Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 513
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36901402

RESUMO

The detrimental effects of social isolation on physical and mental health are well known. Social isolation is also known to be associated with criminal behavior, thus burdening not only the affected individual but society in general. Forensic psychiatric patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) are at a particularly high risk for lacking social integration and support due to their involvement with the criminal justice system and their severe mental illness. The present study aims to exploratively evaluate factors associated with social isolation in a unique sample of forensic psychiatric patients with SSD using supervised machine learning (ML) in a sample of 370 inpatients. Out of >500 possible predictor variables, 5 emerged as most influential in the ML model: attention disorder, alogia, crime motivated by ego disturbances, total PANSS score, and a history of negative symptoms. With a balanced accuracy of 69% and an AUC of 0.74, the model showed a substantial performance in differentiating between patients with and without social isolation. The findings show that social isolation in forensic psychiatric patients with SSD is mainly influenced by factors related to illness and psychopathology instead of factors related to the committed offences, e.g., the severity of the crime.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Crime/psicologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Isolamento Social , Aprendizado de Máquina
2.
Law Hum Behav ; 47(1): 217-232, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36931859

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to develop a framework to test for implicit racial bias in discretionary decisions made by community supervision agents in conditions with increasing information ambiguity. HYPOTHESES: We reasoned that as in-person contact decreases, community supervision officers' specific knowledge of clients would be replaced by heuristics that lead to racially disproportionate outcomes in higher discretion events. Officers' implicit biases would lead to disproportionately higher technical violation rates among Black community corrections' clients when they have less personal contact, but we expected no analogous increase in nondiscretionary decisions. METHOD: Using data from Black and White clients entering probation and postrelease supervision in North Carolina from 2012 through 2016, we estimated the difference in racial disparities in discretionary versus nondiscretionary decisions across five levels of supervision. We evaluated the robustness of our main fixed-effects model using an alternative regression discontinuity design. RESULTS: Racial disparities in discretionary decisions grew as supervision intensity decreased, and the bias was larger for women than men. There was no similar pattern of increased disparity for nondiscretionary decisions. CONCLUSIONS: Criminal justice system actors have a great deal of discretion, particularly in how they deal with less serious criminal behavior. Although decentralized decisions are foundational to the function of the criminal justice system, they provide an opportunity for implicit bias to seep in. Shortcuts and mental heuristics are more influential when the decision-maker's mental resources are already strained-for instance, if someone is tired, distracted, or overworked. Therefore, limiting discretion and increasing oversight and accountability may reduce the impact of implicit bias on criminal justice system outcomes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Viés Implícito , Direito Penal , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Grupos Raciais , Comportamento Criminoso , População Negra
3.
Lancet Public Health ; 8(2): e99-e108, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36709062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A socioeconomically disadvantaged childhood has been associated with elevated self-harm and violent criminality risks during adolescence and young adulthood. However, whether these risks are modified by a neighbourhood's socioeconomic profile is unclear. The aim of our study was to compare risks among disadvantaged young people residing in deprived areas versus risks among similarly disadvantaged individuals residing in affluent areas. METHODS: We did a national cohort study, using Danish interlinked national registers, from which we delineated a longitudinal cohort of people born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1981, and Dec 31, 2001, with two Danish-born parents, who were alive and residing in the country when they were aged 15 years, who were followed up for a hospital-treated self-harm episode or violent crime conviction. A neighbourhood affluence indicator was derived based on nationwide income quartiles, with parental income and educational attainment indicating the socioeconomic position of each cohort member's family. Bayesian multilevel survival analyses were done to examine the moderating influences of neighbourhood affluence on associations between family socioeconomic position and sex-specific risks for the two adverse outcomes. FINDINGS: 1 084 047 cohort members were followed up for 12·8 million person-years in aggregate. Individuals of a low socioeconomic position residing in deprived neighbourhoods had a higher incidence of both self-harm and violent criminality compared with equivalently disadvantaged peers residing in affluent areas. Women from a low-income background residing in affluent areas had, on average, 95 (highest density interval 76-118) fewer self-harm episodes and 25 (15-41) fewer violent crime convictions per 10 000 person-years compared with women of an equally low income residing in deprived areas, whereas men of a low income residing in affluent areas had 61 (39-81) fewer self-harm episodes and 88 (56-191) fewer violent crime convictions per 10 000 person-years than men of a low income residing in deprived areas. INTERPRETATION: Even in a high-income European country with comprehensive social welfare and low levels of poverty and inequality, individuals residing in affluent neighbourhoods have lower risks of self-harm and violent criminality compared with individuals residing in deprived neighbourhoods. More research is needed to explore the potential of neighbourhood policies and interventions to reduce the harmful effects of growing up in socioeconomically deprived circumstances on later risk of self-harm and violent crime convictions. FUNDING: European Research Council, Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, and BERTHA, the Danish Big Data Centre for Environment and Health funded by the Novo Nordisk Foundation Challenge Programme.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Masculino , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Teorema de Bayes , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Pobreza , Dinamarca/epidemiologia
4.
Child Abuse Negl ; 135: 105989, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between child maltreatment and later delinquency is an enduring concern worldwide. However, the maltreatment-delinquency relationship is relatively underexplored in youth gang populations. Consequently, to date, studies have not examined typologies of maltreatment and their associations with violent delinquency, non-violent delinquency, and gang organizational structures. OBJECTIVE: First, to identify the characteristics of subgroups of youth gang members who varied in abuse type and severity within type. Second, to determine in what ways the profiles differed in terms of gang organizational structures, violent delinquency, and non-violent delinquency. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: A sample of 161 youth gang members (mean age: 16.8; range: 12-24) were recruited and surveyed by outreach social workers in Hong Kong. METHODS: Latent profile analysis was first used to examine heterogeneity in victimization experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect). Thereafter, non-parametric tests and post-hoc analyses were conducted to examine associations between the yielded typologies of maltreatment and gang organizational structures, violent delinquency, and non-violent delinquency. RESULTS: Poly-victimization was prevalent in the sample, with 148 respondents (91.9 %) reporting at least two types of past abuses. Three profiles of maltreatment emerged, varying in abuse types and severity within types: 'Minimally maltreated', 'Moderately maltreated, except sexual abuse', and 'Severely maltreated'. In comparison to the 'Minimal' maltreatment profile, the 'Moderate' and 'Severe' profiles were associated with greater delinquent behaviors and being in gangs that encouraged congregate illegal behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: There was a relationship between typologies of maltreatment and gang organizational structures, violent delinquency, and non-violent delinquency in the sample of youth gang members. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Delinquência Juvenil , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Agressão , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 133: 108617, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544626

