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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e48443, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1116092

RESUMO

Objetivo: comparar o comportamento de pré-escolares durante o uso de administração por inalação, antes e após sessão de Brinquedo Terapêutico. Método: estudo quase-experimental de abordagem quantitativa, com a técnica de observação antes e após a intervenção, realizado por meio de amostra intencional, recrutadas em uma Unidade de Pronto Atendimento no interior de Minas Gerais. Os dados foram analisados por estatística descritiva e inferencial, coletados entre os meses de novembro de 2017 a abril de 2018. Resultados: foram avaliados 25 comportamentos de 99 pré-escolares durante a administração por inalação. Após a sessão, 73,7% estavam com a postura e expressão facial relaxada, 76,8% estavam à vontade, 19,2% interromperam o procedimento e 38,4 % solicitaram a presença da mãe ou acompanhante. Conclusão: o uso do brinquedo, favoreceu maior aceitação e adaptação de pré-escolares submetidos à administração por inalação, evidenciado a importância em implementar essa estratégia em serviços de pronto atendimento pediátrico.


Objective: to compare the behavior of preschoolers during inhalation therapy, before and after a Therapeutic Play session. Method: quasi-experimental, quantitative study using pre- and post-intervention observation with an intentional sample recruited at an Emergency Care Unit in Minas Gerais. Data were collected from November 2017 to April 2018 and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: twenty-five behaviors of 99 preschoolers were evaluated during inhalation administration. After the session, 73.7% were relaxed in posture and facial expression, 76.8% were comfortable, 19.2% interrupted the procedure, and 38.4% requested the mother or companion to be present. Conclusion: the use of toys favored greater acceptance and adaptation by preschoolers undergoing inhalation therapy, evidencing the importance of implementing this strategy in pediatric emergency services.


Objetivo: comparar el comportamiento de los preescolares durante la terapia de inhalación, antes y después de una sesión de Juego Terapéutico. Método: estudio cuantitativo cuasi-experimental utilizando observación previa y posterior a la intervención con una muestra intencional reclutada en una Unidad de Atención de Emergencia en Minas Gerais. Los datos se recopilaron de noviembre de 2017 a abril de 2018 y se analizaron mediante estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. Resultados: se evaluaron veinticinco comportamientos de 99 niños en edad preescolar durante la administración por inhalación. Después de la sesión, el 73.7% se relajó en la postura y la expresión facial, el 76.8% se sintió cómodo, el 19.2% interrumpió el procedimiento y el 38.4% solicitó que la madre o la acompañante estuvieran presentes. Conclusión: el uso de juguetes favoreció una mayor aceptación y adaptación por parte de los preescolares sometidos a terapia de inhalación, lo que evidencia la importancia de implementar esta estrategia en los servicios de emergencia pediátricos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Administração por Inalação , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos
3.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003213, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to green space has beneficial effects on several cognitive and behavioral aspects. However, to our knowledge, no study addressed intelligence as outcome. We investigated whether the level of urbanicity can modify the association of residential green space with intelligence and behavior in children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study includes 620 children and is part of the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey (EFPTS), a registry of multiple births in the province of East Flanders, Belgium. Intelligence was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) in 620 children (310 twin pairs) between 7 and 15 years old. From a subset of 442 children, behavior was determined based on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Prenatal and childhood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign green space indicators. Mixed modeling was performed to investigate green space in association with intelligence and behavior while adjusting for potential confounding factors including sex, age, parental education, neighborhood household income, year of assessment, and zygosity and chorionicity. We found that residential green space in association with both intelligence and behavior in children was modified by the degree of urbanicity (p < 0.001). In children living in an urban environment, multivariable adjusted mixed modeling analysis revealed that an IQR increment of residential green space (3,000-m radius) was associated with a 2.6 points (95% CI 1.4-3.9; p < 0.001) higher total intelligence quotient (IQ) and 2.0 points (95% CI -3.5 to -0.4; p = 0.017) lower externalizing behavioral score. In children residing in a rural or suburban environment, no association was found. A limitation of this study is that no information was available on school location and the potential for unmeasured confounding (e.g., time spend outdoors). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that residential green space may be beneficial for the intellectual and the behavioral development of children living in urban areas. These findings are relevant for policy makers and urban planners to create an optimal environment for children to develop their full potential.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Planejamento Ambiental/tendências , Inteligência , Características de Residência , População Rural/tendências , População Suburbana/tendências , População Urbana/tendências , Adolescente , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Gêmeos/psicologia
4.
Rev. psiquiatr. infanto-juv ; 37(2): 30-44, abr.-jun. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191740

