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1.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 111057, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846720

RESUMO

Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) may lead to offspring's testicular dysplasia. Here, we confirmed the intergenerational effect of PNE on testosterone synthetic function and explored its epigenetic programming mechanism. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with nicotine (2 mg/kg.d) from gestational day 9-20. Some dams were anesthetized to obtain fetal rats, the rest were allowed to spontaneous labor to generate F1 and F2 generation. In utero, PNE impaired testicular development and testosterone production. Meanwhile, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSD) were decreased both in F1 and F2 generations. Furthermore, PNE enhanced the expression of fetal testicular nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), while obviously weakened histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) level of StAR/3ß-HSD promoter from GD20 to postnatal week 12 and even in F2 generation. In vitro, nicotine increased nAChRs and HDAC4 expression, and decreased the StAR/3ß-HSD H3K9ac level and expression, as well as the testosterone production in Leydig cells. Antagonism of nAChRs and inhibition of HDAC4 reversed the aforementioned changes. In conclusion, PNE programmed testicular low steroidogenesis and its heritability in male offspring rats. The underlying mechanism was associated to the low-level programming of StAR/3ß-HSD H3K9ac via nAChR/HDAC4.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Comportamento Materno , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/biossíntese , Idoso , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Nicotina/farmacologia , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Testículo/embriologia , Testículo/metabolismo
2.
Curr Top Behav Neurosci ; 43: 161-210, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808002

RESUMO

Parental care is critical for offspring survival in many species. In mammals, parental care is primarily provided through maternal care, due to obligate pregnancy and lactation constraints, although some species also show paternal and alloparental care. These behaviors are driven by specialized neural circuits that receive sensory, cortical, and hormonal input to generate a coordinated and timely change in behavior, and sustain that behavior through activation of reward pathways. Importantly, the hormonal changes associated with pregnancy and lactation also act to coordinate a broad range of physiological changes to support the mother and enable her to adapt to the demands of these states. This chapter will review the neural pathways that regulate maternal behavior, the hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy and lactation, and how these two facets merge together to promote both young-directed maternal responses (including nursing and grooming) and young-related responses (including maternal aggression and other physiological adaptions to support the development of and caring for young). We conclude by examining how experimental animal work has translated into knowledge of human parenting, particularly in regards to maternal mental health issues.


Assuntos
Neuroendocrinologia , Agressão , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Comportamento Materno , Poder Familiar , Gravidez
3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4709, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624263

