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2.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222215, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509568

RESUMO

We propose a method for learning multi-agent policies to compete against multiple opponents. The method consists of recurrent neural network-based actor-critic networks and deterministic policy gradients that promote cooperation between agents by communication. The learning process does not require access to opponents' parameters or observations because the agents are trained separately from the opponents. The actor networks enable the agents to communicate using forward and backward paths while the critic network helps to train the actors by delivering them gradient signals based on their contribution to the global reward. Moreover, to address nonstationarity due to the evolving of other agents, we propose approximate model learning using auxiliary prediction networks for modeling the state transitions, reward function, and opponent behavior. In the test phase, we use competitive multi-agent environments to demonstrate by comparison the usefulness and superiority of the proposed method in terms of learning efficiency and goal achievements. The comparison results show that the proposed method outperforms the alternatives.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/ética , Reforço Psicológico , Algoritmos , Comunicação , Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Simulação por Computador , Comportamento Cooperativo , Modelos Neurológicos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Recompensa
3.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 25(5): 1549-1588, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604353

RESUMO

This research presents the results of a survey regarding scientific misconduct and questionable research practices elicited from a sample of 1215 management researchers. We find that misconduct (research that was either fabricated or falsified) is not encountered often by reviewers nor editors. Yet, there is a strong prevalence of misrepresentations (method inadequacy, omission or withholding of contradictory results, dropping of unsupported hypotheses). When it comes to potential methodological improvements, those that are skeptical about the empirical body of work being published see merit in replication studies. Yet, a sizeable majority of editors and authors eschew open data policies, which points to hidden costs and limited incentives for data sharing in management research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Empírica , Editoração/ética , Editoração/estatística & dados numéricos , Má Conduta Científica/ética , Má Conduta Científica/psicologia , Má Conduta Científica/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Ética em Pesquisa , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Motivação , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Bioethics ; 33(1): 122-131, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157289

RESUMO

Non-invasive brain stimulation is used to modulate brain excitation and inhibition and to improve cognitive functioning. The effectiveness of the enhancement due to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is still controversial, but the technique seems to have large potential for improvement and more specific applications. In particular, it has recently been used by athletes, both beginners and professionals. This paper analyses the ethical issues related to tDCS enhancement, which depend on its specific features: ease of use, immediate effect, non-detectability and great variability of effects. If tDCS were to become widespread, there could be some potential side effects, especially the rise of inequality in many selective competitive contexts. I discuss two possible scenarios to counter this effect: that of prohibition and that of compensation, each supported by reasons and arguments that seem plausible and worthy of consideration. In conclusion, I show why I think the scenario of compensation is the preferable one.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/ética , Melhoramento Biomédico/ética , Encéfalo , Cognição , Justiça Social , Esportes/ética , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/ética , Atletas , Compensação e Reparação , Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Humanos , Controle Social Formal , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Int J Psychol ; 52(3): 180-188, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26314931

RESUMO

People vary in the extent to which they prefer cooperative, competitive or individualistic achievement tasks. In this research, we conducted two studies designed to investigate correlates and possible roots of these social interdependence orientations, namely approach and avoidance temperament, general self-efficacy, implicit theories of intelligence, and contingencies of self-worth based in others' approval, competition and academic competence. The results indicated that approach temperament, general self-efficacy and incremental theory were positively related, and entity theory was negatively related to cooperative preferences (|r| range from .11 to .41); approach temperament, general self-efficacy, competition contingencies and academic competence contingencies were positively related to competitive preferences (|r| range from .16 to .46); and avoidance temperament, entity theory, competitive contingencies and academic competence contingencies were positively related, and incremental theory was negatively related to individualistic preferences (|r| range from .09 to .15). The findings are discussed with regard to the meaning of each of the three social interdependence orientations, cultural differences among the observed relations and implications for practitioners.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Aprendizagem/ética , Temperamento/ética , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Cooperativo , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Bioethics ; 30(8): 643-8, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27369122

RESUMO

This article addresses the question how to restore the biggest possible amount of fairness after a discovery of doping infringement. I will analyse eight actions that could be taken: (1) disqualification and re-ranking, (2) change in official result, (3) medal stripping and medal re-awarding, (4) ban, (5) rematch, (6) legal action, (7) apology and (8) forgiveness. I conclude that the best way to restore the biggest possible amount of fairness seems to be a selected combination of actions. I also propose that re-ranking and medal re-awarding should be accompanied by a ceremony in which the new winners are celebrated because they typically did not have the possibility of enjoying their success in front of the original audience.


