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1.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 10(1): 9-19, Enero 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-214140

RESUMO

Conduct problems (CP) constitute a major field for child clinical psychology, in terms of not only prevalence, but also developmental, social, andclinical relevance. This study carried out an umbrella review of meta-analyses on the efficacy of treatment/indicated prevention of child CP (meanage range up to 12 years). Following a registered protocol, several databases (i.e., Web of Science, PsycINFO, PROSPERO, and The CochraneLibrary) were searched for meta-analyses published from January 2002 to March 2022. Nine meta-analytic publications met the required criteria, andthe main characteristics and findings of the studies were systematically described. Weighted effect sizes (ESs) were calculated through RStudioprogram. Analyses of heterogeneity, publication bias, quality (AMSTAR-2), and credibility were also conducted. Results indicate that parent traininghas been the most studied intervention, with a weighted ES of d = -0.49 (95% CI -.67 to -.32). The reviewed studies identified several moderatorsfor the efficacy of parent training, including individual (severity of CP), family (financial disadvantage), and intervention (delivery format) characteristics. Results from child-centered play therapy were also analyzed, d = -.34 (95% CI -.40 to -.28), but the reduced number of meta-analyses andthe weakness detected by quality assessment suggest the need of cautiously considering the pooled effects. In general, evidence seems to besuggestive of the efficacy of treatment of CP, particularly for parent training. Nevertheless, efficacy seems to be moderate, heterogeneity indexesare high, and quality assessments of meta-analyses are often suboptimal. This study suggests several avenues to strengthen knowledge in this field. (AU)


Los problemas de conducta (PC) son un foco prioritario de atención en la psicología clínica infantil. Este estudio presenta una revisión umbrella de meta-análisis sobre la eficacia del tratamiento/prevención indicada de los PC infantiles (rango de edad media hasta 12 años). Siguiendo un protocoloregistrado, se buscaron meta-análisis (enero 2002 a marzo 2022) en Web of Science, PsycINFO, PROSPERO y The Cochrane Library. Nuevemeta-análisis cumplieron con los criterios requeridos y sus características y hallazgos fueron descritos sistemáticamente; además, con RStudiose calcularon los tamaños del efecto (TEs) ponderados. Se realizaron análisis de heterogeneidad, sesgo de publicación, calidad (AMSTAR-2) ycredibilidad. El entrenamiento parental fue la intervención más estudiada, con un TE medio ponderado de d = -.49 (IC del 95%: -.67 a -.32), y seidentificaron diversos moderadores de eficacia, incluyendo características individuales (gravedad de los PC), familiares (desventaja económica) yde intervención (formato de administración). También se analizaron los resultados de la terapia de juego centrada en el niño, d = -.34 (IC del 95%:-.40 a -.28), pero el reducido número de meta-análisis y la debilidad detectada por la evaluación de la calidad sugieren la necesidad de considerarcon cautela los efectos agrupados. En general, la evidencia es sugestiva de eficacia del tratamiento de los PC, específicamente del entrenamientoparental. No obstante, la eficacia parece ser moderada, los índices de heterogeneidad elevados y las evaluaciones de calidad de los meta-análisisno suelen ser óptimas. Este estudio sugiere varias vías para reforzar el conocimiento en este campo. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas , Metanálise como Assunto
2.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280653, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662771

RESUMO

Opportunities for children to be physically active during the COVID-19 pandemic were limited, resulting in a decrease in overall physical activity and an increase in sedentary behaviour during the lockdown restrictions of the pandemic. This study further explored these changes across various stages of the restrictions, starting during the first UK-wide lockdown in March 2020 through to the "new normal" in December 2021. Nine families, consisting of eleven children (36% girls, 64% boys; aged 13.38 years ± 1.14), eight mothers and one father were tracked throughout this time, using semi-structured interviews to explore the fluctuations in physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the home environment in the context of self-determination theory. Findings indicate that as restrictions eased, physical activity within the home decreased, as children were exposed to more opportunities at school and in the community; these opportunities seemingly increased children's motivation to be physically active through increasing levels of their basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Some children's physical activity levels have returned to pre-COVID-19 levels, with a newfound enjoyment for being physically active. Whilst others now prefer to pursue more sedentary behaviours that became habitual during the lockdown restrictions. Accessible opportunities now need to be promoted to drive up children's motivations to be physically active following the years of uncertainty around the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comportamento Sedentário , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Pandemias , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Exercício Físico
3.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 71(8): 722-740, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36511588

