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2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(3): 170-176, Junio 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1222869

RESUMO

Introducción. Los jóvenes no fueron muy afectados desde el punto de vista infeccioso por la pandemia de COVID-19. Sin embargo, las medidas de aislamiento social modificaron de manera profunda su estilo de vida, y se cree que esto los afecta psicológicamente. El objetivo fue evaluar el impacto del aislamiento por COVID-19en la salud emocional de jóvenes en escolaridad primaria o secundaria.Población y métodos. Participaron del estudio padres de jóvenes de San Carlos de Bariloche. Se evaluó la percepción del adulto sobre el impacto emocional y de comportamiento del aislamiento sobre el joven, cambio de hábitos de sueño, uso de pantallas, actividades deportivas y alimentación y de asistencia a consulta médica.Resultados. Se incluyeron 267 padres. El 96,3 % observó cambios emocionales y de comportamiento. Los más frecuentes fueron que estaban más aburridos (el 76,8 %), irritables (el 59,2 %), desganados (el 56,9 %) y enojados (el 54,7 %). Se observó que se levantaban y acostaban más tarde y dormían 30 minutos más. Además, el uso de pantallas por esparcimiento aumentó 3 horas durante los días hábiles. El tiempo dedicado a la actividad física no varió, pero sí cambió el tipo de actividades: la natación y los deportes de equipo fueron reemplazados por ciclismo, caminatas y esquí.Conclusiones. El aislamiento por COVID-19impactó sobre la salud emocional y los hábitos de los jóvenes. El aburrimiento, la irritabilidad y el desgano estuvieron más presentes durante el aislamiento. La posibilidad de realizar actividades al aire libre permitió que continuaran practicando deportes.


Introduction. From an infectious perspective, children and adolescents were not highly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, social isolation measures have deeply changed their lifestyle, which is believed to have a psychological impact on them. The objective was to assess the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the emotional health of children and adolescents attending primary or secondary school.Population and methods. Parents of children and adolescents from San Carlos de Bariloche participated in the study. Adults' perception of the emotional and behavioral impact of lockdown on children and adolescents, changes in sleeping habits, screen use, sports-related activities, eating, and medical consultations, was assessed.Results. A total of 267 parents were included. Of them, 96.3 % noticed emotional and behavioral changes. The most common ones were that their children were more bored (76.8 %), more irritable (59.2 %), more reluctant (56.9 %), and angrier (54.7 %). It was observed that they woke up and went to bed later, and slept 30 minutes more. Moreover, leisure screen use increased by 3 hours on weekdays. Time dedicated to physical activities did not change, but the type of activities did: swimming and team sports were replaced by biking, walking, and skiing.Conclusions. COVID-19 lockdown affected the emotional health and habits of children and adolescents. Boredom, irritability, and reluctance were more present during lockdown. The possibility of doing outdoor physical activities allowed them to keep practicing sports


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Educação à Distância , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Saúde da Criança/tendências , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Saúde do Adolescente/tendências , Pandemias , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070271

RESUMO

Pickiness is an eating behavior that many families with young children face. Having joint family meals may impact the child's pickiness, for instance by influencing their willingness to try novel foods. Moreover, picky children have been shown to display greater emotionality. The aim of this study was to investigate if children's mental well-being and parent-reported conflicts during mealtime were associated with pickiness among obesity-prone children. Data was obtained from the baseline examination of the Healthy Start intervention study, the Danish Medical Birth registry and the Danish Health Visitor's Child Health Database, and included 635 children aged 2-6 years that were all at high risk for becoming overweight later in life. Children's mental well-being was measured by the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. Crude and adjusted ordinal logistic regressions were used to investigate the cross-sectional associations. Children had a higher odds associated with changing from a category of less pickiness to a category of more pickiness for each one point higher SDQ score (ORadj. = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.14; 1.61) and lower odds (ORadj. = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.38; 0.86) associated with changing pickiness category towards more pickiness for each one point higher SDQ prosocial score. Moreover, children with conflicts during mealtime had higher odds of being in a worse pickiness category compared to children without conflicts (ORadj. = 3.37, 95% CI = 2.27; 5.01). This study showed that among obesity-prone children, behavioral problems, as well as conflicts during mealtime, were associated with more picky behaviors. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the findings, as are studies including general child population subsets.


