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2.
Life Sci ; 264: 118599, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127510

RESUMO

Administration of dexamethasone (DEX) during late gestation is a model to study growth restriction in rodents, but the pup's mortality index can be high, depending on DEX dosage, and little is known about the effects of DEX on maternal care (MC). Considering that an inadequate MC can also contribute to pup's mortality in this model, we evaluated the effects of DEX on dams' behavior and its consequences on offspring survival. We also investigated whether the cross-fostering of pups from dams treated or not with DEX could improve pup's survival. Wistar rats were treated with DEX (14th to 19th day of gestation -0.2 mg/kg, B.W, in the drinking water). Nest building, MC and responses in the elevated plus-maze, forced swimming and object recognition tests were evaluated. DEX reduced gestational weight gain and impaired neonatal development, reducing pup's survival to 0% by the 3rd postnatal day. DEX-treated dams reduced the expression of typical MC and increased anxiety-like behaviors. After cross-fostering, DEX-treated mothers behaved similarly to controls, indicating that a healthy offspring is crucial to induce adequate MC. Cross-fostering increased the survival index from zero to 25% in the DEX offspring. Postnatal development of the DEX offspring was comparable to controls after cross-fostering. We concluded that exposure to DEX during late gestation causes behavioral changes that compromise the maternal emotional state, disrupting the expression of MC. Although it does not seem to be the main cause of pup's mortality, our data indicate that an adequate MC improves pup's survival in this model.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Dexametasona/toxicidade , Comportamento Materno/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/mortalidade , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137895

RESUMO

Language development in toddlerhood forms the foundation for speech and language comprehension throughout childhood. Children born moderately preterm are at increased risk for problems in receptive and expressive language functioning, and they may need specific support or interventions. To understand the underlying mechanisms of language development, an integrated model of gestational age, attention capacities, and maternal sensitivity was examined in relation to receptive and expressive language functioning in toddlerhood. Our sample included 221 children (gestational age between 32-41 + 6 weeks; 54.7% born moderately preterm; 51.6% boys; 69.1% highly educated mothers). At 18 months (corrected age), attention capacities were measured using an eye-tracking procedure and maternal sensitivity was observed during mother-child interaction. Language was assessed at 24 months (corrected age). Results showed children with a higher gestational age scored higher on receptive language. This association was direct, as well as indirect through the child's alerting attention. Expressive language was related to maternal sensitivity. Gestational age and alerting attention capacities specifically were related to language comprehension, whereas maternal sensitivity was related to speech. As language comprehension and speech in toddlerhood show different associations with biological, child, contextual, and regulation factors, they should be viewed as separate constructs in research and practice.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Comportamento Materno , Relações Mãe-Filho , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Idioma , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Nascimento Prematuro
4.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216791

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a structured inquiry during pregnancy of medical factors and social factors associated with low socioeconomic status, and subsequent patient-centred maternity care could increase maternal empowerment. DESIGN: Cluster-randomised controlled trial. SETTING: This study was conducted among pregnant women in selected urban areas in the Netherlands. This study was part of the nationwide Healthy Pregnancy 4 All-2 programme. POPULATION: Pregnant women listed at one of the sixteen participating maternity care organisations between July 1, 2015, and Dec 31, 2016. METHODS: All practices were instructed to provide a systematic risk assessment during pregnancy. Practices were randomly allocated to continue usual care (seven practices), or to provide a patient-centred, risk-guided approach to addressing any risks (nine practices) identified via the risk assessment during pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Low postpartum maternal empowerment score. RESULTS: We recruited 1579 participants; 879 participants in the intervention arm, and 700 participants in the control arm. The prevalence of one or more risk factors during pregnancy was similar between the two arms: 40% and 39%, respectively. In our intention-to-treat analysis, the intervention resulted in a significant reduction in the odds of having a low empowerment score [i.e. the primary outcome; adjusted OR 0.69 ((95% CI 0.47; 0.99), P 0.046)]. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of additional risk assessment addressing both medical and social factors and subsequent tailored preventive strategies into maternity care reduced the incidence of low maternal empowerment during the postpartum period. Introducing this approach in routine maternity care may help reduce early adversity during the postpartum period.


