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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 83, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum maternal functioning has the potential to affect the quality of interaction between mother and child. A proper assessment of maternal functioning requires a comprehensive and accurate tool. The objective of this study was to prepare a Persian version of the Barkin Index of Maternal Functioning (BIMF) and evaluate its psychometric properties in order to determine its applicability in Iranian mothers. METHODS: The BIMF was translated into Persian and then culturally adapted for Iranian women. After evaluating face and content validity, to perform factor analysis, a cross-sectional study was conducted using the Persian version of BIMF. The data was collected from two unique groups of 250 mothers (in all 500 mothers) who had infants 2 to 12-months old and who were selected using a two-stage cluster sampling method. Factor analysis, Pearson's correlation, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), composite reliability (CR) and Cronbach's alpha were employed in order to evaluate structural validity and reliability. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a five-factor structure consisting of 20 items. Subsequently, confirmatory factor analysis (X 2/ df = 1.61, RMSEA = 0.050, GFI = 0.91, CFI = 0.91) confirmed that the Persian version had satisfactory goodness of fit. Reliability and internal consistency were confirmed with a CR of 0.77, an ICC of 0.87 and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.81. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the Persian version of the BIMF is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing maternal functioning among Iranian mothers.


Assuntos
Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Características Culturais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/psicologia , Pérsia , Psicometria
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240962, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064778

RESUMO

Due to the COVID- 19 outbreak in the Netherlands (March 2020) and the associated social distancing measures, families were enforced to stay at home as much as possible. Adolescents and their families may be particularly affected by this enforced proximity, as adolescents strive to become more independent. Yet, whether these measures impact emotional well-being in families with adolescents has not been examined. In this ecological momentary assessment study, we investigated if the COVID-19 pandemic affected positive and negative affect of parents and adolescents and parenting behaviors (warmth and criticism). Additionally, we examined possible explanations for the hypothesized changes in affect and parenting. To do so, we compared daily reports on affect and parenting that were gathered during two periods of 14 consecutive days, once before the COVID-19 pandemic (2018-2019) and once during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multilevel analyses showed that only parents' negative affect increased as compared to the period before the pandemic, whereas this was not the case for adolescents' negative affect, positive affect and parenting behaviors (from both the adolescent and parent perspective). In general, intolerance of uncertainty was linked to adolescents' and parents' negative affect and adolescents' positive affect. However, Intolerance of uncertainty, nor any pandemic related characteristics (i.e. living surface, income, relatives with COVID-19, hours of working at home, helping children with school and contact with COVID-19 patients at work) were linked to the increase of parents' negative affect during COVID-19. It can be concluded that on average, our sample (consisting of relatively healthy parents and adolescents) seems to deal fairly well with the circumstances. The substantial heterogeneity in the data however, also suggest that whether or not parents and adolescents experience (emotional) problems can vary from household to household. Implications for researchers, mental health care professionals and policy makers are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Bem-Estar da Criança/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Paterno/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Incerteza
3.
Metas enferm ; 23(8): 27-32, oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196931

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: identificar la influencia del tipo de familia, así como de las características sociodemográficas y de salud en la adopción del rol materno (ARM) de madres primigestas del municipio de Teziutlán, Puebla (México). MÉTODOS: estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en el Centro de Salud con Servicios con Ampliados de Teziutlán, con una población de estudio de 726 mujeres primigestas. Muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia, se incluyó a madres con hijos entre 1 y 12 meses que acudieron a consulta entre agosto y noviembre de 2019. Instrumentos de medida: cuestionario de datos sociodemográficos, familiares, del embarazo y la escala de ARM (nivel bajo (56 a 180 puntos), medio (181 a 202 puntos) y alto (203 a 224 puntos)). Se realizaron índices de estadística descriptiva y análisis bivariantes. RESULTADOS: participaron 126 madres. La ARM fue adquirida con mayor frecuencia niveles altos en mujeres entre 13 y 19 años (28,6%) o 30 a 52 (28,6%), amas de casa (26,8%) y con estudios de secundaria (27%), que tenían relación de pareja en unión libre (25,9%) o casada (22,2%), de duración igual o mayor a cuatro años (25,6%) y vivían en familia extensa con la familia de origen (28,6%). También en aquellas que planificaron su embarazo (36%), siguieron citas prenatales (27%) y no tenían abortos previos (23,8%). CONCLUSIÓN: la ARM varía en función del tipo de familia, viéndose favorecida por las relaciones de pareja superiores a cuatro años y la convivencia con la familia de la madre. También lo hace en función de otras características sociodemográficas y relacionadas con el embarazo


