Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 15.355
Filtrar
1.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 334-340, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202556

RESUMO

El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar si la curiosidad es una variable moderadora entre la Impulsividad y la Orientación Emprendedora. Se utiliza una muestra multiocupacional de 883 empleados españoles (49 % hombres, 51 % mujeres), obtenidos mediante un muestreo no probabilístico. Se ha utilizado el programa SPSS 23.0. Se encontraron correlaciones estadísticamente significativas entre todas las variables de la investigación a excepcion de la impulsividad Funcional. Finalmente, la evidencia empírica indica que la Curiosidad-D tiene un papel moderador entre la impulsividad Disfuncional y la Orientación Emprendedora mostrada, en el sentido de que la Curiosidad-D (entendida como una variable cuantitativa) afecta la intensidad de la relación entre la Impulsividad Disfuncional (variable predictora) y la Orientación Emprendedora (variable de criterio)


The objective of the present study is to analyze whether the variable Curiosity is a moderating variable between Impulsivity and Entrepreneurial Orientation. The multi-occupational sample of 883 Spanish and Colombian employees (49% men, 51% women) was obtained through non-probabilistic sampling. The data collected were processed with the SPSS 23.0 program. Statistically significant correlations were found among all the research variables except for Functional Impulsivity. Finally, empirical evidence indicates that Curiosity-D plays a moderating role between Dysfunctional Impulsivity and Entrepreneurial Orientation in the sense that Curiosity-D (understood as a quantitative variable) affects the intensity of the relationship between Dysfunctional Impulsivity (predictor variable) and Entrepreneurial Orientation (criterion variable)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Exploratório , Impulso (Psicologia) , Empreendedorismo , Comportamento Impulsivo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Inventário de Personalidade , Análise de Regressão , Valores de Referência , Espanha , Colômbia
2.
Redox Biol ; 45: 102054, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198070

RESUMO

Nucleoredoxin is a thioredoxin-like redoxin that has been recognized as redox modulator of WNT signaling. Using a Yeast-2-Hybrid screen, we identified calcium calmodulin kinase 2a, Camk2a, as a prominent prey in a brain library. Camk2a is crucial for nitric oxide dependent processes of neuronal plasticity of learning and memory. Therefore, the present study assessed functions of NXN in neuronal Nestin-NXN-/- deficient mice. The NXN-Camk2a interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation, and by colocalization in neuropil and dendritic spines. Functionally, Camk2a activity was reduced in NXN deficient neurons and restored with recombinant NXN. Proteomics revealed reduced oxidation in the hippocampus of Nestin-NXN-/- deficient mice, including Camk2a, further synaptic and mitochondrial proteins, and was associated with a reduction of mitochondrial respiration. Nestin-NXN-/- mice were healthy and behaved normally in behavioral tests of anxiety, activity and sociability. They had no cognitive deficits in touchscreen based learning & memory tasks, but omitted more trials showing a lower interest in the reward. They also engaged less in rewarding voluntary wheel running, and in exploratory behavior in IntelliCages. Accuracy was enhanced owing to the loss of exploration. The data suggested that NXN maintained the oxidative state of Camk2a and thereby its activity. In addition, it supported oxidation of other synaptic and mitochondrial proteins, and mitochondrial respiration. The loss of NXN-dependent pro-oxidative functions manifested in a loss of exploratory drive and reduced interest in reward in behaving mice.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório , Atividade Motora , Oxirredutases/genética , Animais , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina , Hipocampo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Nestina , Neurônios
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3598, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127657

RESUMO

Effective curiosity-driven learning requires recognizing that the value of evidence for testing hypotheses depends on what other hypotheses are under consideration. Do we intuitively represent the discriminability of hypotheses? Here we show children alternative hypotheses for the contents of a box and then shake the box (or allow children to shake it themselves) so they can hear the sound of the contents. We find that children are able to compare the evidence they hear with imagined evidence they do not hear but might have heard under alternative hypotheses. Children (N = 160; mean: 5 years and 4 months) prefer easier discriminations (Experiments 1-3) and explore longer given harder ones (Experiments 4-7). Across 16 contrasts, children's exploration time quantitatively tracks the discriminability of heard evidence from an unheard alternative. The results are consistent with the idea that children have an "intuitive psychophysics": children represent their own perceptual abilities and explore longer when hypotheses are harder to distinguish.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Comportamento Exploratório , Aprendizagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Psicofísica
4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(12): 16229-16247, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139672