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El artículo describe un modelo de intervención temprana para la prevención de patología, y promoción de la resiliencia, tras los terremotos de la isla de Puerto Rico en enero de 2020. El 7 de enero de 2020 un terremoto de magnitud 6,4 en la escala Richter, sacudió la isla de Puerto Rico. Como consecuencia, gran parte de la población sufrió desplazamientos de sus domicilios y cierres de muchas escuelas. Todo ello sobre lo ya anteriormente vivido, como el Huracán María en 2017, aumentando así su carga de estrés alostática. Tras la ayuda inicial de los cuerpos de rescate, se detecta la necesidad de apoyo psicológico a la población y a profesionales proveedores de dicho apoyo. MÉTODOS: Contando con una precaria infraestructura, se decide realizar una intervención con el objetivo de proporcionar información del impacto del estrés traumático en el organismo, así como ejercicios prácticos de mindfulness dirigidos a dichos profesionales. El programa integra lecciones de la Terapia de Claves Traumáticas y ejercicios del currículo Pure Power. RESULTADOS: Se confirma, a través de un cuestionario de satisfacción, la necesidad de este tipo de programas, y se valora extrapolar el modelo a otras poblaciones de riesgo similares, en términos de evitar las consecuencias del trauma, disminuir la carga alostática, y prevenir y promocionar la salud mental. Se sugiere realizar próximas formaciones de ampliación de este programa, para confirmar su efectividad y mantenimiento en el tiempo


INTRODUCTION: This article describes an early intervention model for the prevention of pathology, and for the promotion of resilience, after the earthquakes on the island of Puerto Rico in January 2020. On January 7, 2020, an earthquake of magnitude 6.4 on the Richter scale struck the island of Puerto Rico. As a consequence of the seismic movement, an important part of the population, suffered displacements from their homes and closing of schools. In addition to what they previously lived through, such as Hurricane Maria in 2017, increasing their burden of allostatic stress. After initial help from the rescue forces, a need to provide psychological support to the population and to the professionals involved in giving that psychological support, was detected. METHODS: Starting from a precarious infrastructure, it was decided to implement an intervention with the objective of providing information on the impact of traumatic stress on the individual, along with practical mindfulness exercises. The program integrated lessons from Cue-Centered Therapy with exercises from the Pure Power curriculum. RESULTS: Through a satisfaction questionnaire, the need of these type of programs was confirmed. The implementation of these prevention programs should be considered when planning to intervene with other similar populations at risk. Thus, avoiding the consequences of trauma, reducing the allostatic load in the individual, and preventing and promoting mental health and resilience. The discussion introduces the need to develop follow-up procedures, to confirm the effectiveness and maintenance over time


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Pandemias , Pesar , Psicologia da Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente
5.
J Evid Based Soc Work (2019) ; 17(5): 558-575, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589105

