Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.286
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239463, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960920

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of different playing strategies on external and internal loads in female tennis players during match play. Also, the underlying effects on the technical-tactical actions and activity profiles were examined. Twelve well-trained female players (age: 25±5 years; maximum oxygen uptake: 40.9±4.3 ml/kg/min) played points against an opponent of similar ability outdoors on red-clay courts. The players played points over five playing conditions. Before each condition, the players were instructed to apply either a passive, an active, or their own playing strategy (free play) to succeed. The five conditions were played in a randomized order, whereas the condition with the own strategy was always played first and served as control. During play, the external and internal loads were investigated by 10 Hz global positioning system, 100 Hz inertial measurement unit, short-range telemetry, capillary blood, and visual analog scale procedures. A 25 Hz video camera was used to examine the technical-tactical actions and activity profiles. Compared to the control condition, the passive, active, and mixed playing strategy conditions induce up to large effects on the external loads (running distances with high acceleration and deceleration), up to moderate effects on the internal loads (energy expenditures spent with high metabolic power, lactate concentration, and rating of effort), and up to very large effects on the technical-tactical actions (number of ground strokes and errors) and activity profiles (strokes per rally, rally duration, work to rest ratio, and effective playing time). Our study shows that passive, active, and mixed playing strategies have an impact on the external and internal loads, technical-tactical actions, and activity profiles of female tennis players during match play. This finding should be considered for practical purposes like match analyses and training procedures in the tennis environment.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Tênis/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Sports Sci ; 38(19): 2225-2235, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921247

RESUMO

Despite evidence supporting the positive affect sleep has on sport performance, there is limited application of sleep research in cricket. This study investigated the sleep behaviours of 26 elite South African cricket players (28.6 ± 4.0 years) during home and away competition. Players completed an altered version of the Core Consensus Sleep Diary every morning post-travel, pre-match and post-match. Linear mixed model regression was used to compare differences in sleep between time-periods, venues and formats. Spearman's correlations (rs) assessed the relationship of match performance and sleep. Post-match total sleep time (06:31 ± 01:09) was significantly (p < 0.05) shorter compared to post-travel (07:53 ± 01:07; g = 1.19) and pre-match (08:43 ± 01:03; g = 1.98). Post-travel sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency were significantly shorter (-20; g = 1.35) and higher (+10.4%; g = 0.74) at home than away respectively. Longer sleep onset latencies and shorter total sleep times were significantly associated with poorer One-Day International (rs = -0.57) and Test (rs = 0.59) batting performances respectively. The poor post-match sleep behaviour, and the sleep and performance correlations, provide motive for future interventions to focus on recovery and the use of sleep monitoring as a competitive advantage.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Críquete/fisiologia , Sono , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Privação do Sono , Fatores de Tempo
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866153

RESUMO

The decision to allocate time and energy to find multiple sexual partners or raise children is a fundamental reproductive trade-off. The Strategic Pluralism Hypothesis argues that human reproductive strategies are facultatively calibrated towards either investing in mating or parenting (or a mixture), according to the expression of features dependent on the individual's condition. This study seeks to test predictions derived from this hypothesis in a sample of 242 young men (M ± SD = 22.12 ± 3.08) from Chile's 5th Region (33Ö¯ south latitude). Specifically, two predictions were considered that raise questions about the relationship between traits related to physical and psychological attractiveness (fluctuating facial asymmetry and self-perception of attractiveness) and competitive skills (baseline testosterone and self-perception of fighting ability) with short-term reproductive strategies. Our results indicate that psychological features related to the self-perception of physical attractiveness are related to short-term reproductive strategies. However, no evidence was found that fluctuating facial asymmetry, basal levels of testosterone and self-perception of fighting ability were related to short-term reproductive strategies. These results support the existing evidence of the importance of physical attractiveness in calibrating men's reproductive strategies but cast doubts about the role of fluctuating facial asymmetry. They also suggest that traits related to physical attractiveness, in comparison to competitive capabilities, play a more important role in calibrating men's short-term reproductive strategies.


