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1.
RECIIS (Online) ; 18(2)abr.-jun. 2024.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1561671

RESUMO

Este artigo, por meio de aproximação genealógica, buscou investigar o que chamaremos de pistas genealó-gicas do equipamento Consultório na Rua em município de médio porte no Sul do Brasil. Para o percurso da pesquisa, junto a uma vivência em um Consultório na Rua, nesse município do país, foram realizados entrevistas e levantamentos de documentos. Na investigação foi possível encontrar pistas que apontam para uma produção de criminalização e assimilação histórica dos viventes da rua pelo Estado brasileiro, de maneira que esses pontos precisam ser discutidos e problematizados para que tais regimes de verdade não sejam norteadores das políticas públicas para tais pessoas.


This article, employing a genealogical approach, aimed to examine the genealogical traces of the Street Clinic equipment in a medium-sized city in Brazil's southern region. In order to follow the path of the research, along with an experience in a Street Clinic in a Brazilian city, interviews and document surveys were conducted. In the investigation, it was possible to find elements of the production of criminalization and historical assimilation by the Brazilian State that need to be discussed and problematized so that such regimes of truth are not guiding the production of health care for people experiencing homelessness.


Este artículo, a través de un abordaje genealógico, buscó investigar pistas genealógicas del Consultorio en la Calle en una ciudad de tamaño medio en el sur de Brasil. Para el transcurso de la investigación, junto con una experiencia en un Consultorio en la Calle en un municipio de tamaño medio en el sur de Brasil, se efectuaron entrevistas y encuestas documentales. En la investigación, fue posible encontrar pistas que apuntan a una producción de criminalización y asimilación histórica de las personas en situación de calle por parte del Estado brasileño, por lo que estos puntos necesitan ser discutidos y problematizados para que tales regímenes de verdad no guíen políticas públicas para dicha población.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Apoio Social , Pessoas Mal Alojadas , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Política de Saúde , Classe Social , Sistema Único de Saúde , Colaboração Intersetorial , Comportamento Criminoso , Aculturação
2.
BMC Psychol ; 12(1): 257, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationships between childhood maltreatment, shame, and self-esteem among juvenile female offenders and to explore the potential influencing factors on their criminal behavior. METHODS: Using a stratified cluster sampling method, 1,227 juvenile female offenders from 11 provinces in China were surveyed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and a self-developed Shame Questionnaire for Juvenile Offenders. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, chi-square tests, t-tests, and structural equation modeling with mediation analysis. RESULTS: (1) Childhood maltreatment have a significant potential influencing factors on criminal behavior; (2) Childhood maltreatment was positively correlated with self-esteem(ß = 0.351, p < 0.001); (3) shame (ß = 0.042, p < 0.001) mediate the relationship between Childhood maltreatment and self-esteem (childhood maltreatment → shame → self-esteem (95% Cl: 0.033, 0.052)). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that childhood maltreatment is a significant predictor of criminal behavior among juvenile female offenders. childhood maltreatment can directly influence of self-esteem, which can also affect juvenile female offenders'self-esteem indirectly through shame. The findings suggest that shame are important variables that mediate the effect of the juvenile female offenders'childhood maltreatment on their self-esteem.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Comportamento Criminoso , Criminosos , Autoimagem , Vergonha , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/psicologia , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Inquéritos e Questionários , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança
4.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(9): 1293-1302, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627907

RESUMO

Background: Prior research has discovered an association between vaping activities and increased delinquent behaviors. However, this relationship has been exclusively studied among adolescents and has not been examined among an adult sample. Methods: The current study uses a nationally representative sample of approximately 45,000 adults from the 2021 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Logistic regression and negative binomial regression are employed to assess the association between three types of vaping (marijuana, nicotine, flavor) and five crime measures (arrest, sold drugs, stole >$50, attack, crime index), net of covariates. A vaping index is also examined to determine whether the number of substances vaped is related to criminal outcomes. Results: Results indicate that past year and past month marijuana and nicotine vaping are associated with higher odds of almost all crime measures, but flavor vaping was not significantly associated with the crime outcomes. Additionally, the vaping index suggests that the number of substances vaped is associated with the likelihood of engaging in certain crimes. Conclusions: The findings of the current study indicate the need for more awareness of the negative social consequences associated with vaping, particularly marijuana vaping. Additionally, the crime patterns among adults in this study are different from previous studies using adolescent samples. Specifically, flavor vaping is not associated with criminal behavior among the adult only sample. Thus, vaping studies that use adolescent samples may not generalize to adults.