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine (1) the effects of early exposure to neighborhood disorder and fathers' early involvement on children's long-term internalizing and externalizing problems, and (2) whether fathers' early involvement buffered effects of early exposure to neighborhood disorder on children's internalizing and externalizing problems. METHOD: We used five waves of Fragile Family and Child Wellbeing study data and conducted multi-level longitudinal mixed-effects models to examine relationships among early exposure to neighborhood disorder, fathers' early involvement, and children's internalizing and externalizing problems. RESULTS: Results indicated that early exposure to neighborhood disorder was associated with increased children's internalizing and externalizing problems, while fathers' early involvement was associated with decreased children's internalizing and externalizing problems. However, fathers' early involvement did not buffer the negative effects of early exposure to neighborhood disorder on children's internalizing and externalizing problems. DISCUSSION: The findings suggest the importance of neighborhood order and fathers' early involvement in decreasing children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Developing neighborhood-level interventions and improving fathers' involvement in early childhood are potential strategies to prevent children's behavioral problems in the long term.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Relações Pai-Filho , Pai/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(3): 573-584, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443995

RESUMO

Serious threats to child safety are infrequent and unpredictable but can lead to serious injury and death. To stay safe, children must identify and avoid contact with a safety threat, escape from it, and report it to an adult so the adult can remove the threat. Research shows that active learning approaches are effective for teaching children to engage in these safety skills. Passive learning approaches are not effective. Active learning approaches require children to practice the skills in the presence of simulated threats with feedback to reinforce correct responses and promote generalization of skills to the natural environment.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Crime/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Segurança , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Criança , Humanos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Ensino
7.
Eur J Pediatr ; 179(8): 1267-1270, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388722

RESUMO

It has been reported that asymptomatic people can transmit the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and become important sources of COVID-19. To reduce the role of asymptomatic or poorly symptomatic people in COVID-19, universal use of face masks in addition to hand hygiene and safety distance seems extremely useful. Consequently, preparing the healthy child to use face masks is strongly needed. To obtain maximal compliance, reasons for mask wearing without attempts of removing must be clearly explained. Moreover, child's will must not be forced.Conclusion: On the basis of clinical findings, we think that the universal use of facial masks seems necessary when people have to go out in their everyday lives. In addition to the availability of masks of different sizes capable of adapting perfectly to the face, it is necessary that the use of masks in children is preceded by a strong parental work and school lessons on this issue and other hygiene topics with the main aim to obtain child cooperation. What is Known: • Asymptomatic people can transmit and become important sources of COVID-19. • Asymptomatic cases are common also in pediatrics. What is New: • Universal use of face masks for success against COVID-19 seems necessary also in pediatric age when people have to go out in their everyday lives. • In addition to the availability of masks of different sizes capable of adapting perfectly to the face, it is necessary that the use of masks in children is preceded by a strong parental work and school lessons with the main aim to obtain child cooperation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Saúde da Criança , Bem-Estar da Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Poder Familiar , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Psicologia da Criança
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 634, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children living in challenged humanitarian settings (including those in rural/underserved areas, the displaced, refugees, in conflict/post conflict situations) are at greater risk of mental health difficulties or behavioural problems, with caregivers acting as their main protective factors. While many family skills programmes exist, very few were developed for, or piloted in, low resource settings (settings with limited infrastructure, typical of humanitarian settings). We therefore designed a brief and light programme; the Strong Families (SF) programme, consisting of 5 h contact time over 3 weeks. We conducted a pilot study with the aim to test the feasibility of implementation, and a preliminary look at the effectiveness of SF, in improving child behaviour and family functioning in families living in Afghanistan. METHODS: We recruited female caregivers and children aged 8-12 years through schools and drug treatment centres in Afghanistan and enrolled them in the SF programme. Demographic data, emotional and behavioural difficulties of children and parental skills and family adjustment measures were collected from caregivers before, 2 and 6 weeks after the intervention. Outcome was assessed through the SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), assessing children's behavioural, emotional, and social issues, and PAFAS (Parenting and Family Adjustment Scales), measuring parenting practices and family functioning. RESULTS: We enrolled 72 families in the programme with a 93.1% retention rate (n = 67) for data collection 6 weeks post intervention. Mean age of caregivers was 36.1 years, they had 3.8 children on average and 91.7% of them had experienced war/armed conflict in their past. The average total difficulty score of the SDQ (ranging from 0 to 40, with scores above 16 being indicative of high problems) of the 72 children reduced significantly, from 17.8 at pre-test to 12.9 at post-test and 10.6 at second follow-up, with no difference in gender and most noticeably amongst those with the highest scores at baseline. Likewise, PAFAS scores decreased significantly after the programme, again with caregivers with the highest scores at baseline improving most. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a brief family skills programme was seemingly effective and feasible in a resource-limited setting and positively improved child mental health and parenting practices and family adjustment skills. These results suggest the value of such a programme and call for further validation through other methods of impact assessment and outcome evaluation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN76509384. Retrospectively registered on March 9, 2020.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Cuidadores/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/educação , Refugiados/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeganistão , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pais/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Comportamento Social
9.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(6): 406-411, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357089