RESUMO

Parental care is extremely diverse across species, ranging from simple behaviours to complex adaptations, varying in duration and in which sex cares. Surprisingly, we know little about how such diversity has evolved. Here, using phylogenetic comparative methods and data for over 1300 amphibian species, we show that egg attendance, arguably one of the simplest care behaviours, is gained and lost faster than any other care form, while complex adaptations, like brooding and viviparity, are lost at very low rates, if at all. Prolonged care from the egg to later developmental stages evolves from temporally limited care, but it is as easily lost as it is gained. Finally, biparental care is evolutionarily unstable regardless of whether the parents perform complementary or similar care duties. By considering the full spectrum of parental care adaptations, our study reveals a more complex and nuanced picture of how care evolves, is maintained, or is lost.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Comportamento Paterno/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Anfíbios/classificação , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Res Dev Disabil ; 94: 103462, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to determine whether a second-order global competence latent factor could be identified as underlying relations between adolescent mental health, social skills, and academic functioning. A secondary aim was to test whether early childhood characteristics predict adolescent global competence. A final aim was to test differences in these models across youth with typical cognitive development (TD) or intellectual disability (ID). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Participants were 246 youth with TD (n = 148) or ID (n = 98), with assessments from early childhood (3, 4, 5 years) and adolescence (13, 15). These youths' parents and teachers provided measures. A Multiple Indicator, Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model was tested using structural equation modeling, in which parenting, maternal depression, and emotional dysregulation in early childhood were entered as predictors of adolescent global competence. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: A second-order global competence factor emerged, and was predicted by early childhood variables. The final MIMIC model demonstrated excellent fit. Negative parenting in early childhood predicted lower adolescent global competence for both TD and ID youth. Maternal depression predicted adolescent global competence only for youth with ID, while emotion dysregulation predicted only for youth with TD. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Results have implications for longitudinal mechanisms of influence and early intervention targets for specific populations.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Habilidades Sociais
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 329, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Each year nearly 7.7 million children under five years die around the world; out of which approximately 3.1 million of the newborns die during the neonatal period and almost all these (99%) deaths occur in the developing countries. According to the World Health Organization's estimation neonatal deaths account for 45% of the under-five deaths. More than one-third of these deaths occur in the first 24 h of birth, whereas three-quarter of the neonatal deaths takes place in the first seven days of birth. The purpose of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) among mothers about newborns' care and its related factors in district Badin Sindh province of Pakistan. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2017 to August 2017 to assess the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) in mothers regarding newborn care. A structured questionnaire was administered, after pretest, for data gathering through face to face interview. All survey participants were identified using multi-stage cluster sampling. A scoring system was used to calculate the level of KAP among participants. Independent sample t-test, ANOVA, and GLM were applied to identify the statistical difference between the means of various groups. RESULT: A total of 518 survey participants were interviewed. Among the study sample, more than half of the newborns were bathed within six hours of delivery. Around 50% started breastfeeding after 1 h of birth. A substantial proportion (45%) of mothers gave pre-lacteal feeding and 44.8% of them did not feed colostrum to their newborns. Among those who administered pre-lacteal to their newborn babies included animal/formula milk (15.4%), honey (24.5%) and fresh butter/ghee (5.2. %). Mothers with no education had less significant KAP score about newborn care as compared to those who had higher education (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This study revealed that high-risk factors such as immediate bathing, application of traditional substances on the cord, delayed initiation of breastfeeding, discarding colostrum and giving pre-lacteal feed to newborns were highly prevalent. This requires urgent attention of Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) programs and health care delivery system to prevent harmful care practices and adopt healthy practices especially in the rural settings.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cuidado do Lactente , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Cuidado do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Paquistão , Gravidez , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
7.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412688