RESUMO

Brain mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced testosterone levels are common features of aging in men. Although evidence suggests that the two phenomena are interrelated, it is unclear whether testosterone supplementation ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction in the aging male brain. Here, we show that testosterone supplementation significantly alleviates exploratory behavioral deficits and oxidative damage in the substantia nigra and hippocampus of aging male rats. These effects were consistent with improved mitochondrial function, reflected by testosterone-induced increases in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), antioxidant enzyme (GSH-PX, catalase, and Mn-SOD) expression/activity, and mitochondrial respiratory complex activities in both brain regions. Furthermore, elevated PGC-1α, NRF-1, and TFAM expression (suggestive of enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis), increased citrate synthase activity, mtDNA copy number, and ND1, COX1, and ATP6 expression (indicative of increased mitochondrial content), as well as increased PINK1/Parkin and decreased P62 expression (suggesting mitophagy activation), were detected in the substantial nigra and hippocampus of aged male rats after testosterone supplementation. These findings suggest that testosterone supplementation may be a viable approach to ameliorating brain mitochondrial dysfunction and thus prevent or treat cognitive-behavioral deficits and neurodegenerative conditions associated with aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Testosterona/farmacologia , Envelhecimento/sangue , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Substância Negra/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
5.
Behav Processes ; 189: 104437, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089779

RESUMO

Sexually dimorphic performance has been observed across humans and rodents in many spatial tasks. In general, these spatial tasks do not dissociate the use of environmental and self-movement cues. Previous work has demonstrated a role for self-movement cue processing in organizing open field behavior; however, these studies have not directly compared female and male movement characteristics. The current study examined the organization of open field behavior under dark conditions in female and male rats. Significant differences between female and male rats were observed in the location of stopping behavior relative to a cue and the topography exhibited during lateral movements. In contrast, no sex differences were observed on measures used to detect self-movement cue processing deficits. These results provide evidence that female and male rats are similar in their use of self-movement cues to organize open field behavior; however, other factors may be contributing to differences in performance.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório , Comportamento Espacial , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Masculino , Orientação , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans
6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 318, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039953

RESUMO

Anxiety-like behavior of rodents is frequently accompanied by reduced exploration. Here, we identify dissociable components of anxiety, fear, and exploratory drive of sated and foraging mice. With the help of behavioral assays, including the open field task, elevated plus maze, dark-light transition task, and beetle mania task, we demonstrate a general increase in exploration by food restriction. Food-restricted mice bred for high anxiety behavior (HAB) showed ameliorated anxiety- but not fear-related behavior. By means of principal component analysis, we identified three independent components, which resemble the behavioral dimensions proposed by Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (approach behavior, avoidance behavior, and decision making). Taken together, we demonstrate anxiolytic consequences of food restriction in a mouse model of anxiety disorders that can be dissociated from a general increase in foraging behavior.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , Ansiedade , Animais , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Exploratório , Medo , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos
8.
Animal ; 15(6): 100239, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058477

RESUMO

Tail biting is a common problem in pigs kept in conventional fully slatted pens. Suitable enrichment materials can help to prevent the occurrence of this behavioural disorder by encouraging pigs to increase exploration behaviour. We investigated whether additional flavours can increase exploration behaviour in undocked pigs. Therefore, we offered straw pellets flavoured with either fried onion (FO), strawberry (SB), ginger, almond (AL), vanilla or without flavour (control) during rearing (eight groups in total) and fattening (16 groups in total). Flavoured pellets were offered in an altering order during intervals of 1 week in material dispensers. Exploration duration at the material dispensers was continuously recorded via an ultra-high-frequency radio-frequency identification system. Pigs were weighed weekly and their tail lengths and tail injuries were scored in four categories. For analysis, changes in tail length scores compared to the previous week were calculated as Δ-tail length. The different flavours affected pigs' exploration durations in both rearing (factor flavour, P < 0.0001) and fattening (factor flavour, P < 0.0001). Highest exploration durations during rearing were recorded when straw pellets were flavoured with FO and AL compared to all others. During fattening, exploration duration was highest towards controls without significant difference to SB. Exploration durations additionally were affected by temporal effects, i.e. week and day during rearing (both factors: P < 0.0001) and fattening (both factors: P < 0.0001). During rearing, highest exploration durations were recorded in the first week and on the first day within week after changing the flavour of the straw pellets. During fattening, exploration durations varied between weeks and within weeks. The highest durations were recorded at the end of weeks, i.e. on the fifth and seventh days after material change. During rearing, tail injuries were affected by week (P < 0.0001). From the fourth week of rearing, the prevalence of tail injuries significantly increased. During the fattening period, tail injuries were affected by flavour (P < 0.05). Fattening pigs had fewest tail injuries after straw pellets flavoured with AL were offered. Altogether, based on the exploration durations, rearing pigs showed different preferences for the flavoured straw pellets but highly explored flavours differed between rearing and fattening pigs. Despite a weekly change of the flavour of straw pellets, exploration durations decreased during rearing but increased again in the transition between rearing and fattening. Thus, straw pellets with alternating flavours are a suitable possibility to provide environmental enrichment to pigs but will not prevent tail biting.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Comportamento Exploratório , Prevalência , Suínos , Cauda
9.
Comput Biol Med ; 134: 104474, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058512