RESUMO

Family and home environment factors have been outlined in previous literature as important variables that affect early reasoning development. However, little research has focused on the association between screen use in the home environment and nonverbal reasoning ability. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to examine the role of both screen time and various screen activities (e.g., television, video, or educational games) in nonverbal reasoning ability in 9,001 5-year-old children using a large birth cohort study (Growing Up in Ireland). Interviews conducted with parents related to the children's screen use and various family factors, while reasoning ability was measured using a standardized task (Picture Similarities Task, British Ability Scales II). A hierarchical multiple regression examined the role of screen use in nonverbal reasoning, while also statistically controlling for family factors such as parental education and employment status. Screen use variables made a significant contribution to the regression model, even after family factors were accounted for, although the effect sizes were very small. Playing educational games, video games, or engaging in over three hours screen use per day were all significant predictors of nonverbal reasoning scores in the final adjusted model. The results of this study suggest that screen use may play a small role in the development of nonverbal reasoning in young children. The findings highlight the need for further studies in this area and may have implications for current debates in screen time research.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Resolução de Problemas , Tempo de Tela , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Pais
10.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(6): 392-399, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453612

RESUMO

Research suggests that toddlers with regulation issues engage in significantly more media use than toddlers without regulation difficulties, and this may be due, in part, to parental strain associated with parenting a child who is difficult to regulate or soothe. The current study sought to determine if the observed relationship between parental strain and child media use in the context of regulation difficulties continues into the preschool years. Data from the 2016 (N = 6,976) and 2017 (N = 3,056) National Survey of Children's Health were used to test a structural equation model (SEM) examining the moderating effect of parenting strain on the relationship between child media use and child regulation after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and adverse childhood experiences. The SEM had reasonable model fit. The study did not find a moderating effect for parenting strain but did identify a small significant relationship between child media use and regulation after controlling for parenting strain and SES. Additionally, SES proved to be a strong moderator of regulation and child media use. These findings point to the possibility that the relationship between parental strain and child media use may be more directly related to perceived ability to calm their child identified in previous research rather than perception of child's difficulty. This study demonstrated that the negative link between child media use and regulation may persist into the preschool years. Limitations of the study include broad items used to assess time spent with media and limited depth of questions associated with regulation and parenting strain.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Meios de Comunicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(6): 371-376, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456454

RESUMO

Digital media (DM) is omnipresent in society today and impacts every aspect of our life. Previous studies have shown DM to cause problems in interpersonal relationships by creating problematic interruptions in interactions, this has been termed technoference. The current study focuses on parent's self-rated perceived technoference and the rated behavior of their 4- to 5-year-old children. Parents (N = 153) filled out an online questionnaire regarding family DM use and technoference as well as questions regarding their child's behavior. Parents rated the level of technoference caused by their own use of DM as well as the rate of technoference caused by the child's use of DM. Parents were also asked questions regarding their own possible problematic cell phone use. The findings reveal a statistically significant contribution of technoference, caused by the parents' use of DM, to the behavior repertoire of the children.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Internet , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 596, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357857

