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1.
PLoS Genet ; 16(2): e1008606, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092052

RESUMO

Over long evolutionary timescales, major changes to the copy number, function, and genomic organization of genes occur, however, our understanding of the individual mutational events responsible for these changes is lacking. In this report, we study the genetic basis of adaptation of two strains of C. elegans to laboratory food sources using competition experiments on a panel of 89 recombinant inbred lines (RIL). Unexpectedly, we identified a single RIL with higher relative fitness than either of the parental strains. This strain also displayed a novel behavioral phenotype, resulting in higher propensity to explore bacterial lawns. Using bulk-segregant analysis and short-read resequencing of this RIL, we mapped the change in exploration behavior to a spontaneous, complex rearrangement of the rcan-1 gene that occurred during construction of the RIL panel. We resolved this rearrangement into five unique tandem inversion/duplications using Oxford Nanopore long-read sequencing. rcan-1 encodes an ortholog to human RCAN1/DSCR1 calcipressin gene, which has been implicated as a causal gene for Down syndrome. The genomic rearrangement in rcan-1 creates two complete and two truncated versions of the rcan-1 coding region, with a variety of modified 5' and 3' non-coding regions. While most copy-number variations (CNVs) are thought to act by increasing expression of duplicated genes, these changes to rcan-1 ultimately result in the reduction of its whole-body expression due to changes in the upstream regions. By backcrossing this rearrangement into a common genetic background to create a near isogenic line (NIL), we demonstrate that both the competitive advantage and exploration behavioral changes are linked to this complex genetic variant. This NIL strain does not phenocopy a strain containing an rcan-1 loss-of-function allele, which suggests that the residual expression of rcan-1 is necessary for its fitness effects. Our results demonstrate how colonization of new environments, such as those encountered in the laboratory, can create evolutionary pressure to modify gene function. This evolutionary mismatch can be resolved by an unexpectedly complex genetic change that simultaneously duplicates and diversifies a gene into two uniquely regulated genes. Our work shows how complex rearrangements can act to modify gene expression in ways besides increased gene dosage.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Evolução Molecular , Comportamento Exploratório , Aptidão Genética , Alelos , Animais , Duplicação Gênica , Endogamia , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0220221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040479

RESUMO

Consequences of heat stress during pregnancy can affect the normal development of the offspring. In the present experiment, 30 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats (41.8 ± 5.7 kg) were exposed to 2 thermal environments varying in temperature-humidity index (THI) from 12 days before mating to 45 days of gestation. The environmental conditions were: gestation under thermal-neutral (TN; THI = 71 ± 3); and gestation under heat stress (HS; THI = 85 ± 3) conditions. At 27 ± 4 days old, female kids exposed to in utero TN (IUTN; n = 16) or in utero HS (IUHS; n = 10) were subjected to 2 tests: arena test (AT) and novel object test (NOT), the latter was repeated at 3 months of age. Additionally, 8 months after birth, a subset of IUTH and IUHS growing goats (n = 8 each; 16.8 ± 3.4 kg BW) were exposed to 2 environmental conditions in 2 consecutive periods: a basal thermal-neutral period (THI = 72 ± 3) for 7 days, and a heat-stress period (THI = 87 ± 2) for 21 days. In both periods, feeding, resting, posture, and thermally-associated behaviors were recorded. The gestation length was shortened by 3 days in GHS goats. In the AT, IUHS kids showed a lower number of sniffs (P < 0.01) compared to IUTN. In the NOT, IUHS kids also tended to show a lower number of sniffs (P = 0.09). During heat exposure, IUTN and IUHS growing goats spent more time resting and exhibited more heat-stress related behaviors such as panting and drinking (P < 0.001); however, no differences were observed between both groups. In conclusion, heat stress during the first third of pregnancy shortened gestation length and influenced the exploratory behavior of the kids in the early life. However, behavior responses to heat stress during the adulthood were not affected by the in utero thermal treatment.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/complicações , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Comportamento Animal , Ingestão de Líquidos , Comportamento Exploratório , Feminino , Cabras , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/veterinária
3.
Chin J Physiol ; 63(1): 27-34, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056984

