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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e48443, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1116092

RESUMO

Objetivo: comparar o comportamento de pré-escolares durante o uso de administração por inalação, antes e após sessão de Brinquedo Terapêutico. Método: estudo quase-experimental de abordagem quantitativa, com a técnica de observação antes e após a intervenção, realizado por meio de amostra intencional, recrutadas em uma Unidade de Pronto Atendimento no interior de Minas Gerais. Os dados foram analisados por estatística descritiva e inferencial, coletados entre os meses de novembro de 2017 a abril de 2018. Resultados: foram avaliados 25 comportamentos de 99 pré-escolares durante a administração por inalação. Após a sessão, 73,7% estavam com a postura e expressão facial relaxada, 76,8% estavam à vontade, 19,2% interromperam o procedimento e 38,4 % solicitaram a presença da mãe ou acompanhante. Conclusão: o uso do brinquedo, favoreceu maior aceitação e adaptação de pré-escolares submetidos à administração por inalação, evidenciado a importância em implementar essa estratégia em serviços de pronto atendimento pediátrico.


Objective: to compare the behavior of preschoolers during inhalation therapy, before and after a Therapeutic Play session. Method: quasi-experimental, quantitative study using pre- and post-intervention observation with an intentional sample recruited at an Emergency Care Unit in Minas Gerais. Data were collected from November 2017 to April 2018 and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: twenty-five behaviors of 99 preschoolers were evaluated during inhalation administration. After the session, 73.7% were relaxed in posture and facial expression, 76.8% were comfortable, 19.2% interrupted the procedure, and 38.4% requested the mother or companion to be present. Conclusion: the use of toys favored greater acceptance and adaptation by preschoolers undergoing inhalation therapy, evidencing the importance of implementing this strategy in pediatric emergency services.


Objetivo: comparar el comportamiento de los preescolares durante la terapia de inhalación, antes y después de una sesión de Juego Terapéutico. Método: estudio cuantitativo cuasi-experimental utilizando observación previa y posterior a la intervención con una muestra intencional reclutada en una Unidad de Atención de Emergencia en Minas Gerais. Los datos se recopilaron de noviembre de 2017 a abril de 2018 y se analizaron mediante estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. Resultados: se evaluaron veinticinco comportamientos de 99 niños en edad preescolar durante la administración por inhalación. Después de la sesión, el 73.7% se relajó en la postura y la expresión facial, el 76.8% se sintió cómodo, el 19.2% interrumpió el procedimiento y el 38.4% solicitó que la madre o la acompañante estuvieran presentes. Conclusión: el uso de juguetes favoreció una mayor aceptación y adaptación por parte de los preescolares sometidos a terapia de inhalación, lo que evidencia la importancia de implementar esta estrategia en los servicios de emergencia pediátricos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Administração por Inalação , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos
3.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 274-279, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004726

RESUMO

Background: Parental acceptance of behavior management techniques (BMTs) in dental practice is important and subjected to change with the dynamics of the society. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the parental acceptance of eight selected BMTs: tell-show-do (TSD), voice control (VC), passive restraint (PR), active restraint (AR), parental presence/absence (PP/PA), oral sedation (OS), inhalation sedation nitrous oxide/oxygen (N2O/O2), and general anesthesia (GA) and its associated factors in a group of Thai parents. Design: The cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 parents of preschool children in Bangkok metropolitan. Materials and Methods: Parents were asked to rate the BMTs demonstrated in video with a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Possible relevant factors were collected via questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the samples. BMTs were ranked by mean VAS using the general linear model repeated measure. The association between the mean VASs and parental and child's factors was analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and independent t-test. Significant factors were further analyzed by multiple linear regression. The level of confidence was set at 95%. Results: All BMTs were acceptable. TSD was rated the highest, followed by PR, VC, AR, N2O/O2, OS, GA, and PP/PA, respectively. Parental dental anxiety was associated with less acceptance of PP/PA. Child's experience of VC, AR, OS, and PP/PA was related to better acceptance of the techniques. Conclusions: The BMTs were better accepted with similar pattern compared to past studies. PP/PA was the least accepted related to high parental anxiety. Child's experience with BMTs increased the acceptance.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Pais , Terapia Comportamental , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Tailândia
4.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 259-265, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004724

