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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9796, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697723

RESUMO

The developing brain is particularly vulnerable to factors including maternal infection during pregnancy. Establishment of neural networks critical for memory and cognition begins during the perinatal period, when Heligmosomoides bakeri, a gastrointestinal (GI) nematode restricted to the maternal mouse intestine, has been shown to upregulate expression of long-term potentiation genes in the young rodent pup brain. We explored the impact of maternal infection during pregnancy and early lactation on the spatial behavior of uninfected male and female juvenile mice. Pre-weaned pups of H. bakeri infected dams exhibited less exploratory behaviour compared to pups of uninfected dams on postnatal day (PD) 16 but not PD 17, possibly reflecting a transient fear of an unfamiliar environment and/or a brief neurodevelopmental delay. Our two spatial memory tests show for the first time an enhancement of spatial memory in response to maternal nematode infection regardless of pup sex. At PD 17, pups of infected dams expressed object location memories after 3 h in the Object Location Test whereas offspring of uninfected mothers did not. In addition, at PD 34, juveniles of infected mothers retained their ability to find the escape hole in the Barnes Maze Test for one week whereas offspring from uninfected mothers did not. This finding is even more striking given that spatial memory was positively associated with pup length, yet this maternal infection impaired linear growth of pups. Thus, the positive impact of maternal infection on spatial memory countered any impairment associated with the shorter length of the pups. Overall, these novel findings indicate that a maternal GI nematode infection during pregnancy and lactation positively influences the spatial memory of uninfected juvenile offspring with potential fitness implications for the next generation.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Gastroenteropatias , Infecções por Nematoides , Trichostrongyloidea , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/complicações , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Humanos , Lactação , Masculino , Comportamento Materno , Camundongos , Infecções por Nematoides/genética , Gravidez , Memória Espacial
2.
Infancy ; 27(4): 821-835, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524642

RESUMO

The presence of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders has typically been associated with decreases in the quality of mother-infant interactions. However, maternal anxiety symptoms during the postpartum period have been less studied than other mental health disorders like depression. In the current study, we examined associations among symptoms of maternal anxiety, maternal perceived stress, and mother-infant behavioral synchrony in the early postnatal period. Eighty-one mother-infant dyads participated in this study when the infants were 3 months old. Surveys were given to obtain demographic information and current maternal mental health symptoms, and dyads completed a 5-min free-play task to measure behavioral synchrony. Results indicated that maternal anxiety symptoms were positively associated with behavioral synchrony, but only for mothers reporting moderate levels of perceived stress. These findings highlight the differential impact of maternal postpartum mental health on behavioral synchrony and suggest that higher maternal anxiety symptoms during the postnatal period may play an adaptive role in fostering more dynamic mother-infant interactions.


Assuntos
Depressão , Relações Mãe-Filho , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627592

RESUMO

Background: Most early children's experiences will occur in a family context; therefore, the quality of this environment is critical for development outcomes. Not many studies have assessed the correlations between brain functional connectivity (FC) in important areas such as the default mode network (DMN) and the quality of parent-child relationships in school-age children and early adolescence. The quality of family relationships and maternal behavior have been suggested to modulate DMN FC once they act as external regulators of children's affect and behavior. Objective: We aimed to test the associations between the quality of family environment/maternal behavior and FC within the DMN of school-age children. Method: Resting-state, functional magnetic resonance imaging data, were collected from 615 children (6-12 age range) enrolled in the Brazilian High-Risk Cohort (HRC) study. We assessed DMN intra-connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and inferior parietal lobule (IPL-bilateral) regions. The family functioning was assessed by levels of family cohesiveness and conflict and by maternal behavior styles such as maternal responsiveness, maternal stimulus to the child's autonomy, and maternal overprotection. The family environment was assessed with the Family Environment Scale (FES), and maternal behavior was assessed by the mother's self-report. Results: We found that the quality of the family environment was correlated with intra-DMN FC. The more conflicting the family environment was, the greater the FC between the mPFC-left IPL (lIPL), while a more cohesive family functioning was negatively correlated with FC between the PCC-lIPL. On the other hand, when moderated by a positive maternal behavior, cohesive family functioning was associated with increased FC in both regions of the DMN (mPFC-lIPL and PCC-lIPL). Conclusions: Our results highlight that the quality of the family environment might be associated with differences in the intrinsic DMN FC.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Rede de Modo Padrão , Adolescente , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Comportamento Materno
4.
Front Neuroendocrinol ; 65: 100996, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429546