Assuntos
Atitude , Temas Bioéticos , Doping nos Esportes/ética , Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Perdão , Humanos , Esportes/ética , Esportes/psicologia
7.
Clin Sports Med ; 35(2): 293-301, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26832978

RESUMO

The International Association for Athletics Federations (IAAF) has been granted 2 years to submit further evidence showing a correlation between higher levels of testosterone and a competitive advantage. This article first presents the case of Caster Semenya, which triggered the drafting by IAAF of the regulations on eligibility of female athletes to compete in the female category in 2011. Then the IAAF regulations are critically analyzed from a scientific and ethical point of view. Finally, the Court of Arbitration for Sport decision to suspend the regulations pending further evidence provided by IAAF, and what this means for the future of sports, is discussed.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/ética , Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Hiperandrogenismo , Medicina Esportiva/ética , Feminino , Humanos , Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicina Esportiva/legislação & jurisprudência
8.
Kennedy Inst Ethics J ; 25(3): 231-60, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26412737

RESUMO

A claim about continuing technological progress plays an essential, if unacknowledged, role in the philosophical literature on "human enhancement." I argue that-should it eventuate-continuous improvement in enhancement technologies may prove more bane than benefit. A rapid increase in the power of available enhancements would mean that each cohort of enhanced individuals will find itself in danger of being outcompeted by the next in competition for important social goods-a situation I characterize as an "enhanced rat race." Rather than risk the chance of being rendered technologically and socially obsolete by the time one is in one's early 20s, it may be rational to prefer that a wide range of enhancements that would generate positional disadvantages that outweigh their absolute advantages be prohibited altogether. The danger of an enhanced rat race therefore constitutes a novel argument in favor of abandoning the pursuit of certain sorts of enhancements.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Biomédico/economia , Melhoramento Biomédico/ética , Cognição , Comportamento Competitivo , Competição Econômica/economia , Competição Econômica/ética , Eficiência , Desempenho Psicomotor , Fatores Etários , Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Melhoramento Genético/economia , Melhoramento Genético/ética , Humanos , Trabalho
9.
Behav Processes ; 120: 64-8, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26222550