Assuntos
Beleza , Comportamento de Escolha , Reprodução/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Chile , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Humanos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther ; 50(8): 415-417, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736496

RESUMO

SYNOPSIS: Repeated purposeful heading in soccer has come under increased scrutiny as concerns surrounding the association with long-term neurodegenerative disorders in retired players continue to grow. Although a causal link between heading and brain health has not been established, the "precautionary principle" supports the notion that soccer governing bodies and associations should consider implementing pragmatic strategies that can reduce head impact during purposeful heading in youth soccer while this relationship is being investigated. This Viewpoint discusses the current evidence to support low-risk head impact reduction strategies during purposeful heading to protect young, developing players, and how such strategies could be implemented now while research and debate continue on this topic. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2020;50(8):415-417. doi:10.2519/jospt.2020.0608.


Assuntos
Cabeça/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Músculos do Pescoço/fisiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/prevenção & controle , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Futebol/lesões , Equipamentos Esportivos
5.
J Sports Sci ; 38(21): 2407-2414, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648526

RESUMO

This study investigated a method for modelling a landscape of opportunities for penetrative passing completed on the ground by ball carriers in association football. Analysis of video footage of competitive, professional football performance was undertaken, identifying a sample (n = 20) of attacking sub-phases of gameplay which ended in a penetrative pass being made between defenders to a receiver. Players' relative co-positioning during performance was modelled using bi-dimensional x and y coordinates of each player recorded at 25 fps. Data on player movements during competitive interactions were captured using an automatic video tracking system, recording player co-locations emerging over time, as well as current and estimated running velocities. Results revealed that the half spaces between the midfield and both sidelines were the key locations on field providing most affordances for penetrating passes in the competitive performance sample analysed. Due to the dynamics of players' co-adaptive performance behaviours, it was expected that opportunities for penetrative passing by ball carriers would not display a homogeneous space-time spread across the entire field. Results agreed with these expectations, showing how a landscape of opportunities for penetrative passing might be specified by information emerging from continuous player interactions in competitive performance.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
6.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(11): 766-770, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650343

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine body composition of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female soccer players by position and season. One hundred seventy-five female athletes were categorized by positions of forward (n=47), midfielder (n=51), defender (n=57), and goalkeeper (n=20). A dual X-ray absorptiometry scan assessed percent body fat, total lean mass, total fat mass, arm and leg lean mass and fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue. Goalkeepers had significantly higher total, arm, and leg lean mass and fat mass compared to all other positions (p<0.05). For seasonal changes, body fat percentage was significantly higher in winter off-season (26.7%) compared to summer off-season (25.7%) and pre-season (25.8%; p<0.01) for all positions. Total and leg lean mass was significantly lower in winter off-season compared to all other seasons, and total lean mass was significantly higher in summer off-season than pre-season (p<0.01). Overall, goalkeepers were significantly different than all other positions. Body fat percentage increased and lean mass decreased in winter off-season indicating potential undesired changes in training and/or nutrition over the break whereas lean mass was the highest in summer off-season potentially reflecting the emphasis on resistance training and increased volume of training.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Feminino , Humanos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Sports Sci ; 38(11-12): 1432-1440, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627682

RESUMO

We study the developmental and professional activities engaged in by 86 female adult soccer players from the senior national teams of Australia, Canada, England, Sweden, and the United States of America. Players completed the Participation History Questionnaire (PHQ) to elicit the amount and type of activities engaged in across their developmental and professional years, including milestones, soccer-specific activity and engagement in other sport activity. Greater specialisation than diversification characterised their childhood developmental activities, including all players starting in soccer in childhood and accumulating more hours in soccer activity than other sports during this period. However, interindividual variation further characterised these childhood activities, with a proportion of players diversifying into other sports and/or soccer play to a greater or lesser degree during childhood when compared to the other players. The amount of coach-led soccer practice increased for all players across their development culminating in an average of 15-16 h/wk across a 40-week season in early adulthood. In contrast, the amount of engagement in other sports and soccer peer-led play varied between players but generally decreased across adolescence to negligible amounts in late adolescence. Findings are commensurate with the deliberate practice framework and early engagement.