Assuntos
Seletividade Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Refeições , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072856

RESUMO

Young children's digital media use and physical activity have gained attention in recent research. Parental co-participation has a major impact on children's health consequences. This study addressed a gap in the research by investigating daily parental co-participation in children's digital media use and physical play, using the family ecological model theoretical framework. The participants in this nationally representative cross-sectional study were 2512 Finnish parents with two- to six-year-old children. Parents completed a questionnaire. Sociodemographic correlates of co-participation and of the awareness of guidelines regarding co-participation and correlation between co-participation in digital media use and physical play were analysed. Parental co-participation in physical play and digital media use correlated positively. Lower parental age, male parental gender, Finnish and Swedish languages, a fewer number of children, and a male child gender were associated with more co-participation in one or both activities, and parental female gender and low family income were associated with more awareness. The awareness of guidelines was not associated with co-participation in digital media use. There were sociodemographic differences in parental co-participation. From a health counselling perspective, parents may benefit from national recommendations on digital media use and physical activity, but adherence to guidelines depends on the family context.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Internet , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070137

RESUMO

As the most likely primary caregivers, mothers are an integral part of children's social influence and are therefore greatly involved in shaping their children's behaviors. The objectives were to determine the prospective associations between maternal and child diet quality and sedentary behaviors. This study, within the framework of a community-based intervention study, included 1130 children aged 8-10 years and their mothers. The study was carried out during two academic years (2012/2014) with a mean follow-up of 15 months. Exposure and outcome variables were measured at baseline and follow-up, respectively. Diet quality was assessed by the KIDMED questionnaire and the short Diet Quality Screener, respectively. Sedentary behaviors were determined by standardized questions of sedentary behaviors. Maternal consumption of fruits, vegetables, fish, legumes, pasta/rice, dairy products, nuts and baked goods were positively associated (p < 0.05) with the corresponding child behavior. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for sex, age, maternal education and intervention group revealed significant cross-sectional (p < 0.005) and prospective (p < 0.01) associations between maternal and child overall diet quality and sedentary behaviors. Maternal diet quality and sedentary behaviors were predictive for these lifestyle behaviors in children.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Dieta/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Criança , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064527

RESUMO

Children with complex congenital heart disease are less active than recommended for optimal health, with social and physical environments important determinants. The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity perceptions of children with complex congenital heart disease and their parents to identify social and physical environment intervention targets. A semi-structured discussion guide elicited physical activity perceptions from children (26 boys, 19 girls, 6.0-12.4 years) with complex congenital heart disease (single ventricle n = 42) and their parents during three child and three parent focus groups and 41 interviews. Interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim for inductive thematic analysis. Children and parents identified home, peer and health environments as impacting on their children's physical activity participation. Peer environments, such as school or daycare, were supportive by providing physical activity facilities and enabling fun with peers and time outdoors. At home, parent and sibling interactions both encouraged and discouraged physical activity. The children's unique health environment fostered physical activity uncertainty, discouraging activity despite minimal or no physician recommendations to restrict physical activity. Children with complex congenital heart disease and their parents recognize the importance of physical activity and fun with friends. Physical activity uncertainty contributes to their inactive lifestyles despite minimal restrictions from health professionals. Positive clinical encouragement and health environment interventions that better support physical activity are required.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Criança , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sedentário
8.
Work ; 69(2): 675-685, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: in the process of raising children, parents will inevitably have inappropriate measures and behaviors, which will bring greater pressure on the children's psychology and physiology. OBJECTIVE: in the field of children's development, parenting pressure has always been one of the hotspots of worldwide scholars. In order to further understand the causes of children's psychological problems, the effect of parenting pressure on children's internalizing problem behaviors and its mechanism are explored. METHODS: based on previous literature, the parenting pressure and children's internalizing related problems in China are investigated. Based on the characteristic discussion of parenting styles in China, the parenting pressure and internalizing problems of children is deeply analyzed. The sample survey is used to sample the parents of kindergarten children, and a total of 679 children's parents are selected. RESULTS: the results show that the parents of boys have more serious parenting pressure than the parents of girls. In the process of raising children, the mother bears more pressure than the father. For the internalizing problems of children, the psychological aggression behavior of parents shows a relatively serious effect. There is a certain causal relationship between parenting pressure and parents' strict discipline behavior. Therefore, parenting pressure is used as an intermediary variable to affect children's internalizing behavior. Parenting pressure does not show a significant correlation with children's internalizing problems, but indirectly affects the generation of children's internalizing behaviors by affecting parents' strict discipline behaviors. CONCLUSION: it enriches the investigations on parenting pressure and children's education in China, and provides a certain theoretical basis for the development of children's mental health.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11713, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083653