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of adolescents and emerging adults are entering treatment for drug use disorders in high-income countries. This fact points not only to a need to evaluate treatment outcomes related to drug use reduction, but also to evaluate other indicators of treatment success. The aim of this study was to examine treatment effects on predicting readmission to drug use treatment and being convicted for a criminal offence among youth. A second aim was to examine whether a psychiatric history had an impact on these outcomes. METHODS: Participants were 460 youth aged 15-25 who took part in the YouthDAT, a randomized pragmatic clinical trial for outpatient drug use treatment. The trial compared four treatment conditions consisting of 12 sessions of a manualized treatment based on cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing. Condition one was the standard (only the manual); condition two consisted of standard treatment and contingency management (CM) (Vouchers); condition three included standard treatment, text reminders, and low-intensity aftercare (Reminders+LIA); and condition four combined the standard treatment, CM, text reminders, and low-intensity aftercare (Combined+LIA). The study linked participants to register data on psychiatric history, drug use treatment history, and criminal convictions. RESULTS: Treatment conditions Reminders+LIA (aB = 0.42, p = .026) and Combined+LIA (aB = 0.69, p = .000) predicted longer time to readmission compared to standard treatment. The Vouchers condition predicted a lower risk for criminal convictions (aIRR = 0.26, p = .001). Half of the participants had a psychiatric history. The treatments with additional strategies were useful in delaying readmission and reducing convictions for these youth. The results remained significant in the adjusted models accounting for relevant participant characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Additional treatment strategies in outpatient drug use treatment, such as CM, text reminders, and low-intensity aftercare, predicted delayed readmission to treatment and fewer legal problems. Mental health problems were common among youth. However, the treatments with additional strategies were effective with youth with a psychiatric history. Overall, while the additional strategies may be resource demanding for clinical settings, they support treatment success and may also help to decrease other public costs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry ISRCTN27473213.