RESUMO

Background: Dental fear is a common cause of uncooperative behavior among young children, which poses a challenge in providing effective dental treatment. With the advancements in technology, several behavior guidance techniques in the form of distraction have emerged over time for managing uncooperative pediatric dental patients. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare and evaluate the effectiveness of four different behavior guidance techniques in managing uncooperative pediatric patients by measuring pre- and post-operative dental fear/anxiety levels using physiological and nonphysiological parameters. Methodology: Sixty systemically healthy children aged 5-8 years with negative behavior as per Frankl's Rating Scale, requiring restoration were included in the study and randomly divided into four equal groups (n = 15), based on the guidance techniques used: Tell-Show-Do (TSD) as a control group and audio distraction, audiovisual distraction (AVD) (virtual reality [VR]) and Mobile Phone Game Distraction as test groups. Pre- and post-intervention levels of the child's fear/anxiety were assessed using both physiological (blood pressure and pulse rate) and nonphysiological (facial image scale) parameters. The data were evaluated using t-test and one-way ANOVA test. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed in both physiological and non-physiological parameters post-intervention in the groups with a maximum decrease in the AVD (VR) group. Conclusions: AVD (VR) was found to be the most effective while TSD alone as the least effective behavior guidance technique in reducing dental fear/anxiety in uncooperative pediatric dental patients.


Assuntos
Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/prevenção & controle , Realidade Virtual , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J. Health NPEPS ; 5(2)set. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1121205

RESUMO

Objetivo: investigar na literatura o impacto da pandemia causada pelo novo coronavírus na saúde mental das crianças. Método: revisão integrativa de artigos publicados no ano de 2020 através de buscas na Medline, Lilacs, BDENF, IBECS e BINACIS, a partir da pergunta norteadora: quais as considerações da literatura sobre o impacto da pandemia causada pelo novo coronavírus na saúde mental das crianças? Resultados: nos artigos analisados, observou-se que a pandemia e fatores a ela relacionados podem causar impacto negativo na saúde mental das crianças. Quarentena, infecção pelo vírus, contágio ou morte dos pais devido à doença, crise econômica e uso prolongado da internet são alguns dos motivos que podem afetar a saúde mental infantil. Conclusão: medidas preventivas e informações corretas sobre a doença são fundamentais para proteger a saúde mental das crianças durante a pandemia causada pelo novo coronavírus.(AU)


Objective: to investigate in the literature the impact of the pandemic caused by the new coronavirus on children's mental health. Method: integrative review of articles published in 2020 through searches in the Medline, Lilacs, BDENF, IBECS e BINACIS, based on the guiding question: what are the literature considerations about the impact of the pandemic caused by the new coronavirus on children's mental health? Results: in the articles analyzed it was observed that the pandemic and related factors can have a negative impact on mental health and behaviour of children. Quarantine, self infection, contagion or death of parents due to the illness, economic crisis and prolonged use of the internet are some reasons that can affect children's mental health. Conclusion: preventive measures and correct information about the disease are essential to protect the children's mental health during the pandemic caused by the new coronavirus.(AU)


Objetivo: investigar en la literatura el impacto de la pandemia provocada por el nuevo coronavirus en la salud mental infantil. Método: revisión integrativa de artículos publicados en 2020 mediante búsquedas en la Medline, Lilacs, BDENF, IBECS e BINACIS, a partir de la pregunta orientadora: ¿cuáles son las consideraciones de la literatura sobre el impacto de la pandemia provocada por el nuevo coronavirus sobre la salud mental de los niños? Resultados: en los artículos analizados se observó que la pandemia y factores relacionados pueden tener un impacto negativo en la salud mental y en el comportamiento de los niños. La cuarentena, el contagio proprio, la infección o la muerte de los padres por la enfermedad, la crisis económica y el uso prolongado de internet son algunas de las razones que pueden afectar la salud mental de los niños. Conclusión: las medidas preventivas y la información correcta sobre la enfermedad son fundamentales para proteger la salud mental de los niños durante la pandemia provocada por el nuevo coronavirus.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Saúde Mental/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comportamento Infantil , Saúde da Criança
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987641

