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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5286, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489431

RESUMO

Vomeronasal information is critical in mice for territorial behavior. Consequently, learning the territorial spatial structure should incorporate the vomeronasal signals indicating individual identity into the hippocampal cognitive map. In this work we show in mice that navigating a virtual environment induces synchronic activity, with causality in both directionalities, between the vomeronasal amygdala and the dorsal CA1 of the hippocampus in the theta frequency range. The detection of urine stimuli induces synaptic plasticity in the vomeronasal pathway and the dorsal hippocampus, even in animals with experimentally induced anosmia. In the dorsal hippocampus, this plasticity is associated with the overexpression of pAKT and pGSK3ß. An amygdalo-entorhino-hippocampal circuit likely underlies this effect of pheromonal information on hippocampal learning. This circuit likely constitutes the neural substrate of territorial behavior in mice, and it allows the integration of social and spatial information.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Região CA1 Hipocampal/fisiologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Comportamento Espacial/fisiologia , Órgão Vomeronasal/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/citologia , Animais , Anosmia/genética , Anosmia/metabolismo , Anosmia/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal , Região CA1 Hipocampal/citologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Rede Nervosa/citologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Feromônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Percepção Social , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Órgão Vomeronasal/citologia
2.
Elife ; 102021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338632

RESUMO

Rapid progress in technologies such as calcium imaging and electrophysiology has seen a dramatic increase in the size and extent of neural recordings. Even so, interpretation of this data requires considerable knowledge about the nature of the representation and often depends on manual operations. Decoding provides a means to infer the information content of such recordings but typically requires highly processed data and prior knowledge of the encoding scheme. Here, we developed a deep-learning framework able to decode sensory and behavioral variables directly from wide-band neural data. The network requires little user input and generalizes across stimuli, behaviors, brain regions, and recording techniques. Once trained, it can be analyzed to determine elements of the neural code that are informative about a given variable. We validated this approach using electrophysiological and calcium-imaging data from rodent auditory cortex and hippocampus as well as human electrocorticography (ECoG) data. We show successful decoding of finger movement, auditory stimuli, and spatial behaviors - including a novel representation of head direction - from raw neural activity.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Movimento , Redes Neurais de Computação , Comportamento Espacial , Animais , Eletrocorticografia , Dedos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos
3.
Neuron ; 109(18): 2967-2980.e11, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363753

RESUMO

Neurons in the medial entorhinal cortex alter their firing properties in response to environmental changes. This flexibility in neural coding is hypothesized to support navigation and memory by dividing sensory experience into unique episodes. However, it is unknown how the entorhinal circuit as a whole transitions between different representations when sensory information is not delineated into discrete contexts. Here we describe rapid and reversible transitions between multiple spatial maps of an unchanging task and environment. These remapping events were synchronized across hundreds of neurons, differentially affected navigational cell types, and correlated with changes in running speed. Despite widespread changes in spatial coding, remapping comprised a translation along a single dimension in population-level activity space, enabling simple decoding strategies. These findings provoke reconsideration of how the medial entorhinal cortex dynamically represents space and suggest a remarkable capacity of cortical circuits to rapidly and substantially reorganize their neural representations.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Córtex Entorrinal/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Comportamento Espacial/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148966, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273834

RESUMO

The ubiquitous wild boar is causing diverse and growing conflicts of socio-ecological and economic relevance worldwide. For that reason, knowledge of its spatial ecology is crucial to designing effective management programmes. But this knowledge is scarce in Mediterranean areas with mixed land uses. We describe the spatial ecology and habitat selection of 41 adult wild boar monitored using GPS collars and analyse the effects of sex and the period (food shortage period, hunting season and food abundance period) under different land uses (protected areas, mixed farms and fenced hunting estates). The spatial ecology of wild boar was characterised by marked temporality, mediated by sex and the land uses in the area. The activity (ACT), daily range (DR) and home range (HR) were higher for males than females, and in mixed farms versus fenced hunting estates, while the lowest values were obtained in protected areas. These effects were more marked for ACT and DR (movement) than HR. The selection of scrublands and avoidance of woodlands was observed where drive hunt events occur (mixed farms and fenced estates), but not in the protected areas. The differences in the requirements, reproductive behaviour and, interestingly, response to disturbance according to sex may explain this dissimilar behaviour. Disturbance originated higher movement rates and the selection of sheltering land cover as a refuge during the hunting season. This information is useful for designing species monitoring and management programmes; including both preventive and reactive actions in response to events such as outbreaks of African swine fever and agricultural damage produced by wild boar in Europe.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana , Sus scrofa , Animais , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Espacial , Suínos
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4473, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294703