Assuntos
Entrevista Motivacional , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Comportamento Criminoso , Humanos , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Readmissão do Paciente , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554547

RESUMO

The objective is to identify the prevalence of child abuse and criminal behavior among young male prisoners in Ecuador. METHOD: A total of 425 young people between 12 and 18 years of age, deprived of liberty from different centers for adolescent offenders in Ecuador, were used. The level of abuse to which they had been subjected in childhood was evaluated, as well as the risk factors present in their history. The relationship between abuse, risk factors, and criminal behavior was analyzed. RESULTS: A high prevalence of the different types of abuse was found in the mean age of 15.03 years standard deviation (SD = 1.34). CONCLUSION: In addition, a relationship was discovered between the abuse suffered during childhood and the risk factors present in criminal behavior during adolescence, which was demonstrated in this article. The practical implications of these results are discussed, taking into consideration their relevance for prevention.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Criança , Comportamento Criminoso , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Liberdade
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141461

RESUMO

(1) Background: Maltreated children are at increased risk for juvenile delinquency. Extant research has explored the effect of child maltreatment on either the initial risk of juvenile delinquency or general juvenile recidivism. However, little is known regarding the effect of child maltreatment on chronic offending. (2) Methods: Using a sample of 695 male juvenile offenders incarcerated in a centralized juvenile reformatory of the province X located in Southwest China, this study investigates both the prevalence of child maltreatment and the effect of child maltreatment on chronic offending among the juvenile offenders. Descriptive statistical analyses and multinomial logistic regression were utilized to conduct the analyses. (3) Results: A vast majority of the juvenile offenders experienced at least one type of child maltreatment. Moreover, maltreatment was generally found to be more prevalent in chronic offenders than in one-time offenders and recidivists. Results from a series of logistic regression analyses revealed that among five specific maltreatment types, only physical abuse exerted a statistically significant and positive impact on chronic offending. (4) Conclusions: The findings highlight the importance of providing early prevention and intervention programs to juvenile offenders who were physically abused in order to reduce general chronic offending as well as chronic violent offending.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Criminosos , Delinquência Juvenil , Criança , Comportamento Criminoso , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso Físico
8.
Horm Behav ; 146: 105260, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122515

RESUMO

Only two studies to date have considered the joint effects of testosterone and cortisol on direct measures of criminal behavior. The current study extends this earlier work by incorporating the direct and interactive effects of baseline hormone measures and hormone change scores in response to social stress. The current study also extends prior work by considering distinct measures of different criminal behavior types and sex differences. Analyses based on a large sample of undergraduates indicated that testosterone had a positive and statistically significant association with impulsive and violent criminal behavior. The interaction of testosterone with cortisol had a negative association with income generating crime. Simple slopes analyses of this interaction indicated testosterone had a positive association with income generating crime when cortisol was low (-1 SD). Associations between hormones and criminal behavior were not moderated by sex.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Testosterona , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Hidrocortisona/análise , Testosterona/análise , Saliva/química , Crime , Comportamento Criminoso
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078333

RESUMO

This study performed main path analysis to explore the academic field of crime prevention. Studies were collected from the Web of Science database, and main path analysis was used to analyze the studies and identify influential authors and journals on the basis of the g-index and h-index. Cluster analysis was then performed to group studies with related themes. Wordle was used to output keywords and word clouds for each cluster, both of which were used as reference to name each cluster. Five clusters were identified, namely crime displacement control, crime prevention through environmental design, developmental crime prevention, the effects of communalism on crime prevention, and the effect of childhood sexual abuse on crime. Each cluster was analyzed, and suggestions based on the results are provided. The main purpose of crime prevention is to advance our understanding of the psychological criminal mechanisms (i.e., personal, social and environmental impacts) associated with different criminal behaviors at the intersection of law by using main path analysis.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Delitos Sexuais , Crime/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Criminoso , Humanos , Conhecimento
10.
J Res Adolesc ; 32(3): 829-846, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35996759

RESUMO

This study contributes to efforts already underway to attend to the reproduction of white supremacy and the ways whiteness manifests across contexts. We examine whiteness and white racial identity development among incarcerated youth, both a group and place not often studied in relation to these two concepts. Using critical ethnographic methods, we explore how processes of white identity development unfold among incarcerated white youth and the ways in which whiteness is lived, negotiated, and challenged within the carceral context. Findings suggest that white youth used pre-existing racial scripts about race, whiteness, and criminality to make sense of and navigate life in the carceral context. Still, we found that these racial scripts were often seeped in anti-black racist logics about criminality in service of whiteness and the construction of superior white identities.