Assuntos
Empoderamento , Comportamento Materno , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Mães/educação , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez , Gestantes/educação , Gestantes/psicologia , Educação Pré-Natal/métodos , Medição de Risco
5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241585, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206672

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to investigate the predictors of maternal parenting self-efficacy when the children concerned are in the early years of life. METHOD: A descriptive-analytical research study was carried out among 213 women who were in the early months of the postpartum period and attending healthcare facilities in Irbid, Jordan. The State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) and the Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy (PMP S-E) tool were used to collect the data. RESULTS: A significant correlation was found between the scores in self-efficacy and the quality of marriage relations (B = 3.56, P = 001), family income (B = 1.97, P = .05), employment (B = 4.027, P = .027), education (B = 2.48, P = .004), and living with extended family (B = 5.28, P = .02). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that MPSE is significantly associated with various predictors. These predictors are the mother's education, income, whether she lives with extended family, her quality of marriage, and her employment. Maternal anxiety was found not to be a predictor for MPSE and this may explain other factors such as social support and living with extended family. IMPLICATION: It is essential for nurses to understand maternal parenting self-efficacy, therefore, including the concept of maternal parenting self-efficacy in nursing curricula can help raise awareness of this important concept. Understanding maternal parenting self-efficacy is necessary for nurses to evaluate the mothers' parenting self-efficacy.


Assuntos
Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Avaliação em Enfermagem/métodos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Cuidado Pós-Natal/métodos , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Lactente , Jordânia , Casamento/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19985, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33204022

RESUMO

The peripartum period is accompanied by numerous physiological and behavioural adaptations organised by the maternal brain. These changes are essential for adequate expression of maternal behaviour, thereby ensuring proper development of the offspring. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a key role in a variety of behaviours accompanying stress, anxiety, and depression. There is also evidence that CRF contributes to maladaptations during the peripartum period. We investigated the effects of CRF in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) of lactating mice during maternal care and analysed locomotor activity and anxiety-like behaviour in the offspring. The BNST has been implicated in anxiety behaviour and regulation of the stress response. The effects of intra-BNST CRF administration were compared with those induced by the limited bedding (LB) procedure, a model that produces altered maternal behaviour. BALB/cJ dams were exposed to five infusions of CRF or saline into the BNST in the first weeks after birth while the LB dams were exposed to limited nesting material from postnatal days (P) 2-9. Maternal behaviour was recorded in intercalated days, from P1-9. Offspring anxiety-like behaviour was assessed during adulthood using the open-field, elevated plus-maze, and light/dark tests. Both intra-BNST CRF and LB exposure produced altered maternal care, represented by decreased arched-back nursing and increased frequency of exits from the nest. These changes in maternal care resulted in robust sex-based differences in the offspring's behavioural responses during adulthood. Females raised by CRF-infused dams exhibited increased anxiety-like behaviour, whereas males presented a significant decrease in anxiety. On the other hand, both males and females raised by dams exposed to LB showed higher locomotor activity. Our study demonstrates that maternal care is impaired by intra-BNST CRF administrations, and these maladaptations are similar to exposure to adverse early environments. These procedures, however, produce distinct phenotypes in mice during young adulthood and suggest sex-based differences in the susceptibility to poor maternal care.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Núcleos Septais/metabolismo , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Transtornos de Ansiedade/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fenótipo , Receptores de Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240962, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064778