RESUMO

In Spain, in order to control COVID-19 transmission, one of the strictest confinement measures in the world for children and teenagers has been implemented. From 14 March to 26 April 2020 underage Spaniards were not allowed to leave their homes, except for reasons of force majeure. This could have consequences on their mental health in both the short and the long term. Thus, the aim of the present study was to explore the consequences of confinement on the mental health of Spanish children and teenagers, at the time when minors had been locked down in their homes between 8 and 10 days. The sample was composed of 590 confined Spanish children and teenagers between 8 and 18 years old. The scales of Depression, Self-esteem, Anxiety, Problems with Emotional Regulation, Rage Control Problems, Integration and Social Competence, Somatic Complaints, Rebellious Behaviour, as well as Awareness of the Problems of the Assessment System for Children and Adolescents (SENA) were used. The results revealed that, during confinement, children and adolescents showed emotional and behavioural alterations. This study, as far as we know, is the first one to explore the psychological consequences of lockdown in minors while it was taking place, with them being the ones directly assessed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , COVID-19 , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Quarentena , Autoimagem , Fatores Sexuais , Isolamento Social , Espanha/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 256, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of moderate sedation in pediatric dentistry, compared to protective stabilization, which remains routinely used in Brazil despite moral questions. This prospective non-randomized clinical trial's objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of moderate sedation, compared to the protective stabilization, in the dental care of children with dental behavior management problems. METHODS: Participants will be 152 children under seven years of age with early childhood caries (ECC) who need specialized dental treatment due to a history of challenging behavior during dental care. The interventions to be compared are moderate sedation with oral administration of ketamine and midazolam and protective stabilization. The primary endpoint will be the child's behavior during treatment assessed using the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS). The secondary outcomes are (A) child's - behavior according to the visual analogue scale, anxiety, pain, and physiological stress; (B) parent's - satisfaction and anxiety; (C) family and child - impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL); (D) dentist's - satisfaction and stress; (E) procedure - adverse events of the intervention and dental treatment longevity. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). DISCUSSION: Considering the primary outcome, this study hypothesis is that sedated children have better behavior during dental treatment than children whose behavior was managed by protective stabilization without sedation. Additionally, at the end of 12 months, we expect to identify participants' reported outcomes and objective measures related to dental behavior in early childhood. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov registration NCT04119180 on October 8th, 2019. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04119180.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Qualidade de Vida , Brasil , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Sedação Consciente , Assistência Odontológica , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Odontólogos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(3): 170-176, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033416