Assuntos
Aptidão , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adulto , Austrália , Canadá , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Especialização , Suécia , Estados Unidos
8.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(12): 858-866, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629505

RESUMO

This investigation examined the position-specific physical performance in different locomotor categories and physiological demands concurrently in official games of sub-elite players and to present a new performance index (PI). Time-motion (distance, velocity, acceleration) and heart rate data of 55 soccer players were simultaneously captured via a GPS tracking system. The relationship between external and internal match-load (PI) was determined on the basis of heart rate, average velocity and acceleration. In contrast to the mean heart rate (85.2±3.2%, P=0.806, ηp²=0.03), the average total distance covered (9946±715 m) was largely affected by players' position (P<0.001, ηp²=0.63). Furthermore, a mixed design ANOVA showed a large interaction effect between position and locomotor category (P<0.001, ηp²=0.44). On average, PI was 1.57±0.37 m/min²/%, with notably lower values in the 2nd half. The position-specific profiles already reported for higher leagues were also present in sub-elite soccer players. Despite lower values for total distance and smaller distances in the high-intensity zones (>14.4 km/h), internal loads were comparable to those observed in European top leagues. In comparison to a performance measure that ignores accelerations, PI was shown to be less dependent on the playing position and had higher variability. Consequently, PI is better suited to distinguish between players' performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Futebol/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Corrida/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 15(5): 696-704, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698124

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate within-player effect, between-player effect, and individual response of external training load from player tracking devices on session rating of perceived exertion training load (sRPE-TL) in elite football players. METHODS: The authors collected sRPE-TL from 18 outfield players in 21 training sessions. Total distance, high-speed running distance (>14.4 m/s), very high-speed running distance (>19.8 m/s), PlayerLoad™, PlayerLoad2D™, and high-intensity events (HIE > 1.5, HIE > 2.5, and HIE > 3.5 m/s) were extracted from the tracking devices. The authors modeled within-player and between-player effects of single external load variables on sRPE-TL, and multiple levels of variability, using a linear mixed model. The effect of 2 SDs of external load on sRPE-TL was evaluated with magnitude-based inferences. RESULTS: Total distance, PlayerLoad™, PlayerLoad2D™, and HIE > 1.5 had most likely substantial within-player effects on sRPE-TL (100%-106%, very large effect sizes). Moreover, the authors observed likely substantial between-player effects (12%-19%, small to moderate effect sizes) from the majority of the external load variables and likely to very likely substantial individual responses of PlayerLoad™, high-speed running distance, very high-speed running distance, and HIE > 1.5 (19%-30% coefficient of variation, moderate to large effect sizes). Finally, sRPE-TL showed large to very large between-session variability with all external load variables. CONCLUSIONS: External load variables with low intensity-thresholds had the strongest relationship with sRPE-TL. Furthermore, the between-player effect of external load and the individual response to external load advocate for monitoring sRPE-TL in addition to external load. Finally, the large between-session variability in sRPE-TL demonstrates that substantial amounts of sRPE-TL in training sessions are not explained by single external load variables.


Assuntos
Percepção/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adulto , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Masculino , Corrida/fisiologia
10.
J Sports Sci ; 38(21): 2454-2461, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701387

RESUMO

Understanding the locomotor characteristics of competition can help rugby league (RL) coaches optimise training prescription. To date, no research exists on the locomotor characteristics of women's RL. The aim was to compare whole match and peak locomotor characteristics of women's RL competition at international (RL World Cup [WRLWC]) and domestic level (Super League [WSL]). Microtechnology data were collected from 58 players from 3-WSL clubs and 1-WRLWC team. Participants were classified into forwards (n = 30) and backs (n = 28). Partial least squares correlation analysis established which variables were important to discriminate between the level of competition (international vs. domestic) and positional group (forwards vs. backs). Linear mixed-effects models estimated the differences between standards of competition and positional group for those variables. International forwards were most likely exposed to greater peak 1-min average acceleration (standardised mean difference = 1.23 [0.42 to 2.04]) and peak 3-min average acceleration (1.13 [0.41 to 1.85]) than domestic forwards. International backs likely completed greater peak 1-min average acceleration (0.83 [0.08 to 1.58]) than domestic backs and possibly greater high-speed-distances (0.45 [-0.17 to 1.07]). Findings highlight the need for positional specific training across levels to prepare representative players for the increased match characteristics of international competition.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
11.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 15(6): 767-776, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502972