Assuntos
Comportamento Criminoso , Vaping , Humanos , Vaping/epidemiologia , Vaping/psicologia , Masculino , Adulto , Feminino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Nicotina
5.
Behav Sci Law ; 42(3): 221-240, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502681

RESUMO

We examined the interrelationships between psychopathy, changes in general criminal attitudes, and community recidivism in a sample of 212 men who attended an institutional sexual offense treatment program (SOTP) and were followed for an average of 12.73 years post-release. The men completed a self-report measure of general criminal attitudes, the Criminal Sentiments Scale, as part of routine SOTP service delivery, Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) ratings were completed via file review, and recidivism data were obtained from official criminal records. Criminal attitude endorsement and criminal attitude change had clinically meaningful, but differential, associations with the antisocial and interpersonal features of psychopathy. Further, positive changes in criminal attitudes-particularly tolerance of law violations (i.e., rationalizations for criminal behavior)-were significantly predictive of reductions in community violent and general recidivism after controlling for PCL-R score. Results demonstrate that general criminal attitude change has risk relevance in the treatment of high psychopathy persons with sexual offense histories.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Atitude , Criminosos , Reincidência , Delitos Sexuais , Humanos , Masculino , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Criminosos/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Criminoso
6.
Behav Sci Law ; 42(3): 176-185, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450830

RESUMO

Behaviors that would otherwise be considered criminal acts, but occur in the context of a sleep disorder, pose challenges to the traditional application of legal principles of criminal responsibility. Determining the degree to which consciousness is present during such behaviors becomes a necessary step in assigning criminal culpability. Historically, legal defense theories of unconsciousness, automatism, and insanity have been raised to negate culpability for parasomnia related behaviors. Accordingly, proper assessment of sleep disorders in the context of criminal charges becomes critical in assisting the functions of the justice system. This article reviews principles related to the legal tradition, expert assessment, and elements of expert testimony related to criminal behaviors and sleep disorders.