RESUMO

Three-quarters of the lands in Taiwan are over 1000 m above sea level. Formosan wood mice (Apodemus semotus), also called Taiwanese field mice, are largely found at altitudes of 1400 ~ 3700 m and are the dominant rodents in these areas. Notably, Formosan wood mice show high levels of exploratory behaviors, not only in the wild but also in laboratory situations. Therefore, in this study, we examined the behavioral responses and central dopaminergic activities of male C57BL/6J mice and Formosan wood mice in the open field test. Dopamine and its major metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were used as indices of dopaminergic activities. Formosan wood mice showed higher levels of exploration and locomotor activity than C57BL/6J mice in the open field test. Higher central dopaminergic activities in the nucleus accumbens, striatum, and medial prefrontal cortex were found in Formosan wood mice than in C57BL/6J mice in the open field test. Higher levels of locomotion and central dopaminergic activities in Formosan wood mice were consistent after two exposures to the open field test; however, dramatic decreases in levels of locomotion and central dopaminergic activities in C57BL/6J mice were found after two exposures to the open field test. The present study found that Formosan wood mice exhibited higher levels of locomotor activity and exploration and central dopaminergic activities than C57BL/6J mice after one or two exposures to the open field test.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório , Animais , Dopamina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Murinae , Taiwan
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(6): 3291-3300, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980535

RESUMO

Uncertainty plays a critical role in reinforcement learning and decision making. However, exactly how it influences behavior remains unclear. Multiarmed-bandit tasks offer an ideal test bed, since computational tools such as approximate Kalman filters can closely characterize the interplay between trial-by-trial values, uncertainty, learning, and choice. To gain additional insight into learning and choice processes, we obtained data from subjects' overt allocation of gaze. The estimated value and estimation uncertainty of options influenced what subjects looked at before choosing; these same quantities also influenced choice, as additionally did fixation itself. A momentary measure of uncertainty in the form of absolute prediction errors determined how long participants looked at the obtained outcomes. These findings affirm the importance of uncertainty in multiple facets of behavior and help delineate its effects on decision making.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Reforço Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
5.
Aquat Toxicol ; 220: 105401, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924586

RESUMO

The number of submarine power cables using either direct or alternating current is expected to increase drastically in coming decades. Data concerning the impact of magnetic fields generated by these cables on marine invertebrates are scarce. In this context, the aim of this study was to explore the potential impact of anthropogenic static and time-varying magnetic fields on the behavior of recently settled juvenile European lobsters (Homarus gammarus) using two different behavioral assays. Day-light conditions were used to stimulate the sheltering behavior and facilitate the video tracking. We showed that juvenile lobsters did not exhibit any change of behavior when submitted to an artificial magnetic field gradient (maximum intensity of 200 µT) compared to non-exposed lobsters in the ambient magnetic field. Additionally, no influence was noted on either the lobsters' ability to find shelter or modified their exploratory behavior after one week of exposure to anthropogenic magnetic fields (225 ±â€¯5 µT) which remained similar to those observed in control individuals. It appears that static and time-varying anthropogenic magnetic fields, at these intensities, do not significantly impact the behavior of juvenile European lobsters in daylight conditions. Nevertheless, to form a complete picture for this biological model, further studies are needed on the other life stages as they may respond differently.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Campos Magnéticos/efeitos adversos , Nephropidae/fisiologia , Navios , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Europa (Continente) , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Gravação em Vídeo
6.
Nature ; 577(7789): 175-176, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911680
7.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226886, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869383

RESUMO

Animal groups often represent nonrandom subsets of individuals, and increasing evidence indicates that individuals may sort among groups based on their personalities. The size of a group can predict its personality composition in some species due to differential suitability of a personality for groups of certain sizes, and the group itself may function more effectively if particular personality types are present. We quantified cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) behavioral measures using linear and generalized linear mixed models to identify whether they: (1) varied among individuals within colonies and among colonies, (2) were related to reproductive success, and (3) predicted levels of parental care. Significant among-individual and among-colony site variation in a cliff swallow's latency to enter its nest when presented with a novel stimulus was revealed. We also found significant among-individual variation in the number of attacks directed toward a novel stimulus at the nest and in the response to broadcast of a cliff swallow alarm call recording, but among site variation in these measures was not significant. We did not find evidence for behavioral syndromes linking the personalities measured. Differences among individuals in latency to enter the nest and the number of attacks were not significantly related to reproductive success or to the extent to which birds fed their nestlings. However, extent of nestling feeding was significantly predicted by the number of mist net captures. The limited evidence in general of systematic variation in the behavior we measured among cliff swallow colonies may reflect the different and sometimes opposing selection pressures on behavior in different social environments. Future work should perhaps examine variation in other behavioral traits, such as foraging, in cliff swallow colonies of different sizes.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Andorinhas/fisiologia , Animais , Aglomeração , Reação de Fuga , Comportamento Exploratório , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento de Nidação , Densidade Demográfica , Reprodução , Comportamento Social
8.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0227000, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877187