OBJECTIVE: to identify the influence of the type of family, as well as of sociodemographical and health characteristics, in the adaptation to the maternal role (AMR) in primiparous mothers from the Teziutlán district, in Puebla (Mexico). METHODS: a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the Teziutlán Public Health Centre with Expanded Services, on a study population of 726 primiparous women. Non-probabilistic convenience sampling was used, including mothers with 1-to-12-month children who attended the centre between August and November, 2019. Measurement instruments: questionnaire for sociodemographical, family and pregnancy data, and the ARM scale (low level: (56 to 180 scores), intermediate: (181 to 202 scores), and high level (203 to 224 scores)). Descriptive statistical indexes and bivariate analysis were conducted. RESULTS: the study included 126 mothers. High levels in ARM were more frequently obtained in 13-to-19-year-old (28.6%) or 30-to-52-year old women (28.6%), homemakers (26.8%) and with secondary education (27%), on a consensual union couple relationship (25.9%) or married (22.2%), for four years or longer (25.6%) and living with their extended family of origin (28.6%). Also in those who planned their pregnancy (36%), followed their prenatal appointments (27%) and had no previous miscarriages (23.8%). CONCLUSION: the ARM varies according to type of family, and increases when the couple relationship has lasted over four years and by living with the family of the mother. There are other sociodemographical and pregnancy-related characteristics which will also have a positive impact


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Saúde Materno-Infantil , Enfermagem Materno-Infantil , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 658-667, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805192

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The health profile of Arab American mothers and infants may differ from that of non-Arab American mothers and infants in the United States as a result of social stigma experienced in the historical and current sociopolitical climate. The objective of our study was to compare maternal health behaviors, maternal health outcomes, and infant health outcomes of Arab American mothers and non-Hispanic white mothers in Massachusetts and to assess the role of nativity as an effect modifier. METHODS: Using data from Massachusetts birth certificates (2012-2016), we conducted adjusted logistic and linear regression models for maternal health behaviors, maternal health outcomes, and infant health outcomes. We used Arab ethnicity as the exposure of interest and nativity as an effect modifier. RESULTS: Arab American mothers had higher odds than non-Hispanic white mothers of initiating breastfeeding (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.61; 95% CI, 2.39-2.86), giving birth to small-for-gestational-age infants (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.18-1.39), and having gestational diabetes (aOR = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.20-1.44). Among Arab American mothers, non-US-born mothers had higher odds than US-born mothers of having gestational diabetes (aOR = 1.80; 95% CI, 1.33-2.44) and lower odds of initiating prenatal care in the first trimester (aOR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.33-0.50). In linear regression models, infants born to non-US-born Arab American mothers weighed 42.1 g (95% CI, -75.8 to -8.4 g) less than infants born to US-born Arab American mothers. CONCLUSION: Although Arab American mothers engage in positive health behaviors, non-US-born mothers had poorer maternal health outcomes and access to prenatal care than US-born mothers, suggesting the need for targeted interventions for non-US-born Arab American mothers.


Assuntos
Árabes/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Massachusetts , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Arch Womens Ment Health ; 23(5): 665-671, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451704

RESUMO

Transition to parenthood is considered a critical process for mothers of twins. There are, however, few studies on the subject. This study aims to evaluate the differences between mother-twin infant dyads and mother-singleton infant dyads with regard to maternal depression, anxiety, parenting stress, and the quality of mother-infant interaction. Mothers of twin infants (N = 40) were compared to mothers of singletons (N = 72). At infant 3 months, maternal depression, anxiety, and parenting stress were assessed via a questionnaire and styles of interaction with the Care-Index. The results indicated that mothers of twins (vs mothers of singletons) had significantly higher state anxiety and higher scores on the Difficult Child Scale of the Parenting Stress Index at infant 3 months. No significant differences between the two groups were found with regard to maternal depression. Mothers of twins had significantly lower sensitivity and were more unresponsive than mothers of singletons. Twin infants had significantly more difficult and compliant behaviours than singleton infants. Assisted reproductive treatment (ART) and prematurity had no effect on any of the examined variables. State anxiety was shown to partially mediate the relationship between twin parenthood and maternal sensitivity and to completely mediate the relationship between twin parenthood and infant difficult style. Maternal unresponsiveness was shown to be exclusively linked to being the parent of twins. The study shows that twin parenthood has a significant effect on maternal mental health and on the quality of mother-infant interaction and highlights the importance of early prevention programmes for twin parents.