Assuntos
Comportamento Criminoso , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Humanos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Prova Pericial , Direito Penal , Crime/psicologia , Defesa por Insanidade , Criminosos/psicologia
7.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 93: 101971, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38422564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and criminal behaviour is a central issue in forensic psychiatry. People with mental illness face some of the same types of criminogenic factors as people without mental illness, albeit more frequently. The research question of this study is the extent to which a framework of early and late offender typology can be empirically reconstructed in a forensic psychiatric population, and whether there are any practical implications. METHOD: For N = 733 patients in six different forensic hospitals in Germany, the age at first psychiatric admission and the age at first registered offence were documented, as well as a number of other patient-related characteristics. Two clustering procedures were used to investigate whether forensic psychiatric patients could be classified according to these characteristics. RESULTS: A k-means cluster analysis using age at first psychiatric admission, age at first recorded offence, sociodemographic, clinical and criminological characteristics supported a 4-cluster solution. MANOVA analyses revealed further differences between the identified types. CONCLUSION: This study empirically confirms some of the sub-groups of the early and late starter typology described in the literature. In particular, the "early starters", "late starters" and "first presenters" were identified, but cluster four comprises individuals not previously described in the scientific literature. Each of these classes has group-specific characteristics that may have implications for forensic treatment, post-release aftercare, and the legal system.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Mentais , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Psiquiatria Legal/métodos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Criminosos/psicologia , Pacientes , Alemanha
8.
Eur J Neurol ; 31(4): e16197, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38189625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite it being an immunotherapy-responsive neurological syndrome, patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE) frequently exhibit residual neurobehavioural features. Here, we report criminal behaviours as a serious and novel postencephalitic association. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 301 AE patients. Five of who committed crimes underwent direct assessments and records review alongside autoantibody studies. RESULTS: Five of 301 patients (1.7%) with AE exhibited criminal behaviours, which included viewing child pornography (n = 3), repeated shoplifting, and conspiracy to commit murder. All five were adult males, with LGI1 autoantibodies (n = 3), CASPR2 autoantibodies, or seronegative AE. None had evidence of premorbid antisocial personality traits or psychiatric disorders. Criminal behaviours began a median of 18 months (range = 15 months-12 years) after encephalitis onset. At the time of crimes, two patients were immunotherapy-naïve, three had been administered late immunotherapies (at 5 weeks-4 months), many neurobehavioural features persisted, and new obsessive behaviours had appeared. However, cognition, seizure, and disability measures had improved, alongside reduced autoantibody levels. CONCLUSIONS: Criminal behaviours are a rare, novel, and stigmatizing residual neurobehavioural phenotype in AE, with significant social and legal implications. With caution towards overattribution, we suggest they occur as part of a postencephalitis limbic neurobehavioural syndrome.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso , Encefalite , Doença de Hashimoto , Encefalite Límbica , Adulto , Masculino , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autoanticorpos , Comportamento Criminoso
9.
Am J Health Promot ; 38(5): 641-647, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233344

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined if civic engagement during emerging adulthood positively impacted a broad array of outcomes in middle adulthood, and if associations varied based on race, gender, age, and urban-rural status. DESIGN: Prospective design used to determine if civic engagement during emerging adulthood (M age = 21.81) predicted outcomes 15 years later. SETTING: Restricted data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. SUBJECTS: Wave 1 participants who completed surveys 7 years (77% follow-up rate), 14 years (80% follow-up rate), and 22 years later (follow-up rate 72%) and who had valid sampling weight to ensure national representativeness (n = 9349). MEASURES: Predictor - civic engagement; Outcomes-mental health, substance use, criminal behaviors, and healthy behavior. ANALYSIS: Linear regression using MPLUS 7.2. RESULTS: Civic engagement predicted lower levels of depressive symptoms (b = -1.05, SE = .28), criminal behaviors (b = -.47, SE = .12), and substance use (b = -.66, SE = .13), and higher levels of healthy behaviors (b = 1.26, SE = .19), after controlling for demographics, family, peer, neighborhood, and school-related background variables. Moderation analyses revealed that civic engagement benefited females and white participants more. CONCLUSION: Civic engagement during emerging adulthood has a positive impact on a broad array of outcomes in middle adulthood. Implications and future research recommendations will be discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Estudos Longitudinais , Adulto , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Criminoso , Estados Unidos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Etários
10.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 63(4): 401-403, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37657497

