relation to leukocyte profile. This study represents a starting point in eco-immunology of a wild lizard population of Liolaemus in cold and temperate environments of Patagonia where the southward shift in the geographic ranges of pathogen populations due to global warming represents a threat to resident host populations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Temperatura Corporal/imunologia , Lagartos/sangue , Lagartos/imunologia , Atividade Motora/imunologia , Aclimatação , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Lagartos/fisiologia , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Gravidez
17.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 575-588, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672203

RESUMO

Donkeys and mules often are misunderstood because of their behavioral differences compared with horses. Working with these animals requires more patience and ability to notice the slightest changes in behavior to diagnose disease. Mules and donkeys form strong bonds and trust with familiar people and other equids. Training mules and hinnies from an early age is key to modifying behavior and acceptance of unfamiliar people. Reproductive behavior is different from that of horses and requires more patience when collecting jacks. Practitioners working with mules and donkeys should take a methodological approach and get to know the animal before performing examinations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Equidae/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos
18.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(12): 1986-1999, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719672

RESUMO

The importance of neuronal ensembles, termed engram cells, in storing and retrieving memory is increasingly being appreciated, but less is known about how these engram cells operate within neural circuits. Here we tagged engram cells in the ventral CA1 region of the hippocampus (vCA1) and the core of the nucleus accumbens (AcbC) during cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) training and show that the vCA1 engram projects preferentially to the AcbC and that the engram circuit from the vCA1 to the AcbC mediates memory recall. Direct activation of the AcbC engram while suppressing the vCA1 engram is sufficient for cocaine CPP. The AcbC engram primarily consists of D1 medium spiny neurons, but not D2 medium spiny neurons. The preferential synaptic strengthening of the vCA1→AcbC engram circuit evoked by cocaine conditioning mediates the retrieval of cocaine CPP memory. Our data suggest that the vCA1 engram stores specific contextual information, while the AcbC D1 engram and its downstream network store both cocaine reward and associated contextual information, providing a potential mechanism by which cocaine CPP memory is stored.


Assuntos
Região CA1 Hipocampal/fisiologia , Cocaína/farmacologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Clozapina/análogos & derivados , Clozapina/farmacologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia , Camundongos Transgênicos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Optogenética , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia
19.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(11): e8899, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664307

RESUMO

Few behavioral tests allow measuring several characteristics and most require training, complex analyses, and/or are time-consuming. We present an apparatus based on rat exploratory behavior. Composed of three different environments, it allows the assessment of more than one behavioral characteristic in a short 3-min session. Factorial analyses have defined three behavioral dimensions, which we named Exploration, Impulsivity, and Self-protection. Behaviors composing the Exploration factor were increased by chlordiazepoxide and apomorphine and decreased by pentylenetetrazole. Behaviors composing the Impulsivity factor were increased by chlordiazepoxide, apomorphine, and both acute and chronic imipramine treatments. Behaviors composing the Self-protection factor were decreased by apomorphine. We submitted Wistar rats to the open-field test, the elevated-plus maze, and to the apparatus we are proposing. Measures related to exploratory behavior in all three tests were correlated. Measures composing the factors Impulsivity and Self-protection did not correlate with any measures from the two standard tests. Also, compared with existing impulsivity tests, the one we proposed did not require previous learning, training, or sophisticated analysis. Exploration measures from our test are as easy to obtain as the ones from other standard tests. Thus, we have proposed an apparatus that measured three different behavioral characteristics, was simple and fast, did not require subjects to be submitted to previous learning or training, was sensitive to drug treatments, and did not require sophisticated data analyses.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Pesquisa Comportamental/instrumentação , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Animais , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/farmacologia , Apomorfina/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Clordiazepóxido/farmacologia , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Medo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas GABAérgicos/farmacologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Modelos Animais , Pentilenotetrazol/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Behav Processes ; 169: 103980, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580904

RESUMO

General locomotor activity is a highly variable phenotypic trait of animals. In domestic chickens it is different within and between breeds. The general locomotor activity is a substantially heritable trait and has been shown to be correlated with several other behavioural traits, such as for example feather pecking and anxiety in chickens. However, whether there is a relation between different levels of general locomotor activity and behavioural changes remained unclear. Therefore, a selection line model system has been established, where hens from the same founder population were selected over eight generations for either high or low general locomotor activity. The selection led to significant increases, respectively decreases in general locomotor activity and differences in growth. We here tested 128 hens of the 8th generation in three behavioural tests. We assumed fearfulness to be affected from selection on general locomotor activity, which we tested in a tonic immobility test. Socio-positive and socio-negative behaviours were tested in respective test paradigms. Fearfulness was higher in hens selected for high general locomotor activity. Social behavioural traits and feather pecking were not affected by selection for general locomotor activity. Evolutionary mechanisms that link fear and general locomotor activity are discussed and also why social behaviours and feather pecking seems not to be affected from selection on general locomotor activity. Our results provide interesting new insights on how selection on one trait, general locomotor activity, affects the behavioural phenotype in other dimensions too.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Cruzamento , Locomoção/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Galinhas , Feminino , Fenótipo
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