Assuntos
Prisioneiros , Adolescente , Comportamento Criminoso , Humanos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878567

RESUMO

Objective: To examine impulsivity, dominant temperaments, and childhood trauma in patients with bipolar I disorder who committed crimes by comparing them with bipolar I patients with no criminal history and with healthy controls.Methods: A total of 144 subjects in 3 groups (62 criminal history bipolar patients, 40 non-criminal bipolar patients, and 42 controls) participated in this cross-sectional study. All participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the TEMPS-A (Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, San Diego Autoquestionnaire). Subjects were enrolled in the study between April 1, 2019, and March 1, 2020.Results: The mean age was higher (P = .029) and education level lower (P = .045) among the criminal history bipolar patients than the other 2 groups. Of quantitative variables, physical abuse and emotional abuse subscales and total CTQ score were significantly higher in both patient groups compared to healthy controls (P < .001 for all scores). For dominant temperament, hyperthymic temperament scores of the criminal history bipolar group were higher than that of the control group (P < .001).Conclusions: Patients with bipolar I disorder were found to have experienced more childhood traumas, and the criminal history bipolar group and those who were admitted to prison had suffered more physical abuse. Hyperthymic temperament was dominant in bipolar I patients involved in crime. Taking into account the temperaments of bipolar I disorder in treatment plans and providing psychosocial support to these patients could help prevent violent behaviors and the possibility of crime.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Inventário de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Temperamento
12.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 14(2): 93-103, julio 2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-209791

RESUMO

Objectives: This study contributes to the neuroscience of offending behavior by addressing two aims: a) to examine differences in the cortical features in a group of male serious juvenile offenders (21 OG), versus controls (28 CG), both ranging from 18 to 21 years old; and b) to determine to what extent the differential cortical features and the risk psychological profile discriminate between the two groups. Method: Besides cortical measures, demographics, executive functioning, childhood trauma, psychopathic traits, psychopathological symptoms, and antisocial and delinquent behavior were assessed. Results: Whole-brain analysis of the cortical mantle identified increased cortical thickness in the cluster comprising the right middle temporal gyrus and a smaller surface area in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex for the OG compared to the CG. The discriminant function correctly classified 100% of cases of the CG and 94.7% of the OG. Right temporal cluster, childhood trauma, callousness and symptoms of interpersonal sensitivity, psychoticism, depression, phobic anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive behavior contributed to the OG. In turn, the lateral orbitofrontal cluster, psychopathic traits of grandiosity, unemotionality, and thrill seeking, and working memory contributed to the CG. Conclusions: The increased right middle temporal gyrus of the OG could be indicative of impaired brain development in social cognition processes since it appeared in combination with the higher risk profile. The reduced orbitofrontal cortex could be indicative of immature brain development in emotional control processes since it appeared in combination with the normative psychological profile in adolescence. Based on these novel findings, areas of potential improvement for research and intervention are suggested. (AU)


Objetivos: Este estudio contribuye a la neurociencia de la conducta delictiva abordando dos objetivos: a) examinar las diferencias en las características corticales en un grupo de delincuentes juveniles de sexo masculino (21 GD), frente a los controles (28 GC), ambos con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y los 21 años; y b) determinar hasta qué punto las características corticales diferenciales y el perfil psicológico de riesgo discriminan entre los dos grupos. Método: Además de las medidas corticales, se evaluaron los datos demográficos, el funcionamiento ejecutivo, el trauma infantil, los rasgos psicopáticos, los síntomas psicopatológicos y el comportamiento antisocial y delictivo. Resultados: El análisis del manto cortical de todo el cerebro mostró un mayor grosor cortical en el clúster que comprende la circunvolución temporal media derecha y una menor superficie en la corteza orbitofrontal lateral para el GD con respecto al GC. La función discriminante clasificó correctamente el 100% de los casos del GC y el 94,7% del GD. El clúster temporal derecho, el trauma infantil, la insensibilidad y los síntomas de sensibilidad interpersonal, psicoticismo, depresión, ansiedad fóbica y comportamiento obsesivo-compulsivo contribuyeron al GD. Por su parte, el clúster orbitofrontal lateral, los rasgos psicopáticos de grandiosidad, impasibilidad y búsqueda de emociones y la memoria de trabajo contribuyeron al GC. Conclusiones: La alteración temporal media derecha del GD podría ser indicativa de un desarrollo cerebral alterado en los procesos de cognición social, ya que este rasgo cortical apareció en combinación con el perfil de mayor riesgo. La reducción en el área orbitofrontal podría ser indicativa de un desarrollo cerebral inmaduro en los procesos de control emocional, ya que apareció en combinación con el perfil psicológico normativo en la adolescencia. A partir de estos hallazgos novedosos, se proponen áreas posibles de mejora para la investigación y la intervención. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Comportamento Criminoso , Psicologia , Cérebro
13.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 66(15): 1491-1497, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35670206