RESUMO

The present study aimed to examine the effects of the Spanish confinement derived from the COVID-19 crisis on children and their families, accounting for child's age. A range of child negative (e.g., conduct problems) and positive outcomes (e.g., routine maintenance) were examined, along with a set of parent-related variables, including resilience, perceived distress, emotional problems, parenting distress and specific parenting practices (e.g., structured or avoidant parenting), which were modeled through path analysis to better understand child adjustment. Data were collected in April 2020, with information for the present study provided by 940 (89.6%) mothers, 102 (9.7%) fathers and 7 (0.7%) different caregivers, who informed on 1049 Spanish children (50.4% girls) aged 3 to 12 years (Mage = 7.29; SD = 2.39). The results suggested that, according to parents' information, most children did not show important changes in behavior, although some increasing rates were observed for both negative and positive outcomes. Child adjustment was influenced by a chain of effects, derived from parents' perceived distress and emotional response to the COVID-19 crisis, via parenting distress and specific parenting practices. While parenting distress in particular triggered child negative outcomes, specific parenting practices were more closely related to child positive outcomes. These findings may help to better inform, for potential future outbreaks, effective guidelines and prevention programs aimed at promoting the child's well-being in the family.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Poder Familiar , Pais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Angústia Psicológica , Espanha
7.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(9): 931-935, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933621

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of gestational age at birth on the neurobehavioral development of preschool children. METHODS: A total of 25 254 preschool children from Ma'anshan of Anhui Province, Taizhou of Zhejiang Province, and Yangzhou of Jiangsu Province were enrolled. The preschool children were divided into three groups based on their gestational ages at birth: preterm group (2 760 cases; 28-36+6 weeks), early term group (6 005 cases; 37-38+6 weeks), and full term group (16 489 cases; ≥39 weeks). The Ages and Stages Questionnaires-Third Edition (ASQ-3) was employed to evaluate the children's neurobehavioral development. RESULTS: The preterm group had significantly lower scores of the five domains of ASQ-3, communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving, and personal-social, than the full term group (P<0.05), and significantly lower scores of communication, gross motor, fine motor, and problem solving than the early term group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the scores of the five domains of ASQ-3 between the early term and full term groups (P>0.05). The multiple linear regression analysis indicated a significant positive correlation between gestational age and the five domains of ASQ-3 after adjustment for confounding factors including sex, age, body mass index, and parental education level (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm have poorer neurobehavioral development than those born full term and early term, whereas children born full term and early term have similar neurobehavioral development. Gestational age at birth is an independent influencing factor for neurobehavioral development in preschool children.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Idade Gestacional , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , China , Cidades , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 108(2): 41-45, mayo-ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120976

RESUMO

La atención de salud abre una ventana de reflexiones compartidas entre los distintos actores que convergen hoy alrededor de la infancia y la adolescencia: profesionales de la salud, de la educación, instituciones y familias. El desarrollo humano implica una interacción dinámica. El conjunto de cuidados que conforman la crianza tiene lugar en múltiples contextos: la casa, la familia extendida, la escuela y la sociedad, cuyos valores, creencias y prácticas definen la cultura. Somos parte de una realidad que está evolucionando y creciendo en complejidad, en un escenario multifactorial y polifacético. Emergen enfermedades que, si bien son conocidas por parte de los profesionales de la salud, ganan una importancia creciente en la sociedad actual. Varias de estas patologías emergentes vienen catalizadas por factores medioambientales y por determinantes de tipo social que antes tenían una influencia menor o que, sencillamente, no se tenían en cuenta. Las transformaciones que experimentan los/as niños/as existen de manera visible, por lo que se hace imprescindible que madres, padres, docentes y profesionales de la salud, desde nuestro lugar de adultos, actuemos con responsabilidad en todos los espacios en los que deambulan los/as niños/as y los/as adolescentes de hoy (AU)


