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1.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 221-232, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202546

RESUMO

This study examined the mediator role of use of emotion (UoE) component of the emotional intelligence Scale in the relationship between extraversion (EX) and conscientiousness within the Big Five personality factors, and the dimensions of working excessively (WE) and working compulsively of the Dutch Work Addiction Scale. Along with this aim, da-ta were collected from healthcare staff, most of who were nurses, working at private hospitals serving in Istanbul. The findings indicated that WE had a non-significant direct effect on EX (β = −0.358; p > . 05), while the indirect effect of WE on EX through UoE was significant (β = 0.147; p < .05). This study reveals that UoE acts as a full mediator in the effect of WE on EX


Este estudio examinó el papel mediador del componente de uso de la emoción (UoE), de la Escala de inteligencia emocional, en la relación entre extraversión (EX) y conciencia dentro de los Cinco Grandes factores de personalidad, y las dimensiones de trabajar en exceso (WE) y trabajar compulsivamente de la Escala holandesa de adicción al trabajo. Junto con este objetivo, se recopilaron datos del personal sanitario, en su mayoría enfermeras, que trabajaba en hospitales privados que prestan servicios en Estambul. Los hallazgos indicaron que WE tuvo un efecto directo no significativo sobre EX (β = −0.358; p > .05), mientras que el efecto indirecto de WE sobre EX a través de UoE fue significativo (β = 0.147; p < .05). Este estudio revela que UoE actúa como un mediador completo en el efecto de WE sobre EX


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Personalidade , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Emoções , Modelos Psicológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Classes Latentes , Análise Fatorial , Inteligência Emocional , Testes Psicológicos , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Extroversão Psicológica
2.
J Neurochem ; 157(5): 1525-1546, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931861

RESUMO

Drug compulsion manifests in some but not all individuals and implicates multifaceted processes including failures in top-down cognitive control as drivers for the hazardous pursuit of drug use in some individuals. As a closely related construct, impulsivity encompasses rash or risky behaviour without foresight and underlies most forms of drug taking behaviour, including drug use during adverse emotional states (i.e., negative urgency). While impulsive behavioural dimensions emerge from drug-induced brain plasticity, burgeoning evidence suggests that impulsivity also predates the emergence of compulsive drug use. Although the neural substrates underlying the apparently causal relationship between trait impulsivity and drug compulsion are poorly understood, significant advances have come from the interrogation of defined limbic cortico-striatal circuits involved in motivated behaviour and response inhibition, together with chemical neuromodulatory influences from the ascending neurotransmitter systems. We review what is presently known about the neurochemical mediation of impulsivity, in its various forms, and ask whether commonalities exist in the neurochemistry of compulsive drug-motivated behaviours that might explain individual risk for addiction.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Química Encefálica/fisiologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Neuroquímica , Neurotransmissores/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819541

RESUMO

Novel CoronaVirus Disease (COVID-19) has begun to expand swiftly beyond all borders and turned into a global source of infection for humans in that all media corporations began to repeatedly share breaking news to release the latest data of all countries. The consequence of that has been a heightened level of anxiety among humans and opting for unorthodox consumption behaviors as consumers. In this study the attempt was to analyze human behaviors during the ongoing pandemic process from the perspective of psychology and marketing fields of science. In so doing, interrelation among anxiety, which surfaced because of Covid-19 pandemic, coping style with stress of individuals and compulsive purchase behavior has been explored. Based on these interrelations, a structural model was suggested. Findings of the research indicated that anxiety has high effect on the helpless approach dimension, which is one of the coping styles with stress; and that helpless approach alone has an effect on compulsive buying behavior. Besides, another objective of the study was to evaluate the mediating effect of intolerance of uncertainty between coping style with stress and compulsive buying behavior. That analysis evidenced that intolerance of uncertainty in such an interrelation had a partial mediating effect.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/psicologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Incerteza , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Neurosci ; 41(12): 2780-2794, 2021 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563722