RESUMO

Pioneering longitudinal studies of boys with hyperactivity by Satterfield et al.1 indicated that one of the most deleterious outcomes associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is later antisocial behaviors. This risk grows when ADHD is accompanied by severe behavior problems.2 Though most children with ADHD will not go on to engage in criminal behavior, dimensional measures of externalizing behavior problems as well as categorical diagnoses of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder have strong associations with ADHD. Moreover, cross-sectional studies of incarcerated adults indicate that 20% to 30% meet diagnostic criteria for ADHD.3 These associations between childhood ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder and later criminal behavior beg the question of whether treatment of ADHD can reduce the severity of, or in some cases prevent, criminal behavior.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno da Conduta , Masculino , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno da Conduta/epidemiologia , Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Central , Comportamento Criminoso
11.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 63(4): 433-442, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37385582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Criminality rates are higher among persons with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and evidence that medication reduces crime is limited. Medication rates between clinics vary widely even within universal health care systems, partly because of providers' treatment preferences. We used this variation to estimate causal effects of pharmacological treatment of ADHD on 4-year criminal outcomes. METHOD: We used Norwegian population-level registry data to identify all unique patients aged 10 to 18 years diagnosed with ADHD between 2009 and 2011 (n = 5,624), their use of ADHD medication, and subsequent criminal charges. An instrumental variable design, exploiting variation in provider preference for ADHD medication between clinics, was used to identify causal effects of ADHD medication on crime among patients on the margin of treatment, that is, patients who receive treatment because of their provider's preference. RESULTS: Criminality was higher in patients with ADHD relative to the general population. Medication preference varied between clinics and strongly affected patients' treatment. Instrumental variable analyses supported a protective effect of pharmacological treatment on violence-related and public-order-related charges with numbers needed to treat of 14 and 8, respectively. There was no evidence for effects on drug-, traffic-, sexual-, or property-related charges. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to demonstrate causal effects of pharmacological treatment of ADHD on some types of crimes in a population-based natural experiment. Pharmacological treatment of ADHD reduced crime related to impulsive-reactive behavior in patients with ADHD on the margin of treatment. No effects were found on crimes requiring criminal intent, conspiracy, and planning. STUDY PREREGISTRATION INFORMATION: The ADHD controversy project: Long-term effects of ADHD medication; https://www.isrctn.com/; 11891971.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Criminosos , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Crime , Violência
12.
Am J Community Psychol ; 73(1-2): 280-293, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37846126

RESUMO

This study examines how the re-entry process is related to structural barriers in the community and to motives for engaging in illegal behavior-two key risk factors for recidivism. We analyzed survey data collected on perceptions of community re-entry, employment opportunities, neighborhood violence, and illegal behavior motives from 379 formerly incarcerated and street-identified Black-American community members residing in Wilmington, Delaware (Mage = 32.3/8.9 years old; 77.0% men; 100% Black) by employing Street Participatory Action Research (Street PAR) methodology. We found that negative perceptions of re-entry correlated positively with (i) hardship caused by structural barriers in the community, specifically blocked employment opportunities and neighborhood violence, and (ii) motives for engaging in illegal behavior. Notably, the link between negative perceptions of re-entry and motives for illegal behavior became significantly weaker when the influence of structural barriers on these individual-level factors was included in a multivariate model. Results suggest negative views of the re-entry process reflect the resource-scarce and stressful environments people are living in, and structural barriers can account for the relationship between negative re-entry experiences and why individuals are motivated to engage in illegal behavior. Findings underscore the importance of improving the economic conditions of communities with high numbers of returning citizens.


Assuntos
Negro ou Afro-Americano , Violência , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Emprego , Características de Residência , Comportamento Criminoso
13.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(1): 119-125, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37807726

RESUMO

Background: Medical marijuana legalization (MML) has been widely implemented in the past decade. However, the debates regarding the consequences of MML persist, especially criminal behaviors. Objectives: We examined the association between MML and criminal behaviors among adults in the United States. The criminal behaviors measured three past-year offenses: whether the adult (1) have sold illegal drugs, (2) have stolen anything worth > $50 USD, or (3) have attacked someone. Methods: Using the 2015-2020 National Survey of Drug Use and Health, we included 214,505 adults in our primary analysis for 2015-2019 and 27,170 adults in 2020 for supplemental analysis (age > = 18). Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association between MML and three criminal behaviors. Results: In our primary analysis, we observed no statistically significant association between MML and the three outcomes of criminal behavior. Nevertheless, our supplemental analysis of the 2020 data showed MML was associated with increasing odds of the three criminal behaviors (have sold illegal drugs: AOR [adjusted odds ratio] = 1.7; have stolen anything worth > $50 USD: AOR = 1.9; have attacked someone: AOR = 1.8; all p < 0.05). Conclusion: Surveys from 2015 to 2019 did not suggest MML as a risk factor for higher incidence of criminal behaviors. However, 2020 data showed statistically significant association between MML and selected criminal behaviors. Issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic, such as the U.S. economic downturn, could potentially explain this discrepancy. Further research efforts may be warranted.