RESUMO

After training, visual perceptual learning improvements are mostly constrained to the trained stimulus feature and retinal location. The aim of this study is to construct an integrated paradigm where the visual learning happens in a more natural context and in parallel for multiple stimulus types, and to test the generalization of learning-related improvements towards untrained features, locations, and more general cognitive domains. Half the subjects were trained with a gamified perceptual learning paradigm for ten hours, which consisted of an orientation discrimination task and a novel object categorization task embedded in a three-dimensional maze. A second group of subjects, an active control group, played ten hours of Candy Crush Saga. Before and after training, all subjects completed a 'near transfer' orientation discrimination and novel object categorization task, as well as a set of 'far transfer' general cognitive and attentional tasks. During the perceptual learning tasks, two different stimulus features and two retinal location pairs were assessed in each task. For the experimental group, one stimulus feature and retinal location pair was trained, whilst the other one remained untrained. Both features and location pairs were untrained in the control group. Far transfer did occur in some domains across all subjects irrespective of the training regimen (i.e. executive functioning, mental rotation performance, and multitask performance and speed). Near transfer was present in both groups, however only more pronounced for one particular task in the experimental group, namely novel object categorization. To conclude, all but one near transfer task did not generalize more than the control group.


Assuntos
Transferência de Experiência , Jogos de Vídeo , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Comportamento Exploratório , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Orientação Espacial , Aprendizagem Espacial , Adulto Jovem
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 276: 108964, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698093

RESUMO

Parasites induce behavioral changes in the host and obesity is a health problem affecting different animal species. Cysticercosis caused by Taenia pisiformis affects some behavior of rabbits and reproductive behavior of does. Rabbits do not escape from metabolic disorders, being long-live animals useful in breeding, research and companion animals. Here, we addressed the interaction between parasitosis and obesity, and studied how these conditions or the comorbidity affect behavioral and productive parameters in bucks infected with 3000 T. pisiformis eggs. We found that the chronic infection reduced locomotor activity by 28.5% in obese, 18.5% in infected and 47% in obese-infected group (comorbid). The exploratory activity reduced by 42% in obese, 48% in infected and 68% in comorbid rabbits (P ≤ 0.001). Chinning was not affected by obesity, while infection decreased it by 25%. Behavioral reproductive parameters like response time, the mount latency and number of ejaculates were affected by infection and obesity. Furthermore, obesity seems to increase the parasite load promoting the formation of liver granulomas (16% granulomas compared with normal weight), with a higher number of cysticerci in obese animals (86% more than normal weight). Infection decreases body weight, body mass index and the zoometric index BW/LV in obese and normal weight rabbits. In conclusion, infection with T. pisiformis altered behavioral and productive parameters, and obesity magnifies the impact caused by the infection. Also, obesity leads to major susceptibility to infection with T. pisiformis.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Cisticercose/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Exploratório , Locomoção , Masculino , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Carga Parasitária , Coelhos , Distribuição Aleatória , Sêmen , Comportamento Sexual Animal
10.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(11): e8441, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721904

RESUMO

The heptapeptide Bj-PRO-7a, isolated and identified from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) venom, produces antihypertensive and other cardiovascular effects that are independent on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, possibly relying on cholinergic muscarinic receptors subtype 1 (M1R). However, whether Bj-PRO-7a acts upon the central nervous system and modifies behavior is yet to be determined. Therefore, the aims of this study were: i) to assess the effects of acute administration of Bj-PRO-7a upon behavior; ii) to reveal mechanisms involved in the effects of Bj-PRO-7a upon locomotion/exploration, anxiety, and depression-like behaviors. For this purpose, adult male Wistar (WT, wild type) and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) received intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (0.9% NaCl), diazepam (2 mg/kg), imipramine (15 mg/kg), Bj-PRO-7a (71, 213 or 426 nmol/kg), pirenzepine (852 nmol/kg), α-methyl-DL-tyrosine (200 mg/kg), or chlorpromazine (2 mg/kg), and underwent elevated plus maze, open field, and forced swimming tests. The heptapeptide promoted anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects and increased locomotion/exploration. These effects of Bj-PRO-7a seem to be dependent on M1R activation and dopaminergic receptors and rely on catecholaminergic pathways.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Venenos de Crotalídeos/química , Depressão , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Prolina/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Masculino , Oligopeptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Prolina/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(11): e1007475, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703063