RESUMO

Oxytocin has historically been linked to processes involved with maternal behavior. However, the relative importance of oxytocin for maternal behavior widely varies among mammalian species, from indispensable to apparently nonessential. This review proposes a new model in which the relative importance of oxytocin for mothering across species is explained by an evolutionary pressure which we term "allomaternal potential", or the degree to which other conspecifics are capable and likely to assist with caregiving. It is notable that in animals where allomaternal potential is high (i.e., many quality helpers are available), oxytocin is decoupled from mothering. However, in animals where allomaternal potential is low (i.e., conspecifics refuse to, or do not provide, quality help), oxytocin is crucial for mothering. We posit that this relationship is a form of kin selection, whereby oxytocin is a signal that leads mothers to preferentially dispense resources to their own young when quality helpers are unlikely.


Assuntos
Comportamento Materno , Ocitocina , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Mamíferos , Mães , Receptores de Ocitocina , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Infant Behav Dev ; 67: 101717, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452976

RESUMO

In a longitudinal study, mothers (N = 50) self-reported on their depressive symptoms (DS) and their child's behavior during the first year and at 36 months postpartum. Maternal DS during infancy were associated with child conduct problems (CP), suggesting a long-term association between maternal mental health and the development of child behavior. Infant temperament was also associated with child behavior so that negative affect predicted child CP, while infant surgency was associated with later hyperactivity-inattention. This study contributes to the literature by jointly assessing the role of maternal DS and infant temperament and showing that these are independent predictors of childhood behavior.


Assuntos
Depressão , Temperamento , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Mães/psicologia
6.
Appetite ; 174: 106016, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364113

RESUMO

Few studies have examined the associations between parents' own eating behaviors and their feeding practices. We aimed to study the associations between maternal eating behaviors and feeding practices in toddlerhood. In this cross-sectional analysis, maternal eating behaviors and feeding practices were assessed at 2-year follow-up by using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21) and the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ), respectively, among mothers of 1322 children from the EDEN mother-child cohort. Depending on their distributions, scores from the two questionnaires were considered continuous or binary variables, according to the median. Linear or logistic regression models were used as appropriate to assess the associations between maternal eating behaviors, considered simultaneously in a combined model, and their feeding practices. Maternal cognitive restraint was positively associated with maternal restriction for health and restriction for weight. Maternal uncontrolled eating was positively associated with pressure to eat and use of food to regulate the child's emotions. Maternal uncontrolled eating was also negatively associated with restriction for weight, but only among boys. This study supports that mothers' own eating behaviors are associated with their feeding practices in toddlerhood. Further studies are needed to understand the role of parental feeding practices in the familial transmission of eating behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento Alimentar , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Materno , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6680, 2022 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461375

RESUMO

For dog breeders, parturition is a critical stage in the reproductive cycle of the dam. Evidence in other mammals suggests that a difficult labour can influence maternal behaviour and offspring viability during the first hours postpartum. However, the effect of whelping difficulty on the onset of maternal behaviour has not yet been investigated in domestic dogs. Here we developed an ease of whelping (EoW) index in dams maintained within a Commercial dog Breeding Establishment (CBE) environment and investigated the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic factors (breed group according to size/weight, litter size, parity, whelping season and origin of the dam), EoW, early maternal behaviour and puppy perinatal mortality. The behaviour of 30 dams was observed throughout the whelping process, starting 24 h before delivery of the first puppy until birth of the last puppy. Parturition duration, birth interval, and behaviours indicative of distress, restlessness, and general activity were scored and included in a Principal Component Analysis to construct the EoW index. Subsequently, mother-pup interactions and puppy perinatal mortality were recorded during the first 24 and 72 h postpartum respectively. Results showed that EoW was significantly affected by whelping season, litter size and origin of the dam (whether she was born and raised within the CBE or brought in). Furthermore, mothers that experienced more difficult parturitions (higher EoW score) spent more time lying in contact with their puppies during the first 24 h postpartum. Time in contact with puppies was also significantly affected by breed group. Nursing duration was significantly affected by breed group and origin of the dam. Additionally, medium-size breed (10-20 kg) puppies were significantly less likely to experience perinatal mortality than large breeds (> 20 kg). These findings are particularly relevant for the welfare of breeding dams maintained in large-scale CBEs where the staff-to-dog ratio might be insufficient to adequately manage multiple simultaneous parturitions.