RESUMO

Repetitive behavior is a widely observed neuropsychiatric symptom. Abnormal dopaminergic signaling in the striatum is one of the factors associated with behavioral repetition; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of repetitive behavior remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that the NOX1 isoform of the superoxide-producing enzyme NADPH oxidase regulated repetitive behavior in mice by facilitating excitatory synaptic inputs in the central striatum (CS). In male C57Bl/6J mice, repeated stimulation of D2 receptors induced abnormal behavioral repetition and perseverative behavior. Nox1 deficiency or acute pharmacological inhibition of NOX1 significantly shortened repeated D2 receptor stimulation-induced repetitive behavior without affecting motor responses to a single D2 receptor stimulation. Among brain regions, Nox1 showed enriched expression in the striatum, and repeated dopamine D2 receptor stimulation further increased Nox1 expression levels in the CS, but not in the dorsal striatum. Electrophysiological analyses revealed that repeated D2 receptor stimulation facilitated excitatory inputs in the CS indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (iMSNs), and this effect was suppressed by the genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of NOX1. Nox1 deficiency potentiated protein tyrosine phosphatase activity and attenuated the accumulation of activated Src kinase, which is required for the synaptic potentiation in CS iMSNs. Inhibition of NOX1 or ß-arrestin in the CS was sufficient to ameliorate repetitive behavior. Striatal-specific Nox1 knockdown also ameliorated repetitive and perseverative behavior. Collectively, these results indicate that NOX1 acts as an enhancer of synaptic facilitation in CS iMSNs and plays a key role in the molecular link between abnormal dopamine signaling and behavioral repetition and perseveration.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Behavioral repetition is a form of compulsivity, which is one of the core symptoms of psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder. Perseveration is also a hallmark of such disorders. Both clinical and animal studies suggest important roles of abnormal dopaminergic signaling and striatal hyperactivity in compulsivity; however, the precise molecular link between them remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated the contribution of NOX1 to behavioral repetition induced by repeated stimulation of D2 receptors. Repeated stimulation of D2 receptors upregulated Nox1 mRNA in a striatal subregion-specific manner. The upregulated NOX1 promoted striatal synaptic facilitation in iMSNs by enhancing phosphorylation signaling. These results provide a novel mechanism for D2 receptor-mediated excitatory synaptic facilitation and indicate the therapeutic potential of NOX1 inhibition in compulsivity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Compulsivo/metabolismo , Locomoção/fisiologia , NADPH Oxidase 1/biossíntese , NADPH Oxidases/biossíntese , Receptores de Dopamina D2/biossíntese , Sinapses/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Comportamento Compulsivo/induzido quimicamente , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Agonistas de Dopamina/toxicidade , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , NADPH Oxidase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , NADPH Oxidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirazolonas/farmacologia , Piridonas/farmacologia , Receptores de Dopamina D2/agonistas , Sinapses/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Psicol. conduct ; 29(1): 29-50, 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202205

RESUMO

Los estilos de afrontamiento, los esquemas disfuncionales y la sintomatología psicopatológica podrían resultar factores de vulnerabilidad que incrementan la probabilidad de que una persona desarrolle dependencia emocional hacia la pareja agresora. Delimitar los factores de riesgo es fundamental para su prevención y tratamiento. Consecuentemente, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivos principales analizar la relación entre los factores señalados, así como el papel mediador de los tres primeros en la relación entre la dependencia emocional y la violencia recibida. La muestra estuvo conformada por 657 mujeres procedentes de población clínica y general, con edades que oscilaron entre los 18 y 66 años (M= 23,38; DT= 8,24). Los resultados reflejaron la predominancia del empleo de estilos de afrontamiento inadecuados, tales como pensamiento desiderativo, aislamiento social y autocrítica, síntomas psicopatológicos de depresión, ansiedad, sensibilidad interpersonal, obsesión compulsión e ideación paranoide, así como esquemas de abandono y subyugación. Asimismo, estos factores explicaron una parte de la relación entre la dependencia emocional y la permanencia en relaciones violentas