RESUMO

Rodent models are important in mechanistic studies of the physiological and pathophysiological determinants of behaviour. The Open Field Test (OFT) is one of the most commonly utilised tests to assess rodent behaviour in a novel open environment. The key variables assessed in an OFT are general locomotor activity and exploratory behaviours and can be assessed manually or by automated systems. Although several automated systems exist, they are often expensive, difficult to use, or limited in the type of video that can be analysed. Here we describe a machine-learning algorithm - dubbed Cosevare - that uses a trained YOLOv3 DNN to identify and track movement of mice in the open-field arena. We validated Cosevare's capacity to accurately track locomotive and exploratory behaviour in 10 videos, comparing outputs generated by Cosevare with analysis by 5 manual scorers. Behavioural differences between control mice and those with diet-induced obesity (DIO) were also documented. We found the YOLOv3 based tracker to be accurate at identifying and tracking the mice within the open-field arena and in instances with variable backgrounds. Additionally, kinematic and spatial-based analysis demonstrated highly consistent scoring of locomotion, centre square duration (CSD) and entries (CSE) between Cosevare and manual scorers. Automated analysis was also able to distinguish behavioural differences between healthy control and DIO mice. The study found that a YOLOv3 based tracker is able to easily track mouse behaviour in the open field arena and supports machine learning as a potential future alternative for the assessment of animal behaviour in a wide range of species in differing environments and behavioural tests.


Assuntos
Roedores , Software , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Exploratório , Locomoção , Camundongos
10.
Physiol Behav ; 237: 113450, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957149

RESUMO

Although rats are known to emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), it remains unclear whether these calls serve an auditory communication purpose. For USVs to be part of communication, the vocal signals will need to be a transfer of information between two or more conspecifics, and with the possibility to induce changes in the behavior of the recipient. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the role of USVs in adult rats' social and non-social investigation strategies when introduced into a large novel environment with unfamiliar conspecifics. We quantified a wide range of social and non-social behaviors in the seminatural environment, which could be affected by subtle signals, including USVs. We found that during the first hour in the seminatural environment the ability to vocalize did not affect how quickly adult rats met each other, their overall social investigation behavior, their passive social behavior nor their aggressive behavior. Furthermore, the non-social exploratory behaviors and behaviors reflecting anxiety/stress-like states were also unaffected. These results demonstrated that a disability to vocalize did not result in significant disadvantages (or changes) compared to intact conspecifics regarding social and non-social behaviors. This suggests that other (multi)sensory cues are more relevant in social interactions than USVs.


Assuntos
Ultrassom , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Ansiedade , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Exploratório , Ratos , Comportamento Social
12.
Science ; 372(6543)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986154

RESUMO

Exploring the physical and social environment is essential for understanding the surrounding world. We do not know how novelty-seeking motivation initiates the complex sequence of actions that make up investigatory behavior. We found in mice that inhibitory neurons in the medial zona incerta (ZIm), a subthalamic brain region, are essential for the decision to investigate an object or a conspecific. These neurons receive excitatory input from the prelimbic cortex to signal the initiation of exploration. This signal is modulated in the ZIm by the level of investigatory motivation. Increased activity in the ZIm instigates deep investigative action by inhibiting the periaqueductal gray region. A subpopulation of inhibitory ZIm neurons expressing tachykinin 1 (TAC1) modulates the investigatory behavior.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Comportamento Exploratório , Neurônios/fisiologia , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Zona Incerta/fisiologia , Animais , Nível de Alerta , Axônios/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Motivação , Inibição Neural , Vias Neurais , Optogenética , Interação Social , Taquicininas/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802338