RESUMO

We are grateful for the opportunity to serve as Guest Editors of this Special Issue on "The impact of psychopathy: Multidisciplinary and applied perspectives." Psychopathy is a serious public health concern that has long attracted scholarly and clinical interest in both mental health and criminal justice fields. However, given its robust link with criminal behavior, research on psychopathy has largely developed with a primary emphasis on (male) adults within correctional settings. While the preponderance of work remains focused on these adult offenders, research on psychopathy has expanded in recent decades to include studies within a variety of more diverse populations and contexts. The goal of this Special Issue has been to highlight some of the most recent research in these areas, toward a more deliberate emphasis on the broad impacts that psychopathy can impart across all walks of life. To this end, while only two of the papers included in the Special Issue focused on forensic samples (and more specifically on treatment and recidivism), all 10 papers have nonetheless offered a clear focus on the detrimental impacts that individuals with psychopathic traits can impart within society. Indeed, included manuscripts focused on the impact of psychopathy within romantic relationships (in both middle and older adulthood), within parent-child dyads, within the workplace, and within society at large. Across these studies, the significant, detrimental impact that individuals with heightened psychopathic traits impart is highlighted, not only for their victims, but also for their family, friends, and colleagues. In this Editorial, we would like to emphasize some main themes that emerged from their contributions.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Reincidência , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Direito Penal , Criminosos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742209

RESUMO

(1) Background: The one general psychopathology (p Factor) theory asserts that a superordinate dimensional construct encompasses underlying forms of psychopathology, but the theory has limited empirical linkages to criminology. (2) Methods: We utilized case reports from 12 male offenders selected from a federal jurisdiction in the central United States who were in the 99th percentile on a composite indicator of psychopathology to advance a qualitative study of the p Factor. (3) Results: Clients experienced frequent and often pathological traumatic experiences and exhibited exceedingly early onset of conduct problems usually during the preschool period. Their criminal careers were overwhelmingly versatile and contained numerous offense types, had extensive justice system contacts, and exhibited remarkable deficits in global functioning. Most clients spent the majority of their life in local, state, or federal confinement. Consistent with the theory, clients experienced a generalized psychopathology disposition that had undercurrents of externalizing, internalizing, psychotic, paraphilic, and homicidal features. (4) Conclusions: A qualitative understanding of the p Factor and its contribution to offending behaviors among correctional clients complements the statistical approach to developmental psychopathology.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Mentais , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Criminoso , Humanos , Masculino , Psicopatologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estados Unidos
15.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 151(12): 3230-3248, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758988

RESUMO

Genetic essentialism is a set of beliefs holding that certain categories have a heritable, intrinsic, and biological basis. The current studies explore people's genetic essentialist beliefs about criminality, how such essentialism relates to beliefs about appropriate punishment, and the kinds of judgments and motivations that underlie these associations. Study 1 validated a novel task, in which respondents estimated how possible it would be for a child to inherit criminal behavior from a sperm donor with whom they had no contact. Studies 2-4 used this task to address how genetic essentialist beliefs related to the harmfulness of a crime and the harshness of recommended punishment. Results indicated a tendency to essentialize both low- and high-harm crimes, though genetic essentialism was higher for more harmful crimes. Moreover, genetic essentialist beliefs predicted recommendations for harsher punishments, with retributive and protective motivations, as well as perceptions of recidivism risk, partially mediating this association. Further, Studies 3 and 4 found that genetic essentialism positively predicted support for harsh punishments such as the death penalty, as well as support for directing financial resources more toward law enforcement and less toward social support. Lay theories about criminality may have profound implications for decisions about appropriate punishment for wrongdoers, as well as broader policy decisions about crime, punishment, and resource allocation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Punição , Percepção Social , Criança , Masculino , Humanos , Sêmen , Comportamento Criminoso , Julgamento
16.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 34(4): 544-552, Jun. 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-211779