Coping styles, dysfunctional schemes and psychopathological symptoms could be factors of vulnerability that increase the probability that a person develops emotional dependence on an aggressive partner. Delimiting the risk factors is fundamental for its prevention and treatment. Consequently, the main objectives of the present study were to analyze the relationship between the above-mentioned factors, as well as the mediating role of the first three in the relationship between emotional dependence and received violence. The sample was made up of 657 women from the clinical and general population, with ages ranging from 18 to 66 years of age (M= 23.38, SD= 8.24). The results reflected the predominance of inadequate coping styles, such as desiderative thinking, Estudio financiado anxiety, interpersonal sensibility, obsession-compulsion and paranoid ideation, as well as abandonment and subjugation schemes. These factors also explained part of the relationship between emotional dependence and staying in violent relationships


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Apego ao Objeto , Adaptação Psicológica , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência contra a Mulher , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Emoções , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Comportamento Obsessivo/psicologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia
6.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 70: 101614, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inferential confusion (IC) entails confusing an imagined possibility with a sensory-based possibility, and acting upon the imagined possibility as if it was real. Although IC was formulated in the context of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), this reasoning bias has shown to be relevant to other obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, such as eating disorders (EDs). The goal of this study was to induce IC experimentally in individuals with EDs relative to healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Thirty-six women (ED group, n = 18; HC group, n = 18) were assigned to one of two experimental conditions: in the High IC condition, participants watched ED-themed videos with key sequences missing - provoking a distrust of the senses and lending more space for the imagination, thus triggering IC. In the Low IC condition, participants watched videos without sequences missing. Participants completed measures of IC, negative affect and compulsive behaviors after watching the videos. RESULTS: One-way ANOVA indicated that ED participants assigned to the High IC condition reported a greater urge to engage in compulsive behaviors. ED participants also neutralized more after watching the videos and endorsed higher trait IC. LIMITATIONS: There was no clinical control group. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that individuals with EDs display a greater vulnerability to IC, as they are more prone to compulsive behaviors when IC is triggered. This investigation may foster our understanding of the relationship between EDs and OCD through the examination of cognitive factors that are implicated in both disorders.


Assuntos
Confusão , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Imaginação , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 295: 113638, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333439

RESUMO

Subjects with ADHD suffer from inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Clinicians often assume that specific symptoms of ADHD are bound to affect sexual desire by increasing the frequency of hypersexuality. There is a lack of knowledge about the comorbidity between ADHD, hypersexuality, and paraphilias. The aim of this article was to provide a review of the literature on the association of ADHD and hypersexuality and paraphilias and to discuss the screening and the management of these syndromes when associated with ADHD. A systematic review of the literature was performed in PubMed, PsychInfo, and Embase databases. The studies reviewed show that some individuals who suffer from ADHD report hypersexuality and paraphilias, but no clear data emerged supporting the idea that hypersexuality and paraphilias are more frequent in an ADHD population. On the other hand, some studies showed a high prevalence of ADHD in hypersexual and paraphilic subjects. This is the first systematic review of hypersexuality and paraphilias in individuals with ADHD. However, the results are limited by differences in the methodology and measurement instruments for hypersexuality and paraphilias as well as by the small number of studies and the small sample sizes of many studies.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtornos Parafílicos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Parafílicos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Comorbidade , Comportamento Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Parafílicos/diagnóstico , Prevalência
8.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(12): 3569-3581, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886158