RESUMO

Household chaos, characterized by high levels of confusion, disorganization and hurriedness in the home, is increasingly recognized as an important risk factor for adverse child outcomes. Early research on household chaos and child well-being was largely within the field of developmental psychology, where greater levels of household chaos has been associated with greater behavioral, attention and learning problems in young children. The potential influence of household chaos on child health behaviors is more recently gaining attention within public health. A recent study by Marsh et al., entitled, the Relationship between Household Chaos and Child, Parent, and Family Outcomes: A Systematic Scoping Review, presents the findings from 112 studies that assessed the influence of household chaos on a wide range of child outcomes. Findings highlight the various adverse child health outcomes across multiple domains that may be negatively affected by greater levels of household chaos including a few that reflect child health behaviors such as sleep, diet and weight gain. The review additionally presents findings from mediation and moderation analyses. This commentary highlights key aspects of the Marsh et al. review and outlines the implications of the work within health behavior research. This commentary further identifies child screen media use as a critically understudied area when considering the interplay between household chaos and child well-being.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Características da Família , Família/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231462, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271851

RESUMO

AIM: The present study aimed to investigate and compare parent-child agreement in different domains of child health and behavior. METHODS: Data were collected between 2011 and 2019 within the framework of the LIFE Child study (Germany). Different subgroups of 10- to 12-year-old children and their parents (n (max) = 692) completed questionnaires on several health behaviors (diet, media use, physical activity, sleep), parameters of health (behavioral strengths and difficulties, psychosomatic complaints), and school grades. Agreement between child and parent reports was evaluated using weighted kappa coefficients. Furthermore, the frequencies of different types of (dis)agreement (parent report > child report, same response, child report > parent report) were assessed and checked for associations with child or parent gender. RESULTS: Agreement between child and parent reports varied from low to almost perfect, with the greatest levels of agreement for school grades and organized physical activity, and the lowest for dizziness, sleep duration, and the consumption of potatoes. Child gender had no significant effect on parent-child agreement. In contrast, the findings suggest that parent gender had some effect on agreement levels, with higher agreement for certain psychosomatic complaints when parent reports were completed by the mother, and higher agreement for white bread consumption if they were completed by the father. For some of the questionnaire items (especially those relating to behavioral difficulties and psychosomatic complaints, but also to the consumption of individual food products and mobile phone use), the type of (dis)agreement differed depending on child or parent gender. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the perceptions and reporting strategies of children and their parents can diverge considerably, in particular for behavior that is not easily observable or measurable.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Criança , Dieta/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Cient. dent. (Ed. impr.) ; 17(1): 27-34, ene.-abr. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189746

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar las técnicas convencionales más utilizadas por el odontólogo para el manejo de la conducta del paciente infantil en la consulta dental. Diversas técnicas pueden ser aplicadas dependiendo del desarrollo físico y emocional del paciente y de la capacidad del profesional. La Academia Americana de Odontopediatría, en su guía sobre técnicas del comportamiento, las divide en: técnicas de comunicación, otras técnicas básicas y técnicas avanzadas, recomendando las pertenecientes al primer grupo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se realizó un cuestionario en la plataforma de Google, remitido vía email a 190 odonto/estomatólogos que tratasen pacientes infantiles, obteniendo un total de 115 respuestas adecuadas para el análisis de 8 técnicas convencionales de manejo de la conducta. El estudio estadístico se realizó en el programa SPSS aplicando el test de ANOVA para una significación de p= 0,05. RESULTADOS: La técnica más utilizada por los diferentes profesionales fue la técnica decir-mostrar-hacer seguida de refuerzo positivo y control de voz. Técnicas de modificación de la conducta ocuparon un segundo término: desensibilización seguida muy de cerca por imitación. La técnica menos empleada fue la anestesia general. No encontramos diferencias significativas en relación al sexo en ninguna de las técnicas analizadas excepto en el uso de premedicación (p: 0,027), siendo los varones los que más frecuentemente la utilizaban. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en relación a la especialidad ni con la edad de los profesionales. CONCLUSIONES: Las técnicas comunicativas fueron las preferidas por los odontoestomatólogos siendo las técnicas avanzadas las menos utilizadas