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Combat sports are composed of high-intensity actions (eg, attacks, defensive actions, and counterattacks in both grappling and striking situations depending on the specific sport) interspersed with low-intensity actions (eg, displacement without contact, stepping) or pauses (eg, referee stoppages), characterizing an intermittent activity. Therefore, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is at the essence of combat-sport-specific training and is used as complementary training, as well. HIIT prescription can be improved by using intensity parameters derived from combat-sport-specific tests. Specifically, the assessment of physiological indexes (intensity associated with the maximal blood lactate steady state, maximal oxygen consumption, and maximal sprint) or of time-motion variables (high-intensity actions, low-intensity actions, and effort:pause ratio) is a key element for a better HIIT prescription because these parameters provide an individualization of the training loads imposed on these athletes. PURPOSE: To present a proposal for HIIT prescription for combat-sport athletes, exemplifying with different HIIT protocols (HIIT short intervals, HIIT long intervals, repeated-sprint training, and sprint interval training) using combat-sport-specific actions and the parameters for the individualization of these protocols. CONCLUSIONS: The use of combat-sport-specific tests is likely to improve HIIT prescription, allowing coaches and strength and conditioning professionals to elaborate HIIT short intervals, HIIT long intervals, repeated-sprint training, and sprint interval training protocols using combat-sport actions, providing more specificity and individualization for the training sessions.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia
12.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(11): 736-743, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485779

RESUMO

Injuries of runners reduce the ability to train and hinder competing. Literature shows that the relation between potential risk factors and injuries are not definitive, limited, and inconsistent. In team sports, workload derivatives were identified as risk factors. However, there is an absence of literature in running on workload derivatives. This study used the workload derivatives acute workload, chronic workload, and acute: chronic workload ratios to investigate the relation between workload and injury risk in running. Twenty-three competitive runners kept a daily training log for 24 months. The runners reported training duration, training intensity and injuries. One-week (acute) and 4-week (chronic) workloads were calculated as the average of training duration multiplied by training intensity. The acute:chronic workload ratio was determined dividing the acute and chronic workloads. Results show that a fortnightly low increase of the acute:chronic workload ratio (0.10-0.78) led to an increased risk of sustaining an injury (p<0.001). Besides, a low increase of the acute:chronic workload ratio (0.05-0.62) between the second week and third week before an injury showed an association with increased injury risk (p=0.013). These findings demonstrate that the acute:chronic workload ratio relates to injury risk.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Corrida/lesões , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486151

RESUMO

Pacing in swimming has been investigated in pool swimming for elite-standard and age group freestyle swimmers, but little is known about pacing in age group swimmers competing at world class level in backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly. The aim of this study was to investigate pacing for age group swimmers competing at world class level in 100 and 200 m in the four single disciplines (freestyle, backstroke, breaststroke and butterfly). Data on 18,187 unique finishers competing in four FINA Master World Championships between 2014 and 2019 were analyzed. The sample included 3334 women and 14,853 men. Swimming speed decreased with increasing age (p < 0.05). Freestyle was the fastest and breaststroke the slowest (p < 0.05) stroke. Women and men were faster in 100 m (p < 0.05) than in 200 m. Backstroke was the stroke with the lowest and butterfly with the highest coefficient of variation in swimming speed. One hundred meters had a higher coefficient of variation in swimming speed than breaststroke (p < 0.05). For 100 m, swimming speed decreased for all strokes and all age groups during the second lap. For 200 m, swimming speed was the fastest for all strokes and all age groups during the first lap. In summary, the FINA World Masters Championships presented the unique characteristic that, when all competitors were considered, (i) swimming speed decreased with increasing age, (ii) women and men were faster in 100 m than in 200 m, (iii) freestyle was the fastest stroke and (iv) the largest increase in swimming time for 100 m all strokes and all age groups occurred during the second (out of two) lap and for 200 m, swimming speed was the fastest for all strokes and age groups during the first lap. These findings should help coaches to develop age- and event-tailored pacing strategies.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Natação/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(12): 832-838, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590845