RESUMO

Feedback in the brain is thought to convey contextual information that underlies our flexibility to perform different tasks. Empirical and computational work on the visual system suggests this is achieved by targeting task-relevant neuronal subpopulations. We combine two tasks, each resulting in selective modulation by feedback, to test whether the feedback reflected the combination of both selectivities. We used visual feature-discrimination specified at one of two possible locations and uncoupled the decision formation from motor plans to report it, while recording in macaque mid-level visual areas. Here we show that although the behavior is spatially selective, using only task-relevant information, modulation by decision-related feedback is spatially unselective. Population responses reveal similar stimulus-choice alignments irrespective of stimulus relevance. The results suggest a common mechanism across tasks, independent of the spatial selectivity these tasks demand. This may reflect biological constraints and facilitate generalization across tasks. Our findings also support a previously hypothesized link between feature-based attention and decision-related activity.


Assuntos
Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Animais , Atenção/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Discriminação Psicológica , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Macaca mulatta/fisiologia , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Estimulação Luminosa , Comportamento Espacial/fisiologia , Processamento Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
6.
Animal ; 15(7): 100252, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090091

RESUMO

Effective shelter has been demonstrated to reduce neonatal lamb mortality rates during periods of inclement weather. Periods of high wind speed and rainfall have been shown to influence shelter usage; however, it is not yet known how ewe factors such as breed, age and body condition score influence shelter-seeking behaviour. This study, conducted on a working upland farm in the UK, examined impact of artificial shelter on the biological and climatic factors that influence peri-parturient ewe behaviour. Pregnant ewes (n = 147) were randomly allocated between two adjacent fields which were selected for their similarity in size, topography, pasture management, orientation to the prevailing wind and available natural shelter. In one field, three additional artificial shelters were installed to increase the available shelter for ewes, this field was designated the Test field; no additional artificial shelter was provided in the second field which was used as the Control field. Individual ewes were observed every 2 h between 0800 and 1600 for 14 continuous days to monitor their location relative to shelter. Ewe breed (Aberfield and Highlander), age (2-8 years) and body condition score were considered as explanatory variables to explain flock and individual variance in shelter-seeking behaviour and the prevalence of issues which required the intervention of the shepherd, termed 'shepherding problems'. Any ewe observed with dystocia, a dead or poor vigour lamb or who exhibited mismothering behaviour was recorded as a shepherding problem. The prevalence of these shepherding problems which necessitate human intervention represents arguably the most critical limiting factor for the successful management of commercial sheep flocks in outdoor lambing systems. Overall, ewes in the Test field with access to additional artificial shelter experienced fewer shepherding problems than those in the Control field (P < 0.05). A significant breed effect was also observed, with Highlander ewes more likely to seek shelter than Aberfield ewes (P < 0.001), and experiencing significantly fewer shepherding interventions (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate the substantial and significant benefits to animal welfare and productivity that can be achieved through the provision of shelter in commercial, upland, outdoor lambing systems in the UK.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Ovinos , Comportamento Espacial
7.
Behav Processes ; 189: 104437, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089779

RESUMO

Sexually dimorphic performance has been observed across humans and rodents in many spatial tasks. In general, these spatial tasks do not dissociate the use of environmental and self-movement cues. Previous work has demonstrated a role for self-movement cue processing in organizing open field behavior; however, these studies have not directly compared female and male movement characteristics. The current study examined the organization of open field behavior under dark conditions in female and male rats. Significant differences between female and male rats were observed in the location of stopping behavior relative to a cue and the topography exhibited during lateral movements. In contrast, no sex differences were observed on measures used to detect self-movement cue processing deficits. These results provide evidence that female and male rats are similar in their use of self-movement cues to organize open field behavior; however, other factors may be contributing to differences in performance.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório , Comportamento Espacial , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Masculino , Orientação , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans
8.
Behav Processes ; 189: 104442, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116138

RESUMO

Place memory, the ability to remember locations, is a feature of many animal species. This episodic-like memory is displayed in the foraging behavior of animals and has been studied in many different kinds of laboratory spatial tasks. A horse stallion, Equus ferus caballus, will create "dung-heaps or stud-piles" by defecation in the same place suggesting that the behavior is central to spatial behavior but to date there has been little investigation of horse olfactory/spatial behavior. The present study describes investigatory behavior of horses for objects on the surface of a riding arena. Horses under saddle approached objects on the arena surface that included small pieces of straw, fur, and paper and larger objects including clumps of debris and were especially interested in dung droppings left by other horses. Once an object was investigated by sniffing, it was usually not approached again during that outing but could be approached anew on the following day. Dung investigatory behavior and place memory were confirmed in a number of structured tests in which test-retest intervals were varied. The results are discussed in relation to the dual process theory that proposes that spatial representations central to adaptive behavior require both allocentric Cartesian spatial information and egocentric episodic-like information.