RESUMO

A variety of instruments are available for assessing parental and child behaviour in the context of interaction observation. This study investigated whether the Laboratory Parenting Assessment Battery (Lab-PAB) can be used to make predictive statements about the therapeutic success of child psychiatric treatment. The success of therapy was measured through pre- and post-intervention assessments using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS). A particular focus was placed on discriminating between externalizing and internalizing problems of the child. It was observed that positive items of the interaction offer a greater resource for the therapeutic success of children with externalizing problems than stopping negative behaviour of the parents. In the case of internalizing problems, the elimination of negative interaction items seems to be essential for a good therapy success.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Humanos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/terapia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pais
4.
Nutrients ; 14(23)2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36500987

RESUMO

A parental child-centered feeding approach is likely to keep children's biological mechanisms activated while eating, protecting them in an obesogenic context. However, few feeding practice measures assess parents' behaviors to guide and prompt children to identify and respond appropriately to their signs of hunger and satiety. We aimed to develop and study the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance of a new scale to assess parental feeding practices to promote children's self-regulation of food intake. To pursue this aim, we conducted two descriptive, cross-sectional, online studies in Portugal in an online format; a total of 536 parents of 2- to 6-year-old children completed the evaluation protocol. Factorial analysis findings support the theoretical organization proposed for the scale. The confirmatory factorial analysis supported a first-order factor structure with two subscales, Prompting for eating self-regulation and Teaching about eating consequences, with eight items in total. Both scales presented good internal consistency and adequate temporal stability, with a significant, positive, and moderate relationship. The results showed metric invariance for the child's sex. Both types of practices were positively correlated with the child's enjoyment of food. Prompting for eating self-regulation showed negative associations with parents' emotional lack of control, children's satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and fussiness. Preliminary studies confirmed both the validity and reliability of the instrument and the adequacy of adopting a self-regulatory approach when assessing child-centered feeding practices. Combining this instrument with others that assess coercive practices can be beneficial to capture ineffective parents' behaviors on children's eating self-regulation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Autocontrole , Humanos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Poder Familiar , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia
5.
Child Abuse Negl ; 134: 105942, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The developmental consequences of childhood trauma for young children are extensive and impact a diverse range of areas. Young children require treatments that consider their developmental stage and are inclusive of caregiver involvement. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), with its dyadic focus and developmental sensitivity, is uniquely positioned to offer therapeutic support to young children and their families. AIM: The current study aimed to conduct a systematic review of the current literature on PCIT and trauma and determine treatment outcomes for children and caregivers. METHOD: A systematic review of five electronic databases was undertaken. Studies that utilized PCIT to treat a population who had experienced trauma were included in the review regardless of study design. RESULTS: PCIT was used to treat a population who had experienced trauma in 40 studies. PCIT was an effective treatment in improving a variety of child and parent outcomes in this population including reduced parenting stress, child behavior problems, child trauma symptoms, parental mental health concerns, negative parenting strategies, and reducing potential risk of recidivism of abuse and neglect. These findings should be taken with caution given attrition rates and potential for bias in the study samples. DISCUSSION: Clinicians should consider PCIT as a potential treatment for children who have experienced trauma and their families. Future research should incorporate corroborative sources of information, assessment of caregiver and child trauma symptoms, examination of permanency outcomes, and consider standardization of PCIT modifications for child trauma to determine treatment in this population of children.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Relações Pais-Filho , Criança , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia
6.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 139, 2022 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating behaviors may contribute to differences in body weight and diet over time. Our study aims to examine how eating behaviors of young adults relate to their current weight status and dietary patterns and to explore longitudinal associations with eating behaviors in early childhood. METHODS: Study participants are young adults (n = 698) taking part in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development. At age 22, eating behaviors were assessed using the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Dietary patterns were derived from information collected by food frequency questions. Weight status was based on self-reported data. Information on eating behaviors in childhood had been collected when participants were 2.5 to 6 years old. Pearson's correlations were used to determine associations between adult eating behaviors and body mass index. Simple and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between eating behaviors and dietary patterns at age 22, and longitudinal associations with behaviors in early childhood. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between overeating and fussy eating in childhood and weight status at age 22. RESULTS: Body mass index was positively correlated with Emotional overeating, Enjoyment of food, and Food responsiveness and negatively correlated with Satiety responsiveness, Emotional undereating, Slowness in eating and Hunger. A Healthy dietary pattern was positively associated with both Enjoyment of food and Hunger, and negatively associated with Food fussiness. Inversely, a Beverage-rich dietary pattern was negatively associated with Enjoyment of food and positively associated with Food fussiness. A Protein-rich pattern was positively associated with Enjoyment of food, while a High energy density pattern was positively associated with Food fussiness. Young adults with higher scores for fussy eating in early childhood were more likely to manifest Food fussiness and Emotional undereating, and less likely to adopt a Healthy dietary pattern. Young adults with higher scores for overeating in early childhood were less likely to show traits such as Slowness in eating and more likely to be overweight. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that eating behaviors in childhood have long-term influence on diet and weight status, thereby reinforcing the importance of early interventions that promote healthy eating.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento Alimentar , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Longitudinais , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hiperfagia
7.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235837