Assuntos
Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Gêmeos , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália/epidemiologia , Saúde Materna , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(6): 1146-1161, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285288

RESUMO

Young maternal age at birth has been consistently recognized as a factor contributing to externalizing behavior. However, estimates of the magnitude of this association across existing studies are inconsistent. Such inconsistencies cloud the interpretation of the literature and highlight the need for a systematic synthesis of existing empirical evidence. Further, the roles of possible moderators in the association remain to be revealed. Moderation analyses will enhance the field's capacity to evaluate needs and locate a subgroup of children born to teen mothers with particularly heightened vulnerabilities. To address these gaps, the present study had two primary aims. First, a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the magnitude of the association between being born to young mothers and children's externalizing behavior across existing studies. Second, moderation meta-analyses were conducted to evaluate whether the influence of being born to teen mothers on children's externalizing behavior is stronger during specific developmental periods, for a specific gender, for a specific race, or across contexts with varying teen pregnancy rates at a societal level. The current study followed the PRISMA guidelines. The search utilized multiple electronic databases including Web of Science, ProQuest, PubMed, and Ovid MEDLINE through July 2019. Standardized mean difference, Cohen's d, was used as a summary estimate of effect size. A random-effects model was conducted. Moderating effects were evaluated. Twenty-one effect sizes from 18 independent samples (n = 133,585) were included in the meta-analysis. The main meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis suggested a small yet robust association between teenage motherhood and children's externalizing behavior problems. The relevant moderation analyses detected no statistically significant moderating effect for a specific gender, for racial and ethnic minority groups, during a specific developmental period, or across varying contexts. The current meta-analysis findings suggest that the impact of young maternal age on children's externalizing behavior is small, yet independent. Further, such impacts of young maternal age were similar for girls and boys, in different racial and ethnic groups, across developmental periods, and across different contexts with varying teen pregnancy rates. Prevention efforts seeking to curb the emergence of youth's externalizing behavior should focus on parenting teens, regardless of their child's gender, race, age, or contexts. Further, the current findings suggest that prevention strategies for this specific group may benefit from a hybrid approach that combines universal, selective, and indicated prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Gravidez , Comportamento Problema
7.
Infant Ment Health J ; 41(3): 313-326, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242949

RESUMO

Parenting very young children in the context of military service, deployment separations, and war-related trauma can be challenging for many families. Female active duty personnel represent one of the fastest growing segments of the military, and recent policy changes have led women to pursue serving in combat positions at much higher rates. While not much is known about service member mothers, some studies have shown that they experience significant symptoms of distress, depression, and anxiety during the deployment cycle, feelings of disconnection from family during reintegration, and higher rates of childhood trauma histories than their male counterparts. Service member mothers who experience the combined stressors of deployment separation, combat exposure, and adverse childhood experiences-a triple threat-may be at serious risk of posttraumatic stress and depressive symptomatology, which can negatively influence the quality and nature of their parenting and parent-child relationships. This case report describes the participation of a young single service member mother and her preschool-aged daughter in a home-based, reintegration program designed for military families with very young children (ages 0-5). The paper illustrates how this relationship-based, reflective parenting intervention was effective in increasing the mother's sense of competence in her parenting and strengthening the parent-child relationship.


Assuntos
Terapia Familiar/métodos , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Família Militar/psicologia , Mães , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Autoimagem
8.
Infant Ment Health J ; 41(2): 178-190, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242953

RESUMO

The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a home-based psychotherapeutic Infant Mental Health Home Visiting (IMH-HV) intervention for enhancing parenting sensitivity; a secondary aim was to evaluate whether the use of video feedback was associated with greater treatment response. Participants were N = 78 mothers and their children (age at entry ranged from prebirth to 24-month old (M = 9.8, SD = 8.4), who were initiating IMH-HV services with community mental health-based therapists (N = 51). Dyads were assessed during extended home visits via standardized interviews and observational and questionnaire methods within the first month of treatment (baseline), and again 6 and 12 months thereafter. Following each of these extended home visits, study evaluators completed a standard Q-sort to capture observations of maternal sensitivity during the visit. Therapists completed fidelity checklists used to derive the total number of IMH-HV sessions received (i.e., dosage) and frequency with which therapists provided video feedback. Results indicated a dose-response relationship between number of sessions and maternal sensitivity, and that video review with parents independently contributed to improved maternal sensitivity. Discussion focuses on the effectiveness of this community-based psychotherapeutic home visiting model for enhancing parenting, as well as the value of video feedback as a specific therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Visita Domiciliar , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Psicoterapia , Adulto , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Saúde do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Mental , Michigan , Mães/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Gravação em Vídeo/métodos
9.
Infant Behav Dev ; 59: 101443, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276086