Assuntos
Memória , Rememoração Mental , Animais , Cavalos , Masculino , Comportamento Espacial
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 787: 147520, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000553

RESUMO

Commensal rodent species cause damage to crops and stored products, they transmit pathogens to people, livestock and pets and threaten native flora and fauna. To minimize such adverse effects, commensal rodents are predominantly managed with anticoagulant rodenticides (AR) that can be transferred along the food chain. We tested the effect of the uptake of the AR brodifacoum (BR) by Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) on spatial behavior because this helps to assess the availability of dead rats and residual BR to predators and scavengers. BR was delivered by oral gavage or free-fed bait presented in bait stations. Rats were radio-collared to monitor spatial behavior. BR residues in rat liver tissue were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Norway rats that had consumed BR decreased distances moved and had reduced home range size. Treatment effects on spatial behavior seemed to set in rapidly. However, there was no effect on habitat preference. Ninety-two percent of rats that succumbed to BR died in well-hidden locations, where removal by scavenging birds and large mammalian scavengers is unlikely. Rats that ingested bait from bait stations had 65% higher residue concentrations than rats that died from dosing with two-fold LD50. This suggests an overdosing in rats that are managed with 0.0025% BR. None of the 70 BR-loaded rats was caught/removed by wild predators/scavengers before collection of carcasses within 5-29 h. Therefore, and because almost all dead rats died in well-hidden locations, they do not seem to pose a significant risk of AR exposure to large predators/scavengers at livestock farms. Exposure of large predators may originate from AR-poisoned non-target small mammals. The few rats that died in the open are accessible and should be removed in routine searches during and after the application of AR bait to minimize transfer of AR into the wider environment.


Assuntos
4-Hidroxicumarinas , Rodenticidas , 4-Hidroxicumarinas/toxicidade , Animais , Anticoagulantes/toxicidade , Fazendas , Mamíferos , Ratos , Rodenticidas/toxicidade , Comportamento Espacial
10.
J Vis Exp ; (170)2021 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871459

RESUMO

Although the general architecture of the hippocampus is similar along its longitudinal axis, recent studies have revealed prominent differences in molecular, anatomical and functional criteria suggesting a division into different sub-circuits along its rostro-caudal extent. Owing to differential connectivity and function the most fundamental distinction is made between the dorsal and the ventral hippocampus, which are preferentially involved in spatial and emotional processing, respectively. Accordingly, in vivo work regarding spatial memory formation has focused on the dorsal hippocampus. In contrast, electro-physiological in vitro recordings have been preferentially performed on intermediate-ventral hippocampus, largely motivated by factors like slice viability and circuit integrity. To allow for direct correlation of in vivo data on spatial processing with in vitro data we have adapted previous sectioning methods to obtain highly viable transverse brain slices from the dorsal-intermediate hippocampus for long-term recordings of principal cells and interneurons in the dentate gyrus. As spatial behavior is routinely analyzed in adult mice, we have combined this transversal slicing procedure with the use of protective solutions to enhance viability of brain tissue from mature animals. We use this approach for mice of about 3 months of age. The method offers a good alternative to the coronal preparation which is frequently used for in vitro studies on dorsal hippocampus. We compare these two preparations in terms of quality of recordings and preservation of morphological features of recorded neurons.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Comportamento Espacial/fisiologia
11.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(6): 863-872, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859438