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the distances at various intensity in matches and small-sided games in elite-young soccer players using the metabolic power approach and running speed methods through fixed and individual speed zones. The second aim was to investigate the difference in high intensity external workload (% of total distances covered > 16 km/h or > 20 W/kg) between matches and small-sided games. Global positioning system data from 14 elite-youth players were analyzed during 13 matches and two types of small sided-games. Five intensity zones were used to compare the running distances between the metabolic power approach and the classic performance analysis. Metabolic power recorded more distances covered at high intensity than the running speed methods for every playing situations, except for the zone 5 of fixed speed (> 19 km/h) in matches (P<0.05). Smaller differences of external workload at high intensity were found when using the metabolic power approach compared to the traditional performance analysis. Our results highlight that the traditional analysis underestimates the athlete's high intensity efforts. The metabolic power approach seems more relevant to monitor matches and training situations but also to compare matches to small-sided games in elite-young soccer players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adolescente , Metabolismo Energético , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Corrida/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
15.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(12): 839-845, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590846

RESUMO

The effects of wearing an intra-oral device on several ventilatory and fatigue markers have been reported for a variety of sports. The quality of the figures performed in synchronized swimming is directly affected by fatigue, and can be monitored during training sessions (TS). The aim of the study was to investigate the acute effects of wearing customized intra-oral devices on heart rate variability, rating of perceived exertion, blood lactate accumulation, and salivary cortisol production during a competitive training session. Twelve highly trained elite female athletes (age: 21.0±3.6 years) participated in the study. Fatigue markers were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the 3rd and 5th afternoon TS for that week, once with and once without an intra-oral device, in random order. Salivary cortisol levels were higher in relation to the baseline in the intra-oral device condition (P<0.05) but not in athletes without an intra-oral device. No differences between conditions were found in rating of perceived exertion (P=0.465) and blood lactate (P=0.711). No time or condition interactions or main effects were shown for heart rate variability. Thus, there is no evidence that wearing a low-arch intra-oral device is a good recommendation for high-standard athletes performing long and stressful routines.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Protetores Bucais , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Arcada Osseodentária , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Percepção/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Ventilação Pulmonar , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Sports Sci ; 38(20): 2338-2349, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583724

RESUMO

The objective of this review was to systematically describe the traditional and contemporary data capture and analytic methods employed in performance analysis research in team invasion sports, evaluate the practicality of these methods, and formulate practical recommendations on methods for analysing tactics and strategies in team invasion sports. A systematic search of the databases SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE and PubMed was performed. Keywords addressed performance analysis methods and team invasion sports, with all other disciplines of sports science excluded. A total of 537 articles were included in the review and six main themes of research identified. Themes included game actions, dynamic game actions, movement patterns, collective team behaviours, social network analysis and game styles. Performance analysis research has predominantly focused on identifying key performance indicators related to success by analysing differences in game actions between successful and less successful teams. However, these measures are outcome-focused and only provide limited insight into winning team's strategy. Team invasion sports are now viewed as dynamic, complex systems with opposing teams as interacting parts. Strategies and tactics should be analysed using a holistic process-orientated approach by recording dynamic actions, collective team behaviours and passing networks, and viewing them in game styles.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Coleta de Dados , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Movimento/fisiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234397, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584827

RESUMO

When we perform an action, the outcome that follows it can change the value we place on that behaviour, making it more or less likely to be repeated in the future. However, the values that we learn are not objective: we interpret the outcomes that we receive for ourselves relative to those that share our environment, i.e. we engage in social comparison. The temporal dynamics of physiological responses to stimulus valuation in social learning tasks are poorly understood, particularly in human participants. Therefore, we recorded stimulus-locked event-related potentials with 64-channel EEG to examine stimulus valuation, following the design of a study previously used in macaques. Pairs of participants performed a social learning task in which they received outcomes sequentially for a presented stimulus (partner first) by pressing a button in response to a cue. There were two conditions: one in which stimulus values varied for the participant but output a constant rate of reward for the partner (self-variable blocks), and another condition in which this payout was reversed (other-variable blocks). We then measured participants' self-reported competitiveness. Approximately 200 ms post-stimulus, an ERP related to stimulus evaluation and attentional processing appeared to encode own stimulus value in self-variable blocks. In other-variable blocks the same pattern of activity was reversed, even though the value of the stimulus for the participant did not depend on the stimulus presented. Outcome-locked analyses further showed that attention dedicated to the partner's outcome was greater in more competitive participants. We conclude that subjective stimulus value can be reflected in early stimulus-locked ERP responses and that competitive participants may be more invested in their own performance relative to the other player, hence their increased interest in the outcome of their partner.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Social/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Recompensa
18.
J Sports Sci ; 38(20): 2279-2290, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543282