RESUMO

Previous research identified emotion dysregulation, non-responsive feeding practices, and unhealthy food consumption as risk factors for childhood obesity. However, little is known about the relationships between these factors. This study examined associations between children's emotion regulation, parental feeding practices, and children's food consumption. The sample consisted of 163 mothers of children aged 3-5 years. Mothers completed the Emotion Regulation Checklist, the Child Feeding Questionnaire, and the Child Health Section from the Parent Interview of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-B to assess model variables. Results showed that healthy food consumption was associated with higher emotion regulation abilities, higher monitoring, and lower pressure to eat. For unhealthy food consumption, the associations were in opposite directions. Higher emotion regulation abilities were also associated with higher monitoring, lower pressure to eat, and lower restriction. For lability, the associations were in opposite directions. Regression analyses revealed that children's lability, pressure to eat, and monitoring were significant predictors of children's food consumption. These findings suggest that children's emotion regulation and feeding practices are important determinants of children's food consumption. Future longitudinal studies that examine bidirectional associations between children's emotion regulation, parental feeding practices, children's food consumption, and potential mechanisms accounting for these associations are needed.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Obesidade Pediátrica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Psychol Assess ; 34(11): 1007, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265050

RESUMO

Reports an error in "Factor structure and utility of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version" by Jamie A. Spiegel, Christopher J. Lonigan and Beth M. Phillips (Psychological Assessment, 2017[Feb], Vol 29[2], 172-185). In the original article, paraphrased references to the BRIEF-P test items originally provided in Table 2 have been removed by request of the copyright holder due to discrepancies between the APA guidelines and the copyright holder's internal policies. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-22451-001). Executive function (EF) is a domain general cognitive construct associated with a number of important developmental outcomes. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool version (BRIEF-P) is intended to assess 5 distinct components of EF in preschool age children. In this study, a series of factor analyses was conducted with teacher-reported EF of 2,367 preschool students to assess the structure of the BRIEF-P, and the predictive relations between the resulting factors and children's academic abilities and behavioral self-regulation were assessed to test the construct and convergent validity of the BRIEF-P scores. Results yielded mixed findings concerning the structure of the BRIEF-P and validity of its resultant scores. Results of the factor analyses indicated that the items of the BRIEF-P did not map onto factors in the way that would be expected based on its item-to-subscale mapping. The best solutions were a 4-factor and a bifactor model. The 4-factor solution revealed substantial correlations between factors, and although the bifactor solution identified a General Self-Regulation factor that explained variance in responses across items, this general factor did not account for all of the overlap among specific factors. Analyses of the relations for the factors from the correlated-factors and the bifactor models indicated that the majority of the factors had limited convergent validity with academic ability or with a measure of behavior self-regulation. Overall, these findings call into question the validity of aspects of BRIEF-P. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Instituições Acadêmicas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Análise Fatorial , Escolaridade , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293782