Assuntos
Drogas Ilícitas , Fumar Maconha , Maconha Medicinal , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Legislação de Medicamentos , Comportamento Criminoso , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 17160, 2023 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37821491

RESUMO

We use a comprehensive longitudinal dataset on criminal acts over 6 years in a European country to study specialization in criminal careers. We present a method to cluster crime categories by their relative co-occurrence within criminal careers, deriving a natural, data-based taxonomy of criminal specialization. Defining specialists as active criminals who stay within one category of offending behavior, we study their socio-demographic attributes, geographic range, and positions in their collaboration networks relative to their generalist counterparts. Compared to generalists, specialists tend to be older, are more likely to be women, operate within a smaller geographic range, and collaborate in smaller, more tightly-knit local networks. We observe that specialists are more intensely embedded in criminal networks, suggesting a potential source of self-reinforcing dynamics in criminal careers.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Crime , Comportamento Criminoso , Especialização , Europa (Continente)
15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(10)2023 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37893443

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: This study aimed to examine the function of various inflammation parameters and their interactions in the pathology of Bipolar disorder (BD) and to assess whether they could be biomarkers in the relationship between criminal behavior and BD. Materials and Methods: Overall, 1029 participants, including 343 patients with BD who have committed offenses, 343 nonoffending patients with BD, and 343 healthy controls, were included in this retrospective study. Neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelet counts; high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c) levels; systemic immune-inflammatory index (SII), systemic inflammatory response index (SIRI), neutrophil to high-density lipoprotein ratio (NHR), lymphocyte to high-density lipoprotein ratio (LHR), monocyte to high-density lipoprotein ratio (MHR), platelet to high-density lipoprotein ratio (PHR) were measured. Results: Significant differences were observed between the groups in terms of SII, SIRI, NHR, LHR, MHR, PHR, neutrophil, and monocyte values (p < 0.001). The lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the patients with BD who committed offenses (p = 0.04). The platelet counts were significantly lower in the patients with BD who committed offenses compared to nonoffending patients with BD (p = 0.015). The HDL-c levels were significantly lower in the patients with BD who have committed offenses than those of nonoffending patients with BD (p < 0.001). Bipolar disorder, not receiving active psychiatric treatment, having a diagnosis of bipolar manic episodes, and having low platelet and HDL values constitute a risk of involvement in crime. Conclusions: The present study emphasizes the role of systemic inflammation in the pathophysiology of patients with BD with and without criminal offenses and the relationship between inflammation and criminal behavior.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inflamação/patologia , Neutrófilos , Comportamento Criminoso , Lipoproteínas HDL
16.
Psicol. rev ; 32(1): 213-237, 17/10/2023.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1518348

RESUMO

Na pesquisa em questão, relaciona-se a violência de Estado com a criminalidade na vida dos adolescentes da periferia autores de atos infracionais, partindo do viés da Psicologia Social. Abordando a historicidade das violências estruturais no Brasil, enquanto configuração de um Estado democrático de exceção permanente - pela implementação de um projeto necropolítico -, o trabalho baseou-se em quatro eixos teóricos principais: a violência de Estado, a necropolítica, o racismo estrutural e os adolescentes autores de atos infracionais. Para pensar os efeitos psicossociais da segregação, da violência, do racismo e da criminalização da pobreza na construção da subjetividade dos adolescentes autores de atos infracionais, o trabalho teve como método a análise do livro "Memórias de um Sobrevivente", de Luiz Alberto Mendes. As discussões abrangem o crime enquanto status e visibilidade; as análises de uma vida imersa em violência generalizada; e as torturas policiais em relação com a violência por vingança. Conclui-se que os estigmas aprisionam o sujeito em crenças de que ele só tem capacidade de ser o "marginal esperado", quem reage violentamente como efeito psicossocial de uma violência estrutural que produz sujeitos agressivos. Assim, a criação de novas práticas de atuação em psicologia nas situações sociais críticas se faz imprescindível e urgente. (AU)