INTRODUCTION: The objective of this work was to evaluate the conventional techniques most used by the dentist for the management of the behavior of the child patient in the dental office. Various techniques can be applied depending on the physical and emotional development of the patient and the professional's ability. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, in its guide on behavioral techniques, divides them into: communication techniques, other basic techniques and advanced techniques, recommending those belonging to the first group. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A questionnaire was carried out on the Google platform, sent via email to 190 dentists / stomatologists who treated child patients, obtaining a total of 115 appropriate responses for the analysis of 8 conventional behavior management techniques. The statistical study was carried out in the SPSS program by applying the ANOVA test for a significance of p = 0.05. RESULTS: The technique most used by different professionals was the say-show-do technique followed by positive reinforcement and voice control. Behaviour modification techniques occupied a second term: desensitization followed closely by imitation. The least used technique was general anesthesia. We found no significant differences in relation to sex in any of the techniques analyzed, except in the use of premedication (p: 0.027), with men being the most frequently used. No significant differences were found in relation to the specialty or the age of the professionals. CONCLUSIONS: The communication techniques were preferred by the professionals, with the advanced techniques being the least used


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Odontólogos/psicologia , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/psicologia , Odontólogos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Variância , Odontopediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(6): 363-370, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271619

RESUMO

This study examined whether parents are less responsive to their young children (0-5) when they use a phone. We systematically observed 53 parent-child dyads in consultation bureau waiting rooms and playgrounds. Twenty-three parents used their phone at least once during the observation. Across the dyads, we observed parent and child behavior during a total of 1,038 ten-second intervals. Of these intervals, 641 contained a bid for attention from the child. Accounting for the nested nature of the data, we found that the odds of parents responding to their child's bid for attention were five times lower when using a phone than when not using one. Moreover, parents' responses were less timely, weaker, showed less affect, and were less likely to prioritize the child over other activities. While being fully absorbed in one's phone significantly decreased the odds of responding compared to when not using a phone, occasionally glancing at the phone did not, suggesting that parents may have developed a "mode" of phone use for managing dual attention over the phone and the child. In addition, while a higher intensity of phone use does seem to matter, it did not differ from intense engagement in other nonchild directed activities. The incidence of fully absorbed phone use, however, is greater. Finally, the results show that asking for consent for the observation beforehand leads to a decrease in the odds of phone use, suggesting a social desirability bias. Overall, the findings support concerns over the impact of parental phone use on child development.


Assuntos
Uso do Telefone Celular/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Atenção , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
17.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(6): 400-405, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345033

RESUMO

Although the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends not to heavily rely on screen media devices to regulate children's distress, many parents often resort to this regulatory strategy. However, little is known about the long-term implications of using this strategy for children's emotional functioning. To address this issue, this study examined the longitudinal links between the use of media to regulate distress and children's negative emotionality (NE) during toddlerhood, a period in which children strongly rely on external regulation. We also examined whether children with initially high NE were more sensitive to the effects of this regulatory strategy on subsequent NE. Participants were 207 mothers who completed questionnaires assessing child NE, use of media to regulate distress, child screen time, and demographic covariates at 2 time points: 18 months (T1) and 26 months (T2) of children's age. Use of media to regulate child distress at T1 did not directly predict child NE at T2, and vice versa. However, there was a significant interaction between child NE and use of media to regulate distress at T1 in predicting NE at T2. Simple slopes analysis indicated that maternal use of media to regulate distress was positively related to increases in children's NE, but only for children with initially low NE, and not for children with initially high NE. Our findings can inform family-based prevention initiatives that may be delivered in community pediatric settings, aiming at promoting thoughtful use of media in young children's everyday lives.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Meios de Comunicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Emoções , Mães/psicologia , Negativismo , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(3): 283-288, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187933