RESUMO

This study on competition in human groups was performed within the context of the competitive outcome interdependence concept: the degree to which personal outcomes among group members are affected by the consequences of task performance of others, e.g. when one group member gains a high reward for a task, this lowers the available reward for other group members. Our computer-based multi-participant game empirically assessed how competitive versus neutral conditions influenced the reward-maximising behaviour of 200 undergraduate students functioning in ten-person groups - each playing two games (1 neutral and 1 competitive), their perceived pay satisfaction as well as perceived stress levels and sense of calmness within the games' task to search for coins. Participants were represented by black dots moving on a virtual playground. Results showed that competition led to reward-maximising but fellow group member disadvantaging behaviour, and all participants experienced lower pay satisfaction, higher stress levels and less calmness. We conclude that short-term behavioural consequences of positive individual competitive behaviour were gained at the above-mentioned potential long-term negative costs for all group members. This implies group paradigms aimed at sustainability should avoid introducing competitive factors that at best result in short-lived gains and at worst cause widespread dissatisfaction, stress and a pervasive lack of calmness.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Processos Grupais , Adulto , Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Satisfação Pessoal , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Recompensa , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Jogos de Vídeo
10.
Sportverletz Sportschaden ; 29(1): 56-63, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25710395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The biological maturity status plays an important role in sports, since it influences the performance level and the talent selection in various types of sport. More mature athletes are favorably selected for regional and national squads. Therefore, the biological maturity status should be considered during the talent selection process. In this context, the relative age effect (RAE), which exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected sports groups shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of athletes born in the first months after the specific cut-off-date for the competition categories, represents another problem in the talent development. From an ethical point of view, discrimination of young talented kids does exist: the relatively younger athletes have little to no chance of reaching the elite level, despite their talents and efforts. The causal mechanisms behind the RAE are still unclear and have to be assessed. In this context, the biological maturation seems to be a possible influential factor for the existence of a RAE in sport, which has to be examined. Several methods for estimating the biological maturity status exist; however, they are often expensive and not practicable. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to assess the concordance of a simple, yet accurate method of estimating biological maturation (prediction equation of age at peak height velocity, APHV) of Mirwald and co-workers, and the gold standard method of estimating skeletal age (SA, the x-ray of the left wrist). METHODS: In total, 75 Austrian students (40♂, 35♀) aged 10 - 13 years, were examined. Thirty of the participants (17♂, 13♀) were students of a well-known Austrian ski boarding school, and 45 (23♂, 22♀) of a non-sportive secondary modern school of the same region. The participants included in the study had not experienced a rupture of the carpal bones of the left wrist. Parents and participants were informed of the study aims, requirements and risks before providing written informed consent. The study was performed according to the Declaration of Helsinki. The study was approved by the Board for Ethical Questions in Science (Nr.: 2/2014) and the Institutional Ethics Review Boards for Human Research. For the prediction equations, the body height, the body mass and the sitting height were examined 8. The actual CA at time of measurement, and the leg length as the difference between body height and sitting height were calculated. These parameters were used to predict MO as time before or after PHV for boys and girls using the prediction equations of Mirwald et al. 19. According to Malina and Koziel 8, the participants were classified as late, on time (average) or early maturing on the basis of their APHV relative to the sample mean and standard deviation separated by sex. Participants within plus/minus the standard deviation of the mean were considered on time; participants with APHV > mean + standard deviation were classified late, while those with APHV < mean - standard deviation were classified early. An expert in pediatric endocrinology evaluated the x-rays of the left-hand wrist with the Greulich-Pyle-Method for assessing SA, the most widely used method of determining SA 24. The difference between SA and CA were calculated (= difference SA-CA). Consistent with other studies, the participants were divided into three groups according to their maturity status: on time or average maturity status was a SA within ±1 year of CA, late maturating was a SA behind CA of more than 1 year, and early maturating was a SA in advance of CA of more than 1 year 5 19 25. The most accurate method used to compare two methods of measurement is the Bland-Altman plot and the 95 % limits of agreement 26 27 28. Bland-Altman plots of the difference between difference in APHV (from the literature mean) and difference SA-CA (y-axis) and the mean of difference in APHV and difference SA-CA (x-axis) were performed. Approximately 95 % of the points in the plot should lie within the limits; then the concordance between the two methods of measurement is given 28. Additionally, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(3,1); two-way-mixed, total agreement) were calculated between difference in APHV and difference SA-CA. Chi²-tests were used to assess the difference in the percentage of pupils classified as on time, early or late maturing between the classifications based on the SA and on APHV, respectively. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05 and for highly significant at p < 0.01. All of the calculations were performed using PASW Statistics V.21.0. RESULTS: Chi²-tests did not show any significant differences (p = 0.404) in the percentage of participants classified as on time, early or late maturing between the two classifications based on SA and on APHV, respectively, neither for the total sample, nor for the two groups ski racers and non-athletes. The Bland-Altman analysis showed that more than 95 % of the points in the plot lie within the limits; consequently, there is concordance between the two methods with regard to estimating biological maturation. The ICC(3,1) statistics showed a highly significant correlation: p = 0.002, ICC (95 % CI) = 0.48 (0.13 - 0.69). CONCLUSIONS: The prediction equations to determine APHV seem to be a valid method of assessing the biological maturity status of youths aged 10 - 13 years. The percentage of pupils classified as on time, early or late maturing did not differ significantly between the classifications based on the two methods. Also the Bland-Altman analysis proved the concordance between the two methods. The RAE could be influenced and strengthened by the biological age in sports in which advantages in maturity parameters are important. Athletes born early in the selection year, who are also at the same time advanced in maturity, might be advantaged in the selection process. However, since the prediction equations seem to be valid, this method can be used in the future in the talent selection process in order to not disadvantage late-maturing athletes, which in turn could result in the reduction of the occurrence of the RAE in various types of sports in the future. In talent selection processes the growth spurt and the implemented changes in proportions between core and the extremities are often not considered; although it was shown that during this period, athletes showed poor performances in physical fitness. Since physical fitness is an important criterion in talent selection processes, athletes who go through their individual peak growth spurt at the time of selection have disadvantages due to the diverse proportions. As a consequence, it seems important to know the athlete's APHV in order to consider the variations in physical performance caused by developmental changes. The prediction equations to determine APHV include the leg length and sitting height in order to consider the diverse proportions between core and extremities; hence, this method seems to be accurate and should be implemented in the talent selection process.