In the research at hand, we explore the relationship between State violence and criminality in the lives of adolescents residing in marginalized commu-nities who have committed delinquent acts, from the perspective of Social Psychology. Addressing the historical context of structural violence in Brazil as a manifestation of a democratic state of permanent exception - through the implementation of a necropolitical agenda - this study is founded on four primary theoretical pillars: State violence, necropolitics, structural racism, and adolescent offenders. To contemplate the psychosocial repercussions of segregation, violence, racism, and the criminalization of poverty in the formation of the subjectivity of adolescent delinquents, this work employs the analysis of the book "Memórias de um Sobrevivente" by Luiz Alberto Mendes as its methodology. Discussions encompass the concept of crime as a social status and its visibility; analyses of a life deeply entrenched in pervasive violence; and police brutality within the context of retaliatory violence. Our conclusion asserts that the societal stigmas ensnare these adolescents, confining them to the belief that they are destined to be the "expected delinquent," predisposed to react violently as a psychosocial response to the structural violence that fosters aggressive behaviors. Consequently, the development of novel psychological interventions in critical social contexts is both imperative and urgent. (AU)


En la investigación en cuestión, la violencia estatal está relacionada con la criminalidad en la vida de los adolescentes de la periferia que cometieron delitos, por la perspectiva de la Psicología Social. Abordando la historicidad de la violencia estructural, en Brasil, como una configuración de un estado democrático de excepción permanente - a través de la implementación de un proyecto necropolítico. El trabajo se basó en cuatro ejes teóricos: la violencia de Estado, necropolítica, racismo estructural y adolescentes autores de actos infraccionales. Para reflexionar sobre los efectos psicosociales de la segregación, violencia, racismo y criminalización de la pobreza en la construcción de la subjetividad de los adolescentes en conflicto con la ley, fue utilizado el análisis del libro "Memórias de um Sobrevivente", de Luiz Alberto Mendes. Los debates abarcan el crimen como estatus y visibilidad; análisis de una vida inmersa en la violencia generalizada; y tortura policial en relación con la violencia por venganza. Se concluye que los estigmas aprisionan al sujeto en creencias de que solo tiene la capacidad de ser el "marginal esperado", que reacciona violentamente como efecto psicosocial de una violencia estructural que produce sujetos agresivos. Así, la creación de nuevas prácticas en psicología en situaciones sociales críticas es fundamental y urgente. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Violência , Áreas de Pobreza , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Psicologia Social , Populações Vulneráveis , Narrativas Pessoais como Assunto , Racismo Sistêmico , Análise Documental
17.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 34(3): 191-201, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês, Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37724645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of primary (PCs) and secondary capacities (SCs) in individuals diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and the effects of these capacities on delinquent behaviors and anger levels. METHODS: 101 male patients aged 18 years and over with a diagnosis of ASPD were divided into two groups as those with a criminal ASPD (cASPD) diagnosis (n=37) and those with a non-criminal ASPD (ncASPD) diagnosis (n=64). Participants were evaluated using a sociodemographic form, Wiesbaden's Inventory of Positive Psychotherapy and Family Therapy (WIPPF-2) and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI). Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 22.0 program; significance level was taken as p0.05. RESULTS: PCs, SCs and anger control levels of people with ASPD were lower while trait anger, anger expression and anger import were higher than the control group. In cASPD, among the PCs, belief (ß=0.796, p=0.032), hope (ß=-1.069, p=0.011), relationship (ß=-0.980, p=0.007) and sexuality (ß=0.937, p=0.021) predicted anger-out, and among the SAs politeness (ß=-1.020, p=0.002) and reliability (ß=1.140, p=0.001) predicted trait anger level. In ncASPD, patience predicted anger-out (ß=-1.752, p=0.001) and anger control (ß=1.468, p=0.002); belief (ß=1.468, p=0.005) and trust (ß=-0.845, p=0.002) predicted anger control. CONCLUSIONS: Positive psychotherapy can be effective in improving PCs and SCs of individuals with ASPD, improving interpersonal relationships, reducing criminal behaviors, anger management and psychotherapeutic treatment of ASPD.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Criminoso , Ira
18.
Rev. crim ; 65(3): 65-79, 20230910. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538049