Health care opens a window for shared reflections among the different people who interact with children and adolescents: family, health professionals, educators and institutions today. Human development involves dynamic interaction. Care takes place in multiple contexts: the immediate and the extended family, the school and society with its values, beliefs and practices that define the culture where the individual grows up. We are part of a reality that is evolving and growing in complexity, facing a multifactorial and multifaceted scenario. A number of diseases while known by health professionals, gain increasing importance in today's society. Several of these emerging pathologies are catalyzed by environmental factors and by social determinants that previously had less influence or that were simply not taken into account. The transformations that the child undergoes nowadays are visible, and for that reason, it is essential that mothers, fathers, teachers and health professionals viewed from our position as adults, act responsibly in all the spaces where children and adolescents of today are (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Saúde da Criança , Medicina do Adolescente , Relações Pais-Filho , Argentina , Gravidez na Adolescência , Suicídio , Tabagismo , Violência , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Pessoas com Deficiência , Depressão , Alcoolismo , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Identidade de Gênero , Obesidade
9.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(9): 775-787, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal depression has a recurring course that can influence offspring outcomes. Evidence on how to treat maternal depression to improve longer-term maternal outcomes and reduce intergenerational transmission of psychopathology is scarce, particularly for task-shifted, low-intensity, and scalable psychosocial interventions. We evaluated the effects of a peer-delivered, psychosocial intervention on maternal depression and child development at 3 years postnatal. METHODS: 40 village clusters in Pakistan were randomly allocated using a computerised randomisation sequence to receive a group-based, psychosocial intervention and enhanced usual care for 36 months, or enhanced usual care alone. Pregnant women (≥18 years) were screened for moderate or severe symptoms of depression (patient health questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] score ≥10) and were recruited into the trial (570 participants), and a cohort without depression (PHQ-9 score <10) was also enrolled (584 participants). Including the non-depressed dyads enabled us to determine how much of the excess risk due to maternal depression exposure the intervention could mitigate. Research teams responsible for identifying, obtaining consent, and recruiting trial participants were blind to the allocation status throughout the duration of the study, and principal investigators, site coordinators, statisticians, and members of the trial steering committee were also blinded to the allocation status until the analysis of 6-month data for the intervention. Primary outcomes were maternal depression symptoms and remission (PHQ-9 score <10) and child socioemotional skills (strengths and difficulties questionnaire [SDQ-TD]) at 36-months postnatal. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02658994. FINDINGS: From Oct 15, 2014 to Feb 25, 2016 46 village clusters were assessed for eligibility, of which 40 (including 1910 mothers were enrolled. After exclusions, 288 women were randomly assigned to the enhanced usual care group and 284 to the intervention group, and 1159 women were included in a group without prenatal depression. At 36-months postnatal, complete data were available from 889 mother-child dyads: 206 (72·5%) in the intervention group, 216 (75·3%) in the enhanced usual care group, and 467 (80·0%) women who did not have prenatal-depression. We did not observe significant outcome differences between the intervention group and the enhanced usual care group for the primary outcomes. The standardised mean difference of PHQ-9 total score was -0·13 (95% CI -0·33 to 0·07), relative risk of patient health questionnaire-9 remission was 1·00 (95% CI 0·88 to 1·14), and the SDQ-TD treatment estimate was -0·10 (95% CI -1·39 to 1·19). INTERPRETATION: Reduced symptom severity and high remission rates were seen across both the intervention and enhanced usual care groups, possibly masking any effects of the intervention. A multi-year, psychosocial intervention can be task-shifted via peers but might be susceptible to reductions in fidelity and dosage over time (which were not among the outcomes of this trial). Early intervention efforts might need to rely on multiple models (eg, collaborative care), be of greater intensity, and potentially targeted at mothers who are at high risk for depression to reduce the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology from mothers to children. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Depressão Pós-Parto/terapia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Paquistão , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(7): 452-460, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741876

RESUMO

Objectives Many local governments and elementary and junior high schools in Japan have conducted a "greeting campaign". This has been done in order to activate communication among local residents, and to instill public spirit and sociability in students' minds. However, few studies have explored the significance of greeting campaigns. The present study investigates greeting in neighborhoods and its relationship with students' spontaneous greeting behavior. The study also seeks to understand the quantity of greeting in daily life and its association with a student's community attachment and helping behavior.Methods A self-completion questionnaire survey was conducted with 1,346 students studying in the fourth and higher grades at elementary schools, and 1,357 students in the first and second grade at junior high schools. There were 2,692 valid respondents. We performed the following analyses using the data of elementary school students and junior high school students separately. A partial correlation analysis was conducted wherein gender and grade were introduced as control variables. This analysis tested the correlation between the frequency of being greeted by surrounding people and the frequency of greeting by students, of their own accord. A path analysis that tested the relationship between students' greeting behavior, their attachment to residential areas, and helping behavior was also conducted.Results The results of the partial correlation analysis revealed that there was a positive correlation between the frequency of being greeted by surrounding people and the frequency of greeting by students, of their own accord, regardless of gender and grade. Moreover, the results of the path analysis revealed that the frequency of being greeted was positively associated with community attachment and that the frequency of students' spontaneous greeting behavior was positively associated not only with community attachment but also with helping behavior. The goodness of model fit was high for both the data of elementary school students as well as the data of junior high school students.Conclusion We found that exchanging greetings with surrounding people in daily life enhanced students' attachment to the community. In particular, we showed that students' spontaneous greeting behavior led to their helping behavior, which supports the significance of recommending greeting at home, school, or in the local community. Since there was a correlation between the frequency of being greeted and the frequency of greeting willingly, we consider that actions of surrounding adults become important to help students acquire spontaneous greeting behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento de Ajuda , Apego ao Objeto , Características de Residência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Aconselhamento , Humanos , Japão , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Pediatr Dent ; 42(4): 252-255, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847664

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to assess whether child life intervention can be an effective alternative to pharmacologic behavior management in uncooperative pediatric dental patients. Methods: Thirty uncooperative four- to eight-year-old patients with no history of a negative invasive dental experience were randomly assigned into two groups: experimental (E) and control (C). Group E was given two 30- minute child life interventions (CLIs) by a certified child life specialist. Group C did not receive CLIs. Both groups then had an invasive restorative dental appointment, which was video recorded, edited, and viewed to assess behavior via the Houpt scale. Results: Group E demonstrated overall better cooperation for the appointment (Group C equals 3.63, and group E equals 4.07.) Conclusions: Child life interventions may be considered an adjunct to other behavior guidance techniques, but further investigations should be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of CLIs on behavior in the dental setting.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico , Agendamento de Consultas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Família , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto
12.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003213, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to green space has beneficial effects on several cognitive and behavioral aspects. However, to our knowledge, no study addressed intelligence as outcome. We investigated whether the level of urbanicity can modify the association of residential green space with intelligence and behavior in children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study includes 620 children and is part of the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey (EFPTS), a registry of multiple births in the province of East Flanders, Belgium. Intelligence was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) in 620 children (310 twin pairs) between 7 and 15 years old. From a subset of 442 children, behavior was determined based on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Prenatal and childhood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign green space indicators. Mixed modeling was performed to investigate green space in association with intelligence and behavior while adjusting for potential confounding factors including sex, age, parental education, neighborhood household income, year of assessment, and zygosity and chorionicity. We found that residential green space in association with both intelligence and behavior in children was modified by the degree of urbanicity (p < 0.001). In children living in an urban environment, multivariable adjusted mixed modeling analysis revealed that an IQR increment of residential green space (3,000-m radius) was associated with a 2.6 points (95% CI 1.4-3.9; p < 0.001) higher total intelligence quotient (IQ) and 2.0 points (95% CI -3.5 to -0.4; p = 0.017) lower externalizing behavioral score. In children residing in a rural or suburban environment, no association was found. A limitation of this study is that no information was available on school location and the potential for unmeasured confounding (e.g., time spend outdoors). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that residential green space may be beneficial for the intellectual and the behavioral development of children living in urban areas. These findings are relevant for policy makers and urban planners to create an optimal environment for children to develop their full potential.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Planejamento Ambiental/tendências , Inteligência , Características de Residência , População Rural/tendências , População Suburbana/tendências , População Urbana/tendências , Adolescente , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Gêmeos/psicologia
13.
J Dent Child (Chic) ; 87(2): 98-102, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788003

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate caregivers' perspective on barriers to dental care for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
Methods: A cross-sectional survey assessing perceived barriers to dental care was administered to 46 caregivers who had a child with ASD (study group) and 37 who had children without ASD (control group) but with chronic health issues.
Results: The barriers most frequently reported in the study group were difficulty finding a dentist who would treat their child (32 percent) and the child's uncooperative behavior (39 percent). A significantly higher number of caregivers of children with ASD agreed that their child was uncooperative and that such behavior was a barrier to finding care (chi-square=15.22, P =0.0001). The number of barriers reported by caregivers of children with ASD was greater than that reported by the other caregivers. Caregivers of children with severe ASD perceived having the most barriers to care.
Conclusion: There are many barriers faced by caregivers in getting dental treatment for their children with ASD. Understanding the difficulty caregivers have in securing dental care for their children with ASD may help dentists and agencies work to improve access.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças , Cuidadores , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
14.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 105(5): 466-473, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive ventricular dilatation after intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants has a very high risk of severe disability and death. Drainage, irrigation and fibrinolytic therapy (DRIFT), in a randomised controlled trial (RCT), reduced severe cognitive impairment at 2 years. OBJECTIVE: To assess if the cognitive advantage of DRIFT seen at 2 years persisted until school age. PARTICIPANTS: The RCT conducted in four centres recruited 77 preterm infants with IVH and progressive ventricular enlargement over specified measurements. Follow-up was at 10 years of age. INTERVENTION: Intraventricular injection of a fibrinolytic followed by continuous lavage, until the drainage was clear, and standard care consisting of control of expansion by lumbar punctures and if expansion persisted via a ventricular access device. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Cognitive quotient (CQ), derived from the British Ability Scales and Bayley III Scales, and survival without severe cognitive disability. RESULTS: Of the 77 children randomised, 12 died, 2 could not be traced, 10 did not respond and 1 declined at 10-year follow-up. 28 in the DRIFT group and 24 in the standard treatment group were assessed by examiners blinded to the intervention. The mean CQ score was 69.3 (SD=30.1) in the DRIFT group and 53.7 (SD=35.7) in the standard treatment group (unadjusted p=0.1; adjusted p=0.01, after adjustment for the prespecified variables sex, birth weight and IVH grade). Survival without severe cognitive disability was 66% in the DRIFT group and 35% in the standard treatment group (unadjusted p=0.019; adjusted p=0.003). CONCLUSION: DRIFT is the first intervention for posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation to objectively demonstrate sustained cognitive improvement. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN80286058.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/terapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Prematuro/terapia , Hemorragia Cerebral Intraventricular/complicações , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Dilatação Patológica , Drenagem/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Punção Espinal , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Acuidade Visual
15.
Arch. med ; 20(2): 481-489, 20200703.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118910

RESUMO

Objetivo: surge la necesidad de identificar las relaciones existentes entre la inequidad socioeconómica en la primera infancia y las repercusiones en salud en la vida adulta. América Latina es la región con mayor inequidad socioeconómica, lo cual influye en la salud en la primera infancia y genera repercusiones que se manifiestan a lo largo de la vida. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en ClinicalKey, PubMed, SciELO, Google Scholar y Springer. Los criterios de búsqueda y selección fueron realizados a partir del modelo PICOT. Se seleccionaron 27 artículos y documentos oficiales. Resultados: la inequidad socioeconómica que caracteriza a América Latina influye de forma negativa e inevitablemente a las poblaciones más vulnerables como la primera infancia. Asimismo, etapas cruciales como el crecimiento y el neurodesarrollo se ven afectadas cuando no hay condiciones que permitan la estimulación a través del entorno. Además, la primera infancia comprende una etapa crítica en donde el entorno determinará significativamente en el estado de salud en la vida adulta, mediante la presencia de factores de riesgo y la adopción de estilos de vida. Conclusiones: las regiones deben comprender la situación de inequidad socioeconómica de su población y el compromiso que genera en la salud de la primera infancia, con el fin de instaurar reformas sociales que permitan un mejoramiento en las condiciones de vida,vivienda, alimentación, educación, acceso a servicios públicos y asistencia sanitaria..AU


Objective: there is a need to find the relationships between socioeconomic inequality in early childhood and the health impacts on adult life. Latin America is the region with the greatest socioeconomic inequality, which influences health in early childhood and have repercussions that are manifested throughout life. Materials and methods: a bibliographic search was conducted in ClinicalKey, PubMed, SciELO, Google Scholar and Springer. The search and selection criteria were made from the PICOT model. Twenty-five articles and official documents were selected. Results: the socioeconomic inequality that characterizes Latin America injure the most vulnerable populations such as early childhood. Likewise, crucial stages such as growth and neurodevelopment are affected when there are no conditions that allow stimulation through the environment. In addition, early childhood includes a critical stage where the environment will determine significantly in the state of health in adulthood, through the presence of risk factors and the adoption of lifestyles. Conclusions: the regions must understand the situation of socioeconomic inequality of their population and the responsibility that generates in early childhood health, in order to establish social reforms that allow an improvement in living conditions, housing, food, education, access to public services and health care..Au


Assuntos
Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Individualidade
16.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (49): 93-106, jul. 2020.
Artigo em Catalão | IBECS | ID: ibc-192096

RESUMO

L'educació, tant en els primers nivells de socialització com en les seves etapes posteriors d'educació formal, està posant en risc el desenvolupament de l'autonomia individual tan necessària perquè l'alumne arribi a la maduresa pròpia de l'etapa adulta. Les polítiques educatives, els nous models educatius I la societat mateixa estan desvinculant l' autonomia progressiva de la responsabilitat, els sentiments de la raó, l'emoció de la voluntat I la motivació del deure en la seva praxi educativa. Les conseqüències són que els alumnes queden ancorats en actituds infantils d'omnipotència amb incapacitat de fer un ajustament adequat amb la realitat I reaccionant en la majoria de casos amb agressivitat. La bioètica I l'educació tenen una relació necessària amb la construcció de subjectes morals I autònoms És urgent traçar una línia per sota de la qual no es donin les condiciones necessaries pel desenvolupament ple de la nostra joventut. La bioètica, que té un caràcter multidisciplinar I interdisciplinar, ha d' atendre als problemes actuals I complexos de l' educació I contribuir a pensar models educatius que formin ciutadans compromesos, responsables I solidaris. Un model educatiu s'ha de construir dins d'un debat bioètic i, en el marc de l'ètica del cuidar, sense desvincular-se de les ètiques de caràcter normatiu


La educación, tanto en los primeros niveles de socialización como en sus etapas posteriores de educación formal, está poniendo en riesgo el desarrollo de la autonomía individual tan necesaria para que el alumno llegue a la madurez propia de la etapa adulta. Las políticas educativas, los nuevos modelos educativos y la sociedad misma están desvinculando la autonomía progresiva de la responsabilidad, los sentimientos de la razón, la emoción de la voluntad y la motivación del deber en su praxis educativa. Las consecuencias son que los alumnos quedan anclados en actitudes infantiles de omnipotencia con incapacidad de hacer un ajuste adecuado con la realidad y reaccionando en la mayoría de casos con agresividad. La bioética y la educación tienen una relación necesaria con la construcción de sujetos morales y autónomos. Es urgente trazar una línea por debajo de la cual no se den las condiciones necesarias para el desarrollo pleno de nuestra juventud. La bioética, que tiene un carácter multidisciplinar e interdisciplinar, debe atender a los problemas actuales y complejos de la educación y contribuir a pensar modelos educativos que formen ciudadanos comprometidos, responsables y solidarios. Un modelo educativo debe construirse dentro de un debate bioético y, en el marco de la ética del cuidar, sin desvincularse de las éticas de carácter normativo


Education, both at the early levels of socialization and in the later stages of formal education, is putting at risk the development of the individual autonomy so necessary for the student to reach the maturity of adulthood. Educational policies, the new educational models and society itself are dissociating progressive autonomy from responsibility, feelings of reason, emotion from will and motivation of duty in their educational practice. The consequences are that students are anchored in childish attitudes of omnipotence with an inability to adjust accordingly to reality and reacting, in most cases, aggressively. Bioethics and education have a necessary relationship with the construction of moral and autonomous subjects. Bioethics, which has a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary character, must address the current and complex problems of education and contribute to thinking about educational models that form committed, responsible and supportive citizens. An educational model must be constructed within a bioethical debate and, within the framework of the ethics of care, without dissociating itself from normative ethics