RESUMO

Due to the COVID- 19 outbreak in the Netherlands (March 2020) and the associated social distancing measures, families were enforced to stay at home as much as possible. Adolescents and their families may be particularly affected by this enforced proximity, as adolescents strive to become more independent. Yet, whether these measures impact emotional well-being in families with adolescents has not been examined. In this ecological momentary assessment study, we investigated if the COVID-19 pandemic affected positive and negative affect of parents and adolescents and parenting behaviors (warmth and criticism). Additionally, we examined possible explanations for the hypothesized changes in affect and parenting. To do so, we compared daily reports on affect and parenting that were gathered during two periods of 14 consecutive days, once before the COVID-19 pandemic (2018-2019) and once during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multilevel analyses showed that only parents' negative affect increased as compared to the period before the pandemic, whereas this was not the case for adolescents' negative affect, positive affect and parenting behaviors (from both the adolescent and parent perspective). In general, intolerance of uncertainty was linked to adolescents' and parents' negative affect and adolescents' positive affect. However, Intolerance of uncertainty, nor any pandemic related characteristics (i.e. living surface, income, relatives with COVID-19, hours of working at home, helping children with school and contact with COVID-19 patients at work) were linked to the increase of parents' negative affect during COVID-19. It can be concluded that on average, our sample (consisting of relatively healthy parents and adolescents) seems to deal fairly well with the circumstances. The substantial heterogeneity in the data however, also suggest that whether or not parents and adolescents experience (emotional) problems can vary from household to household. Implications for researchers, mental health care professionals and policy makers are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Bem-Estar da Criança/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Paterno/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Incerteza
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887232

RESUMO

Childhood aggression is important to acknowledge due to its social impact and importance in predicting future problems. The temperament of a child and parental socialization have been essential in explaining behavioral problems, particularly in the case of childhood aggression. The aim of this study is to examine-from the parents' perspective-the role of childhood temperament in the dynamic by which mothers' reactions socialize their children's aggression. We also explore how children's gender and age differences affect these relationships. The sample was composed of 904 participants between 1 and 6 years old. The Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire and the Children's Behavior Questionnaire were used to evaluate children's negative affect and effortful control. The Parent-Child Relationship Inventory Maternal was used to assess maternal communication and discipline, and child aggression was assessed using the Children's Behavior Checklist. The results supported the mediating role of temperament in the processes by which perceived mothers' reactions socialize their children's aggression and suggested that maternal behaviors may not have the same consequences for girls and boys. Specifically, the aggressiveness of girls is dependent on a negative affect throughout toddlerhood and early childhood, while for boys, the duration of the negative affect's contribution is shorter, and aggressiveness is more sensitive to the maternal behaviors of discipline and communication.


Assuntos
Agressão , Relações Mãe-Filho , Poder Familiar , Temperamento , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Comportamento Materno , Mães
9.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(13): 1310-1316, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The novel virus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a terrifying pandemic. The range of illness severity among children is variable. This study aims to assess the characteristics of newborns born to SARS-CoV-2-positive women compared with those mothers who tested negative. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study performed at Brookdale Hospital Medical Center in New York City from March to May 2020. Electronic medical records of mother-baby dyads were reviewed. RESULTS: Seventy-nine mothers tested for SARS-CoV-2 were included, out of which 18.98% of mothers tested SARS-CoV-2 positive. We found a significant association between symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 status. We observed a significant association between newborns of SARS-CoV-2 positive and SARS-CoV-2 negative mothers regarding skin-to-skin contact (p < 0.001). Both groups showed significant differences regarding isolation (p < 0.001). Interestingly, regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in newborns, only one newborn tested SARS-CoV-2 positive and was unstable in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). With the multivariable logistic regression model, babies of SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers were three times as likely to have desaturations in comparison to newborns from negative mothers. Also, newborns of SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers were four times more likely to have poor feeding, compared with newborns of SARS-CoV-2-negative mothers. Finally, babies of SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers were ten times more likely to be symptomatic at the 2-week follow-up. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 has caused major morbidity and mortality worldwide. Neonates born to mothers with confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2 are most of the time asymptomatic. However, neonatal critical illness due to SARS-CoV-2 is still a possibility; thus, isolation precautions (such as avoiding skin-to-skin contact and direct breastfeeding) and vertical transmission should be studied thoroughly. In addition, testing these newborns by nasopharyngeal swab at least at 24 hours after birth and monitoring them for the development of symptoms for 14 days after birth is needed. KEY POINTS: · For SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers, reducing transmission of infection to newborns is crucial.. · Newborns of SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers are usually asymptomatic and may not be easily infected.. · Critical illness in the newborn may still happen, so monitoring is needed..