RESUMO

This article is a literature review describing and analysing the main theoretical and empirical developments that have addressed the concept of identity and its role in crime based on criminology and other disciplines. The literature review was based on a search both in Spanish and English in the Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Scielo databases. The exposition of theoretical proposals follows a chronological and disciplinary field order, including identity perspective, the sociology of deviance, developmental criminology, and several of the leading contemporary approaches. It highlights the dissemination and importance of identity perspective between the 1950s and 1970s and the subsequent criticism that it was reductionist, lacking theoretical support, and not in dialogue with other criminological proposals. Thereupon, emphasis is placed on the subsequent contributions and proposals, which demonstrate the consistency of the concept, as well as its versatility and articulation with different disciplinary approaches to the understanding of the criminal phenomenon. The conclusion highlights the richness of the concept, its projections, and the importance of its revitalisation.


Este artículo es una revisión bibliográfica en la que se describen y analizan los principales desarrollos tanto teóricos como empíricos que han abordado el concepto de identidad y su rol asociado a la delincuencia, desde la criminología y otras disciplinas. La revisión bibliográfica se basó en una búsqueda en español e inglés en las bases de datos Web of Knowledge, Scopus y Scielo. La exposición de propuestas teóricas sigue un orden cronológico y de campo disciplinar, incluyendo la perspectiva de la identidad, la sociología de la desviación, la criminología del desarrollo y algunos de los principales planteamientos contemporáneos. Se destaca la difusión e importancia que tuvo la perspectiva de la identidad entre los años cincuenta y setenta, y la posterior crítica que la señaló como reduccionista, carente de sustento teórico y poco dialogante con otras propuestas criminológicas. Luego se enfatiza en las contribuciones y propuestas posteriores, las que dan cuenta de la consistencia del concepto, así como de su versatilidad y articulación con distintas aproximaciones disciplinares abocadas a la comprensión del fenómeno delictivo. Se concluye destacando la riqueza del concepto, sus proyecciones y la importancia de su revitalización.


Este artigo é uma revisão bibliográfica que descreve e analisa os principais desenvolvimentos teóricos e empíricos que abordaram o conceito de identidade e seu papel associado ao crime, a partir da criminologia e de outras disciplinas. A revisão bibliográfica baseou-se em uma busca em espanhol e inglês nas bases de dados Web of Knowledge, Scopus e Scielo. A apresentação das propostas teóricas segue uma ordem cronológica e disciplinar de campo, incluindo a perspectiva identitária, a sociologia do desvio, a criminologia do desenvolvimento e algumas das principais abordagens contemporâneas. Destaca-se a difusão e importância que a perspectiva identitária teve entre as décadas de 1950 e 1970. E as críticas posteriores que a apontaram como reducionista, carente de respaldo teórico e pouco diálogo com outras propostas criminológicas. Em seguida, destacam-se as contribuições e propostas subsequentes, que dão conta da consistência do conceito, bem como da sua versatilidade e articulação com diferentes abordagens disciplinares destinadas à compreensão do fenómeno criminal. Conclui-se destacando a riqueza do conceito, suas projeções e a importância de sua revitalização.


Assuntos
Humanos , Comportamento Criminoso , Delinquência Juvenil
19.
Rev. crim ; 65(3): 81-95, 20230910. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1538050