RESUMO

To guide spatial behavior, the brain must retrieve memories that are appropriately associated with different navigational contexts. Contextual memory might be mediated by cell ensembles in the hippocampal formation that alter their responses to changes in context, processes known as remapping and realignment in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, respectively. However, whether remapping and realignment guide context-dependent spatial behavior is unclear. To address this issue, human participants learned object-location associations within two distinct virtual reality environments and subsequently had their memory tested during functional MRI (fMRI) scanning. Entorhinal grid-like representations showed realignment between the two contexts, and coincident changes in fMRI activity patterns consistent with remapping were observed in the hippocampus. Critically, in a third ambiguous context, trial-by-trial remapping and realignment in the hippocampal-entorhinal network predicted context-dependent behavior. These results reveal the hippocampal-entorhinal mechanisms mediating human contextual memory and suggest that the hippocampal formation plays a key role in spatial behavior under uncertainty.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Córtex Entorrinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Entorrinal/fisiologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Comportamento Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Realidade Virtual , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249739, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831106

RESUMO

The aim of this study was analyze the effect of playing against biological matched and un-matched opposition, on physical performance and spatial exploration behavior of youth basketball players. Thirty under-14 to 16 basketball players were assigned to different teams according to maturity status (Pre-, Mid-, and Post-Peak Height Velocity [PHV]), and participated in basketball matches against matched (same maturity status), and un-matched (different maturity status) opposition. Maturity status was estimated considering the percentage of predicted adult height. Workload data was collected via inertial devices (IMUs) and Ultra-Wide Band (UWB)-based system. Heart rate was recorded with individual HR monitors. The Pre-PHV performed significantly more accelerations and decelerations and explored more space against matched opposition. Against un-matched opposition, the Pre-PHV presented higher average speed, body impacts, and Player Load. Both Mid- and Post-PHV covered more distance against matched opposition than against Pre-PHV. Games against Pre-PHV involved lower distance covered, average speed, Player Load, and higher accelerations and decelerations, than against Mid- and Post-PHV. The Pre-PHV athletes performed a higher number of accelerations and decelerations comparing to the Mid and Post-PHV players. Also, a significant interaction effect (group x time) was found in distance covered, average speed, body impacts, and Player Load. The type of opposition influenced physical performance and spatial exploration behavior during basketball matches, particularly of less-mature players. Based on present findings, practitioners can select the most suitable game format, considering the physical, technical, tactical, and psychological development needs, individualizing training stimulus.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Basquetebol/fisiologia , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Comportamento Espacial/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adolescente , Atletas , Criança , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Corrida/fisiologia , Carga de Trabalho
13.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249826, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909647

RESUMO

Billions of birds fatally collide with human-made structures each year. These mortalities have consequences for population viability and conservation of endangered species. This source of human-wildlife conflict also places constraints on various industries. Furthermore, with continued increases in urbanization, the incidence of collisions continues to increase. Efforts to reduce collisions have largely focused on making structures more visible to birds through visual stimuli but have shown limited success. We investigated the efficacy of a multimodal combination of acoustic signals with visual cues to reduce avian collisions with tall structures in open airspace. Previous work has demonstrated that a combination of acoustic and visual cues can decrease collision risk of birds in captive flight trials. Extending to field tests, we predicted that novel acoustic signals would combine with the visual cues of tall communication towers to reduce collision risk for birds. We broadcast two audible frequency ranges (4 to 6 and 6 to 8 kHz) in front of tall communication towers at locations in the Atlantic migratory flyway of Virginia during annual migration and observed birds' flight trajectories around the towers. We recorded an overall 12-16% lower rate of general bird activity surrounding towers during sound treatment conditions, compared with control (no broadcast sound) conditions. Furthermore, in 145 tracked "at-risk" flights, birds reduced flight velocity and deflected flight trajectories to a greater extent when exposed to the acoustic stimuli near the towers. In particular, the 4 to 6 kHz stimulus produced the greater effect sizes, with birds altering flight direction earlier in their trajectories and at larger distances from the towers, perhaps indicating that frequency range is more clearly audible to flying birds. This "acoustic lighthouse" concept reduces the risk of collision for birds in the field and could be applied to reduce collision risk associated with many human-made structures, such as wind turbines and tall buildings.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Migração Animal , Aves/fisiologia , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde/métodos , Som , Comportamento Espacial , Animais , Percepção Auditiva , Sinais (Psicologia) , Estimulação Luminosa , Percepção Visual
14.
Noise Health ; 23(108): 35-41, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753679

RESUMO

Populations in cities are projected to increase globally, densifying urban residential environments with both positive and negative effects. Positive social effects are offset by negative health effects however; urban residential noise has been identified in a large number of studies as a significant contributor to social unrest as well as a risk to physiological and psychological health caused by stress, making this topic highly relevant to the discussion on sustainability urban growth. Focusing on the psychological rebound effect of urban residential noise, this paper attempts to explain how and why auditory aspects of the spatial environment negatively influences urban residents. To provide context and to indicate areas in need of improvement, the legislative challenges to be faced are considered, with Sweden as a prime example of a first world country grappling with the effects of increased urban density. Existing building legislation regarding residential noise is considered in relation to studies investigating the effects of residential noise on psychological and physiological health, outlining areas in need of future development. Then, health responses to residential noise are placed in a broader evolutionary context by considering how these effects might be the result of triggered evolutionary mechanisms for keeping population size optimal. Further, the spatial dimension of hearing is discussed with reference to theories of territoriality in environmental psychology and the concept of auditory territoriality is described.