Assuntos
Canidae , Morte Perinatal , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Comportamento Materno , Paridade , Parto , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez
8.
Neuropharmacology ; 211: 109049, 2022 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390436

RESUMO

Good mothering has profound impact on both the mother's and the young's well-being. Consequently, experiencing inadequate maternal care - or even neglect - in the first stages of life is a major risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders, and even for poor parenting towards the future offspring. Thus, understanding the neurobiological basis of maternal neglect becomes crucial. Along with other neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, oxytocin (OXT) has long been known as one of the main modulators of maternal behavior. In rodents, disruptions of central OXT transmission have been associated with poor maternal responses, like impaired onset of nursing behaviors, and reduced care and defense of the pups. Importantly, such behavioral and molecular deficits can be transmitted through generations, creating a vicious circle of low-quality maternal behavior. Similarly, evidence from human studies shows that OXT signaling is defective in conditions of inadequate mothering and child neglect. On those premises, this review aims at providing a comprehensive overview of animal and human studies linking perturbed OXT transmission to poor maternal behavior. Considering the important fallouts of inadequate maternal responses, we believe that unraveling the alterations in OXT transmission might provide useful insights for a better understanding of maternal neglect and, ultimately, for future intervention approaches.


Assuntos
Mães , Ocitocina , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Ocitocina/fisiologia , Receptores de Ocitocina/metabolismo
9.
Dev Psychobiol ; 64(3): e22231, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312054

RESUMO

Exposure to adversity in early development has powerful and potentially lasting consequences on behavior. Previous work in our laboratory using female Long-Evans rats has demonstrated that exposure to early-life maltreatment manifests into alterations in dam behavior, including a perpetuation of the maltreatment phenotype. These observed behavioral changes coincide with changes in epigenetic activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Further, treating dams with a chromatin modifying agent (Zebularine) normalizes methylation and maltreatment phenotypes, suggesting a link between epigenetic programming and phenotypic outcomes. Here, we sought to investigate if administration of a chromatin modifying agent concurrent with the experience of maltreatment normalizes epigenetic activity associated with maltreatment and alters behavioral trajectories. Administration of valproic acid (VPA) transiently lowered levels of global DNA methylation in the PFC, regardless of exposure to nurturing care or maltreatment. When VPA-exposed animals reached adulthood, they engaged in more adverse behaviors toward their offspring. These data provide further evidence linking epigenetic changes in the developing brain with effects on behavior.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Ácido Valproico , Adulto , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Materno , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Ácido Valproico/farmacologia
10.
Behav Brain Res ; 427: 113846, 2022 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306097

RESUMO

Mammalian adult females develop specialized body parts, namely mammary glands and uterus, and exhibit specialized maternal behavior, lactation/nursing and care for their offspring. As the brain plays an essential role in regulating related physiological functions in the body, the morphology or function of the mammalian brain has been modified to manage newly equipped structures and functions. However, this evolutionary process is largely unknown. Pou3f2/Brn2 is an evolutionarily remarkable gene as it contains mammal-specific base sequences encoding three stretches of homopolymeric amino acids (polyAAs): poly-glycine (polyG), poly-glutamine (polyQ), and poly-proline (polyP). Previously, we demonstrated that POU3F2 acquisition of mammal-specific polyAAs contributed to the establishment of behaviors characteristic of mammals. Here, we demonstrated that Pou3f2⊿ mice displayed basic features required for maternal care. However, Pou3f2⊿ mice exhibited deficits in the reproductive performance and maternal behavior, which were not fully improved by multiparas. Therefore, we extensively investigated pup retrieval behavior and discovered that the retrieval and the exploratory behaviors were impaired in Pou3f2⊿ female mice, but not in males. Altogether, our data suggest that POU3F2 acquisition of mammal-specific polyAAs contributes to the continuous awareness and curiosity needed for maternal interaction.