RESUMO

El presente artículo aporta un acercamiento al ciberdelincuente identificando las características comunes en la personalidad de quienes delinquen en este escenario. Para llevar a cabo la investigación, se tomó una muestra de diecinueve expertos que forman parte de la Dirección de Investigación Criminal e INTERPOL, abordados por entrevista en profundidad. Los datos obtenidos fueron tratados desde un diseño hermenéutico con énfasis en la teoría fundamentada, por medio de tres fases elaboradas en análisis matricial de codificación abierta, selectiva y teórica; a partir de las cuales se establecen algunas de las tácticas del ciberdelincuente desplegadas en el ciberespacio a través de tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones; su descripción desde el modelo big five y se identifican algunas de sus características como la falta de empatía, escrúpulos, incapacidad para el control de emociones, confianza y capacidad de innovar sus modus operandi(Sánchez y Robles, 2013). Finalmente, desde las teorías del control social se han estudiado el ciberdelito y los actos del ciberdelincuente de una manera formal que vela por encontrar estrategias de control del Estado, según González (2010), o informal, que busca los motivos que conducen a cometer delitos, como lo afirma López (2015), a partir de lo cual, al final, se presentan algunas recomendaciones.


This article provides an approach to cybercriminals by identifying the common characteristics in the personality of those who commit crimes in this scenario. In order to carry out the research, a sample of nineteen experts from the Criminal Investigation Directorate and INTERPOL were interviewed in depth. The data obtained were treated based on a hermeneutic design with emphasis on grounded theory, by means of three phases elaborated in matrix analysis of open, selective and theoretical coding; from which some of the tactics of cybercriminals deployed in cyberspace through information and communication technologies are established; their description based on the big five model and the identification of several of their characteristics such as lack of empathy, scruples, the inability to control emotions, confidence and the ability to innovate their modus operandi (Sánchez y Robles, 2013). Finally, theories of social control have studied cybercrime and the acts of cybercriminals in a formal way that seeks to find strategies to control the State, according to González (2010), or informally, seeking the motives that lead to committing crimes, as stated by López (2015), on the basis of which, at the end, some recommendations are presented.


Este artigo traz uma abordagem sobre os cibercriminosos, identificando as características comuns na personalidade de quem comete crimes nesse cenário. Para a realização da investigação foi recolhida uma amostra de dezanove peritos que integram a Direcção de Investigação Criminal e a INTERPOL, abordados através de entrevista em profundidade. Os dados obtidos foram tratados a partir de um desenho hermenêutico com ênfase na teoria fundamentada, por meio de três fases desenvolvidas em análise matricial de codificação aberta, seletiva e teórica; a partir da qual se estabelecem algumas das táticas cibercriminosas implantadas no ciberespaço através das tecnologias de informação e comunicação; A sua descrição baseia-se no modelo dos big five e são identificadas algumas das suas características, como a falta de empatia, escrúpulos, incapacidade de controlar emoções, confiança e capacidade de inovar o seu modus operandi (Sánchez y Robles, 2013). Por fim, a partir das teorias de controle social, o cibercrime e os atos dos cibercriminosos têm sido estudados de forma formal, que busca encontrar estratégias de controle do Estado, segundo González (2010), ou informalmente, que busca os motivos que levam ao cometimento dos crimes. , conforme afirma López (2015), a partir do qual, ao final, são apresentadas algumas recomendações.


Assuntos
Humanos , Internet , Estado , Comportamento Criminoso
20.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 197: 181-196, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37633709

RESUMO

Behavioral changes are commonly observed in patients with dementia and can lead to criminal offenses, even without a history of criminal or antisocial behavior. Due to the growth of the aging population, this poses a rising problem to deal with for the criminal justice system and in general for society. Criminal behavior may include minor crimes such as theft or traffic violations, but also serious crimes such as physical abuse, sexual offense, or murder. In the assessment of criminal behavior among elderly (first-time) offenders, it is important to be aware of possible neurodegenerative diseases at the time of the crime. This book chapter provides an overview on criminal behavior in the elderly and specifically discusses existing literature on patients suffering from a neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson disease, and Huntington disease. Each section is introduced by a true case to illustrate how the presence of a neurodegenerative disease may affect the criminal judgment. The chapter ends with a summary, multifactorial model of crime risk, future perspectives, and concluding remarks.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doença de Huntington , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Doença de Parkinson , Idoso , Humanos , Comportamento Criminoso
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