RESUMO

The study of early parental competences is relevant because such competences are related to children's development; however, most studies have considered competences using a variable-centered approach in which each parental competence is examined in isolation. This paper approaches these competences using a person-centered approach, generating profiles that combine different competences in Chilean mothers assessed when their children were aged 12 months and again at 30 months. The aim of this study was to generate and compare these profiles and to analyze the associations of these profiles with children's language and socioemotional skills. Mother-child interactions in the contexts of storytelling and free play were videotaped at two different times. Ninety mother-child dyads were assessed using the Adult Sensitivity Scale (E.S.A.), the Evaluation of the Mentalization of Significant Caregivers, the Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO), Bayley's language scale and the Functional Emotional Assessment Scale (FEAS). Profiles of mothers' behaviors were identified through person-centered within-group analyses of six aspects: sensitivity, mentalization, affection, responsiveness, encouragement, and teaching. Cluster analyses yielded three similar profiles for mothers at both ages: highly competent, average competent, and poorly competent. The mothers' profiles were related to maternal age, socioeconomic status (SES) and educational level, and the mothers improved their profiles at the 30-month assessment. The mothers' profiles were related to children's language and socioemotional outcomes at both ages. These results and their applicability to promotion and intervention programs are discussed.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Emoções , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Competência Mental/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Chile/epidemiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Mães/psicologia
10.
Infant Behav Dev ; 59: 101438, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272292

RESUMO

Multiple studies have demonstrated the critical role of touch in human development and the impact of mother's tactile input for an infant's well-being. However, the literature lacks a detailed description of maternal touch behavior during play tasks. Our study examined maternal touch patterns during mother-infant interactions. We analyzed the touch behavior of 41 mothers while they interacted with their 12-month-old infants, in a structured social interaction, composed of three tasks: (1) free play with toys, (2) free play without toys, and (3) object play with a challenging toy. Every touch performed by the mother was segmented and categorized using the Ordinalized Mother Touch Scale (OMTS Category). In a 3 (Play Task) x 8 (OMTS Category) ANOVA, all effects were significant. We found that, in the free play without toys task, mother's use of touch is highly frequent (M = 71 %), when compared to object-oriented tasks. Mothers also adjusted to object-oriented task difficulty: they touched almost twice as much in the challenging play task as in the free play with toys (M = 26 % vs. M = 14 %). In addition, the different play tasks influenced the proportion of time mothers used particular categories of touch. In summary, our study found that mothers' touch behavior depends on the play task demands (non-object oriented vs. object oriented) changing in terms of frequency but also in the mother's use of different categories of touch.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Tato/fisiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231674, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome, and alexithymia, which is a condition that is characterised by deficits in emotional self-awareness, is highly prevalent among individuals with FM. Insecure attachment styles and inadequate parental care appear to play an important role in the onset and maintenance of both alexithymia and chronic pain. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the associations between attachment styles, parental bonding, and alexithymia among patients with FM and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: All participants completed a battery of tests that assessed alexithymia, attachment styles, and parental bonding. Two logistic regression models were tested to examine whether these variables predict (a) group membership (i.e. patients with FM vs. HC) and (b) the likelihood of having alexithymia (i.e. among patients with FM and HC). RESULTS: Alexithymia (i.e. difficulty identifying and describing feelings subscales of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale) significantly predicted group membership (i.e. the likelihood of having FM). On the other hand, educational level and dismissive attachment (i.e. the discomfort with closeness and relationships as secondary subscales of the Attachment Style Questionnaire) were the only significant predictors of the likelihood of having alexithymia. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight both the relevance of alexithymic traits to the definition of FM and centrality of an insecure attachment style to the manifestation of alexithymia.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Fibromialgia/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Fibromialgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Ágora (Rio J. Online) ; 23(1): 94-102, Jan.-Apr. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1059209

RESUMO

RESUMO: Em Freud, a mulher é irremediavelmente ligada a uma reivindicação fálica jamais satisfeita e a assunção da feminilidade coincide com a maternidade. Que o feminino não se deixe recobrir inteiramente pela mãe é, por outro lado, destacado por Lacan. A prática da conversação com adolescentes mães e gestantes realizada no âmbito de uma pesquisa revela que, apesar das diversas conquistas das mulheres nas últimas décadas, a maternidade fornece ainda hoje significado e imagem com os quais se revestem o feminino pela via do ter fálico. Contudo, a tentativa de encerrar o feminino na mãe não cessa de fracassar.