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Checking is a functional behaviour that provides information to guide behaviour. However, in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), checking may escalate to dysfunctional levels. The processes underpinning the transition from functional to dysfunctional checking are unclear but may be associated with individual differences that support the development of maladaptive behaviour. We examined one such predisposition, sign-tracking to a pavlovian conditioned stimulus, which we previously found associated with dysfunctional checking. How sign-tracking interacts with another treatment with emerging translational validity for OCD-like checking, chronic administration of the dopamine D2 receptor agonist quinpirole, is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We tested how functional and dysfunctional checking in the rat observing response task (ORT) was affected by chronic quinpirole administration in non-autoshaped controls and autoshaped animals classified as sign-trackers or goal-trackers. METHODS: Sign-trackers or goal-trackers were trained on the ORT before the effects of chronic quinpirole administration on checking were assessed. Subsequently, the effects on checking of different behavioural challenges, including reward omission and the use of unpredictable reinforcement schedules, were tested. RESULTS: Prior autoshaping increased checking. Sign-trackers and goal-trackers responded differently to quinpirole sensitization, reward omission and reinforcement uncertainty. Sign-trackers showed greater elevations in dysfunctional checking, particularly during uncertainty. By contrast, goal-trackers predominantly increased functional checking responses, possibly in response to reduced discrimination accuracy in the absence of cues signalling which lever was currently active. CONCLUSIONS: The results are discussed in terms of how pavlovian associations influence behaviour that becomes compulsive in OCD and how this may be dependent on striatal dopamine D2 receptors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Objetivos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Quimpirol/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Compulsivo/metabolismo , Condicionamento Clássico/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Operante , Sinais (Psicologia) , Dopamina/metabolismo , Masculino , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/metabolismo , Ratos , Esquema de Reforço , Reforço Psicológico , Recompensa
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113455, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980714

RESUMO

This study examines the impact of COVID-19 (in the early phase of the outbreak) on symptoms of psychosis, namely paranoia and hallucinations. Three hundred and sixty-one people in the United Kingdom participated in a 2 (self-isolation vs. no self-isolation) x 2 (perceived COVID-19 symptomatology vs. no perceived COVID-19 symptomatology) x 2 (exposure to COVID-19 news vs. control) experiment online. Participants completed measures of political trust, social network, fear of COVID-19, current paranoid thoughts, hallucinatory experiences and compulsive buying. Kruskal-Wallis results showed that employed people and students are more prone to paranoia and hallucinatory experiences in response to COVID-19 news. A multigroup model showed a moderation effect of the news conditions - in the COVID-19 news condition, fear of COVID-19 and political trust significantly predict the variance of paranoia, hallucinatory experiences and compulsive buying and these co-vary with each other but not in the control condition. In line with cognitive and social theories of paranoia, results suggest that negative affect and low political trust are linked to the presence of paranoid thoughts and hallucinatory experiences and compulsive buying amid COVID-19. Digitized and Tailored Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy are proposed to address the psychiatric impact of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Surtos de Doenças , Alucinações/psicologia , Transtornos Paranoides/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19 , Comportamento Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Alucinações/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Paranoides/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(41): 25911-25922, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989168

RESUMO

A characteristic of adaptive behavior is its goal-directed nature. An ability to act in a goal-directed manner is progressively refined during development, but this refinement can be impacted by the emergence of psychiatric disorders. Disorders of compulsivity have been framed computationally as a deficit in model-based control, and have been linked also to abnormal frontostriatal connectivity. However, the developmental trajectory of model-based control, including an interplay between its maturation and an emergence of compulsivity, has not been characterized. Availing of a large sample of healthy adolescents (n = 569) aged 14 to 24 y, we show behaviorally that over the course of adolescence there is a within-person increase in model-based control, and this is more pronounced in younger participants. Using a bivariate latent change score model, we provide evidence that the presence of higher compulsivity traits is associated with an atypical profile of this developmental maturation in model-based control. Resting-state fMRI data from a subset of the behaviorally assessed subjects (n = 230) revealed that compulsivity is associated with a less pronounced change of within-subject developmental remodeling of functional connectivity, specifically between the striatum and a frontoparietal network. Thus, in an otherwise clinically healthy population sample, in early development, individual differences in compulsivity are linked to the developmental trajectory of model-based control and a remodeling of frontostriatal connectivity.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Compulsivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(12): 3759-3771, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875348