RESUMO

The current study explored the process of change in Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) using a community-based sample of 891 families of children with developmental disabilities (DD) who participated in an SSTP intervention at a community level. A preliminary analysis of outcome data indicated that SSTP intervention was effective in reducing parental adjustment difficulties, coercive parenting, and children's behavioral and emotional difficulties immediately after the intervention. The effects were maintained at 12-month follow-up. The results also indicated that change in parental adjustment over the course of intervention was significantly associated with a change in parenting behaviors. However, change in parenting behaviors but not change in parental adjustment, predicted children's behavioral and emotional problems following the intervention. The results suggest that positive parenting skills are the most salient ingredient driving the change in child behaviors in SSTP interventions.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Poder Familiar , Criança , Humanos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141960

RESUMO

Complementing internalizing and externalizing developmental outcomes of parental psychological control, in this study, we shift the focus to children's prosocial behaviors. Drawing on self-determination theory and problem-behavior theory, this study addresses the relationship between parental psychological control, social anxiety, socioeconomic status (SES), and children's prosocial behavior. The parental psychological control scale, social anxiety scale for children, and prosocial behavior were applied in the study. Participants were 1202 elementary school-age children in China. The present study showed that parental psychological control was negatively associated with prosocial behavior and social anxiety played a partial mediating role between parental psychological control and prosocial behavior. Meanwhile, SES moderated the relationship between parental psychological control and prosocial behavior. The effect of parental psychological control on prosocial behavior was more significant among students with low levels of SES than the higher ones. The findings showed that parenting plays an essential role in the development of children's prosociality.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Comportamento Infantil , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Humanos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Classe Social
11.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 54(9): 808-817, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087954

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore parental feeding practices and eating behavior as predictors of the child's emotional eating (EE) and child's emotion regulation (ER) as a potential moderator. DESIGN: Parental eating behavior (emotional, external, and restrained eating), 9 parental feeding practices (restriction, food as reward, food as ER, monitoring, healthy modeling, healthy environment, child control, and child involvement), ER, and EE were analyzed cross-sectionally and 5 parental practices longitudinally (subsample, n = 115). SETTING: Belgium. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred eighteen adolescents (aged 13.7 ± 1.77 years) and parent dyads. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Child's EE. ANALYSIS: Linear regression and moderation (cross-sectional) and linear mixed models (longitudinal). Models adjusted for multiple testing with a false discovery rate of 10% (Benjamini-Hochberg), age, sex, body mass index, socioeconomic status, and cohort. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally but not longitudinally, there was a positive association between predictors restriction and monitoring with the outcome child's EE (ß = 0.19, P = 0.006; ß = 0.17, P = 0.01, respectively). Restrained eating of the parent was negatively associated with the child's EE (ß = -0.22, P = 0.003). The child's maladaptive ER significantly moderated the associations of 5 feeding practices and parental EE with the child's EE. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Parents continue to play a role in the eating behavior of their adolescent offspring, not only through their feeding practices (restrictive parenting was most detrimental) but also by displaying restrained eating (beneficial). A child's ER appears as an important moderator of the established associations; however, more research is needed to better understand these observations.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Poder Familiar , Adolescente , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078247