Abstract: For Freud, the woman is inexorably linked to a phallic claim and the assumption of feminility does coincide with motherhood. For Lacan, on the other hand, the feminility does not overlap completely with motherhood. The conversation practice we conducted with teenagers, both mothers and pregnant, has shown that, in spite of all the progress made by women in the last decades, the meaning and the image of motherhood around the feminility are still defined by the phallic. However, all the efforts to close the feminility in motherhood does not stop failing.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Psicanálise , Mulheres/psicologia , Feminilidade , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Imagem Corporal
13.
J Child Sex Abus ; 29(3): 333-350, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125250

RESUMO

Maternal support and abuse severity are often considered to be vital factors in predicting children's functioning following childhood sexual abuse (CSA); however, much of the prior research has examined support and abuse severity as main effects, without consideration of how these factors may interrelate to predict children's post-CSA functioning. Further, even though mediators and moderators are conceptually distinct, maternal support has been theorized to be both a mediator and a moderator of symptoms, and it is unclear if support acts as either among sexually abused children. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether caregiver-reported maternal support mediates or moderates the relationships between sexual abuse severity and children's trauma-related symptoms. The study included 235 treatment-seeking children ages 3-16 (M = 8.85, SD = 3.77) and their non-offending mothers. Contrary to expectations, caregiver-rated maternal support did not mediate nor moderate the relationship between abuse severity and children's symptoms (range r2 =.002 -.03). Caregiver-rated maternal support may play a small role in mitigating sexually abused children's trauma symptoms. Irrespective of abuse severity, children with less supportive mothers may not be at heightened risk for experiencing higher levels of trauma-related difficulties.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Apoio Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Infant Behav Dev ; 58: 101410, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive imaging techniques, such as fNIRS, allow us to shed light on the neural correlates of infant's social-emotional development within the context of parent-infant interaction. On a behavioral level, numerous studies have investigated parent-infant interaction employing the still-face paradigm and found that the primary caregiver(s), often the mother, is an important coregulator of the infant's physiological and behavioral stress response. However, limited information is available on how the infant's brain reacts to the maternal cues during real-life interaction. METHODS: Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to design a fNIRS paradigm to study live mother-infant interaction and to explore the neural correlates of infant affect regulation during real-life dyadic interaction. To this end, a modified still-face paradigm was designed, which consists of live face-to-face mother-infant, and stranger-infant, interaction episodes, including stressful, "still-face" and non-stressful, "happy-face" interaction blocks, combined with infant fNIRS imaging. RESULTS: Hemodynamic brain responses were collected in n = 10 (6 females, mean age 230.2 ±â€¯17.5 days), typically developing infants using the Hitachi ETG-4000 continuous-wave system (22 channels spanning the frontal cortex; 10 Hz system sampling frequency). Infants with usable data (n = 7) showed negative activations, indicated by a decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin, over the middle frontal gyrus in response to happy-face (reunion) interaction with their mothers compared to a female stranger; suggesting deactivation of brain regions associated with affect regulation. We also explored correlations between infant brain responses to maternal interaction and infant characteristics (temperament) as well as experiential/environmental factors (mothers' self-reported depression symptoms). CONCLUSIONS: Although the current results are very preliminary, they overall suggest that live design in infant populations is doable and offers unique opportunities to study the neural mechanisms underlying early caregiver(s)-child interaction in a more naturalistic context. Restrictions, and implications, of the methodology are critically discussed.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Temperamento
15.
Infant Ment Health J ; 41(3): 378-392, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mother-child relationship quality (MCRQ) may represent a transgenerational transmission mechanism of mental health problems. In this context, we examine the mother's recalled parental rearing behavior, actual attributions of her child's behavior, and her current psychopathology. METHOD: A clinical sample of mother-child dyads was assessed with the Questionnaire for the Assessment of Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior, the Parent Cognition Scale, and the Symptom Checklist at the Child Psychiatric Family Day Hospital for preschool children in Münster, Germany, at admission. MCRQ was assessed with the Parent-Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale, a structured interview with the child (Strukturiertes Interview zur Erfassung der Kind-Eltern-Interaktion), and the Multiperspective Parent-Child Relationship Questionnaire. RESULTS: Multiple regression analyses showed no direct association between the mother's recalled parental rearing behavior and any measure of the MCRQ. However, maternal dysfunctional attributions about her child's behavior and her actual psychopathology showed the expected negative associations with the multiperspective measures of MCRQ. The relationship quality assessments did not correlate significantly with each other. CONCLUSION: The divergent measures of MCRQ, which seem to assess different aspects, are a barrier to investigate the association between the mother's recalled parental rearing behavior and MCRQ. However, low MCRQ is associated with increased maternal psychopathology and maternal dysfunctional attributions on child behavior.