RESUMO

Early life stress (ELS) is strongly associated with psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia in adulthood. To date, biological, behavioral, and structural aspects of ELS have been studied extensively, but their functional effects remain unclear. Here, we examined NeuroPET studies of dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and serotonergic systems in ELS animal models. Maternal separation and restraint stress were used to generate single or complex developmental trauma. Body weights of animals exposed to single trauma were similar to those of control animals; however, animals exposed to complex trauma exhibited loss of body weight when compared to controls. In behavioral tests, the complex developmental trauma group exhibited a decrease in time spent in the open arm of the elevated plus-maze and an increase in immobility time in the forced swim test when compared to control animals. In NeuroPET studies, the complex trauma group displayed a reduction in brain uptake values when compared to single trauma and control groups. Of neurotransmitter systems analyzed, the rate of decrease in brain uptake was the highest in the serotonergic group. Collectively, our results indicate that developmental trauma events induce behavioral deficits, including anxiety- and depressive-like phenotypes and dysfunction in neurotransmitter systems.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Ferimentos e Lesões/metabolismo , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/metabolismo , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Privação Materna , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Natação/fisiologia
14.
AMA J Ethics ; 23(3): E281-282, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818382

RESUMO

Optimal health care is nearly impossible for patients who have few or no languages in common with their clinicians because it is hard to exchange information and questions about interventions' risks and benefits and about how to motivate good health outcomes. This digital drawing considers an elderly patient with limited English proficiency who understands and who wears a mask.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório , Idioma , Idoso , Compreensão , Humanos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800408

RESUMO

In recent decades, there has been a change in tourists' tastes; they want to experience something novel. To satisfy this demand, a new type of tourism, known as "dark tourism", has arisen; it has various modalities, among which cemetery tourism and ghost tourism stand out, in addition to very different motivations from those of the cultural tourist. In this type of tourism, cemeteries are not visited to appreciate their architecture or heritage but to explore a morbid curiosity about the people buried there; ghost tourism or paranormal tourism seizes on the desire to know the events that occurred there and tends to have macabre content. This study analyzes dark tourism in the province of Córdoba in southern Spain with the aim of knowing the profile of the tourist and his motivation. This study additionally will forecast the demand for this type of tourism, using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, which allow us to know this market's evolution and whether any promotional action should be carried out to promote it.


Assuntos
Motivação , Turismo , Comportamento Exploratório , Humanos , Espanha , Viagem
16.
Cognition ; 212: 104698, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798948

RESUMO

Current theories propose that our sense of curiosity is determined by the learning progress or information gain that our cognitive system expects to make. However, few studies have explicitly tried to quantify subjective information gain and link it to measures of curiosity. Here, we asked people to report their curiosity about the intrinsically engaging perceptual 'puzzles' known as Mooney images, and to report on the strength of their aha experience upon revealing the solution image (curiosity relief). We also asked our participants (279) to make a guess concerning the solution of the image, and used the distribution of these guesses to compute the crowdsourced semantic entropy (or ambiguity) of the images, as a measure of the potential for information gain. Our results confirm that curiosity and, even more so, aha experience is substantially associated with this semantic information gain measure. These findings support the expected information gain theory of curiosity and suggest that the aha experience or intrinsic reward is driven by the actual information gain. In an unannounced memory part, we also established that the often reported influence of curiosity on memory is fully mediated by the aha experience or curiosity relief. We discuss the implications of our results for the burgeoning fields of curiosity and psychoaesthetics.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório , Memória , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Recompensa
17.
Neuron ; 109(11): 1876-1887.e6, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852896

RESUMO

The ability to adjust one's behavioral strategy in complex environments is at the core of cognition. Doing so efficiently requires monitoring the reliability of the ongoing strategy and, when appropriate, switching away from it to evaluate alternatives. Studies in humans and non-human primates have uncovered signals in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) that reflect the pressure to switch away from the ongoing strategy, whereas other ACC signals relate to the pursuit of alternatives. However, whether these signals underlie computations that actually underpin strategy switching or merely reflect tracking of related variables remains unclear. Here we provide causal evidence that the rodent ACC actively arbitrates between persisting with the ongoing behavioral strategy and temporarily switching away to re-evaluate alternatives. Furthermore, by individually perturbing distinct output pathways, we establish that the two associated computations-determining whether to switch strategy and committing to the pursuit of a specific alternative-are segregated in the ACC microcircuitry.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Comportamento Exploratório , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Masculino , Tratos Piramidais/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans
18.
Food Funct ; 12(8): 3586-3596, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900338