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Comportamento Materno , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Oximetria/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
10.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(13): 1377-1384, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898920

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in changes to perinatal and neonatal care, concentrating on minimizing risks of transmission to the newborn and health care staff while ensuring medical care is not compromised for both mother and infant. Current recommendations on infant care and feeding when mother has COVID-19 ranges from mother-infant separation and avoidance of human milk feeding, to initiation of early skin-to-skin contact and direct breastfeeding. Health care providers fearing risks of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) maternal-infant transmission may veer toward restricted breastfeeding practices. We reviewed guidelines and published literature and propose three options for infant feeding depending on various scenarios. Option A involves direct breastfeeding with the infant being cared for by the mother or caregiver. In option B, the infant is cared for by another caregiver and receives mother's expressed milk. In the third option, the infant is not breastfed directly and does not receive mother's expressed milk. We recommend joint decision making by parents and the health care team. This decision is also flexible as situation changes. We also provide a framework for counseling mothers on these options using a visual aid and a corresponding structured training program for health care providers. Future research questions are also proposed. We conclude that evidence and knowledge about COVID-19 and breastfeeding are still evolving. Our options can provide a quick and flexible reference guide that can be adapted to local needs. KEY POINTS: · SARS-CoV-2 is unlikely transmitted via human milk.. · A shared decision making on infant feeding is the preferred approach.. · Mothers can safely breastfeed with appropriate infection control measures..


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Leite Humano/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Aconselhamento/métodos , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Comportamento Materno , Mães/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Risco Ajustado/métodos
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15888, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985594

RESUMO

The amount of care parents provide to the offspring is complicated by an evolutionary conflict of interest ('sexual conflict') between the two parents. Recent theoretical models suggest that pair coordination of the provisioning may reduce this conflict and increase parent and offspring fitness. Despite empirical studies showing that pair coordination is common in avian species, it remains unclear how environmental and ecological conditions might promote or limit the ability of parents to coordinate care. We compared the level of pair coordination, measured as alternation and synchrony of the nest visits, of house wrens Troglodytes aedon pairs breeding in a rural (10 nests) and a suburban (9 nests) site and investigated how differences in parental behaviours were related to habitat composition, prey abundance and how they ultimately related to reproductive success. We found that parents alternated and synchronized their nest visits more in the rural site compared to the suburban one. The suburban site is characterized by a more fragmented habitat with more coniferous trees and less caterpillar availability. Offspring from the rural site were heavier at fledging than at the suburban site. Taken together, these results suggest that environmental conditions play an important role on the emergence of coordinated parental care and that considering environmental variables is pivotal to assess the fitness consequences of parental strategies.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Comportamento Paterno/fisiologia , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
12.
Am J Primatol ; 82(12): e23190, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944998

RESUMO

Among non-human primates, alloparental infant care is most extensive in callitrichines, and is thought to be particularly costly for tamarins whose helpers may suffer increased energy expenditure, weight loss, and reduced feeding time and mobility. The costs and benefits of infant care likely vary among group members yet very few wild studies have investigated variable infant care contributions. We studied infant care over an 8-month period in four wild groups of saddleback tamarins in Bolivia to evaluate: (a) what forms of infant care are provided, by whom, and when, (b) how individuals adjust their behavior (activity, vigilance, height) while caring for infants, and (c) whether individuals differ in their infant care contributions. We found that infant carrying, food sharing, and grooming varied among groups, and immigrant males-those who joined the group after infants were conceived-participated less in infant care compared to resident males. Adult tamarins fed less, rested more, and increased vigilance while carrying infants. Although we did not detect changes in overall activity budgets between prepartum and postpartum periods, tamarins spent more time scanning their environments postpartum, potentially reflecting increased predation risk to both carriers and infants during this period. Our study provides the first quantitative data on the timing and amount of infant carrying, grooming, and food transfer contributed by all individuals within and among multiple wild groups, filling a critical knowledge gap about the factors affecting infant care, and highlighting evolutionary hypotheses for cooperative breeding in tamarins.