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Compulsive cocaine use, defined as the continued use despite the dire consequences, is a hallmark of cocaine addiction. Thus, understanding the brain mechanism regulating the compulsive cocaine-seeking and cocaine-taking behaviors is essential to understand cocaine addiction and the key to identification of the molecular targets for the development of medications against this condition. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine how the GABAa and GABAb receptors of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) regulate the compulsive cocaine-seeking behavior. METHODS: Male Wistar outbred rats were trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/infusion) under a chained schedule. The compulsive cocaine-seeking behavior was measured as the cocaine-seeking behavior in the face of footshock punishment. The role of the GABA receptors of CeA in the regulation of such behavior was determined by measuring the dose-dependent effects of the GABAa agonist muscimol or the GABAb agonist baclofen bilaterally microinjected into the CeA on the punished cocaine-seeking behavior. RESULTS: The cocaine-seeking behavior was inhibited by footshock punishment in an intensity-dependent manner. Both muscimol and baclofen dose-dependently increased the punished cocaine-seeking behavior. However, the potency of muscimol but not baclofen was negatively correlated with the effects of punishment. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that the CeA GABAa receptors play a key role in the regulation of the compulsive cocaine-seeking behavior and suggest that an increase in the function of the GABAa receptors possibly induced by cocaine or genetic factors may be an important mechanism involved in the development of or vulnerability to the compulsive cocaine use and addiction.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Núcleo Central da Amígdala/fisiologia , Cocaína/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Receptores de GABA-A/fisiologia , Receptores de GABA-B/fisiologia , Animais , Baclofeno/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Aditivo/tratamento farmacológico , Núcleo Central da Amígdala/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/psicologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Agonistas de Receptores de GABA-A/administração & dosagem , Agonistas dos Receptores de GABA-B/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Microinjeções , Muscimol/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Autoadministração
13.
Psico USF ; 25(3): 547-559, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1135734

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the construct validity, internal consistency and psychometric indicators of the reduced version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ-short). The CERQ-short was adapted and translated to Portuguese prior to its administration to 254 adults, mainly from the state of Paraíba, Brazil. The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS) and a sociodemographic questionnaire were also applied. The original CERQ-short nine-factor structure was preserved. The convergent and discriminant validity, the reliability and the psychometric adequacy concerning item difficulty and item discrimination were also confirmed. The results support the use of this scale for rapid screening and research. (AU)


O presente estudo teve como objetivo buscar evidências de validade de construto, de consistência interna e indicadores psicométricos dos itens da versão adaptada para o português do Questionário Cognitivo de Regulação Emocional versão reduzida (CERQ-short). Após tradução e adaptação, foi aplicado o CERQ-Short, as escalas de dificuldade em regulação emocional (DERS) e de Compras Compulsivas (CBS), além de um questionário demográfico em uma amostra de 254 adultos, maioria de paraibanos. Verificou-se que a estrutura original de nove fatores do CERQ-Short foi mantida, também foram confirmadas as validades convergente e discriminante, a fidedignidade e a adequação psicométrica dos itens no que se refere à dificuldade e à discriminação dos itens. A escala apresentou evidência para a utilização em rastreio rápido e pesquisas. (AU)


El presente artículo tuvo como objetivo la búsqueda de evidencias de la validez del construto e indicadores psicométricos de los ítems, de una versión adaptada para el portugués, del Cuestionario Cognitivo de Regulación Emocional, versión reducida (CERQ-short). Inicialmente, fue realizada la traducción y adaptación semántica; posteriormente, fue aplicado el cuestionario CERQ-Short a las escalas de dificultad en regulación emocional (DERS) y de las Compras Compulsivas (CBS), además de un cuestionario demográfico en una muestra de 254 adultos, la mayoría de los paraibanos. Se verificó que la estructura original de nueve factores del CERQ-Short fue mantenida, así como las evidencias de validez del construto, fiabilidad y adecuación psicométrica de los ítems. La escala presentó evidencias para la utilización en rastreo rápido y pesquisas. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Regulação Emocional , Tradução , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Fatorial
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113354, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781364