RESUMO

The prenatal lifestyle, including maternal dietary behaviour, is an important determinant of offspring health. This secondary cohort analysis of the GeliS ("healthy living in pregnancy") trial investigated associations between antenatal dietary factors and neonatal weight parameters. The cluster-randomised GeliS trial included 2286 pregnant women. Dietary information was collected with food frequency questionnaires before or in the 12th (T0) and after the 29th week of gestation (T1). Consumption of vegetables (41.28 g per portion at T0, p = 0.001; 36.67 g per portion at T1, p = 0.001), fruit (15.25 g per portion at T1, p = 0.010) and dietary quality, measured with a Healthy Eating Index (39.26 g per 10 points at T0, p = 0.004; 42.76 g per 10 points at T1, p = 0.002) were positively associated with birth weight. In contrast, sugar-sweetened beverages (10.90 g per portion at T0, p = 0.003; 8.19 g per portion at T1, p = 0.047), higher sugar consumption at T0 (8.27 g per 10 g, p = 0.032) and early pregnancy alcohol intake (15.32 g per g, p = 0.039) were inversely associated with birth weight. Most other dietary factors were not associated with neonatal weight. Some components reflecting a healthy maternal diet were associated with a modest increase in offspring birth weight, whereas some unhealthy components slightly reduced neonatal weight.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamento Materno , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Valor Nutritivo , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Análise por Conglomerados , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
8.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The basis for healthy development is established during the first years of one's life. In this early phase, parents can significantly influence the health conditions under which their child grows up. Parental education can play a key role in this regard. This study examines the association of maternal education with health and health behavior in infants. METHODS: A subsample of the representative German KiGGS study (Wave 1, 2009-2012) on the health of children and adolescents was investigated. Data from 1727 mothers who reported on health-specific characteristics of their infants (0 to 2 years), on their own educational background, and on characteristics of the family were analyzed. The influence of maternal education on indices of health and health behavior in infants was investigated by means of logistic regression; additional predictors were considered in regression models. RESULTS: Higher maternal education was associated with better health behavior, but not with overall infant health. The impact of maternal education on health behavior remained significant when considering other predictors (financial worries, low maternal age at childbirth, premature birth/low birth weight). Overall, low maternal education was accompanied by an accumulation of additional risks. CONCLUSIONS: Higher maternal education can help infants have a good start in their lives. The impact of poor health behavior on infant health may not become apparent until later in their lives. For prevention and intervention, it is important to identify sensitive stages of development during childhood and the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between maternal education and infant health behavior.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Mães/educação , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento Materno , Pais , Gravidez
9.
EBioMedicine ; 46: 256-263, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early life experiences have persisting influence on brain function throughout life. Maternal signals constitute a primary source of early life experiences, and their quantity and quality during sensitive developmental periods exert enduring effects on cognitive function and emotional and social behaviors. Here we examined if, in addition to established qualitative dimensions of maternal behavior during her interactions with her infant and child, patterns of maternal signals may contribute to the maturation of children's executive functions. We focused primarily on effortful control, a potent predictor of mental health outcomes later in life. METHODS: In two independent prospective cohorts in Turku, Finland (N = 135), and Irvine, CA, USA (N = 192) that differed significantly in race/ethnicity and sociodemographic parameters, we assessed whether infant exposure to unpredictable patterns of maternal-derived sensory signals portended poor effortful control. OUTCOMES: In both the Irvine and Turku cohorts, unpredictable sequences of maternal behavior during infancy were associated with worse effortful control at one year of age. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated that this association persisted for as long as each cohort was assessed-until two years of age in the Turku cohort and to 9.5 years in the Irvine cohort. The relation of unpredictable maternal signals during infancy and the measures of executive function persisted after adjusting for covariates. INTERPRETATIONS: The consistency of our findings across two cohorts from different demographic backgrounds substantiated the finding that patterns, and specifically unpredictable sequences, of maternal behaviors may influence the development of executive functions which may be associated with vulnerability to subsequent psychopathology. FUND: This research was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) awards P50MH096889, HD051852, NS041298, HD02413, HD050662, HD065823, and by the FinnBrain funders: Academy of Finland (129839, 134950, 253270, 286829, 287908, 308176, 308252), Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation, Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation, Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation, and State Research Grants (P3498, P3654).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Comportamento Materno , Relações Mãe-Filho , California , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia
10.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 29(4): 207-215, jul.-ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182914

RESUMO

Objetivo: Conocer la experiencia personal y sentimientos de las mujeres primíparas que se vieron obligadas a abandonar la lactancia materna (LM) antes del tiempo previsto inicialmente por cada mujer, así como las causas del abandono y el papel de los profesionales sanitarios. Método: Estudio cualitativo fenomenológico mediante entrevista semiestructurada. Se realizó un muestreo opinático mediante informadores clave, hasta alcanzar la saturación de la información. Se realizó análisis de contenido cualitativo para generar códigos y asignar categorías. Resultados: Se entrevistaron 15 mujeres de 33,1 (DE 5,4) años. Se constató ambivalencia de sentimientos, considerando que la LM es una experiencia satisfactoria a la par que sacrificada y dolorosa. Las mujeres referían escasez de conocimientos. La inseguridad sobre la alimentación y el dolor físico fueron las causas más importantes para el abandono. Se evidenció además una dualidad de sentimientos entre la tranquilidad que supone la alimentación artificial, al saber que el niño está bien alimentado, y la sensación de culpabilidad por no haber mantenido la LM. Consideraron que los profesionales no realizan adecuadamente su labor de promoción de la LM, refiriendo numerosas ocasiones en las que los propios profesionales sanitarios efectuaron prácticas contrarias a su instauración y mantenimiento. Conclusiones: En el relato de las madres se constatan necesidades formativas y de soporte emocional insuficientemente cubiertas. Las enfermeras implicadas en la atención de estas mujeres deberían explorar sistemáticamente dichas necesidades


Objective: The aim of this study was to discover the personal experience and feelings of primiparous women who had to abandon breastfeeding (BF) before the expected time, as well as the causes of abandonment and the role of health professionals. Method: A qualitative study through semi-structured interview was carried out. A purposive sampling by key informants was conducted, until saturation of the information was reached. Qualitative content analysis was carried out to generate codes and assign categories. Results: We interviewed 15 women aged 33.1 (SD 5.4) years. Ambivalent feelings were found, while BF was considered a satisfying experience, it was also sacrificial and painful. They refer to a lack of knowledge, and insecurity about nourishing their infant and physical pain seem to be the most important reasons for giving up. There is also a duality of feelings between the peace of mind afforded by artificial feeding, knowing that their child is well nourished, and the feeling of guilt for not having maintained BF. They believe that professionals do not adequately perform their work to promote BF, referring to numerous occasions when health professionals themselves have performed practices contrary to its establishment and maintenance. Conclusions: In the mothers' account, emotional training and emotional support needs are insufficiently covered. Nursing professionals involved in the care of these women should systematically explore these needs


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Apoio Social , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Desmame , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Análise Qualitativa
11.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219674, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295326

RESUMO

Deprivation of maternal care via lack of somatosensory input causes offspring to experience adverse consequences, especially in the central nervous system. However, little is known about the developmental effect of maternal care on peripheral tissues such as the skin, which includes cutaneous sensory neurons. In the present study, we examined the involvement of maternal care in the development of the skin. We investigated offspring reared by early-weaned mother mice who spontaneously showed lower frequency of licking/grooming on nursing. Offspring of early-weaned mothers showed higher resistance against skin barrier disruption than did offspring of normally-weaned mothers, and had normal skin barrier function in the intact trunk skin. In the dorsal root ganglion of early-weaned mother offspring, we also found up-regulation of mRNA levels of the Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor B4 (MrgprB4), which is a marker of sensory neurons that detect gentle stroking. We further found that levels of MrgprB4 mRNA were correlated with the enhancement of skin resistance. The present findings suggest that maternal somatosensory inputs have a developmental impact on the cutaneous sensory neurons of the skin in offspring. Interestingly, the present results suggest that lower maternal care has a benefit on the skin resistance. This provides important information for understanding the development of peripheral tissues in offspring reared under severe conditions such as lower maternal care in the wild.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia , Asseio Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Gânglios Espinais/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/patologia , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/fisiopatologia , Desmame
12.
Dev Psychol ; 55(10): 2135-2146, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282733

RESUMO

Maternal oxytocin is connected to aspects of parenting including sensitivity, warmth, positive affect, and affectionate touch. Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms are associated with circulating oxytocin levels, altered brain activity, and parenting behaviors. This study aimed to replicate prior work on OXTR single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1042778 and rs53576 in relation to maternal sensitivity, explore associations with other aspects of parenting (i.e., negative parenting), evaluate observational and self-report measures of parenting in relation to OXTR SNPs, and examine whether childhood trauma exposure moderates the relation between OXTR SNPs and parenting. Mothers (N = 100) were observed during 2 teaching interaction tasks with their 7-month-old infant, completed questionnaire and interview measures related to parenting and trauma history, and provided saliva specimens to derive OXTR genotypes. Mothers with OXTR rs1042778 TT genotypes demonstrated lower behavioral sensitivity, lower engagement, higher intrusiveness, and more frequent frightened/frightening behavior than mothers with TG or GG genotypes. Genotype interacted with childhood trauma history such that mothers who had experienced childhood trauma were more likely to demonstrate frightened/frightening behavior if they had the TT genotype on rs1042778 relative to the TG or GG genotype; however, small cell sizes for this interaction suggest replication is warranted. Contrary to expectations, mothers with the TT genotype on rs1042778 self-reported that they had less impaired bonding than mothers with TG or GG genotypes. Results are discussed with respect to prior work with oxytocin in lower versus higher risk samples, and the potential role of mothers' self-awareness in explaining discrepancies between results from observational versus self-report measures of parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Entrevistas como Assunto , Apego ao Objeto , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263094

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tobacco use during pregnancy is detrimental to pregnant women and to the fetus. In Galicia, the data regarding prevalence of tobacco use during pregnancy is outdated and the characteristics of women who continue to smoke during pregnancy are not known. The objectives of this work were to estimate, before and during pregnancy, the prevalence of tobacco use and characterize its consumption, and to identify factors associated with the maintenance of tobacco use during pregnancy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 targeting women who had given birth within the previous 12 months (n=6.436) in Galicia. Information was collected regarding the mother's status before and during pregnancy, at the time of delivery and survey. Smoking prevalence was estimated both globally and by women related characteristics. Regression models were performed to identify variables associated with smoking maintenance. Prevalence and odds ratio are presented accompanied with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Smoking prevalence during pregnancy was 11.9% (11.1-12.8). Among women who maintain tobacco consumption during pregnancy, the percentage of cigarette smokers decreased, but prevalence of rolled tobacco remain stable. The maintenance of smoking during pregnancy was related to being Spanish, education or having been a daily smoker before pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that more than half of Galician women stop smoking during pregnancy, smoking prevalence remains at 12%. The different demographic factors identified in this study as predictors of smoking maintenance, should be kept in mind when intervention programs focused on pregnant women will be design.


Assuntos
Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fumar/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pediatr Int ; 61(9): 847-851, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Securing food for patients with food allergies may be more difficult during disasters, but reports on the status of household allergen-free food reserves in preparation for disasters are limited. This study investigated the household stock status of allergen-free foods in preparation for disasters in Kobe City after the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. METHODS: The survey targets were 172 parents of patients with a food allergy who underwent in-hospital oral food challenge test for allergies at four hospitals from October 2016 to March 2017. Of these, 158 patients with allergies to eggs, milk and wheat were included in the analysis. The first survey was performed to investigate patient characteristics and stockpiling status of allergen-free foods in parallel with oral food challenge tests. The second survey was performed on the follow-up visit to investigate any changes in behavior. RESULTS: Median patient age was 3 years, with boys comprising 68.4% of the patients. Eggs were the most eliminated food, and the median number of foods avoided was 2. A total of 82.3% of parents had experienced disasters. The proportion of households that stockpiled allergy-free meals was 42.4%, and the median amount was 3 days. The stockpiling situation did not differ according to the parents' disaster experience. In the second survey, 45.3% had modified their stockpiling practice. CONCLUSIONS: Even in this area where the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake occurred, household stockpiles of allergen-free foods are inadequate; therefore, all medical staff should educate families about the necessity of stocking allergen-free food for disasters.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Comportamento Materno , Comportamento Paterno , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terremotos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Trials ; 20(1): 440, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal prenatal depressive or anxiety symptoms are associated with adverse maternal and infant health outcomes. With prevalence rates of maternal prenatal depression and anxiety ranging between 10 and 20%, attempts to identify effective interventions to reduce symptoms are priority. There are indications that probiotics can reduce symptoms of maternal depression or anxiety. Probiotics ingested by the mother may thus offer a promising and accessible intervention to complement existing treatments. METHODS: The Probiotics in Pregnancy (PIP) pilot trial is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized pilot trial. While one group orally consumes a probiotic mixture (Ecologic® Barrier; 2,5 × 109 colony forming units/g; 2 g; daily), the other group consumes a placebo, from between 26 and 30 weeks gestation until delivery. Subjects are randomly allocated (1:1) to the intervention or placebo group. Forty healthy pregnant women with symptoms of depression or anxiety and uncomplicated pregnancies at randomization will be included. The primary aim is to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a probiotic trial to reduce symptoms of maternal depression or anxiety in pregnancy. The secondary aim is to exploratorily compare the potential effect of probiotics, compared to placebo, on depressive and/or anxiety symptoms, maternal stress (i.e. reported/hair cortisol), maternal vaginal and intestinal microbiota, and by possibly affecting maternal mood and microbiota, maternal bonding to offspring, infant microbiota and infant crying. DISCUSSION: Results of this pilot trial will help determine whether or not to proceed with a full trial after the pilot trial, and if so, whether revisions should be made to the study protocol and procedures before conducting a full randomized controlled trial. Additionally, they are expected to provide insights into whether changes in psychological, behavioral and biological parameters can be attributed to the probiotic intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register, NTR6219 . Registered on 28 February 2017.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Afeto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/microbiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/microbiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Materno , Relações Mãe-Filho , Países Baixos , Apego ao Objeto , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/microbiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 253, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During pregnancy and postnatally, women seek information from a variety of sources. The potential to incorporate educational pregnancy and parenting resources into conventional health services is underexplored. In 2014-2016, UK-based charity Best Beginnings used an embedding model to embed three of their resources - the Baby Buddy app, Baby Express magazine, and 'From Bump to Breastfeeding' DVD - into maternity and early years care pathways at three sites in the north of England. A mixed-methods evaluation comprising an impact evaluation and a process evaluation was undertaken. Here we report findings from the process evaluation that aimed to understand the embedding process, explore maternity and early years' professionals' views and use of the resources, explore women's engagement with and views of the resources, and identify barriers and facilitators to the embedding process. METHODS: We carried out semi-structured interviews with stakeholders (professionals involved in embedding) and observations of embedding activities to understand how embedding worked. Surveys of postnatal women were conducted over a two-month period both prior to, and after, the resources had been embedded, to ascertain engagement with and views of the resources. A survey of professionals was carried out post-embedding to understand how, where and when the resources were used in practice, and professionals' views. Descriptive and thematic analyses were undertaken. RESULTS: Thirty stakeholders took part in interviews. Surveys were completed by 146 professionals, and by 161 and 192 women in the pre and post-embedding phases respectively. Themes derived from analysis of qualitative data were 'Implementation of the embedding model', 'Promotion and distribution of, and engagement with, the resources', 'Fit with care pathways', and 'Perceptions of the resources'. While survey responses indicated that embedding of the resources into practice was not yet complete, those who had used the resources believed that they had helped increase knowledge, build confidence and support relationship-building. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating supportive parenting resources into maternity and early years' care pathways requires a planned embedding approach, committed champions, and senior management support. Findings indicate largely positive views of women and professionals, and suggest the resources can be a beneficial aid for families.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Educação Pré-Natal , Adulto , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Gravidez , Educação Pré-Natal/métodos , Educação Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social , Reino Unido
17.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358725

RESUMO

Many pregnancies have a weight gain that is higher than recommended, situation that carries several risks for the mother and her child. As a strategy to achieve a lower weight gain, the replacement of sugar-sweetened foods and beverages by those with non-caloric sweeteners could be a choice for pregnant or puerperal mothers. The objective of this article is to review the available evidence regarding the use of non-caloric sweeteners during pregnancy and lactation. Pregnancy is not a period to lose weight, so it would not be advisable to perform hypocaloric diets. However, to achieve an adequate weight gain during pregnancy, many women choose to consume food and beverages with non-caloric sweeteners. During pregnancy, the consumption of cyclamate, saccharin and crude stevia leaf should be avoided, as well as that of stevia infusions or extracts of the whole leaf. Regarding the rest of the approved non-caloric sweeteners, their consumption during pregnancy and lactation is considered to be safe, as long as they are consumed in moderation, adhering to their admissible daily intake levels. Aspartame does not reach breast milk. While saccharin, sucralose, and acesulfame-K are detectable in breast milk, their concentration is several orders of magnitude below their admissible daily intake levels.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Lactação , Leite Humano/química , Adoçantes não Calóricos/efeitos adversos , Complicações na Gravidez/induzido quimicamente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Dieta/psicologia , Feminino , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Humanos , Comportamento Materno , Adoçantes não Calóricos/metabolismo , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia
18.
Anim Sci J ; 90(9): 1293-1302, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310043

RESUMO

The molecular mechanism underlying in the onset and maintenance of incubation behavior are not fully understood, and it is still unknown the reason why White Leghorn, a layer strain, hens never display incubation behavior. Therefore, to explore specific hypothalamic genes regulating incubation behavior, cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) were applied to comparison between incubating Silkie and laying White Leghorn hens. In addition, mRNA expression of some differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and melanocortinergic appetite genes including agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) was also analyzed on Silkie hens under natural anorexia and starvation. The CAGE identified 217 hypothalamic DEGs in incubating Silkie hens, and that of two, transthyretin (TTR) and prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), suggested as appetite gene, were markedly up- and down-regulated in incubating hens, respectively. In addition, AgRP and POMC expression also increased in incubating bird. mRNA expression of TTR, PrRP, and appetite genes were not differed significantly by starvation, although TTR mRNA expression was relatively high in fasting hens. Consequently, transcriptome by CAGE identified a number of hypothalamic genes differentially expressed by incubation behavior in Silkie hens. Of these, it is suggested that TTR and PrRP may, at least in part, be related to adaptation to natural anorexia in incubating Silkie chickens.


Assuntos
Proteína Relacionada com Agouti/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Pré-Albumina/metabolismo , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Prolactina/metabolismo , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti/genética , Animais , Galinhas , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genética Comportamental , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Pré-Albumina/genética , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/genética , Hormônio Liberador de Prolactina/genética , Inanição
19.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0216035, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233509

RESUMO

Early life stress has been shown to contribute to alterations in biobehavioral regulation. Genetic make-up, especially related to social sensitivity, might affect the child's vulnerability to these alterations. This study examined whether maternal verbally aggressive behavior in early infancy interacts with oxytocin polymorphisms in changing resting cardiovascular outcomes at age 5-6. In the Amsterdam-Born-Children-and-their-Development-(ABCD)-study, a large prospective, observational, population-based birth cohort, maternal verbally aggressive behavior was assessed in the 13th postnatal week (range 11-25 weeks, SD 2 weeks) by a questionnaire (maternal self-report). Indicators of resting cardiac autonomic nervous system activity (sympathetic drive by pre-ejection period, parasympathetic drive by respiratory sinus arrhythmia), heart rate, and blood pressure were measured at age 5-6 years. Data on oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms rs53576, rs2268498 and oxytocin polymorphisms rs2740210, rs4813627, were collected (N = 966 included). If the child was carrier of the rs53576 GG variant, exposure to maternal verbally aggressive behavior (10.6%) was associated with increased systolic blood pressure at age 5-6 (B = 4.9 mmHg,95% CI[2.2;7.7]). If the child was carrier of the rs2268498 TT/TC variant, exposure to maternal verbally aggressive behavior was associated with increased systolic blood pressure at age 5-6 (B = 3.0 mmHg,95%CI[1.0:5.0]). No significant interactions of maternal verbally aggressive behavior with oxytocin gene polymorphisms on heart rate or cardiac autonomic nervous system activity were found. In conclusion, oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms may partly determine a child's vulnerability to develop increased systolic blood pressure after being exposed to maternal verbally aggressive behavior in early infancy.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Ocitocina/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Pressão Sanguínea , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/etnologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/etnologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226736

RESUMO

The prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) differs among populations and is largely unknown among minority populations. Prevalence and characterization of FASD is necessary for prevention efforts and allocation of resources for treatment and support. However, prevalence data are lacking, including among many minority populations. The aim of this study was to obtain an FASD prevalence estimate in a Southern California American Indian community employing active case-ascertainment. In 2016, American Indian children aged 5-7 years and their caregivers were recruited in collaboration with Southern California Tribal Health Clinic. Children were assessed using physical examinations and neurobehavioral testing. Parent or guardian interviews assessed child behavior and prenatal exposures including alcohol. Of 488 children identified as eligible to participate, 119 families consented and 94 completed assessments to allow a classification for FASD. Participating children (n = 94) were an average of 6.61 ± 0.91 years old and half were female. Most interviews were conducted with biological mothers (85.1%). Less than one third (29.8%) of mothers reported consuming any alcohol in pregnancy and 19.1% met study criteria for risky alcohol exposure prior to pregnancy recognition. Overall 20 children met criteria for FASD, resulting in an estimated minimum prevalence of 41.0 per 1000 (4.1%). No cases of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) were identified; 14 (70.0%) met criteria for alcohol related neuro- developmental disorder (ARND). Minimum prevalence estimates found in this sample are consistent with those noted in the general population.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/epidemiologia , Índios Norte-Americanos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Etanol , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Lactação , Masculino , Comportamento Materno , Troca Materno-Fetal , Mães , Gravidez , Prevalência
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