RESUMO

In many cognitive tasks, lapses (spontaneous errors) are tacitly dismissed as the result of nuisance processes like sensorimotor noise, fatigue, or disengagement. However, some lapses could also be caused by exploratory noise: randomness in behavior that facilitates learning in changing environments. If so, then strategic processes would need only up-regulate (rather than generate) exploration to adapt to a changing environment. This view predicts that more frequent lapses should be associated with greater flexibility because these behaviors share a common cause. Here, we report that when rhesus macaques performed a set-shifting task, lapse rates were negatively correlated with perseverative error frequency across sessions, consistent with a common basis in exploration. The results could not be explained by local failures to learn. Furthermore, chronic exposure to cocaine, which is known to impair cognitive flexibility, did increase perseverative errors, but, surprisingly, also improved overall set-shifting task performance by reducing lapse rates. We reconcile these results with a state-switching model in which cocaine decreases exploration by deepening attractor basins corresponding to rule states. These results support the idea that exploratory noise contributes to lapses, affecting rule-based decision-making even when it has no strategic value, and suggest that one key mechanism for regulating exploration may be the depth of rule states.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Animais , Cocaína/farmacologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
12.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 58: 167-174, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614282

RESUMO

A strong preference for novelty emerges in infancy and is prevalent across the animal kingdom. When incorporated into reinforcement-based machine learning algorithms, visual novelty can act as an intrinsic reward signal that vastly increases the efficiency of exploration and expedites learning, particularly in situations where external rewards are difficult to obtain. Here we review parallels between recent developments in novelty-driven machine learning algorithms and our understanding of how visual novelty is computed and signaled in the primate brain. We propose that in the visual system, novelty representations are not configured with the principal goal of detecting novel objects, but rather with the broader goal of flexibly generalizing novelty information across different states in the service of driving novelty-based learning.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório , Recompensa , Animais , Encéfalo , Aprendizado de Máquina , Motivação
13.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 79(3): 309-317, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587023

RESUMO

We determined CA1 hippocampal field to be involved in self-exposure, a type of novelty­seeking behaviour that has also been associated with short 22 kHz and flat 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in adult male Long-Evans rats. Rats were habituated for three days to a self-exposure cage with two nose-poke holes. On day four, the animals from the experimental group were allowed to turn the cage light off for 5 s with a nose­poke (test/self­exposure session), while rats from control-yoked group had changing light conditions coupled and identical to the experimental animals. The experimental rats performed more nose-pokes during self-exposure session than animals from the control group. This effect was accompanied by a higher density of c-Fos-positive nuclei in the hippocampal CA1. There were no significant group differences in c-Fos expression in other brain regions analysed. However, possible involvement of several other structures in self-exposure (i.e., CA3, the dentate gyrus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens) is also discussed, as their correlational activity, reflected by c-Fos immunoactivity, was observed in the experimental rats. During test sessions, there were more nose-pokes accompanied by short 22 kHz calls and 50 kHz calls performed by the rats of the experimental group than of the control group. The CA1 region has previously been associated with novelty; short 22 kHz USV and flat 50 kHz USV could be associated with self-exposure, also they appear to be emitted correlatively.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Masculino , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Ratos Long-Evans
14.
Exp Psychol ; 66(5): 319-330, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603046

RESUMO

Learners are more likely to remember what they study if they are motivated to do so. Such motivation can be externally driven by prospective rewards, but also intrinsically driven by curiosity. The present research focused on the role of curiosity during intentional learning. We examined the potential mnemonic benefit of curiosity, whether this benefit is undermined when learners are externally motivated to learn by rewards, and whether it can be attributed to increased study time for information they are more curious about. In two experiments, participants were presented with trivia questions, rated their level of curiosity about each question, and then studied the answers, either with or without a prospect of reward for correct recall on a subsequent test. Study time was either fixed (Experiment 1) or self-paced (Experiment 2). Performance on a memory test 1 week later suggested that curiosity enhanced long-term retention, and that rewards did not undermine the benefit of curiosity. When learning was self-paced, study time increased with curiosity but did not account for the effect of curiosity on memory. The results highlight the important role curiosity plays in learning and suggest that curiosity and rewards can be used together effectively to promote students' learning.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Motivação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Estudos Prospectivos , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
15.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(11): e8899, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664307