Assuntos
Comportamento Materno , Comportamento Paterno , Saguinus/psicologia , Animais , Bolívia , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Social
13.
Am J Primatol ; 82(12): e23197, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960452

RESUMO

Lateralized behavior is considered an observable phenotype of cerebral functional asymmetry and has been documented in many mammalian species. In the present study, we examined evidence of lateralization in neonatal nipple contact, maternal cradling, and the relationship between these two behaviors during the first 12 weeks of life in wild Taihangshan macaques (Macaca mulatta tcheliensis). The results showed that across our sample of nine mother-infant dyads: (1) Seven of nine neonates exhibited a significant left-side nipple preference during the first 12 weeks of life, whereas eight of nine mothers displayed a significant right-side cradling preference; (2) at the population level, there was a significant preference for left nipple contact by neonatal Taihangshan macaques and a significant right-hand maternal cradling preference; (3) at the population level, there was a nonsignificant negative correlation between neonatal nipple preference and maternal cradling bias; and (4) the strength of individual neonatal nipple preference and maternal cradling laterality were not correlated. We conclude that asymmetry in nipple contact of Taihangshan macaques occurs early in behavioral development. Given that infant Taihangshan macaques are able to nurse and cling unassisted to their mothers within a few days after birth, it appears that the infant rather than its mother is responsible for determining a nipple-side preference. Our results indicating a left-side nipple bias in 78% of wild neonatal Taihangshan macaques are most consistent with the heartbeat hypothesis.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Lateralidade Funcional , Macaca mulatta/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno , Mamilos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
14.
Am Nat ; 196(4): E110-E118, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970467

RESUMO

AbstractOrganisms living at high elevations generally grow and develop more slowly than those at lower elevations. Slow montane ontogeny is thought to be an evolved adaptation to harsh environments that improves juvenile quality via physiological trade-offs. However, slower montane ontogeny may also reflect proximate influences of harsh weather on parental care and offspring development. We experimentally heated and protected nests from rain to ameliorate harsh montane weather conditions for mountain blackeyes (Chlorocharis emiliae), a montane songbird living at approximately 3,200 m asl in Malaysian Borneo. This experiment was designed to test whether cold and wet montane conditions contribute to parental care and postnatal growth and development rates at high elevations. We found that parents increased provisioning and reduced time spent warming offspring, which grew faster and departed the nest earlier compared with offspring from unmanipulated nests. Earlier departure reduces time-dependent predation risk, benefitting parents and offspring. These plastic responses highlight the importance of proximate weather contributions to broad patterns of montane ontogeny and parental care.


Assuntos
Altitude , Comportamento de Nidação , Passeriformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Bornéu , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Materno , Comportamento Paterno
15.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 40: 101178, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: and purpose: Women's health behaviours during pregnancy can affect their children's lifetime outcomes. Inactivity, poor diet, alcohol, and smoking during pregnancy are linked to maternal stress and distress. Mindfulness-based interventions can improve health behaviours and mental health. The purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate the feasibility of a mindfulness-based maternal behaviour change intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The eight-week 'Mind the Bump' intervention integrated mindfulness training with behaviour change techniques. It aimed to improve mindfulness, mental health, and adherence to UK maternal health behaviour guidance. Acceptability, practicability, effectiveness/cost-effectiveness, affordability, safety/side-effects, and equity were evaluated from baseline to post-course and follow-up. RESULTS: Mindfulness, positive affect, and wellbeing improved. Stress, negative affect, depression, anxiety, and adherence to guidance did not improve. The intervention was practicable and safe, but the other implementability criteria were not satisfied. CONCLUSION: The intervention was not fully feasible; recommendations to address its limitations are discussed.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Atenção Plena/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Materno , Saúde Mental , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S81-S85, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737238