RESUMO

This investigation examined the effect of prior workload on high-intensity football match performance. Player load variables were recorded using a global positioning system and converted into composite variables: rolling season accumulated load (AL), exponentially weighted moving average acute, chronic and acute:chronic workload ratio (A:C). Match-play high-intensity performance-per-minute: accelerations (ACC), sprints, high-speed running (HSR) and high metabolic load (HMLd) distances; and situational and contextual variables were recorded for all games. Partial least squares modelling, and backward stepwise selection determined the most parsimonious model for each performance variable. Quadratic relationships of small to moderate effect sizes were identified for sprint AL and sprint performance, HSR AL and HSR performance, acute HMLd and HMLd performance, acute sprint load and ACC performance and A:C sprint load and ACC performance. Match performance was typically greatest between the mean and +1SD. High chronic HMLd, and combined acceleration and deceleration (ACC+DEC) load exerted small beneficial effects on HMLd and HSR performance, whereas high acute load exerted trivial to moderate negative effects. High sprint A:C exerted a small beneficial effect on sprint performance and playing position exerted small effects on HSR and HMLd performance. Prior workload has trivial to moderate effects on high-intensity match performance in professional players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Aceleração , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Futebol/psicologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Sports Sci ; 38(18): 2155-2160, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543286

RESUMO

Imitation jumps are frequently used in training for ski jumping. Yet, the dynamics of these jumps differ considerably. Thus, the relevance of imitation jumps for ski jumping performance is not elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the technical execution of imitation jumps and ski jumping performance level. We compared the imitation jumps of 11 ski jumpers of different performance levels using a Spearman correlation transform of time traces of the kinetics (measured using force cells and motion capture) of imitation jumps. The kinetic aspects that were related to performance centred on the moment arm of ground reaction force to the centre of mass before the onset of the push-off, angular momentum early in push-off, thigh angle during the main period of push-off and vertical velocity towards the end of push-off. We propose that the thigh angle may be a key element allowing high development of linear momentum while preparing for appropriate aerodynamic position. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the kinetic development prior to (and during) push-off is more important than the kinematic end state at take-off.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Esqui/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Sports Sci ; 38(19): 2186-2192, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543342

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the occurrence and characteristics of repeated-sprint (RS) activity in elite team sport competition when classified according to speed and/or acceleration, and their interaction via metabolic power (Pmet). Methods: Elite male hockey players (N = 16) wore player-tracking devices in six international matches. Sprint efforts were defined using four separate classifications: speed >5.5 m∙s-1, acceleration >1.5 m∙s-2, speed-or-acceleration, and Pmet >25.5 W∙kg-1. RS bouts were defined as ≥3 efforts with mean recovery ≤21 s. For Pmet, RS bouts were also classified using a maximal recovery period ≤21 s. The number of sprint efforts and RS bouts, and the number of efforts, effort durations and recovery periods within RS bouts, were compared across each classification method, and between mean and maximal recovery criteria. Results: More RS bouts were identified via Pmet (8.5 ± 2.8) than either speed and/or acceleration, and comprised more efforts (4.0 ± 0.4) with shorter recovery periods (11.5 ± 1.8 s). Fewer RS bouts (7.3 ± 2.8 vs. 8.5 ± 2.8) were identified with a maximum rather than mean recovery criterion. Conclusions: Definitions of sprint efforts and recovery periods which reflect ATP depletion and replenishment via Pmet suggest that RS activity occurs frequently in team sport competition, and is more demanding than when speed and/or acceleration are used to define RS activity in variable-speed locomotion.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Hóquei/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Metabolismo Energético , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Hóquei/classificação , Humanos , Masculino , Corrida/classificação , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA