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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238241, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911505

RESUMO

Contrary to the self-interestedness assumption, numerous economic studies have documented that people are intrinsically honest. However, little is known about this trait's developmental origin. This study examines whether and the extent to which children in early childhood incur the intrinsic lying cost. We modified the commonly used coin-flip task into a child-friendly ball-drawing task with 10 trials and conducted the experiment with 225 child participants aged three to eight years old. We found that-although young children, on average, told two lies in the task (an average winning rate of 71%)-they lied significantly less than the maximum level (i.e., lying 100% of the time). The pattern was largely similar across gender and the age range studied. Furthermore, our child subjects' propensity to lie dropped by approximately 9% when they were randomly assigned to the treatment condition with an increased "perceived" intrinsic cost of lying. Overall, our results align with the innate morality hypothesis: young children, as young as three years old, are willing to give up pecuniary rewards in order to remain honest.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Decepção , Princípios Morais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
2.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003213, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to green space has beneficial effects on several cognitive and behavioral aspects. However, to our knowledge, no study addressed intelligence as outcome. We investigated whether the level of urbanicity can modify the association of residential green space with intelligence and behavior in children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study includes 620 children and is part of the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey (EFPTS), a registry of multiple births in the province of East Flanders, Belgium. Intelligence was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) in 620 children (310 twin pairs) between 7 and 15 years old. From a subset of 442 children, behavior was determined based on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Prenatal and childhood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign green space indicators. Mixed modeling was performed to investigate green space in association with intelligence and behavior while adjusting for potential confounding factors including sex, age, parental education, neighborhood household income, year of assessment, and zygosity and chorionicity. We found that residential green space in association with both intelligence and behavior in children was modified by the degree of urbanicity (p < 0.001). In children living in an urban environment, multivariable adjusted mixed modeling analysis revealed that an IQR increment of residential green space (3,000-m radius) was associated with a 2.6 points (95% CI 1.4-3.9; p < 0.001) higher total intelligence quotient (IQ) and 2.0 points (95% CI -3.5 to -0.4; p = 0.017) lower externalizing behavioral score. In children residing in a rural or suburban environment, no association was found. A limitation of this study is that no information was available on school location and the potential for unmeasured confounding (e.g., time spend outdoors). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that residential green space may be beneficial for the intellectual and the behavioral development of children living in urban areas. These findings are relevant for policy makers and urban planners to create an optimal environment for children to develop their full potential.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Planejamento Ambiental/tendências , Inteligência , Características de Residência , População Rural/tendências , População Suburbana/tendências , População Urbana/tendências , Adolescente , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Gêmeos/psicologia
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(7): 780-786, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131698

RESUMO

The aims of this study were (i) to examine the sedentary time (ST) during different time periods [i.e., weekend, out-of-school weekdays hours, school hours, recess, physical education classes (PEC)] in children and adolescents; (ii) to identify 2-year longitudinal changes in the ST for these periods; and (iii) to examine if ST at baseline is associated with ST 2 years later. This was a 2-year follow-up study with 826 (51.9% boys) children and 678 (50.7% boys) adolescents. Accelerometers were used to assess ST. Students spent more than 60% of their weekend, out-of-school hours and school hours in ST. During these periods, girls and adolescents were more sedentary than boys and children, respectively (p < 0.05). Over 2-year follow-up, ST increased during the weekend, out-of-school hours, school hours and recess in all subgroups studied (p < 0.001). ST during PEC declined 2% per year in children (p < 0.001) but it increased in adolescents (p < 0.05). ST during the periods analysed at baseline was lowly associated with ST during these periods 2 years later (intraclass correlations from <0.001 to 0.364). Interventions in these settings may be adequate if the intention is to avoid ST increase in students.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães , Educação Física e Treinamento
4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228482, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children in humanitarian situations are particularly vulnerable to diseases such as diarrhoea. Handwashing with soap can greatly reduce transmission but handwashing rates are often low and traditional interventions ineffective. To aid future intervention design, this study aims to understand the determinants of child handwashing and the key motivational drivers of children's behaviour within a specific humanitarian setting. METHODS: In an internally displaced persons camp in Northern Iraq we conducted a series of 36 friendship-paired interviews with children aged 7-12 years, six semi-structured caregiver interviews, and three semi-structured hygiene promoter interviews. Perceived determinants of child handwashing were explored qualitatively, and motivational drivers were explored quantitatively with children in a rating exercise. Qualitative data were analysed thematically, using an inductive approach, and logistic regression analyses of motive rating data were performed to determine the predicted probabilities of motives being rated as important. RESULTS: Access to soap and water was perceived to be high across all participant groups. Children, caregivers and hygiene promoters all perceive the determinants of child handwashing to be associated with familial role, environmental factors pertaining to location and quality of handwashing materials and facilities, and level of exposure to hygiene promotion, and children also attribute their handwashing to social norms. We find that children in this context are motived most by play and nurture. CONCLUSIONS: Provision of soap and water alone is not sufficient to encourage children to practice handwashing with soap in a humanitarian context. Our findings suggest that equal consideration should be given to the quality and location of handwashing materials and facilities and social norms could be leveraged to promote and enhance child handwashing. Motive-based interventions targeting play or nurture may be a promising approach and are likely most effective when used in conjunction, along with other motivational drivers such as affiliation and love.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Desinfecção das Mãos , Higiene , Motivação , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Família , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sabões , Normas Sociais
5.
Dev Psychol ; 56(2): 285-297, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855013

RESUMO

Experiences of contingent responsivity during shared book reading predict better learning outcomes. However, it is unclear whether contingent responsivity from a digital book could provide similar support for children. The effects on story recall and engagement interacting with a digital book that responded contingently on children's vocalizations (contingent book) were investigated, with a focus on the role of individual differences in attention. The study used a within-subject design with 3 experiments from 90 3- to 5-year-old children. Children were presented with a contingent book and 3 noncontingent control conditions: a board book (Experiment 1), a static digital book (Experiment 2), and an animated book (Experiment 3). The use of the contingent book significantly increased children's story recall and was found to be especially useful for children with less developed attention regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Leitura , Livros , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Software
6.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 52(1): 259-266, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436733

RESUMO

PURPOSE: (i) To develop an automated measurement technique for the assessment of both the form and intensity of physical activity undertaken by children during play. (ii) To profile the varying activity across a cohort of children using a multivariate analysis of their movement patterns. METHODS: Ankle-worn accelerometers were used to record 40 min of activity during a school recess, for 24 children over five consecutive days. Activity events of 1.1 s duration were identified within the acceleration time trace and compared with a reference motif, consisting of a single walking stride acceleration trace, obtained on a treadmill operating at a speed of 4 km h. Dynamic time warping of motif and activity events provided metrics of comparative movement duration and intensity, which formed the data set for multivariate mapping of the cohort activity using a principal component analysis (PCA). RESULTS: The two-dimensional PCA plot provided clear differentiation of children displaying diverse activity profiles and clustering of those with similar movement patterns. The first component of the PCA correlated to the integrated intensity of movement over the 40-min period, whereas the second component informed on the temporal phasing of activity. CONCLUSIONS: By defining movement events and then quantifying them by reference to a motion-standard, meaningful assessment of highly varied activity within free play can be obtained. This allows detailed profiling of individual children's activity and provides an insight on social aspects of play through identification of matched activity time profiles for children participating in conjoined play.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Jogos e Brinquedos , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Tornozelo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
7.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 118, 2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schools located in rural parts of the United States and North Carolina have benefited proportionally less from the federal Safe Routes to School (SRTS) program than their more urban counterparts. We investigated whether and how diverse elementary and middle school communities throughout North Carolina have engaged in a SRTS-inspired, multi-sectoral initiative called the Active Routes to School (ARTS) project over the course of 5 years (2013 through 2017). METHODS: Analyses included a study sample of 2602 elementary and middle schools in North Carolina, 853 that participated in the ARTS project over the five-year study period and 1749 that had not. Statistical models controlling for county- and school-level confounders predicted schools' involvement in walking and bicycling-promotive events, programs, and policies over time. RESULTS: Schools' engagement with ARTS Project programming increased significantly over the study period, with 33% of eligible schools participating with the project by the end of 2017. Participation was most common in promotional events. Such event participation predicted engagement with regularly recurring programming and school- and district-level establishment of biking- and walking-facilitative policies. Lower income schools were more likely to establish recurring bike and walk programs than wealthier schools, whereas rural schools were less likely than city schools to participate in promotional events, yet equally as likely as other schools to participate in recurring bike and walk programs. CONCLUSIONS: Schools' engagement with the North Carolina ARTS Project diffused despite many schools' rural geographies and lower socioeconomic status. Further, participation in one-time promotional events can portend schools' establishment of recurring walking and biking programs and supportive policies.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Caminhada/fisiologia , Criança , Exercício Físico , Humanos , North Carolina , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas
8.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 117, 2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive engagement with digital screens is harmful to children's health. However, new evidence suggests that exposure at moderate levels may not be harmful and may even provide benefit. Therefore, our objective was to determine if there are curvilinear relationships between different types of screen time and a diverse set of outcomes, including health and education. METHODS: We address our objective using a repeated measures design. Children (N = 4013), initially aged 10-11 were assessed every 2 years between 2010 and 2014. Children's screen time behavior was measured using time-use diaries, and categorized into five types: social, passive, interactive, educational, or other. We used measures of children's physical health, health-related quality of life, socio-emotional outcomes, and school achievement. The analysis plan was pre-registered. Models were adjusted for gender, socio-economic status, ethnicity, number of siblings, and housing factors. RESULTS: There were linear associations between total screen time and all outcomes, such that more screen time was associated with worse outcomes. However, there was variability when examined by screen time type. Passive screen time (e.g., TV) was associated with worse outcomes, educational screen time (e.g., computer for homework) was associated with positive educational outcomes and had no negative relations with other outcomes. Interactive screen time (e.g., video games) had positive associations with educational outcomes but negative associations with other outcomes. In all instances, these significant associations were small or very small, with standardised effects < 0.07. We found little evidence of curvilinear relationships. CONCLUSIONS: The small effects of screen time on children's outcomes appear to be moderated by the type of screen time. Policy makers, educators, and parents should consider the type of screen time when considering the benefits and harms of use.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Tempo de Tela , Austrália , Criança , Escolaridade , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Qualidade de Vida
9.
Int J Health Geogr ; 18(1): 26, 2019 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GIS (Geographic Information Systems) based behavior maps are useful for visualizing and analyzing how children utilize their play spaces. However, a GIS needs accurate locational information to ensure that observations are correctly represented on the layout maps of play spaces. The most commonly used tools for observing and coding free play among children in indoor play spaces require that locational data be collected alongside other play variables. There is a need for a practical, cost-effective approach for extending most tools for analyzing free play by adding geospatial locational information to children's behavior data collected in indoor play environments. RESULTS: We provide a non-intrusive approach to adding locational information to behavior data acquired from video recordings of preschool children in their indoor play spaces. The gridding technique showed to be a cost-effective method of gathering locational information about children from video recordings of their indoor physical activities and social behaviors. Visualizing the proportions of categories and observed intervals was done using bubble pie charts which allowed for the merging of multiple categorical information on one map. The addition of locational information to other play activity and social behavior data presented the opportunity to assess what types of equipment or play areas may encourage different physical activities and social behaviors among preschool children. CONCLUSIONS: Gridding is an effective method for providing locational data when analyzing physical activities and social behaviors of preschool children in indoor spaces. It is also reproducible for most GIS behavior mapping focusing on indoor environments. This bypasses the need to have positioning devices attached to children during observations, which can raise ethical considerations regarding children's privacy and methodological implications with children playing less naturally. It also supports visualizations on behavior maps making them easier to interpret.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Jogos e Brinquedos , Escolas Maternais , Comportamento Social , Comportamento Espacial/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia
10.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 110, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early years are a crucial period to promote healthy energy balance-related behaviours in children and prevent overweight and obesity. The childcare setting is important for health-promoting interventions. Increasingly, attention has been paid to parental involvement in childcare-based interventions. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions with direct parental involvement on the children's weight status and behavioural outcomes. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in four electronic databases to include studies up until January 2019. Studies written in English, describing results on relevant outcomes (weight status, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and/or nutrition-related behaviour) of childcare-based interventions with direct parental involvement were included. Studies not adopting a pre-post-test design or reporting on pilot studies were excluded. To improve comparability, effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated. Information on different types of environment targeted (e.g., social, physical, political and economic) was extracted in order to narratively examine potential working principles of effective interventions. RESULTS: A total of 22 studies, describing 17 different interventions, were included. With regard to the intervention group, 61.1% found some favourable results on weight status, 73.3% on physical activity, 88.9% on sedentary behaviour, and all on nutrition-related behaviour. There were studies that also showed unfavourable results. Only a small number of studies was able to show significant differences between the intervention and control group (22.2% weight status, 60.0% physical activity, 66.6% sedentary behaviour, 76.9% nutrition behaviour). Effect sizes, if available, were predominantly small to moderate, with some exceptions with large effect sizes. The interventions predominantly targeted the socio-cultural and physical environments in both the childcare and home settings. Including changes in the political environment in the intervention and a higher level of intensity of parental involvement appeared to positively impact intervention effectiveness. CONCLUSION: Childcare-based interventions with direct parental involvement show promising effects on the children's energy balance-related behaviours. However, evidence on effectiveness is limited, particularly for weight-related outcomes. Better understanding of how to reach and involve parents may be essential for strengthening intervention effectiveness.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Cuidado da Criança , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Poder Familiar , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Metabolismo Energético , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Pais , Comportamento Sedentário
11.
Span J Psychol ; 22: E42, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640826

RESUMO

The aim of this piece of research was to study the existence of clusters based on anger, empathy and cortisol and testosterone measures associated with aggressive behavior in school-aged children. The sample group comprised 139 eight-year-old children (80 boys and 59 girls). Aggressive behavior was measured using the Direct and Indirect Aggression Scale. Both psychological and biological variables were used to determine psychobiological profiles. The psychological variables considered were trait anger, measured using the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory for Children and Adolescents, and empathy, measured using the Empathy Quotient-Child Version. Testosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured through saliva samples and analyzed using an ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). A Cluster Analysis revealed three clusters which were clearly different as regards their psychological and biological characteristics. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the cluster characterized by having higher anger levels, lower empathy levels and higher testosterone and cortisol levels was more aggressive than the other two (p < .0001, η2 = .19). The results indicate that studying psychological and biological variables together may help establish differentiated aggression patterns among children.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Ira/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/classificação , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Personalidade/fisiologia , Testosterona/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Br J Nutr ; 122(s1): S10-S15, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638499

RESUMO

Neurodevelopment has been linked, among other factors, to maternal and early infant diets. The objective of this review, which is part of the NUTRIMENTHE research project 'The effect of diet on the mental performance of children' (www.nutrimenthe.com), was to update current evidence on the effects of nutritional interventions such as iron, folic acid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation during pregnancy and/or in early life on the mental performance and psychomotor development of children. In May 2014, we searched MEDLINE and The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for relevant studies published since 2009. The limited updated evidence suggests that iron supplementation of infants may positively influence the psychomotor development of children, although it does not seem to alter their mental development or behaviour. The use of multivitamin-containing folic acid supplements during pregnancy did not benefit the mental performance of the offspring. Evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) did not show a clear and consistent benefit of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy and/or lactation on childhood cognitive and visual development. Caution is needed when interpreting current evidence, as many of the included trials had methodological limitations such as small sample sizes, high attrition rates, and no intention-to-treat analyses. Taken together, the evidence is still inconclusive. Large, high-quality RCT to assess the effects of supplementation with iron, LCPUFA or folic acid are still needed to further clarify the effects of these, and other nutrients, on neurodevelopment. Recent recommendations from scientific societies are briefly presented.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Cuidado Pós-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , MEDLINE , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modern-day technology is appealing to children. Few studies, however, have conducted longitudinal analyses of a school-based exergaming program's effect on physical activity (PA) behaviors and fitness in children. Therefore, this study examined the longitudinal effect of an 8-month school-based exergaming intervention on children's objectively-measured PA and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-one fourth grade students (X̅age = 9.23 ± 0.62; 39 girls; 54.3% African American, 30.9% Non-Hispanic White, 14.8% other) participated in this study from 2014-2015. The intervention school's children participated in a once-weekly 50-minute exergaming intervention during recess throughout the school year, while the control school continued regular recess. Children's in-school PA and sedentary behavior (SB) were measured with ActiGraphGT3X+ accelerometers, with CRF assessed via the half-mile run. All measurements were taken at baseline, mid-intervention (four months) and post-intervention (eight months). Repeated-measures two-way ANCOVAs using age and race as covariates were conducted to examine between-school differences over time for SB, light PA (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and CRF. RESULTS: Significant time by group interactions were observed for LPA, F(1, 79) = 7.82, η2 = 0.09, p < 0.01, and MVPA, F(1, 79) = 4.58, η2 = 0.06, p < 0.05, as LPA increased among the control group, while MVPA increased among intervention group. Children in both groups experienced decreased SB during the intervention (intervention: -7.63 minutes; control: -17.59 minutes), but demonstrated lower CRF over time (intervention: +46.73 seconds; control: +61.60 seconds). CONCLUSIONS: Observations suggested that school-based exergaming implementation may be effective in increasing children's MVPA and decreasing their SB over the course an academic year (i.e., ~eight months). More research is needed, however, to discern how modifications to school-based exergaming might also promote improved CRF in children.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Jogos de Vídeo , Acelerometria , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Comportamento Sedentário , Estudantes/psicologia , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
14.
Dev Psychol ; 55(11): 2275-2285, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535894

RESUMO

The present study explored the age-related changes of eye movement control in reading-that is, where to send the eyes and when to move them. Different orthographies present readers with somewhat different problems to solve, and this might, in turn, be reflected in different patterns of development of reading skill. Participants of different developmental levels (Grade 3, N = 30; Grade 5, N = 27 and adults, N = 27) were instructed to read sentences for comprehension while their eye movements were recorded. Contrary to previous findings that have been well documented indicating early maturation of saccade generation in English, current results showed that saccade generation among Chinese readers was still under development at Grade 5, although immediate lexical processing was relatively well-established. The distinct age-related changes in eye movements are attributable to certain linguistic properties of Chinese including the lack of interword spaces and word boundary uncertainty. The present study offers an example of how human eye movement adapts to the orthographic environment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Leitura , Adulto , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Infant Behav Dev ; 57: 101366, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541866

RESUMO

Parents play a critical role in shaping social-emotional development, particularly in early childhood; however, children's influence on their own development is equally important. Parent-child interactions, fundamental to secure attachment and social schemes, represent a critical area of social-emotional development subject to child effects associated with temperament. The present study explores these effects through a cross-cultural lens via comparisons of dyads from the United States (US) and Germany. Specifically, cross-cultural differences in toddler temperament were evaluated via the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ; Putnam et al., 2006), with cross-cultural variability in parent-child interactions examined as well, along with differences in child temperament effects on the quality of these interactions. Ratings of temperament were generally similar between the two cultures; however, US toddlers were rated higher in attention shifting, whereas German children were rated higher on soothability and perceptual sensitivity. Additionally, dyadic interactions in the US were rated as more stimulating and demonstrating greater partner engagement than those in Germany. Differential contributions of temperament to interaction quality and complexity were also observed. Higher ratings of toddler discomfort and perceptual sensitivity predicted more stimulating interactions overall in the US but not Germany. In contrast, higher ratings of toddler low-intensity pleasure predicted more stimulating interactions in Germany but not the US. Overall, the present study identifies many similarities between US and German toddlers and supports theories describing children as active agents in shaping their own development, in what appears to be a different manner across cultures.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Temperamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424700

RESUMO

Background: Opioid use is a significant national crisis impacting individuals struggling with addiction and their families. The majority of individuals who abuse opioids are of child-rearing age, and critical knowledge gaps remain regarding how this abuse impacts their offspring. Fortunately, treatment for opioid use disorders is available. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate both physical and psychiatric diagnoses of children who have at least 1 parent participating in a buprenorphine-assisted treatment program. Methods: This retrospective study is based on chart review (January 1, 2010, through June 30, 2018). Children with parents receiving care in a buprenorphine clinic were identified and matched on sex, race, and age in a ratio of 1:5 with controls from the general pediatric clinic population. Data related to health outcomes were extracted from the medical records. Results: Compared to controls (n = 120), children of parents receiving buprenorphine-assisted treatment (n = 24) were more likely to have been born premature (odds ratio [OR] = 3.3, P = .035), had jaundice after birth (OR = 2.7, P = .034), had enuresis/encopresis (P < .001), and had been the victims of abuse or neglect (OR = 19.7, P = .0005). Children of parents with opioid use disorders were also more likely to utilize emergency services (ie, being seen in the emergency department for fussiness; OR = 4.0, P = .046) and were less likely to be covered by private insurance compared to state-funded insurance (OR = 0.2, P = .0013). Conclusions: Parental opioid use disorder impacts children. More research is needed to better describe long-term effects of treatment of parental opioid use on their offspring and to help design addiction treatment programs to support whole family units.


Assuntos
Sintomas Comportamentais/epidemiologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Icterícia/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Pais , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Indian Pediatr ; 56(11): 933-937, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare development/cognition, adaptive function and maladaptive behavior of HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children between 2 to 9 years with HIV-uninfected controls. METHODS: This hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from November, 2013 to March, 2015. 50 seropositive HIV-infected, 25 HIV-exposed uninfected and 25 HIV-uninfected children between 2 to 9 years were administered Developmental Profile 3, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale 2, and Child Behavior Checklist for assessing development, adaptive function and maladaptive behaviour, respectively. Additional data were obtained by history, examination and review of records. RESULTS: Significant developmental/cognitive impairment was observed in 38 (76%), 16 (64%) and 6 (24%) HIV-infected, HIV-exposed uninfected, and HIV-uninfected children, respectively. Significant impairment in adaptive function was found in 12 (24%) and 2 (8%) HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children, respectively. Maladaptive behavior was not seen in any group. CONCLUSIONS: High magnitude of impaired development/cognition and adaptive function in HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children warrants assessment of these domains during follow-up of these children, and incorporation of interventions for these deficits in standard care for this group.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil , Disfunção Cognitiva , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Infecções por HIV , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Soropositividade para HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde
18.
Dev Psychol ; 55(10): 2147-2158, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368763

RESUMO

Deficits in executive function have been associated with internalizing problems in children. Yet little is known about the mechanisms that may explain this association. Using longitudinal data across elementary school years (N = 1,364), this study examined the role of peer difficulty and poor academic performance in understanding longitudinal associations between executive function and internalizing problems. Executive function was measured in first grade with observed tasks and standardized tests. Peer difficulty and academic performance were reported by teachers and/or mothers at three waves. Internalizing problems were reported by mothers at four waves. Using structural equation modeling, results demonstrated that peer difficulty and poor academic performance independently mediated longitudinal relations between executive function and internalizing problems. Findings highlighted the importance of children's functioning in key identity domains in understanding the adverse impact of inferior executive function on internalizing problems in school-age children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Grupo Associado , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Instituições Acadêmicas
19.
Dev Psychol ; 55(11): 2365-2378, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380660

RESUMO

The current investigation reports the results of a randomized controlled trial of a brief, relational intervention for maltreated preschool-aged children and their mothers, called Reminiscing and Emotion Training (RET). RET facilitates elaborative and emotionally supportive parent-child communication, which is an essential component of the parent-child relationship and is especially relevant for the preschool age period. Participants were 248 children between the ages of 3- to 6-years-old and their mothers. Following a baseline assessment, 165 maltreating families were randomized into RET or a Community Standard (CS) condition in which families received case management and written parenting information; 83 families participated in the nonmaltreating comparison condition. Results indicated that the key mechanisms targeted by the RET interventions were enhanced, such that mothers who participated in RET were significantly better in elaboration and sensitive guidance during reminiscing at the posttest than were maltreating mothers who did not receive the intervention, with medium to large effect sizes; additionally, mothers in the RET group were more elaborative than mothers from the nonmaltreatment group. Children in the RET condition also contributed significantly more memories and had better emotional knowledge than did children in the CS condition, controlling for baseline values and language, and approximated the functioning of nonmaltreated children. These findings add to a growing literature underscoring the benefits of brief, focused, relational interventions for maltreated children and their caregivers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/terapia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicoterapia Breve , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 44: 143-149, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Preschool version of the Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ-18) is a popular instrument to assess children's ability to master the environment through action or activity to explore, influence, or control the physical atmosphere. Although this instrument was originally developed in English, it has now been translated and validated in five other languages: Hungarian, Turkish, Chinese, Spanish, and Persian. As we notice a growing interest in research on the mastery motivation among Bangladeshi preschoolers, we have taken this effort to translate and validate the DMQ-18 and explore the factor structure of the Bangla version of this questionnaire. METHOD: After translating all 39 items of the questionnaire into Bangla, it was administered on 206 children, aged 3 to 6 years, recruited randomly from ten preschools in Dhaka. The schools were selected randomly from the official list of preschools prepared by the Dhaka City Corporation. Class teachers of the respective children completed the questionnaire with the assistant of research assistants. RESULTS: The Bangla version of the questionnaire retained all 39 items, with seven factors as they were in the English version. The Bangla version shows sufficient reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87; test-retest reliability = 0.89 for whole questionnaire and .79-.89 for sub-scales; inter-rater reliability = 0.88 for whole questionnaire and .79-.88 for sub-scales), and validity (correlated positively with the English version; r = 0.85). CONCLUSION: Due to its robust psychometric properties, the Bangla DMQ-18 is suggested to be used for Bangladeshi preschool children to assess their mastery motivation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Psicometria/normas , Bangladesh , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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