RESUMO

Background: Antisocial and criminal behaviors are frequently associated with illegal behaviors committed by adolescents between 12 and 19. This study aims to examine antisocial and criminal behavior in adolescence and establish guidelines that contribute to educational prevention. Specifically, we sought to evaluate self-reports of antisocial and criminal behaviors in adolescents, verifying differences in the variables sex and age. Method: A total of 396 adolescents participated in the study. They were aged 12 to 19 years old (M = 15.8, SD = 1.6), were of both sexes (63.9% girls or women and 36.1% boys or men) and were attending primary and secondary schools in Brazil. The Antisocial-Criminal Behaviors Questionnaire (A-D) was administered online. Descriptive and comparative analyses by sex and age were performed. Results: Boys presented more transgressive behaviors than girls, not overall, but in specific behaviors included in the two scales of the questionnaire used. In terms of age, self-reported antisocial and criminal behaviors increased with student age. Conclusions: From a systemic perspective, educational proposals are made to identify and neutralize risk factors and improve protective factors for adolescents.(AU)


Antecedentes: Las conductas antisociales y delictivas se asocian frecuentemente a conductas ilegales y son cometidas por adolescentes de 12 a19 años. Este trabajo tiene como objetivos profundizar en este tipo de conductas en la adolescencia y establecer pautas que contribuyan a su prevención educativa. Concretamente, se evalúan los autoinformes de conductas antisociales y delictivas en adolescentes, y se verifican diferencias respecto al sexo y la edad. Método: La muestra estuvo conformada por 396 adolescentes, de 12 a 19 años (M = 15.8, DT = 1.6), de ambos sexos (63.9%% mujeres y 36.1% varones), estudiantes de primaria y secundaria de escuelas brasileñas. El Cuestionario de Conductas Antisociales-Delictivas (A-D) fue administrado en línea. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y comparativos por sexo y edad. Resultados: En cuanto al sexo, los chicos presentaron comportamientos más transgresores que las chicas, pero no de modo global, sino en conductas específicas incluidas en las dos escalas del cuestionario utilizado. Respecto a la edad, se incrementan las conductas antisociales y delictivas autoinformadas a medida que aumenta la edad de los estudiantes. Conclusiones: Estos hallazgos permiten organizar propuestas educativas consistentes para identificar y neutralizar los factores de riesgo y mejorar los factores protectores para los adolescentes.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Psicologia do Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Criminoso , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Brasil , Inquéritos e Questionários , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Psicologia Social
17.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 83: 101796, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594745

RESUMO

In 2018-2019, according to the official statistics, 5754 people died as a result of suicide in Nepal. This is a high number for a country with a population of 29 million people. Experts believe that the actual rate is considerably higher and that many suicides are not reported. This underreporting of suicide is frequently blamed on the stigma and the criminality of attempted suicide. Yet, there has never been a criminal liability for attempted suicide in Nepal. This article discusses the reasons for the perception of the criminality of attempted suicide in the country, its consequences, and the ways of addressing them. We found that the involvement of the police at the initial stages of suicide investigation confirms public perceptions that attempted suicide is a punishable offense and this may reinforce the stigma of suicide. Recent criminalization of the abetment of suicide has contributed to this perception as the public may not be clear about the distinction between abetment of suicide and attempted suicide. Criminalization of suicide not in the laws but in minds discourages reporting and help-seeking behaviour and victimizes people who need support and services. We argue that decriminalization is more than removing the outdated legal clauses from the legal statutes, but also public awareness raising about the reasons for police investigation of suspicious deaths, sensitivity training, and education of government officials, policymakers, and police about suicide and its prevention. These are needed to dispel the myth of criminalization of attempted suicide in Nepal. Our findings could be of wider interest to scholars working on reducing the stigma of suicide and decriminalization of suicide attempts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Criminoso , Tentativa de Suicídio , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Percepção , Polícia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564753

RESUMO

Serial murder is a specific type of violent crime that falls into the crime category of multicide. According to the nomenclature of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Violent Crime Classification Manual and Academic Researchers for the Classification of Violent Crimes, most serial killers are adults. However, serial murder is also committed by young people, although to a lesser extent. Young serial killers are a topic of relevance in areas such as psychology, criminology, and the justice system. Given that the study of the variables that could be the basis of such multicide criminality is not conclusive, the need for further research is evident. The homicides perpetrated by children and young people point to a social panorama that is alarming due to their young age. This issue is prevalent enough to conduct a review. The performed review concludes the importance of psychosocial factors to better understand the process by which children and young people commit crimes as serious as serial murders. The scope of the problem of serial murders perpetrated by minors is controversial because it often depends on how the number of real cases is counted. Although official statistics indicate the low prevalence of juvenile serial killers, childhood is a period in which antisocial behaviour can have its beginning. Some authors consider that it is not uncommon for the first murder of this type to occur in adolescence. It is important to consider psychopathy as an influential factor in the various forms of serial criminal conduct committed by children and young people. The research works consulted provide evidence of the special relevance of psychopathy in the generation of serious juvenile delinquency.