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We tested the efficacy of standard Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), a live-coached, behavioral parent-training program, for modifying problematic eating behaviors in a larger effectiveness trial of PCIT for children involved in the child welfare system. METHOD: Children ages 3-7 years and their parents were randomly assigned to PCIT intervention (n = 120) or services as the usual control (SAU; n = 84) groups in a randomized clinical trial. Children's eating behaviors were assessed pre- and post-intervention via the Child Eating Behaviors Questionnaire (CEBQ). Intention-to-treat analyses were conducted, followed by per-protocol analyses, on treatment-engaging families only. RESULTS: PCIT led to reductions in child welfare-involved children's food responsiveness, speed of food consumption, and tendency to engage in emotional overeating relative to children in the services-as-usual control condition. Standard PCIT may be an effective intervention to promote healthy child eating behaviors in families involved with child welfare, even when food-related behaviors are not directly targeted by the intervention. Public Health Significance: This clinical trial provides evidence that child welfare-involved children who received PCIT experienced significant reductions in maladaptive eating-related behaviors, namely food responsiveness, emotional overeating, and speed of eating. These findings were observed in relation to children in a comparison control group who had access to child welfare services-as-usual.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Relações Pais-Filho , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Proteção da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta Saudável , Humanos , Hiperfagia , Poder Familiar/psicologia
13.
Eur J Paediatr Dent ; 23(3): 242-248, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36172903

RESUMO

AIM: Anxiety towards dental treatments and visits in children are often cause for the avoidance and/or failure of the treatment itself, as well as a reason for stress in both the patient and the orthodontist. The aim of the research is to understand if the use of clown therapy in dental waiting rooms is efficient in bringing down the level of preoperative anxiety in paediatric dental patients. METHODS: Two psychometric tests were used: CFSS-DS (Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule) and FIS (Facial Image Scale), after the translation of the original versions, to both the patients and their parents. The CFSS-DS is the most used instrument in order to assess dental fear in children, it is composed by 15 questions that outline situations which children and adolescents will have to face while on the dental chair. The FIS is a visual analogical scale that uses faces as indicators of anxiety. CONCLUSION: Clowntherapy proves to be an efficient non-pharmacological method to reduce anxiety and dental fear in paediatric patients, offeringa valid and practical support for paediatric dentists.


Assuntos
Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico , Terapia do Riso , Odontopediatria , Adolescente , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/psicologia , Humanos , Terapia do Riso/métodos , Pais , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Emotion ; 22(6): 1294-1306, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006705

RESUMO

Applying theories of emotion to understanding the regulation of aversive parenting, we used microanalytic observational methods to test whether transient changes in a mother's negative emotional reactivity predict changes over time in key parameters of her moment-to-moment aversive behavior: its intensity, variability, persistence, and connection to difficult child inputs. At multiple times over 2 years, 319 divorcing mothers and their 5- to 12-year-old children were observed as they discussed mutual disagreements. Sequences of talk-turns were recorded and coded for affect and content. Relative to days when a mother was low in negative emotional reactivity, on days when she was high she displayed more intensely aversive behavior, more variable aversiveness, more transitions from average to high or low aversiveness, tendencies to remain aversive longer following spikes in her aversiveness, and difficulty maintaining low aversiveness following drops in her aversiveness. As her negative emotional reactivity increased, she went from being relatively unaffected by children's difficult behavior to being aversively reactive; from ceasing aversive sequences increasingly quickly to ceasing aversive sequences increasingly slowly; from deviating more from her nonreactive low-aversive parenting to deviating less from her reactive high-aversive parenting. Independent of stable individual differences in mothers and children, transient variations in mothers' emotional reactivity may correspond to key moment-to-moment parameters of aversive parenting, even when interactions are relatively noncontentious. The data provide a viable account of how initially transient, context-specific reactivity could initiate moment-to-moment changes in aversive patterns that in some families influence problematic family trajectories over time. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Mães , Poder Familiar , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
15.
Appetite ; 178: 106259, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985496

RESUMO

Emotional child temperament has consistently been found to be related to food fussiness. One factor that may exacerbate or reduce the risk conferred by children's emotionality is parent feeding practices during mealtimes. Specifically, the use of controlling feeding practices aimed at increasing food consumption may particularly affect children with an emotional temperament. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether the association between child food fussiness and higher emotionality found in previous studies is moderated by maternal use of controlling feeding practices, namely verbal pressure, physical prompts and food rewards. Sixty-seven mother-child dyads were video-recorded during a meal in their home and mothers' use of controlling feeding practices during this meal were coded. Mothers completed a questionnaire assessing child temperament. Moderation analyses revealed that maternal use of verbal pressure and physical prompts moderated the relationship between higher emotionality and food fussiness, but maternal use of food rewards did not. These results indicate that the use of verbal pressure and physical prompts may have a particularly negative influence on fussy eating for children higher in emotionality.