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: From an infectious perspective, children and adolescents were not highly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, social isolation measures have deeply changed their lifestyle, which is believed to have a psychological impact on them. The objective was to assess the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on the emotional health of children and adolescents attending primary or secondary school. POPULATION AND METHODS: Parents of children and adolescents from San Carlos de Bariloche participated in the study. Adults' perception of the emotional and behavioral impact of lockdown on children and adolescents, changes in sleeping habits, screen use, sports-related activities, eating, and medical consultations, was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 267 parents were included. Of them, 96.3 % noticed emotional and behavioral changes. The most common ones were that their children were more bored (76.8 %), more irritable (59.2 %), more reluctant (56.9 %), and angrier (54.7 %). It was observed that they woke up and went to bed later, and slept 30 minutes more. Moreover, leisure screen use increased by 3 hours on weekdays. Time dedicated to physical activities did not change, but the type of activities did: swimming and team sports were replaced by biking, walking, and skiing. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 lockdown affected the emotional health and habits of children and adolescents. Boredom, irritability, and reluctance were more present during lockdown. The possibility of doing outdoor physical activities allowed them to keep practicing sports.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/tendências , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Saúde da Criança/tendências , Educação à Distância , Saúde Mental/tendências , Distanciamento Físico , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Argentina/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pais , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Psicologia da Criança , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Psychiatr Res ; 138: 477-484, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965736

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the utility of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to aid in the identification of comorbid psychopathological conditions affecting referred youth with suspected ADHD prior to the evaluation. The CBCL is an easy-to-use assessment tool that may provide invaluable information regarding the severity and characteristics of the presenting complaints. METHODS: The sample included 332 youths consecutively referred to an ADHD program for the assessment of suspected ADHD. Parents completed the CBCL, parent-rated ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Because of the established association between the CBCL Attention Problems scale and a structured diagnostic interview of ADHD, all youths analyzed had abnormal Attention Problems T-scores (≥60). RESULTS: Seventy-six percent of youths with elevated Attention Problems T-scores had ≥3 additional abnormal CBCL scales, suggesting they were likely affected with multiple comorbid psychopathological conditions. Moreover, 44% had ≥1 CBCL clinical scale with a T-score more severe than their Attention Problems T-score, suggesting the putative comorbid condition was more severe than the ADHD symptoms. Additional CBCL scale elevations were associated with more severe functional impairments as assessed by the ASRS, SRS, BRIEF, and CBCL competence scales. CONCLUSION: The CBCL obtained before the clinical assessment identified high rates of comorbid psychopathology in youths referred for the assessment of ADHD. It provided detailed information about the types and severity of suspected psychopathological conditions impacting a particular youth, which is critical to guide the assessing clinician on likely differing needs of the affected child.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Lista de Checagem , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Humanos , Pais , Psicopatologia
13.
Appetite ; 165: 105326, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023446

RESUMO

Parents play an important role in shaping child eating and weight outcomes through feeding practices. Controlling feeding practices are positively related to child obesogenic eating and obesity risk. Although many parents' characteristics have been examined in relation to controlling feeding practices, less is known about the role of coparenting. The current study seeks to examine whether coparenting (supportive versus undermining) predict controlling feeding practices (use of food for emotion regulation, food as a reward, pressure to eat, restriction for health, restriction for weight). A total of 160 parents (56% females) of preschool-aged children between 3- and 5-years old completed an online survey. After accounting for parent characteristics (i.e., sex, BMI, age), regression analyses showed that supportive coparenting was not predictive of controlling feeding practices. However, regression analyses showed that undermining coparenting predicted greater use of food for emotion regulation, food as a reward, and restriction for weight, but was not predictive of pressure to eat and restriction for health. Implications associated with these findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Poder Familiar , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Appetite ; 165: 105322, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029671