Assuntos
Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto/métodos , Antropometria/métodos , Aptidão , Estatura , Comportamento Competitivo , Critérios de Admissão Escolar , Esqui , Esportes , Adolescente , Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto/ética , Fatores Etários , Áustria , Criança , Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Ética Profissional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Esqui/ética
11.
13.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 14(1): 60-8, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24533496

RESUMO

Elite gymnastics, and other sports where athletes and coaches are particularly concerned with aesthetic considerations, weight and shape, are fields within which the risk of eating disorders may be unusually high. Adolescent gymnasts, developing their own sense of self, at a time of life where body image concerns are common, often compete at the very top of the sport with a need to maintain a body shape and weight optimal for elite performance. Research into this field should address the range of sociological and ethical aspects of eating disorders in elite sport, their prevalence as well as the ethos of the sport itself. This paper addresses a range of conceptual, ethical and methodological issues relevant to conducting research in this sensitive yet important field.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Imagem Corporal , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Competitivo , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Ginástica , Adolescente , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Estética , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Ginástica/ética , Ginástica/psicologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Sports Sci ; 31(11): 1208-21, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23472827

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to provide further evidence for the construct validity (i.e., convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity) of the Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport Scale (PABSS), an instrument that has four subscales measuring prosocial and antisocial behaviour toward teammates and opponents. We also investigated test-retest reliability and stability of the PABSS. We conducted three studies using athletes from a variety of team sports. In Study 1, participants (N = 129) completed the PABSS and measures of physical and verbal aggression, hostility, anger, moral identity, and empathy; a sub-sample (n = 111) also completed the PABSS one week later. In Study 2, in addition to the PABSS, participants (N = 89) completed measures of competitive aggressiveness and anger, moral attitudes, moral disengagement, goal orientation, and anxiety. In Study 3, participants (N = 307) completed the PABSS and a measure of social goals. Across the three studies, the four subscales evidenced the hypothesised relationships with a number of variables. Correlations were large between the two antisocial behaviours and small between the two prosocial behaviours. Overall, the findings supported the convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity of the scale, provided evidence for its test-retest reliability and stability, and suggest that the instrument is a valid and reliable measure of prosocial and antisocial behaviour in sport.


Assuntos
Atletas , Atitude , Comportamento Competitivo , Emoções , Comportamento Social , Esportes , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Agressão , Ira , Ansiedade , Atletas/psicologia , Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Empatia , Feminino , Objetivos , Hostilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Esportes/ética , Esportes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Rev. psicol. org. trab ; 12(1): 61-72, abr. 2012. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: psi-55763

RESUMO

El trabajo recupera reflexiones en torno al fenómeno de la violencia y como ella se va incorporando al dia a dia de la sociedad. La estructura está en tres ejes: a) La violencia en el cotidiano; b) La violencia en las organizaciones; y c) la auto violencia. La idea es compartir vivencias para un escenario latinoamericano en donde la vida es dominada, después de la familia, por el orgullo de poseer al menos un trabajo. Este al ser escaso, se convierte en un valor y en un indicador futuro de progreso y estabilidad familiar, se vuelve en un objeto de deseo para quien lo posee. En esta idea, el trabajo es donde se convive con el sadomasoquismo cotidiano, con ataduras, sabotajes y tormentos, porque es en el donde se fundamentan las relaciones de poder y las jerarquías. Así, una persona tiene poder y autoridad sobre otra y puede abusar de ese poder y autoridad en cualquier forma o puede descargar frustraciones personales o profesionales. Todo ello alimentado por un contexto histórico permeado por la cultura que va imponiendo costumbres y valores, creando una antropología del sujeto y permitiendo o haciendo natural que se viva de esta manera. La reflexión desciende sobre el contexto mexicano y sobre una reflexión autocrítica de la cultura y la comunicación histórica vigente. (AU)


The work collects reflections regarding the violence phenomenon and how it becomes part of everyday society. It is structured in three different parts: a) Everyday violence; b) Violence in organizations; and c) Self-violence. The idea is to share experiences from a Latin-American scenario where life is dominated, after the family, by the pride in having, at least, a job. As jobs are scarce, employment becomes a value and an indicator of future progress and family stability; it also turns into an object of desire for those who possess it. In this sense, work is where one coexists with daily sadomasochism, with bondage, sabotage, and torment, because this is where the relations of power and hierarchy are based. Thus, a person has power and authority over another and can abuse that power and authority in various ways, or can even unload personal or professional frustrations. All of this is localized in an historical context by a culture that imposes customs and values, creating an anthropology of the subject, and allowing or making it natural to live in such a manner. This reflection descends on the Mexican context and on a self-criticism of the culture and the enforced historical communication.(AU)