RESUMO

Jahi McMath's story has been an important reference in medicine and ethics as the landscape of the understanding of death by neurologic criteria is shifting, with families actively questioning the once-firm criterion. Palliative care providers have a role in seeking understanding and collaborating with families and clinical teams to navigate the many challenges that arise when a medical team has determined that a child has died, and their parents disagree. In this case-based narrative discussion we consider the complexity of the family experience of brain death.


Assuntos
Morte Encefálica/diagnóstico , Família , Cuidados Paliativos , Religião e Medicina , Adolescente , Cura pela Fé/psicologia , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Comportamento Materno , Exame Neurológico , Relações Profissional-Família , Prognóstico
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1284: 49-62, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852740

RESUMO

In mammals, parental care is essential for the survival of the young; therefore, it is vitally important to the propagation of the species. These behaviors, differing between the two sexes, are innate, stereotyped, and are also modified by an individual's reproductive experience. These characteristics suggest that neural mechanisms underlying parental behaviors are genetically hardwired, evolutionarily conserved as well as sexually differentiated and malleable to experiential changes. Classical lesion studies on neural control of parental behaviors, mostly done in rats, date back to the 1950s. Recent developments of new methods and tools in neuroscience, which allow precise targeting and activation/inhibition of specific populations of neurons and their projections to different brain structures, have afforded fresh opportunities to dissect and delineate the detailed neural circuit mechanisms that govern distinct components of parental behaviors in the genetically tractably organism, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus). In this review, we summarize recent discoveries using modern neurobiological tools within the context of traditional lesion studies. In addition, we discuss interesting cross talk between neural circuits that govern parent care with those that regulate other innate behaviors such as feeding and mating.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Comportamento Paterno/fisiologia , Animais , Camundongos , Modelos Animais
18.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 658-667, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805192

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The health profile of Arab American mothers and infants may differ from that of non-Arab American mothers and infants in the United States as a result of social stigma experienced in the historical and current sociopolitical climate. The objective of our study was to compare maternal health behaviors, maternal health outcomes, and infant health outcomes of Arab American mothers and non-Hispanic white mothers in Massachusetts and to assess the role of nativity as an effect modifier. METHODS: Using data from Massachusetts birth certificates (2012-2016), we conducted adjusted logistic and linear regression models for maternal health behaviors, maternal health outcomes, and infant health outcomes. We used Arab ethnicity as the exposure of interest and nativity as an effect modifier. RESULTS: Arab American mothers had higher odds than non-Hispanic white mothers of initiating breastfeeding (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.61; 95% CI, 2.39-2.86), giving birth to small-for-gestational-age infants (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.18-1.39), and having gestational diabetes (aOR = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.20-1.44). Among Arab American mothers, non-US-born mothers had higher odds than US-born mothers of having gestational diabetes (aOR = 1.80; 95% CI, 1.33-2.44) and lower odds of initiating prenatal care in the first trimester (aOR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.33-0.50). In linear regression models, infants born to non-US-born Arab American mothers weighed 42.1 g (95% CI, -75.8 to -8.4 g) less than infants born to US-born Arab American mothers. CONCLUSION: Although Arab American mothers engage in positive health behaviors, non-US-born mothers had poorer maternal health outcomes and access to prenatal care than US-born mothers, suggesting the need for targeted interventions for non-US-born Arab American mothers.