RESUMO

Few behavioral tests allow measuring several characteristics and most require training, complex analyses, and/or are time-consuming. We present an apparatus based on rat exploratory behavior. Composed of three different environments, it allows the assessment of more than one behavioral characteristic in a short 3-min session. Factorial analyses have defined three behavioral dimensions, which we named Exploration, Impulsivity, and Self-protection. Behaviors composing the Exploration factor were increased by chlordiazepoxide and apomorphine and decreased by pentylenetetrazole. Behaviors composing the Impulsivity factor were increased by chlordiazepoxide, apomorphine, and both acute and chronic imipramine treatments. Behaviors composing the Self-protection factor were decreased by apomorphine. We submitted Wistar rats to the open-field test, the elevated-plus maze, and to the apparatus we are proposing. Measures related to exploratory behavior in all three tests were correlated. Measures composing the factors Impulsivity and Self-protection did not correlate with any measures from the two standard tests. Also, compared with existing impulsivity tests, the one we proposed did not require previous learning, training, or sophisticated analysis. Exploration measures from our test are as easy to obtain as the ones from other standard tests. Thus, we have proposed an apparatus that measured three different behavioral characteristics, was simple and fast, did not require subjects to be submitted to previous learning or training, was sensitive to drug treatments, and did not require sophisticated data analyses.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Pesquisa Comportamental/instrumentação , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Animais , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/farmacologia , Apomorfina/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Clordiazepóxido/farmacologia , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Medo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas GABAérgicos/farmacologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Modelos Animais , Pentilenotetrazol/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 41(5): 250-257, sept.-oct. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183934

RESUMO

Introducción: La empatía es un concepto importante en la interacción entre el profesional fisioterapeuta y el paciente, y contribuye a una mejor atención del mismo. La formación empática en estudiantes de fisioterapia debe ser asumida por las universidades desde el primer año de estudio por el carácter complejo de este atributo; sin embargo, cualquier intervención debe estar precedida por un diagnóstico empático exhaustivo. Objetivo: Determinar los niveles de empatía y de sus componentes en estudiantes de fisioterapia según los factores curso y género. Material y métodos: Estudio exploratorio y de corte transversal. Se estudió una muestra de 191 estudiantes. Los datos de empatía fueron recogidos mediante la aplicación de la escala de empatía de Jefferson. Fueron estimadas la mediana, los cuartiles 1 y 3, la diferencia intercuartílica y el intervalo de confianza de la mediana. Se estudiaron las posibles diferencias en la empatía y sus componentes mediante pruebas no paramétricas (mediana de Mood). Resultados: Hubo diferencias en la empatía y en el componente cuidado con compasión en el factor curso. Se manifiesta la declinación empática en el componente cuidado con compasión. La empatía y sus componentes no se diferenciaron en el género. Conclusiones: La diferencia encontrada en la empatía y en el componente cuidado con compasión, la ausencia de diferencias de empatía entre los géneros y la manifestación de declinación empática solo en el componente cuidado con compasión constituyen características específicas en los estudiantes examinados y representan un diagnóstico empático concreto y se constituye en la base para elaborar una estrategia de intervención que debe ser coherente con estos resultados


Introduction: Empathy is an important concept in the interaction between the physiotherapist and the patient, and contributes to a better care of the patient. Empathy training in physiotherapy students must be taught by the universities from the first year of study because of the complex character of this attribute. However, any intervention must be preceded by a comprehensive empathy diagnosis. Objective: To determine the levels of empathy and its components in physiotherapy students according to course and gender factors. Material and methods: Exploratory and cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 191 students. The empathy data was collected by applying the Jefferson Empathy Scale. The median, 1st and 3rd quartile, interquartile difference and confidence interval of the median were estimated. The possible differences in Empathy and its components were analysed using of non-parametric tests (Mood's median). Results: There were differences in empathy and in the compassionate care component in the course factor. The empathy decline in the compassionate component was observed. Empathy and its components did not differ by gender. Conclusions: The differences found in empathy and in the compassionate care component, the absence of empathy differences in empathy between the genders, and observation of a decline in empathy only in the compassionate care component, were specific characteristics in the students examined. These represent a specific empathy diagnosis, and are the basis for developing an intervention strategy consistent with these results


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Fisioterapia , Empatia , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Comportamento Exploratório , Intervalos de Confiança
18.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108790, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400342