Assuntos
Comportamento Exploratório , Comportamento Materno , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Masculino , Mamíferos , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Camundongos
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4780, 2022 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314735

RESUMO

Maternal caretaking and transport of dead infants are widespread among nonhuman primates, having been reported in numerous species of monkeys and apes. By contrast, accounts of such behaviors toward dead juveniles are scarce. Here, we describe responses by the mother and other group members to the death of a juvenile in a wild, multi-level group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Following the juvenile's fatal accident, his mother transported and cared for the corpse for four days. Immature monkeys belonging to the same one-male unit, and some individuals from other social units also showed interest in and tended the corpse. Comparisons of this case with those involving the deaths of infants and an adult female in the same population highlight possible effects of physiological, psychological and emotional factors in primate thanatological responses, and provide an additional perspective on the origin and evolution of compassionate acts.


Assuntos
Colobinae , Presbytini , Animais , Cadáver , China , Colobinae/fisiologia , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Materno , Mães , Comportamento Social
12.
J Neurosci ; 42(14): 2986-2999, 2022 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35273081

RESUMO

The noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) mediates key aspects of arousal, memory, and cognition in structured tasks, but its contribution to naturalistic behavior remains unclear. LC activity is thought to multiplex distinct signals by superimposing sustained ("tonic") firing patterns reflecting global brain states, such as arousal and anxiety, and rapidly fluctuating ("phasic") bursts signaling discrete behaviorally significant events. Manipulations of the LC noradrenergic system broadly impair social behavior, but the temporal structure of LC firing and its relationship to social interaction is unknown. One possibility is that tonic firing may increase in the presence of social partners; it is also possible that phasic bursts may accompany specific social events. We used chronic in vivo electrophysiology and fiber photometry to measure single-unit and population neural activity in LC of freely behaving mice during their interactions with pups. We find that pup retrieval elicits remarkably precise phasic activity in LC that cannot be attributed merely to sensory stimuli, motor activity, or reward. Correlation of LC activity with retrieval events shows that phasic events are most closely related to specific subsequent behaviors. The reliability and magnitude of phasic responses strongly suggest that these events are coordinated across LC and broadcast noradrenaline (NA) release throughout the brain. We also observed slow changes in tonic firing when females performed distinct maternal behaviors such as nest building and pup grooming. We therefore propose that LC signals state changes during sustained interactions and contributes to goal-directed action selection during social behavior with globally broadcast NA release.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Locus coeruleus (LC) releases noradrenaline (NA) brain wide, influencing many cognitive, emotional, and physiological processes. Multifunctionality of LC is maintained by multiplexing NA signaling via brief "phasic" patterns of bursting and slowly changing "tonic" firing. Manipulations of NA impair social behavior, yet the structure of LC activity with respect to specific social events is unknown. We measured LC activity in mice freely interacting with pups. We find that pup retrieval elicits precisely timed and pervasive phasic activation of LC that anticipates specific behaviors. We also found that LC neurons exhibited slow fluctuations in firing during sustained behaviors. We propose that LC simultaneously contributes to goal-directed social action selection with globally broadcast NA release and signals social state changes with increased tonic firing.