Assuntos
Árabes/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Massachusetts , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237933, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822407

RESUMO

Defining the relationship between maternal care, sensory development and brain gene expression in neonates is important to understand the impact of environmental challenges during sensitive periods in early life. In this study, we used a selection approach to test the hypothesis that variation in maternal licking and grooming (LG) during the first week of life influences sensory development in Wistar rat pups. We tracked the onset of the auditory brainstem response (ABR), the timing of eye opening (EO), middle ear development with micro-CT X-ray tomography, and used qRT-PCR to monitor changes in gene expression of the hypoxia-sensitive pathway and neurotrophin signaling in pups reared by low-LG or high-LG dams. The results show the first evidence that the transcription of genes involved in the hypoxia-sensitive pathway and neurotrophin signaling is regulated during separate sensitive periods that occur before and after hearing onset, respectively. Although the timing of ABR onset, EO, and the relative mRNA levels of genes involved in the hypoxia-sensitive pathway did not differ between pups from different LG groups, we found statistically significant increases in the relative mRNA levels of four genes involved in neurotrophin signaling in auditory brain regions from pups of different LG backgrounds. These results suggest that sensitivity to hypoxic challenge might be widespread in the auditory system of neonate rats before hearing onset, and that maternal LG may affect the transcription of genes involved in experience-dependent neuroplasticity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico/fisiologia , Asseio Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Olho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Audição , Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
20.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003158, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most of the women who smoke before pregnancy continue smoking during pregnancy, and some start to quit smoking after being pregnant, although existing guidelines for pregnancy recommend that women who smoke should quit smoking before pregnancy. Findings about the timing and intensity of maternal smoking, especially low-intensity smoking (1-9 cigarettes per day), and preterm birth are still inconsistent and ambiguous. This study aimed to examine the association of the timing of smoking and doses of smoking before pregnancy and during the first or second trimester of pregnancy with preterm birth in a large-scale population-based retrospective cohort study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used nationwide birth certificate data from singleton mother-infant pairs in the United States National Vital Statistics System, 2011-2018. All adult women with live singleton births, without preexisting hypertension or diabetes, and with complete data on smoking and gestational age at delivery were included. Participants reported their smoking status (yes or no) and daily number of cigarettes consumed before and during each trimester of pregnancy. The outcome of interest was preterm birth, defined as a birth before 37 weeks of gestation. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of preterm birth associated with smoking status and the number of cigarettes consumed, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, parity, education levels, prepregnancy BMI, previous history of preterm birth, marital status, infant sex, and initiation of prenatal care. This study included 25,623,479 women, with a mean age of 29 years (range 20-50 years); 13,742,486 (53.6%) participants were of non-Hispanic white ancestry, 5,971,598 (23.3%) of Hispanic ancestry, and 3,417,456 (13.34%) of non-Hispanic black ancestry. The prevalence of preterm birth was 9.3% (n = 2,378,398). We found that maternal smoking during pregnancy, even at a very low level of intensity, was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) of preterm birth for mothers who smoked 1-2, 3-5, 6-9, 10-19, and ≥20 cigarettes per day during the first trimester compared with mothers who did not smoke were 1.31 (1.29-1.33), 1.31 (1.30-1.32), 1.33 (1.31-1.35), 1.44 (1.43-1.45), and 1.53 (1.52-1.55), respectively (all P values < 0.001), whereas for those who smoked during the second trimester, the corresponding ORs were 1.37 (1.35-1.39), 1.36 (1.35-1.38), 1.36 (1.34-1.38), 1.48 (1.47-1.49), and 1.59 (1.58-1.61), respectively (all P values < 0.001). Furthermore, smokers who quit before pregnancy, regardless of smoking intensity, had a comparable risk of preterm birth with nonsmokers, although this was not the case when cessation occurred in the first or second trimester of pregnancy. The major limitation of this study is the self-reported information about smoking, which may be subject to information bias. In addition, we cannot rule out the possibility of residual confounding caused by unmeasured factors in an observational research design. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that low-intensity cigarette consumption during either the first or second trimester of pregnancy, even as low as 1-2 cigarettes per day, was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. These findings suggest that there is no safe level or safe trimester for maternal smoking during pregnancy. Women of reproductive age who smoke should be strongly encouraged and supported to quit smoking before pregnancy.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Comportamento Materno , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/tendências , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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