Assuntos
Ruído/efeitos adversos , Densidade Demográfica , Territorialidade , População Urbana/tendências , Reforma Urbana/tendências , Humanos , Ruído/legislação & jurisprudência , Características de Residência , Comportamento Social , Comportamento Espacial , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Crescimento Sustentável , Suécia/epidemiologia
15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 116, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558464

RESUMO

Depression, cognitive deficits, and sleep disturbances are common and often severe in menopausal women. Hormone replacement cannot effectively alleviate these symptoms and sometimes elicits life-threatening adverse reactions. Exploring effective therapies to target psychological problems is urgently needed. In this work, we developed a mouse model of menopause by bilateral ovariectomies (OVXs) and investigated whether menopausal mental symptoms can be ameliorated by psychostimulant modafinil (MOD) as well as explored the underlying mechanisms. At ~3 weeks after OVXs, mice got daily intraperitoneal administrations of MOD at the beginning of the active phase. Several behavioral tests and electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings were conducted. Electrophysiological and immunohistochemical experiments were carried out to evaluate the synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, respectively. We found that chronic MOD administration in OVX mice significantly decreased immobility time. The spatial memory performance of OVX mice improved significantly in response to MOD administration in the Morris water-maze test. The OVX mice were characterized by an attenuation of hippocampal synaptic transmission and synaptic long-term potentiation and had fewer 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus, which were restored after MOD administration. Antagonists of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and GABAA receptor agonists were involved in MOD-exerted anti-depressant actions and augments of hippocampal neurogenesis in OVX mice. Moreover, night-dosed MOD therapy significantly promoted the night-time delta-band EEG power during wakefulness and the day-time rapid eye movement sleep amount, which were significantly reduced by OVXs. Collectively, these findings suggest that MOD is a promising therapeutic candidate for menopausal women.


Assuntos
Hipocampo , Memória Espacial , Animais , Feminino , Menopausa , Camundongos , Modafinila , Plasticidade Neuronal , Sono REM , Comportamento Espacial
16.
Ecol Lett ; 24(4): 676-686, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583128

RESUMO

The structure of wild animal social systems depends on a complex combination of intrinsic and extrinsic drivers. Population structuring and spatial behaviour are key determinants of individuals' observed social behaviour, but quantifying these spatial components alongside multiple other drivers remains difficult due to data scarcity and analytical complexity. We used a 43-year dataset detailing a wild red deer population to investigate how individuals' spatial behaviours drive social network positioning, while simultaneously assessing other potential contributing factors. Using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) multi-matrix animal models, we demonstrate that social network positions are shaped by two-dimensional landscape locations, pairwise space sharing, individual range size, and spatial and temporal variation in population density, alongside smaller but detectable impacts of a selection of individual-level phenotypic traits. These results indicate strong, multifaceted spatiotemporal structuring in this society, emphasising the importance of considering multiple spatial components when investigating the causes and consequences of sociality.


Assuntos
Cervos , Animais , Fenótipo , Comportamento Social , Rede Social , Comportamento Espacial
17.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(2): 79-85, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577414