Assuntos
Locus Cerúleo , Norepinefrina , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Locus Cerúleo/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno , Camundongos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
J Health Econ ; 83: 102601, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255439

RESUMO

We study in-utero exposure to economic fluctuations on birth outcomes by exploiting geographical variation in the unemployment rate across local areas in England, and by comparing siblings born to the same mother. Using rich individual data from hospital administrative records for 2003-2012, babies' health is found to be strongly pro-cyclical. This overall result masks marked differences between babies born in the most affluent areas whose health at birth improves in a recession, and babies born in the average-to-lowest income deprived areas whose health deteriorates. Maternal alcohol consumption, smoking, and delay in the first antenatal care assessment - combined with parental income loss, are found to drive the results. While differences in maternal risky behaviours can explain the heterogenous effects.


Assuntos
Irmãos , Desemprego , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Comportamento Materno , Parto , Gravidez
15.
Psychiatry Res ; 311: 114506, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35287041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among mothers suffering from postpartum depression (PD), 10-13% additionally experience a mother-infant interaction disturbance that causes a severe mental health risk for the infant. Besides depressive symptomology, the underlying factors promoting dysfunctional maternal interaction behavior have not yet been sufficiently investigated. Therefore, we examined potential relationships between computer-based mother-infant interaction among postpartum depressed dyads and maternal mental functioning. METHODS: Mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and evaluated via a computer-based micro-interaction analysis program (INTERACT). We included only 25 hospitalized mother-infant dyads that fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of PD and tested mothers on their mental functioning (empathy, theory of mind, meta-cognition and alexithymia). RESULTS: Behavioral interaction analyses indicated that mothers with PD were prone to inactive maternal behavior, less positive maternal behavior along with more rejective behavior and also disengaged affect towards the infant. Distortions in mothers' mental functioning may have had an influence on the dysfunctional patterns of mother-infant dyads. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive and social functioning could be an influencing factor on dysfunctional maternal interaction behavior. Early detection of distortions of mental processing in expectant mothers might help to inhibit the clinical manifestation of dysfunctional mother-infant bonding and negative child outcome in PD.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto , Criança , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento Materno , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto
16.
Brain Res ; 1784: 147880, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35288124

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence suggests voluntary physical activity is associated with decreased stress-related disorders such as anxiety- and depression-like behaviours in both humans and rodents. The postpartum period is also a vulnerable transition time for the development of these neurobehavioural disorders in women. This study aimed to determine whether voluntary physical activity during pregnancy and postpartum period can increase maternal care and decrease anxiety- and depression-related behaviours in postpartum dams. To this end, pregnant mice were exposed to running wheel during their gestational and postpartum periods, and then nest building, active nursing, and licking/grooming behaviours were recorded as maternal care. To assess depression and anxiety-related symptoms, several behavioural tests such as the novelty-suppressed feeding test, tail suspension test, sucrose preference test, social interaction test, forced swim test, open field, elevated plus maze, light-dark box, and elevated zero maze were used. To identify the most important mechanisms behind these behavioural alterations, we measured oxytocin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone in the serum and serotonin in the brain of postpartum dams. Our findings showed that running wheel significantly increased maternal care, and decreased depression-like behaviour during the postpartum period through increasing serum oxytocin and brain serotonin levels, whereas it decreased anxiety-like behaviour via attenuating the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis activity by measuring ACTH and corticosterone levels in postpartum dams. Overall, this study suggests that voluntary physical activity during pregnancy and the postpartum period might improve maternal care and decrease anxiety and depression-related behaviours in postpartum dams.


Assuntos
Corticosterona , Depressão , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico , Animais , Ansiedade , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Materno , Camundongos , Ocitocina , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Serotonina , Estresse Psicológico
17.
Dev Psychobiol ; 64(3): e22264, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312052

RESUMO

Elucidating the mechanisms underlying nurturing and neglect behaviors is meaningful but challenging. Recently, we found that CIN85-deficient mice had reduced pituitary hormone prolactin secretion during late pregnancy, and their pups later showed an inhibited nurturing behavior. To examine whether this phenomenon could be reproduced in normal mice and not just CIN85-deficient mice, we investigated the nurturing behavior of offspring born to mothers whose blood prolactin levels had been reduced by bromocriptine administration during late pregnancy. First, to determine when bromocriptine treatment should be started, we investigated the detailed changes in blood prolactin levels in late pregnancy in mice, resulting in the identification of the prepartum prolactin surge. Furthermore, prolactin receptors in the fetal hypothalamus were expressed to the same extent as in the adult hypothalamus. Treatment with bromocriptine decreased the plasma concentrations of prolactin to the basal range throughout late pregnancy. However, against expectations, the proportion of the resultant pups exhibiting nurturing behaviors as adults was as high as that in the mice without bromocriptine treatment. In conclusion, the elimination of prolactin secretion during late pregnancy alone does not induce neglect-like behavior in offspring, suggesting that CIN85-deficient mice appear to involve another factor due to CIN85 deficiency besides prolactin deficiency.