RESUMO

This study aimed to systematically appraise cross-sectional research that compared the cognitive performance of individuals in the acute phase of BN and/or AN to HCs on measures of impulsivity and compulsivity. The results of the systematic review showed support for the trans-diagnostic approach to eating disorders. There was no strong evidence to support the characterisation of AN as high in compulsivity (and low in impulsivity), nor to support the characterisation of BN as high in impulsivity (and low in compulsivity). There appeared to be mixed findings for both impulsivity and compulsivity across AN and BN. Results were highly variable due to the heterogeneous tasks used, and lack of replication across studies. There was no consensus amongst the included studies on the most appropriate task and/or outcome measures that should be used to study the constructs of impulsivity and compulsivity.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Bulimia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Bulimia Nervosa/terapia , Comportamento Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237093, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between buying-shopping disorder (BSD) propensity and the performance in the Stroop Matching Task. This task measures stimulus interference, one specific component of behavioral impulsivity, using neutral (i.e. not buying related) stimuli. Deficits thus mirror a general rather than a specific deficit to resist task-irrelevant stimuli. METHOD: 222 participants completed the Stroop Matching Task, the Pathological Buying Screener, and various questionnaires assessing clinical background variables as well as trait-impulsivity. RESULTS: Correlation analyses showed that BSD propensity was associated with poorer performance in the Stroop Matching Task. Multiple regression analyses controlling for related disorders and trait-impulsivity indicated that BSD was the only significant predictor. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that BSD propensity is associated with deficits in the stimulus interference component of behavioral impulsivity, mirroring a general cognitive deficit. Since no other disorder significantly predicted the performance in the Stroop Matching Task, this deficit seems to be unique for BSD.


Assuntos
Cognição , Comércio , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Stroop
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 291: 113213, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535508

RESUMO

The containment measures implemented to reduce the progression of the COVID-19 pandemic can increase the risk of serious mental disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The general fear of getting infected and the importance given to personal hygiene, may have a negative impact on this clinical population. In a group of patients with OCD who had completed an evidence-based therapeutic path for OCD before the quarantine, this study evaluated the changes on OCD symptoms during the quarantine and investigated the effects of contamination symptoms and remission state before the quarantine on OCD symptom worsening during the quarantine. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive (Y-BOCS) Severity score, administered before the quarantine, was re-administered after six weeks since the beginning of the complete lockdown. A significant increase in obsession and compulsion severity emerged. Remission status on OCD symptoms and having contamination symptoms before the quarantine were significantly associated with more elevated OCD symptom worsening during the quarantine. To our knowledge, this is the first study which assessed OCD symptoms at the COVID-19 time. Our results support the need to improve relapse prevention during the period of social restrictions and develop alternative strategies such as online consultations and digital psychiatric management.


Assuntos
Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , SARS-CoV-2 , Prevenção Secundária , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
17.
Compr Psychiatry ; 100: 152179, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Object attachment is a core feature of hoarding disorder (HD), but it also occurs in people without HD. It is therefore critical to clarify differences between normal and abnormal object attachment. Although previous studies show that HD is associated with high emotional reactivity, no study to date has examined the nature and intensity of discrete emotions in people with and without HD in relation to object attachment. METHOD: Individuals with HD (n = 93) and matched controls (n = 93) were recruited via MTurk. They identified and described a possession of low monetary value that they were emotionally attached to and found difficult to discard. Participants rated their object attachment and the intensity of emotions when imagining being with the object (Scenario A) and irretrievably losing the same object (Scenario B). RESULTS: Unexpectedly, there were no significant between-group differences on object attachment; however, the HD group experienced more incongruent emotions about their possessions; they reported significantly higher disgust, anxiety and anger than controls when they imagined being with their chosen object (Scenario A) and were more relaxed compared to controls when the object was lost (Scenario B). There were no significant differences between groups on congruent emotions (i.e., positive emotions in Scenario A or negative emotions in Scenario B). CONCLUSION: People with and without HD experience similar emotional attachment for sentimental items but people with HD experience more mixed emotions, consistent with an insecure object attachment.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Transtorno de Acumulação/diagnóstico , Transtorno de Acumulação/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Comportamento Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Colecionismo/psicologia , Transtorno de Acumulação/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propriedade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nat Rev Neurosci ; 21(5): 247-263, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231315