RESUMO

Preclinical assays play a key role in research in research on the neurobiology of pain and the development of novel analgesics. Drugs available for the treatment of inflammatory pain are not fully effective and show adverse effects. Thus, we investigated the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects of bis(3-amino-2-pyridine) diselenide (BAPD), a new analgesic drug prototype. BAPD effects were investigated using nociception models induced by chemical (glutamate), immunologic (Freund's Complete Adjuvant - CFA) and thermal stimuli in Swiss mice. Mice were orally (p.o.) treated with BAPD (0.1-50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to the glutamate and hot-plate tests and a time-course (0.5 up to 8 h) of the antinociceptive effect of BAPD (50 mg/kg, p. o.) was evaluated in a CFA model. In the CFA model, BAPD effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) and interferon-γ (INF-γ) expression, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, oxidative (2,2'-Azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphe- nyl-1-picrylhydrazyl levels) and histological parameters were evaluated. The safety of the compound (50 and 300 mg/kg, p. o.) was verified for 72 h. BAPD reduced the licking time induced by glutamate and caused an increase in latency response to thermal stimulus. Naloxone reversed the antinociceptive effect of BAPD. Paw edema formation induced by glutamate or CFA injection was reduced by BAPD. Mechanical hyperalgesia induced by CFA was attenuated by BAPD. BAPD did not protect against the increase in MPO activity and decrease of the 2,2'-Azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphe- nyl-1-picrylhydrazyl levels induced by CFA. BAPD protected against histological alterations and reduction on the levels of gene expression COX-2 and INF-γ in the paw of mice exposed to CFA. BAPD was safe at the doses and time evaluated. BAPD exerts acute antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic actions, suggesting that it may represent an alternative in the future development of new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores Opioides/metabolismo , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/patologia , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Pé/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Interferon gama/genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/patologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides/genética , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108758, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348919

RESUMO

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in children. It is diagnosed by two main behavioral phenotypes i.e. social-communication impairments and repetitive behavior. ASD is complex disorder with unsolved etiology due to multiple genes involvement, epigenetic mechanism and environmental factors. The clinical and preclinical studies have been indicating the association of propionic acid with autism spectrum disorder. Numerous studies suggest the potential therapeutic effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) in different brain disorders. This research evaluates the utility of selective agonist of PPAR-γ, pioglitazone in postnatal propionic acid induced ASD related symptomatology in male Wistar rats. PPA (250 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered to male offspring for three consecutive days from postnatal 21st day to 23rd day. PPA induced social impairment, repetitive behavior, hyperlocomotion, anxiety and low exploratory activity in rats. Also, postnatal propionic acid-treated rats showed higher levels of oxidative stress (increased in thiobarbituric acid reactive species and decreased in reduced glutathione) as well as inflammation (increased in interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and decreased in interleukin-10) in the cerebellum, brainstem and prefrontal cortex. The rats were treated daily with pioglitazone (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) from postnatal 24th day to end of the study. Treatment with pioglitazone, significantly attenuated the postnatal propionic acid-induced social impairment, repetitive behavior, hyperactivity, anxiety and low exploratory activity. Furthermore, pioglitazone also reduced the postnatal propionic acid-induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in aforementioned brain regions. Hence, pioglitazone improved the propionic acid-induced neurobehavioral and biochemical impairments in rats.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/agonistas , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Animais , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Pioglitazona/uso terapêutico , Propionatos/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 117(5): 1016-1033, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259577

RESUMO

Open people show greater interest in situations that are complex, novel, and difficult to understand-situations that may also be experienced as confusing. Here we investigate the possibility that openness/intellect is centrally characterized by more positive relations between interest and confusion. Interest and confusion are key states experienced during engagement with information and learning. However, little is known about the within-person relation between them, let alone individual differences in this relation. We tested our hypotheses by making use of different paradigms, stimuli, and participants. Across five studies (N = 640) we tested the relation between openness/intellect and within-person interest-confusion relations in response to art (Study 1); science, philosophy, and art (Study 2); psychology lectures (Study 3); a poem (Study 4); and a complex problem solving task (Study 5). Average interest-confusion relations varied between different studies, but for all studies the distributions of the relations went from highly negative to highly positive-individual differences in direction rather than just degree. In all but 1 study we found consistent support for our hypotheses-openness/intellect is associated with more positive relations between interest and confusion. No other personality domain or intelligence was consistently related to interest-confusion relations. Together, these findings suggest a new phenomenological aspect of being open-curiosity toward confusing situations. Our findings support the link between openness/intellect and sensitivity to the value of complex information, and are discussed with regards to their relevance for engagement with information and learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cognição , Comportamento Exploratório , Personalidade , Resolução de Problemas , Cognição/fisiologia , Compreensão , Humanos , Individualidade , Inteligência/fisiologia , Aprendizagem , Personalidade/fisiologia , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia
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