Assuntos
Prolactina , Animais , Bromocriptina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Materno , Camundongos , Mães , Gravidez , Prolactina/farmacologia
18.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263632, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192674

RESUMO

Adults of many species will care for young offspring that are not their own, a phenomenon called alloparenting. However, in many cases, nonparental adults must be sensitized by repeated or extended exposures to newborns before they will robustly display parental-like behaviors. To capture neurogenomic events underlying the transition to active parental caring behaviors, we analyzed brain gene expression and chromatin profiles of virgin female mice co-housed with pregnant dams during pregnancy and after birth. After an initial display of antagonistic behaviors and a surge of defense-related gene expression, we observed a dramatic shift in the chromatin landscape specifically in amygdala of the pup-exposed virgin females compared to females co-housed with mother before birth, accompanied by a dampening of anxiety-related gene expression. This epigenetic shift coincided with hypothalamic expression of the oxytocin gene and the emergence of behaviors and gene expression patterns classically associated with maternal care. The results outline a neurogenomic program associated with dramatic behavioral changes and suggest molecular networks relevant to human postpartum mental health.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Epigênese Genética , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Ocitocina/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ansiedade/psicologia , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Camundongos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/classificação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Gravidez , Abstinência Sexual
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1663, 2022 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35102217

RESUMO

All mammalian mothers form some sort of caring bond with their infants that is crucial to the development of their offspring. The Pup Retrieval Test (PRT) is the leading procedure to assess pup-directed maternal care in laboratory rodents, used in a wide range of basic and preclinical research applications. Most PRT protocols require manual scoring, which is prone to bias and spatial and temporal inaccuracies. This study proposes a novel procedure using machine learning algorithms to enable reliable assessment of PRT performance. Automated tracking of a dam and one pup was established in DeepLabCut and was combined with automated behavioral classification of "maternal approach", "carrying" and "digging" in Simple Behavioral Analysis (SimBA). Our automated procedure estimated retrieval success with an accuracy of 86.7%, whereas accuracies of "approach", "carry" and "digging" were estimated at respectively 99.3%, 98.6% and 85.0%. We provide an open-source, step-by-step protocol for automated PRT assessment, which aims to increase reproducibility and reliability, and can be easily shared and distributed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Aprendizado de Máquina , Comportamento Materno , Gravação em Vídeo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Automação Laboratorial , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Dev Psychobiol ; 64(2): e22243, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35191531

RESUMO

Positive maternal touch plays an important role in the development of children's physiological regulation and cognitive development in infancy, as well as the development of sociality in early childhood. However, few studies have looked beyond infancy to consider the possible continuing impact of positive maternal touch on child stress reactivity during early childhood. A diverse community sample of mothers (N = 114, Mage  = 33.52 years, SD = 5.33) and their preschool-aged children (Mage  = 41.68 months, SD = 4.67; 49.1% female) participated in the study. Basic demographics were reported by mothers. We coded maternal touch behaviors during an emotionally charged laboratory conversation task and assessed children's physiological reactivity to stressful laboratory tasks with salivary cortisol. Results reveal a significant negative association between positive maternal touch and child salivary cortisol reactivity. In addition, family income, adjusted for family size, and child sex were significantly associated with child cortisol stress reactivity. Findings are discussed in terms of persistent downregulating effects of positive maternal touch on child stress reactivity, as well as possible links of stress reactivity with family income, a proxy for economic stress, and child sex.


Assuntos
Mães , Percepção do Tato , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Tato
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