O objetivo do artigo é refletir sobre o fenômeno da violência e como ela vem se incorporando no dia a dia da sociedade. O artigo está estruturado em três partes: a) a violência no cotidiano; b) a violência nas organizações; e c) a autoviolência. O objetivo é compartilhar vivências sobre um cenário latino-americano onde a vida é dominada, depois da família, pelo orgulho de se ter um trabalho. Por ser escasso, o trabalho se converte em um valor e também é um indicador de progresso futuro e estabilidade familiar, convertendo-se em um objeto de desejo. É no trabalho, no entanto, que se convive com o sadomasoquismo cotidiano, com as ataduras, sabotagens e tormentos, porque aí se encontram as bases das relações de poder e de hierarquia. Uma pessoa tem poder e autoridade sobre outra e pode abusar desse poder e autoridade em suas diversas formas ou ainda descarregar frustrações pessoais ou profissionais. Tudo isto circunscrito a um contexto histórico e cultural que impõe costumes e valores, e cria as bases de uma antropologia humana que naturaliza este modo de vida. A reflexão versa sobre o contexto mexicano fazendo uma autocrítica da cultura e da comunicação histórica vigente.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Violência , Antropologia Cultural , Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Ambiente de Trabalho
17.
Rev. psicol. organ. trab ; 12(1): 61-72, abr. 2012. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-682963

RESUMO

El trabajo recupera reflexiones en torno al fenómeno de la violencia y como ella se va incorporando al dia a dia de la sociedad. La estructura está en tres ejes: a) La violencia en el cotidiano; b) La violencia en las organizaciones; y c) la auto violencia. La idea es compartir vivencias para un escenario latinoamericano en donde la vida es dominada, después de la familia, por el orgullo de poseer al menos un trabajo. Este al ser escaso, se convierte en un valor y en un indicador futuro de progreso y estabilidad familiar, se vuelve en un objeto de deseo para quien lo posee. En esta idea, el trabajo es donde se convive con el sadomasoquismo cotidiano, con ataduras, sabotajes y tormentos, porque es en el donde se fundamentan las relaciones de poder y las jerarquías. Así, una persona tiene poder y autoridad sobre otra y puede abusar de ese poder y autoridad en cualquier forma o puede descargar frustraciones personales o profesionales. Todo ello alimentado por un contexto histórico permeado por la cultura que va imponiendo costumbres y valores, creando una antropología del sujeto y permitiendo o haciendo natural que se viva de esta manera. La reflexión desciende sobre el contexto mexicano y sobre una reflexión autocrítica de la cultura y la comunicación histórica vigente.


The work collects reflections regarding the violence phenomenon and how it becomes part of everyday society. It is structured in three different parts: a) Everyday violence; b) Violence in organizations; and c) Self-violence. The idea is to share experiences from a Latin-American scenario where life is dominated, after the family, by the pride in having, at least, a job. As jobs are scarce, employment becomes a value and an indicator of future progress and family stability; it also turns into an object of desire for those who possess it. In this sense, work is where one coexists with daily sadomasochism, with bondage, sabotage, and torment, because this is where the relations of power and hierarchy are based. Thus, a person has power and authority over another and can abuse that power and authority in various ways, or can even unload personal or professional frustrations. All of this is localized in an historical context by a culture that imposes customs and values, creating an anthropology of the subject, and allowing or making it natural to live in such a manner. This reflection descends on the Mexican context and on a self-criticism of the culture and the enforced historical communication.