Assuntos
Seletividade Alimentar , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Humanos , Refeições , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Psychol Assess ; 34(10): 952-965, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35980696

RESUMO

The growth of school-based initiatives incorporating multitiered systems of support (MTSS) for social, emotional, and behavioral domains has fueled interest in behavioral assessment. These assessments are foundational to determining risk for behavioral difficulties, yet research to date has been limited with regard to when and how often to administer them. The present study evaluated these questions within the framework of behavioral stability and examined the extent to which behavior is stable when measured by two school-based behavioral assessments: the Direct Behavior Rating-Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS), and the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS). Participants included 451 students rated three times per year across 4 years, with the primary teacher from each year providing the within-year ratings. Latent variable models were employed to measure the constructs underlying the observed assessment scores. Models demonstrated that the DBR-SIS best captured changes within the year, whereas the BESS scores remained stable across time points within a year. Across years, scores from both assessments captured changes. The unique contributions of each assessment in the data-based decision-making process are discussed, and recommendations are given for their combined use within and across school years. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Instituições Acadêmicas , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Estudantes/psicologia
17.
Rev. Cient. CRO-RJ (Online) ; 7(1): 59-66, Jan-Apr 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1382191

RESUMO

Objetivo: O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a associação entre as características das crianças com o estresse apresentado por estudantes de graduação em Odontologia durante o atendimento odontopediátrico. Materiais e métodos: Participaram 48 crianças com idade entre 6 e 10 anos e 37 alunos voluntários do 7º, 8º e 9º semestres de um curso de Odontologia. Foi realizado um questionário sobre aspectos socioeconômicos e também coletados dados sobre comportamento, percepção de dor e ansiedade da criança e do responsável. Ainda, foram coletados dados relacionados aos alunos da graduação: sexo, semestre, nível de estresse, tipo de procedimento realizado. Foram obtidas as frequências absolutas e relativas por meio da análise descritiva dos dados. As comparações nos desfechos de interesse foram feitas utilizando o teste quiquadrado para variáveis dicotômicas e categóricas, teste linear por linear para variável ordinal e teste exato de Fischer para contagens menor do que 5. Foi adotado um nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos operadores que atenderam crianças não colaboradoras relataram nível de estresse alto (83,33%) (p<0,001). Os operadores que atenderam crianças com nível de ansiedade médio ou alto relataram nível de estresse alto (p= 0,043) e em pacientes com dor, o nível de estresse da maioria dos operadores foi considerado alto (75%) (p=0,001). Conclusão: as características das crianças influenciaram no estresse apresentado pelo aluno operador durante o atendimento odontológico infantil. Crianças ansiosas, não colaboradoras e que estavam sentindo dor durante o atendimento deixaram o operador mais estressado.


Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the characteristics of children and the stress presented by undergraduate dentistry students during pediatric dental care. Materials and Methods: Participants were 48 children aged between 6 to 10 years old and 37 volunteer students from the 7th, 8th and 9th semesters of a Dentistry course. A questionnaire on socioeconomic aspects was carried out and data on behavior, perception of pain and anxiety of the child and the guardian were also collected. Also, data related to undergraduate students were collected: sex, semester, stress level, type of procedure performed. Absolute and relative frequencies were obtained through descriptive data analysis. Comparisons in the outcomes of interest were made using the chi-square test for dichotomous and categorical variables, linear by linear test for ordinal variable, and Fisher's exact test for counts less than 5. A significance level of 5% was adopted. Results: The results showed that students who assisted non-cooperative children reported a high level of stress (83.33%) (p<0.001). Students who assisted children with medium or high levels of anxiety reported high levels of stress. (p=0.043) and in patients with pain, the students' stress level was considered high (75%) (p=0.001). Conclusion: The characteristics of the children influenced the stress presented by the student during child dental care. Anxious children, noncooperative and who were in pain during care left the student more stressed.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Estresse Psicológico , Estudantes de Odontologia/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/psicologia , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Estresse Ocupacional
18.
Appetite ; 177: 106148, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779642