Assuntos
Humanos , Empatia/ética , Modelos Educacionais , Bioética/educação , Comportamento Infantil/ética , Socialização , Autonomia Pessoal , Educação/ética , Agressão/ética
17.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661188

RESUMO

Cannabinoids, the psychoactive compounds in marijuana, are one of the most commonly used substances in the United States. In this review, we summarize the impact of marijuana on child and adolescent health and discuss the implications of marijuana use for pediatric practice. We review the changing epidemiology of cannabis use and provide an update on medical use, routes of administration, synthetic marijuana and other novel products, the effect of cannabis on the developing brain, other health and social consequences of use, and issues related to marijuana legalization.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Uso da Maconha , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Canabinoides/efeitos adversos , Canabinoides/síntese química , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Cannabis/química , Cannabis/envenenamento , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Medicamentosas , Endocanabinoides/fisiologia , Feminino , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/terapia , Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Leite Humano/química , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Receptores de Canabinoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Canabinoides/fisiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia
18.
Public Health ; 185: 182-188, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645505

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate sex differences in sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of frequent energy drink (ED) consumption in adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: This study was based on data collected among French-speaking Belgian adolescents aged 11-20 years (n = 8137) within the 2018 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. METHODS: Multiple logistic analyses stratified by sex were performed to estimate the associations between consuming EDs more than once a week, and various sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS: Overall, 14.0% of boys and 7.6% of girls consumed ED more than once a week. For both genders, the likelihood of consuming ED more than once a week was higher among adolescents consuming soft drinks daily (vs. < daily), alcohol weekly (vs. < weekly), spending at least 5 h/day in front of screens (vs. < 5 h/day), and going to bed later than 11:30 PM (vs. ≤ 10:00 PM). Among boys, adolescents reporting at least 1 h of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily (vs. < 1 h/day MVPA) were more likely to consume ED more than once a week (adjusted odd ratio (aOR) = 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-2.01)). Among girls, adolescents from low affluence families (vs. high affluence) (aOR = 2.03 (95% CI 1.19-3.48)) and immigrants (vs. natives) (2nd generation: aOR = 1.75 (95% CI 1.31-2.32); 1st generation: aOR = 1.90 (95% CI 1.20-3.03)) were more likely to consume ED more than once a week. CONCLUSIONS: We identified different patterns of ED consumption in boys and girls. These results suggest that sex-tailored interventions could be relevant to reduce ED consumption in adolescents.


Assuntos
Bebidas Energéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Bélgica , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Estudos Transversais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236415, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702017

RESUMO

There is a significant delay between seeking help and a confirmed diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This delay can lead to poor outcomes for both the families and individuals. Telehealth potentially offers a way of improving the diagnostic pathway for ASD. We conducted a scoping review examining which telehealth approaches are used in the diagnosis and assessment of ASD in children and adults, whether they are feasible and acceptable, and how they compare with face-to-face diagnosis and assessment methods. A search for all peer-reviewed articles, combining the terms of autism and telehealth was conducted from 2000 to 2019. A total of 10 studies were identified for inclusion in the review. This review of the literature found there to be two methods of using telehealth: (a) Real-Time method e.g. video conferencing that enables teams in different areas to consult with the families and to assess the child/adult in real time and (b) A Store-and-Forward method as Naturalistic Observation Diagnostic Assessment (NODA) system to upload videos of child's behaviors to a webportal that enables the clinicians to make an assessment remotely. The findings were positive, finding there to be high agreement in terms of the diagnosis between remote methods and face to face methods and with high levels of satisfaction among the families and clinicians. This field is in the very early stages and so only studies with small sample size using surveys and interviews were identified but the findings suggest that there is potential for telehealth methods to improve access to assessment and diagnosis of ASD used in conjunction with existing methods, especially for those with clear autism traits and adults with ASD. Larger randomised controlled trials of this technology are warranted.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Comportamento Infantil , Telemedicina/tendências , Comunicação por Videoconferência/tendências , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
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