RESUMO

The persistence of the coronavirus-caused respiratory disease (COVID-19) and the related restrictions to mobility and social interactions are forcing a significant portion of students and workers to reorganize their daily activities to accommodate the needs of distance learning and agile work (smart working). What is the impact of these changes on the bosses/teachers' and workers/students' experience? This article uses recent neuroscience research findings to explore how distance learning and smart working impact the following three pillars that reflect the organization of our brain and are at the core of school and office experiences: (a) the learning/work happens in a dedicated physical place; (b) the learning/work is carried out under the supervision of a boss/professor; and (c) the learning/work is distributed between team members/classmates. For each pillar, we discuss its link with the specific cognitive processes involved and the impact that technology has on their functioning. In particular, the use of videoconferencing affects the functioning of Global Positioning System neurons (neurons that code our navigation behavior), mirror neurons, self-attention networks, spindle cells, and interbrain neural oscillations. These effects have a significant impact on many identity and cognitive processes, including social and professional identity, leadership, intuition, mentoring, and creativity. In conclusion, just moving typical office and learning processes inside a videoconferencing platform, as happened in many contexts during the COVID-19 pandemic, can in the long term erode corporate cultures and school communities. In this view, an effective use of technology requires us to reimagine how work and teaching are done virtually, in creative and bold new ways.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Relações Interpessoais , Vias Neurais , Comportamento Espacial , Teletrabalho , Atenção , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Memória Episódica , Neurônios-Espelho , Neurônios , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Navegação Espacial , Estudantes , Comunicação por Videoconferência
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2611, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510396

RESUMO

Interpersonal space (IPS) is the area around the body that individuals maintain between themselves and others during social interactions. When others violate our IPS, feeling of discomfort rise up, urging us to move farther away and reinstate an appropriate interpersonal distance. Previous studies showed that when individuals are exposed to closeness of an unknown person (a confederate), the skin conductance response (SCR) increases. However, if the SCR is modulated according to participant's preferred IPS is still an open question. To test this hypothesis, we recorded the SCR in healthy participants when a confederate stood in front of them at various distances simulating either an approach or withdrawal movement (Experiment 1). Then, the comfort-distance task was adopted to measure IPS: participants stop the confederate, who moved either toward or away from them, when they felt comfortable with other's proximity (Experiment 2). We found higher SCR when the confederate stood closer to participants simulating an IPS intrusion, compared to when the confederate moved farther away. Crucially, we provide the first evidence that SCR, acting as a warning signal, contributes to interpersonal distance preference suggesting a functional link between behavioral components of IPS regulation and the underlying physiological processes.


Assuntos
Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Relações Interpessoais , Espaço Pessoal , Adulto , Ansiedade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(4): 447-457, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398140

RESUMO

Interacting pedestrians in a crowd spontaneously adjust their footsteps and align their respective stepping phases. This self-organization phenomenon is known as synchronization. However, it is unclear why and how synchronization forms spontaneously under different density conditions, or what functional benefit synchronization offers for the collective motion of humans. Here, we conducted a single-file crowd motion experiment that directly tracked the alternating movement of both legs of interacting pedestrians. We show that synchronization is most likely to be triggered at the same density at which the flow rate of pedestrians reaches a maximum value. We demonstrate that synchronization is established in response to an insufficient safety distance between pedestrians, and that it enables pedestrians to realize efficient collective stepping motion without the occurrence of inter-person collisions. These findings provide insights into the collective motion behaviour of humans and may have implications for understanding pedestrian synchronization-induced wobbling, for example, of bridges.


Assuntos
Aglomeração , Processos Grupais , Pedestres/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Espacial/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Movimento/fisiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245940, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507979

RESUMO

It was shown earlier that dogs, when selecting between two dishes with snacks placed in front of them, left and right, prefer to turn either clockwise or counterclockwise or randomly in either direction. This preference (or non-preference) is individually consistent in all trials but it is biased in favor of north if they choose between dishes positioned north and east or north and west, a phenomenon denoted as "pull of the north". Here, we replicated these experiments indoors, in magnetic coils, under natural magnetic field and under magnetic field shifted 90° clockwise. We demonstrate that "pull of the north" was present also in an environment without any outdoor cues and that the magnetic (and not topographic) north exerted the effect. The detailed analysis shows that the phenomenon involves also "repulsion of the south". The clockwise turning preference in the right-preferring dogs is more pronounced in the S-W combination, while the counterclockwise turning preference in the left-preferring dogs is pronounced in the S-E combination. In this way, south-placed dishes are less frequently chosen than would be expected, while the north-placed dishes are apparently more preferred. Turning preference did not correlate with the motoric paw laterality (Kong test). Given that the choice of a dish is visually guided, we postulate that the turning preference was determined by the dominant eye, so that a dominant right eye resulted in clockwise, and a dominant left eye in counterclockwise turning. Assuming further that magnetoreception in canines is based on the radical-pair mechanism, a "conflict of interests" may be expected, if the dominant eye guides turning away from north, yet the contralateral eye "sees the north", which generally acts attractive, provoking body alignment along the north-south axis.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Campos Magnéticos , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Comportamento Espacial/fisiologia , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Masculino
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