O objetivo do artigo é refletir sobre o fenômeno da violência e como ela vem se incorporando no dia a dia da sociedade. O artigo está estruturado em três partes: a) a violência no cotidiano; b) a violência nas organizações; e c) a autoviolência. O objetivo é compartilhar vivências sobre um cenário latino-americano onde a vida é dominada, depois da família, pelo orgulho de se ter um trabalho. Por ser escasso, o trabalho se converte em um valor e também é um indicador de progresso futuro e estabilidade familiar, convertendo-se em um objeto de desejo. É no trabalho, no entanto, que se convive com o sadomasoquismo cotidiano, com as ataduras, sabotagens e tormentos, porque aí se encontram as bases das relações de poder e de hierarquia. Uma pessoa tem poder e autoridade sobre outra e pode abusar desse poder e autoridade em suas diversas formas ou ainda descarregar frustrações pessoais ou profissionais. Tudo isto circunscrito a um contexto histórico e cultural que impõe costumes e valores, e cria as bases de uma antropologia humana que naturaliza este modo de vida. A reflexão versa sobre o contexto mexicano fazendo uma autocrítica da cultura e da comunicação histórica vigente.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Violência , Antropologia Cultural , Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Ambiente de Trabalho
18.
J Med Ethics ; 37(8): 479-82, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21565861

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The genetic modification of children is becoming a more likely possibility given our rapid progress in medical technologies. I argue, from a broadly Kantian point of view, that at least one kind of such modification-modification by a parent for the sake of a child's comparative advantage-is not rationally justified. To argue this, I first characterize a necessary condition on reasons and rational justification: what is a reason for an agent to do an action in one set of circumstances must be a reason for any in those circumstances to do the action. I then show that comparatively advantageous genetic modification violates this principle since a child's "getting ahead" through genetic modification cannot be rationally justified unless other children also could receive the modification, thus rendering the advantage useless. Finally, I consider the major objection to this CONCLUSION: it seems to disallow all cases of a parent's helping a child get ahead, something that parents normally engage in with their children. I argue that typical practices of developing a comparative advantage in a child, as well as practices of societal competition in general, do not conflict because they involve circumstances that mitigate the universal character of reasons. Many ordinary cases of competitive advantage that we think of as unjust, in fact, can be explained by my argument.


Assuntos
Reprodução/ética , Seleção Genética , Criança , Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Dissidências e Disputas , Eugenia (Ciência) , Felicidade , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Reprodução/genética , Mudança Social , Valores Sociais
19.
J Med Ethics ; 36(11): 700-7, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20966493

RESUMO

Traditionally the doping debate has been dominated by those who want to see doping forbidden (the prohibitionist view) and those who want to see it permitted (the ban abolitionist view). In this article, the authors analyse a third position starting from the assertion that doping use is a symptom of the paradigm of highly competitive elite sports, in the same way as addictions reflect current social paradigms in wider society. Based upon a conceptual distinction between occasional use, habitual use and addiction, and focusing on the physical and/or mental dependency caused by the addictive use of a certain drug, we argue that marihuana, stimulants and anabolic steroid abuse--the most frequently detected substances in doping tests--satisfies at least one, often both, of these conditions. A conclusion to be drawn from the authors' arguments is that the prohibitionist view is inappropriate for dealing with doping, as the severe sanctions attached to it will cut the doper off her/his social and professional environment, thereby risking reinforcing her/his addictive conduct. But the ban abolitionist view seems inappropriate as well. At first sight, it seems neither rational nor humane not to intervene when confronted with conduct which is highly harmful for the individual and upon which she has reduced or no control whatsoever. Instead the authors' proposal will be to contextualise dopers' conduct within sport healthcare and see it strictly in relation to each athlete's personal background. Developing preventive programmes--implemented through person-tailored counselling and eventually treatment, rather than severe sanctions or the mere lifting of the ban--seems to be a more reasonable, and probably more efficient, way of conducting 'the war against doping'.


Assuntos
Atitude , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/ética , Comportamento Aditivo/prevenção & controle , Temas Bioéticos , Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Humanos , Esportes/ética , Esportes/psicologia
20.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 32(2): 176-92, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20479477

RESUMO

In this study, we examined (a) the effects of goal orientations and perceived value of toughness on antisocial behavior toward opponents and teammates in soccer and (b) whether any effects were mediated by moral disengagement. Male soccer players (N = 307) completed questionnaires assessing the aforementioned variables. Structural equation modeling indicated that ego orientation had positive and task orientation had negative direct effects on antisocial behavior toward opponents. Further, ego orientation and perceived value of toughness had indirect positive effects on antisocial behavior toward opponents and teammates which were mediated by moral disengagement. Collectively, these findings aid our understanding of the effects of personal influences on antisocial behavior and of psychosocial mechanisms that could facilitate such antisocial conduct in male soccer players.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Objetivos , Princípios Morais , Futebol/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Ego , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Moral , Motivação/ética , Autoimagem , Valores Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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