RESUMO

Parenting stress has been linked to maladaptive feeding behaviors and adverse child outcomes. Maternal stress that is specific to child feeding during mealtimes has not been previously explored. We sought to examine our hypothesis that maternal feeding stress during mealtimes (MFS-mealtimes) mediates the association of child food fussiness and concern about child's diet with maladaptive feeding behaviors. Mothers (n = 100) were recruited through different preschoolers around the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Participants completed an online questionnaire, which included a newly developed MFS-mealtimes index (Cronbach's α = 0.89), the Child Feeding Questionnaire- Arabic (CFQ-A), and the child food fussiness scale. We conducted path analysis to test our hypothesis, and we used bivariate analyses to inform our path model. Mean child age was 4.76 years (SD = 0.62), and 62% of children were female. Mean maternal age was 33.9 years (SD = 5.83). Results from path analysis showed that concern about child's diet and child food fussiness were each associated with higher MFS-mealtimes (B = 0.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.01, 0.20, p < 0.05, and B = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.05, 0.53, p < 0.01, respectively). MFS-mealtimes was in turn associated with higher pressure to eat (B = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.18, 0.71, p < 0.05). Goodness of fit indices showed good model fit (p > X2 = 0.83, SRMR = 0.005, and CFI = 1.00). Our findings suggest a novel approach for promoting a favorable mealtime environment. Parenting stress reduction interventions have been shown to be successful in reducing stress levels and may be utilized for minimizing feeding stress during mealtimes. Mothers of picky eaters may be specifically targeted for intervention programs. Long term consequences of excessive MFS-mealtimes, as well as variations between cultures need further evaluation.


Assuntos
Seletividade Alimentar , Mães , Adulto , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Refeições , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(6): 1022-1035, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to test the effectiveness of the Whole of Systems Trial of Prevention Strategies for Childhood Obesity (WHO STOPS Childhood Obesity) for behavioral, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and BMI outcomes. METHODS: This was a cluster randomized trial of 10 communities randomly allocated (1:1) to start intervention in 2015 (step 1) or in 2019 (after 4 years) in South West Victoria, Australia. Data were collected from participating primary schools in April to June of 2015 (73% school participation rate), 2017 (69%), and 2019 (63%). Student participation rates were 80% in 2015 (1,792/2,516 invited), 81% in 2017 (2,411/2,963), and 79% in 2019 (2,177/2,720). Repeat cross-sectional analyses of measured height and weight (grades two, four, and six [aged approximately 7 to 12 years]), self-reported behavior, and HRQoL (grades four and six) were conducted. RESULTS: There was an intervention by time interaction in BMI z scores (P = 0.031) and obesity/overweight prevalence (P = 0.006). BMI z score and overweight/obesity prevalence decreased between 2015 and 2017 and increased between 2017 and 2019 in intervention communities. The intervention significantly reduced takeaway food consumption (P = 0.034) and improved physical (P = 0.019), psychosocial (P = 0.026), and global (P = 0.012) HRQoL. Water consumption increased among girls (P = 0.033) in the intervention communities, as did energy-dense, nutrient-poor snack consumption among boys (P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: WHO STOPS had a positive impact on takeaway food intake and HRQoL.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Prevenção Primária/organização & administração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitória/epidemiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos
16.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 218: 103339, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058672

RESUMO

The Decision component of the Activation-Decision-Construction-Action-Theory (ADCAT) utilizes a cost-benefit formula to explain the cognitive, motivational and social processes involved in deception. Three prior studies suggest that ADCAT can be used to predict adults' future deceptive behavior; however, no study has assessed the potential relevance of ADCAT with children. The present study is the first to date to examine whether this cost-benefit formula can predict children's hypothetical decisions to tell three types of lies, and whether there are specific developmental factors that need to be considered. The results indicate that the cost-benefit formula was only effective for predicting children's hypothetical lies for self-gain at no cost to another (Self-No Cost lies) and lies for others when there was a personal cost (Other-Cost to Self). More specifically, expected value of telling the truth was related to lower willingness to tell hypothetical Self-No Cost and Other-Cost to Self lies. On the other hand, the expected value of lying was not related to children's hypothetical decisions to tell Self-No Cost, Self-Cost to Other or Other-Cost to Self lies. Children's inhibitory control and theory of mind were significant covariates for some of the ADCAT predictor variables and children's hypothetical truth and lying behaviors. Altogether, these findings indicate that the effectiveness of the ADCAT cost-benefit formula for predicting children's lying behavior is affected by developmental factors and the type of lie being analyzed.