RESUMO

Compulsion is a cardinal symptom of drug addiction (severe substance use disorder). However, compulsion is observed in only a small proportion of individuals who repeatedly seek and use addictive substances. Here, we integrate accounts of the neuropharmacological mechanisms that underlie the transition to compulsion with overarching learning theories, to outline how compulsion develops in addiction. Importantly, we emphasize the conceptual distinctions between compulsive drug-seeking behaviour and compulsive drug-taking behaviour (that is, use). In the latter, an individual cannot stop using a drug despite major negative consequences, possibly reflecting an imbalance in frontostriatal circuits that encode reward and aversion. By contrast, an individual may compulsively seek drugs (that is, persist in seeking drugs despite the negative consequences of doing so) when the neural systems that underlie habitual behaviour dominate goal-directed behavioural systems, and when executive control over this maladaptive behaviour is diminished. This distinction between different aspects of addiction may help to identify its neural substrates and new treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Animais , Comportamento de Procura de Droga , Humanos , Vias Neurais , Reforço Psicológico
19.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(7): 1973-1987, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313981

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by repetitive behaviors exacerbated by stress. Many OCD patients do not respond to available pharmacotherapies, but neurosurgical ablation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) can provide symptomatic relief. Although the ACC receives noradrenergic innervation and expresses adrenergic receptors (ARs), the involvement of norepinephrine (NE) in OCD has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of genetic or pharmacological disruption of NE neurotransmission on marble burying (MB) and nestlet shredding (NS), two animal models of OCD. METHODS: We assessed NE-deficient (Dbh -/-) mice and NE-competent (Dbh +/-) controls in MB and NS tasks. We also measured the effects of anti-adrenergic drugs on NS and MB in control mice and the effects of pharmacological restoration of central NE in Dbh -/- mice. Finally, we compared c-fos induction in the locus coeruleus (LC) and ACC of Dbh -/- and control mice following both tasks. RESULTS: Dbh -/- mice virtually lacked MB and NS behaviors seen in control mice but did not differ in the elevated zero maze (EZM) model of general anxiety-like behavior. Pharmacological restoration of central NE synthesis in Dbh -/- mice completely rescued NS behavior, while NS and MB were suppressed in control mice by anti-adrenergic drugs. Expression of c-fos in the ACC was attenuated in Dbh -/- mice after MB and NS. CONCLUSION: These findings support a role for NE transmission to the ACC in the expression of stress-induced compulsive behaviors and suggest further evaluation of anti-adrenergic drugs for OCD is warranted.


Assuntos
Comportamento Compulsivo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/uso terapêutico , Animais , Comportamento Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Norepinefrina/antagonistas & inibidores , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos/metabolismo , Roedores , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2962, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139728

RESUMO

Behaviour problems and anxieties in dogs decrease their quality of life and may lead to relinquishment or euthanasia. Considering the large number of pet dogs and the commonness of these problematic behaviours, a better understanding of the epidemiology and related molecular and environmental factors is needed. We have here studied the prevalence, comorbidity, and breed specificity of seven canine anxiety-like traits: noise sensitivity, fearfulness, fear of surfaces and heights, inattention/impulsivity, compulsion, separation related behaviour and aggression with an online behaviour questionnaire answered by dog owners. Our results show that noise sensitivity is the most common anxiety-related trait with a prevalence of 32% in 13,700 Finnish pet dogs. Due to the high prevalence of noise sensitivity and fear, they were the most common comorbidities. However, when comparing the relative risk, the largest risk ratios were seen between hyperactivity/inattention, separation related behaviour and compulsion, and between fear and aggression. Furthermore, dog breeds showed large differences in prevalence of all anxiety-related traits, suggesting a strong genetic contribution. As a result, selective breeding focusing on behaviour may reduce the prevalence of canine anxieties. Anxious animals may suffer from chronic stress and thus, modified breeding policies could improve the welfare of our companion dogs.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Animais , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Comorbidade , Comportamento Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Cão/psicologia , Cães , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Vínculo Humano-Animal , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Especificidade da Espécie , Inquéritos e Questionários
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