Assuntos
Criminologia , Delinquência Juvenil , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Criança , Crime/psicologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Homicídio , Humanos
19.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 9(2): 9-15, Mayo 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-204773

RESUMO

En delincuencia juvenil, algunos aspectos de la personalidad tienen un peso importante en la probabilidad de realizar conductas antisociales. Poresto, integrarlos al trabajo con esta población permite hacer las intervenciones más sensibles a las características de los jóvenes y, por ello, másefectivas. Como las estructuras de muchos sistemas de atención de la delincuencia juvenil tienen objetivos socioeducativos semejantes, los estudiostransculturales/comparativos son pertinentes para explorar este problema. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar grupos de adolescentes de Brasily España, infractores y no infractores, con respecto a aspectos de personalidad. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 210 adolescentes varones con unaedad media de 17.7 años. Estos jóvenes respondieron al Jesness Inventory – Revised (JI-R), una herramienta que mide el funcionamiento psicológicoen el contexto de justicia juvenil. Las puntuaciones directas en el JI-R fueron comparadas por análisis de varianza (ANOVA) y el tamaño de efecto fuecalculado con la d de Cohen. Los resultados muestran que, entre los grupos de infractores, la muestra de adolescentes brasileños presenta nivelesmás elevados en Valores Subculturales y Ansiedad Social. Como se hipotetizaba, los grupos de infractores no son tan distintos entre sí, en especial alo que se refiere a la orientación antisocial, lo que suma evidencia a que adolescentes que se desarrollan en culturas distintas comparten variables depersonalidad asociadas al comportamiento delictivo. (AU)


In juvenile delinquency, some aspects of the personality have an important role in the probability of engagement in antisocial behaviors. For this reason, integrating themto the work with this population makes it possible to propose interventions more sensitive to the characteristics of young people and, therefore,more effective. As the structures of many juvenile delinquency care systems have similar socio-educational objectives, cross-cultural / comparativestudies are pertinent to explore this problem. The aim of this study was to compare groups of adolescents from Brazil and Spain, offenders andnon-offenders, regarding aspects of personality. The sample consisted of 210 male adolescents, with a mean age of 17.7 years. These young peopleresponded to the Jesness Inventory - Revised (JI-R), a tool that measures psychological functioning in the context of juvenile justice. The raw scoreson the JI-R were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the effect size was calculated with Cohen’s d. The results show that, among thegroups of offenders, the sample of Brazilian adolescents presents higher levels in Value Orientation and Social Anxiety. As hypothesized, the groupsof offenders are not so different from each other, especially with regard to antisocial orientation, which adds evidence that adolescents who grow upin different cultures share personality variables associated with criminal behavior. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Delinquência Juvenil/prevenção & controle , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/reabilitação , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Testes de Personalidade , Comportamento Criminoso , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Law Med ; 29(1): 117-128, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362282

RESUMO

This study investigates the rates and types of criminal convictions encountered by New Zealand's Health Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal (HPDT) over a 15-year period. Criminal convictions appeared in 24% (n = 101) of cases, with male practitioners (p < 0.01) and pharmacists (p < 0.05) being significantly over-represented. The most frequent types of convictions included crimes against rights of property (33.6%), sexual/morality/decency crimes (21.9%) and misuse of drugs (8.4%). Criminal behaviour settings were evenly split between personal and professional life for medical practitioners (56.5% professional life) and nurses (56.5% professional life) but disproportionately in professional life (85%) for pharmacists. Criminal conviction cases were significantly more likely to result in registration cancellation (p < 0.001) and practice suspensions (p < 0.05) when compared with non-criminal cases, although fewer fines were ordered (p < 0.001). Profession-specific risk factors, alongside how to rehabilitate members of the subgroup who may later seek to renew their practice are areas for further research, are discussed.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Crime , Comportamento Criminoso , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...