Assuntos
Decepção , Motivação , Adulto , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Humanos
18.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 59, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food parenting practices (FPP) can affect children's eating behaviours, yet little is known about how various FPP co-occur. The primary aim was to identify profiles of FPPs use among Canadian parents. Secondary aims included examining sociodemographic correlates of FPP profiles and evaluating whether children's eating behaviours differed across FPP profiles. METHODS: Parents (n = 799) of 5-12-year-old children completed a validated FPP Item Bank and the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to identify distinct FPP profiles. Regression analyses were used to explore associations between FPP profiles, sociodemographic variables (race, sex and education) and children's eating behaviours (emotional overeating, food responsiveness, food fussiness and satiety responsiveness). RESULTS: LCA revealed 6 FPP profiles: healthy eating environment, high engagement, reactive, high structure, controlling and low engagement. Relative to their non-White counterparts, White parents were more likely to belong in the healthy eating environment, high structure and low engagement profiles. Relative to fathers, mothers were more likely to fall in the healthy eating environment compared to low engagement profile. Parents with some post-secondary education were more likely to belong in the healthy eating environment, high structure and reactive profiles compared to the controlling profile. Emotional overeating and food responsiveness scores were lowest for healthy eating environment, high structure, low engagement profiles. Parents in the healthy eating environment profile also reported lower food fussiness scores compared to parents in the high engagement, high structure, reactive and controlling profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that a continuum of 6 FPP profiles may be present among Canadian parents, representing parents who use either all (high engagement), some (healthy eating environment, reactive, high structure, controlling) or little (low engagement) of the FPP examined. Future longitudinal research should evaluate how various FPP profiles influence the development of children's eating behaviors, dietary intakes and weight status.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Dieta Saudável , Comportamento Alimentar , Poder Familiar , Canadá , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Dent Child (Chic) ; 88(1): 35-39, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875050

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate children's perceptions of the dentist and dental office using drawings and its association with age, sex, and previous dental experience.
Methods: Participants included 144 four- to six-year-old children who were instructed to make a drawing of their perception of the dentist and dental office. Data collected included age, sex, and previous dental care experience. The data were analyzed descriptively and through multivariate logistic regression.
Results: Boys were 2.3 times more likely to have a negative perception of the dentist than girls (P =0.024). Children who had no previous dental experience were four times more likely to have a negative perception of dentists (P =0.002). Six-year-old children were three times more likely to have a negative perception of the dentist compared to four-year-old children (P =0.031).
Conclusion: Drawings can be a useful tool to evaluate children's perceptions of the dentist and dental office.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Consultórios Odontológicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Odontólogos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção
20.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924792

RESUMO

The nature of the association between dietary restraint and weight has been examined in adult samples, but much less is known about this relationship among children. The current study examined the transactional associations among restrained eating behavior and weight among boys and girls during middle childhood. Data for this study came from 263 children participating in the Families and Schools for Health Project (FiSH), a longitudinal study of the psychosocial correlates of childhood obesity. Participants were interviewed by trained researchers in their third- and fourth-grade year when they completed questionnaires and anthropometric assessments. Dietary restraint was assessed using the restrained eating subscale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ), and weight was assessed using Body Mass Index z-scores (BMIz). Bidirectional associations between variables were examined using cross-lagged models controlling for children's sex, ethnicity, and weight in first grade. Results indicated that weight in grade 3 was related to greater dietary restraint in grade 4 (B = 0.20, p = 0.001), but dietary restraint in grade 3 was not associated with weight in grade 4 (B = 0.01, p = 0.64). Neither child sex nor race/ethnicity were associated with BMIz or dietary restraint at either time point. Findings from this study advance the existing limited understanding of eating behavior development among children and show that weight predicts increases in children's dietary restraint in middle childhood.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento Alimentar , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Oklahoma , Inquéritos e Questionários
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