RESUMO

Myricetin is a flavonol highly prevalent in edible vegetables and fruits, with recognized hypoglycemic and anti-obesity effects, besides great antioxidant capacity. Thus, this study sought to investigate whether myricetin is able to improve metabolic and behavioral outcomes found in monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) obese mice, a model of metabolic syndrome characterized by early hyperinsulinemia associated to obesity, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, anxiety and cognitive deficit. Newborn male mice received MSG (4 mg kg-1 day-1, s.c.) on alternate days during the first 10 days of life for obesity induction, while control pups received equimolar saline solution. From postnatal day 90 to 135, MSG mice were orally treated with myricetin (50 mg kg-1 day-1) or distilled water, while control animals received vehicle. During the last week of treatment, all groups were submitted to behavioral tests: open field maze, elevated plus maze and Morris water maze. At the end of treatment, animals were euthanized for collection of liver, serum and adipose tissue fat pads. Myricetin treatment reduced the elevated serum levels of glucose and triglycerides, typically found in MSG mice, as well as restored peripheral insulin sensitivity and liver steatosis. Moreover, myricetin ameliorated the lack of thigmotaxis and exploratory behavior, but did not improve the cognitive deficit presented by MSG mice. Therefore, this study contributes to the pharmacological validation of myricetin as an affordable and healthy therapeutic adjuvant for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and most of its comorbidities.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia
19.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 898: 173992, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675783

RESUMO

Amelioration of oxidative stress via promoting the endogenous antioxidant system and enhancement of monoamines in brain were the important underlying antidepressant mechanism of protocatechuic acid (PCA). The aim of the present study is to explore the potential antidepressant mechanism(s) PCA in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mice. Mice were subjected to CUMS protocol for 4 weeks, and administered with PCA (100 and 200 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) for 24 days (from day 8th to 31st). Behavioral (sucrose preference, immobility time, exploratory behavior), and biochemical alterations such as serum corticosterone, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and antioxidants parameters were investigated. Experimental findings revealed that CUMS subjected mice exhibited significant impairment in behavioral alterations, such as increased immobility time, impaired preference to the sucrose solution, BDNF levels and, serum corticosterone, cytokines, malondialdehyde (MDA) formation with impaired antioxidants in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Administration of PCA to CUMS mice attenuated the immobility time, serum corticosterone, cytokines TNF-α, and IL-6, MDA formation and improved sucrose preference, including restoration of BDNF level. Thus, the present findings demonstrated the antidepressant potential of PCA which is largely achieved probably through maintaining BDNF level, and by modulation of the oxidative stress response, cytokines systems, and antioxidant defense system in mice.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Preferências Alimentares/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
20.
Neurology ; 97(1): e103-e108, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658327

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand medical students' motivations for choosing neurology and how applicants conceptualize the field, as this information can be used to enhance interest in neurology and develop educational programs to help identify, support, and recruit future neurologists. BACKGROUND: Applicants to neurology residencies submit personal statements describing themselves and their motivations. Textual analysis of personal statements has been performed in internal medicine and general surgery, but never before in neurology. We hypothesized that specific words and themes would be mentioned in residency personal statements with high frequencies indicating students' motivations. METHODS: We used computational linguistics software to assess key words and thereby study motivations, expectations, and themes present among neurology applicants. A total of 2,405 personal statements submitted over 5 years to our institution were de-identified and compiled into a database for evaluation through 3 computational linguistics software programs. We performed calculations of term frequencies (TF) and TF-inverse document frequencies and performed K-means clustering to identify unique words and common themes. RESULTS: Specific disease states were discussed. For example, stroke (TF 2,178), epilepsy (TF 970), and dementia (TF 944) were referenced more often than amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (TF 220) and carpal tunnel (TF 10). The most common proper names cited were Oliver Sacks (TF 94) and Sherlock Holmes (TF 41). Common themes included fascination with the brain, interest in research, desire to help patients, early interests in neurology, continued pursuit of learning, appreciation for time with patients, family history with neurologic illness, and intellectual curiosity. CONCLUSIONS: This first computational linguistic analysis of neurology personal statements provides understanding into medical students' motivations and interests. Ongoing subgroup and thematic analyses may inform educational strategies and enhance recruitment to our field.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Neurologia/educação , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Comportamento Exploratório , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Linguística , Masculino , Motivação , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Software , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...