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore associations between parenting stress, feeding practices, and perceptions of children's eating behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parents (n = 284) of children ages 4-6 years completed a cross-sectional online survey during the onset of pandemic-related stay-at-home mandates in the U.S. Parents reported current levels of parenting stress, feeding practices, and child eating behaviors. Parents also reported whether parenting stress had increased, stayed the same, or decreased since prior to the onset of pandemic-related stay-at-home mandates. Greater levels of parenting stress were associated with less desirable feeding practices, including greater odds of high use of food for emotional regulation (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03-1.08), food as a reward (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.02-1.08), and pressure to eat (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.06), and low use of encouraging a balanced diet (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.06). Greater levels of parenting stress were also associated with greater perceptions that children exhibited problematic eating behaviors, including greater odds of high food fussiness (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.02-1.08) and low enjoyment of food (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.02-1.07). For parents who reported their parenting stress had increased, greater parenting stress was associated with more frequent use of pressure to eat (p = .009) and less frequent monitoring their child's diet (p = .028). In conclusion, parenting stress during the pandemic was associated with use of food for emotional and behavioral regulation and perceptions that children exhibited problematic eating behaviors. Further research is needed to understand how to mitigate parenting stress and promote healthy feeding practices during times of crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Poder Familiar , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1859): 20210100, 2022 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35876200

RESUMO

The Interaction Engine Hypothesis postulates that humans have a unique ability and motivation for social interaction. A crucial juncture in the ontogeny of the interaction engine could be around 2-4 years of age, but observational studies of children in natural contexts are limited. These data appear critical also for comparison with non-human primates. Here, we report on focal observations on 31 children aged 2- and 4-years old in four preschools (10 h per child). Children interact with a wide range of partners, many infrequently, but with one or two close friends. Four-year olds engage in cooperative social interactions more often than 2-year olds and fight less than 2-year olds. Conversations and playing with objects are the most frequent social interaction types in both age groups. Children engage in social interactions with peers frequently (on average 13 distinct social interactions per hour) and briefly (28 s on average) and shorter than those of great apes in comparable studies. Their social interactions feature entry and exit phases about two-thirds of the time, less frequently than great apes. The results support the Interaction Engine Hypothesis, as young children manifest a remarkable motivation and ability for fast-paced interactions with multiple partners. This article is part of the theme issue 'Revisiting the human 'interaction engine': comparative approaches to social action coordination'.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Grupo Associado , Interação Social , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886202

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, children's physical health and access to mental health resources have been two critical concerns. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy-Health (PCIT-Health) is a treatment model aimed at helping parents manage children's general behavior and their behavior in obesogenic contexts (screen time and mealtime). Due to social distancing guidelines, PCIT-Health was adapted for remote delivery through video conferencing. In this article, we describe the experience of implementing virtual PCIT-Health with a family. The family's progress through treatment is described, along with the challenges associated with remote service delivery and how those challenges were addressed. Progress through treatment was measured with questionnaires administered to caregivers and with observational measures of parent-child interactions. The results from these measures indicate that caregivers experienced a reduction in stress and improvements in their child's behavior after PCIT-Health completion. They also reported engaging in healthier management of their child's screen time and mealtime behaviors. As coded from observational assessments, parents increased their use of positive parenting practices. Telehealth-delivered PCIT-Health is a promising treatment modality for increasing parenting skills and improving child behavior.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Telemedicina , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia
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