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effect of parental rearing patterns and their consistency on the emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children. Methods: From October to November 2017, 27 987 children aged 3 to 6 years old from 109 kindergartens in 11 cities of Hubei, Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces were selected by using the cluster sampling method. A total of 27 200 valid questionnaires which were completed by subjects' parents were collected. The emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children were collected by "strengths and difficulties questionnaire" and the parental rearing patterns were evaluated by the "Parental Behavior Scale". The differences in emotional and behavioral abnormality rates of preschool children with different characteristics were analyzed; with emotional and behavioral problems as dependent variables and parental support/participation and compulsion/hostility as independent variables, the multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the effect of parental rearing patterns and their consistency on the emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children. Results: The age of children was (4.35±0.96) years old, and 51.4% of children were 13 975 males. There were 24 634 (90.6%) urban children and 17 916 (65.9%) only children. Both parents with strong support/participation accounted for 14.9%, and those with poor support/participation accounted for 11.9%; both parents with strong compulsion/hostility accounted for 15.2%, and those with low compulsion/hostility accounted for 11.3%. The rates of emotional symptoms, conduct behavior, hyperactive behavior, peer interaction, total difficulty score, and abnormal prosocial behavior of preschool children were 9.5%, 9.5%, 18.2%, 24.5%, 11.2%, and 10.2%, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression model analysis showed that after adjusting for gender, only child, living area, family economic status, mother's age and education level, father's education level, and other factors, compared with fathers/mothers with strong support/participation and low compulsion/hostility and parents with strong support/participation and low compulsion/hostility, preschool children who had fathers/mothers with poor support/participation and strong compulsion/hostility or parents with poor support/participation and strong compulsion/hostility were more likely to have emotional symptoms, conduct behavior, hyperactive behavior, peer interaction, total difficulty score, and abnormal prosocial behavior (P<0.05). Conclusions: Parental rearing patterns and their consistency are related to the emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(2): 275-291, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122560

RESUMO

For decades, pediatricians have been concerned about the impact of media on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Robust research has found an association between exposure to media violence and real-life aggression in children and teens. Other effects include desensitization, fear, and attitudes that violence is a means of resolving conflict. Ongoing research finds similar associations between exposure to video game violence and real-life attitude and behavior. Cyberbullying is an emerging threat to youth. Parents, pediatricians, schools, and government all have roles to play to mitigate the potential harmful effects of violent media on children and teens.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Cyberbullying , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Jogos de Vídeo , Violência , Agressão , Criança , Discriminação Psicológica , Humanos , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Filmes Cinematográficos , Fatores de Risco , Televisão
20.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(4): 830-839, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify obesity trajectories from childhood to adolescence (2-15 years of age) and investigate differences in behavioral, eating, and adrenocortical regulation by trajectory membership. METHODS: A total of 1,077 households from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were included. Anthropometrics were measured 11 times between ages 15 months and 15 years. Behavioral self-regulation was assessed at ages 3 and 4 years. Disordered eating behaviors and awakening cortisol were assessed at age 15 years. RESULTS: Latent growth curve modeling identified four BMI trajectories: two nonoverweight trajectories based on average BMI at the 40th and 70th percentiles and overweight/obesity and severe obesity trajectories. Youth in the severe obesity trajectory exhibited lower behavioral self-regulation in early childhood and lower awakening cortisol at age 15 years compared with youth in the nonoverweight trajectories. Youth in the overweight/obesity and severe obesity trajectories showed higher levels of disordered eating behaviors at age 15 years. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity trajectories were associated with biobehavioral markers of dysregulation in early childhood and adolescence. Dysregulation across biobehavioral domains was particularly apparent among youth who developed severe obesity. Further work is needed to better understand resilience factors that distinguish youth who develop obesity and severe obesity from those who do not.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Obesidade Mórbida/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
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