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Rememoração Mental , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Relação entre Gerações , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Psicopatologia , Percepção Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Infant Ment Health J ; 41(3): 299-312, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045020

RESUMO

Resulting from a community-identified need for a well-validated indicator of caregiving difficulties for use in practice settings, a brief form of the Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification System (AMBIANCE) was developed for use as a screening instrument. Prior to its dissemination, this study aimed to assess the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the AMBIANCE-Brief. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (N = 69) participated in the Strange Situation Procedure, as well as play sessions with and without toys. Maternal disrupted caregiving was coded from the play sessions using the AMBIANCE and AMBIANCE-Brief. The AMBIANCE-Brief demonstrated convergent validity with the AMBIANCE in the play session with toys (r = .65, p < .001) and without toys (r = .61, p < .001). Concurrent validity of the AMBIANCE-Brief was also demonstrated in relation to infant attachment disorganization in the play session with toys (r = .36, p < .05) and without toys (r = .32, p < .01). These findings suggest a shorter protocol for assessing disrupted caregiving may be feasible and valid for use in community settings. Future studies are in progress to train community practitioners in the use of the AMBIANCE-Brief and to evaluate their reliability.


Assuntos
Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Esgotamento Psicológico , Programas de Rastreamento , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Adulto , Sintomas Comportamentais/diagnóstico , Sintomas Comportamentais/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/diagnóstico , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Relações Mãe-Filho , Apego ao Objeto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escala de Memória de Wechsler
17.
Dev Psychol ; 56(3): 528-540, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077722

RESUMO

Children with externalizing symptoms typically show dysregulated arousal when facing emotional challenges and are at risk for antisocial outcomes later in life. The model of emotion socialization (Eisenberg, Cumberland, & Spinrad, 1998) points to supportive emotion-related parenting as central to promoting children's regulatory capability and behavioral adjustment. However, the role of emotion-related parenting is less clear for children living in disadvantaged conditions and already displaying behavioral problems, and little is known about how these parenting practices shape the physiological underpinnings of behavioral adjustment. This study examined the relation between supportive emotion-related parenting and the trajectories of physiological regulation and externalizing symptoms across early school years among 207 children (66% male) from high-risk urban communities, who showed aggressive/oppositional behaviors at school entry. Mothers' supportive emotion-related parenting was observed in kindergarten during structured interactions. Children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an indicator of parasympathetic influence over cardiac arousal, was measured at rest and during an anger scene each year from kindergarten to the 2nd grade. Teacher ratings of externalizing symptoms were also obtained every year. Over time, supportive emotion-related parenting was related to a developmental trend from RSA augmentation toward RSA withdrawal during the anger scene as well as lower risk for escalating externalizing symptoms. The developmental changes of RSA reactivity partially accounted for the relation between parenting and trajectories of externalizing symptoms. Findings underscore the potential of supportive emotion-related parenting for diverting at-risk children from antisocial trajectories by shaping their physiological regulation and behavioral adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sintomas Comportamentais/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Socialização , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória/fisiologia , Risco
18.
Dev Psychol ; 56(3): 566-577, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077725

RESUMO

We investigated what a dyadic framework added to Eisenberg, Cumberland, and Spinrad's (1998) parental emotion socialization model based on the argument that the dynamic organization of emotion in the dyad is more than the sum of its parts and thus makes a unique contribution to emotion socialization. Preschoolers (N = 235) completed challenging problem-solving tasks with mothers and fathers, during which parental emotion-related socialization behaviors (ERSBs), child negative emotional arousal, and dyadic positive emotion data were collected. We examined whether dyadic synchrony of positive emotion at age 3 was a mechanism by which age 3 parental ERSBs impacted children's age 5 aggressive behavior in school, accounting for child gender, child negative emotional arousal, and aggressive behavior in preschool. ERSBs were significantly positively related to dyadic positive synchrony with both mothers and fathers at age 3. Longitudinal models supported an indirect effect, not a moderating effect, of dyadic synchrony: both mothers' and fathers' ERSBs contributed to children's less aggressive behavior at age 5 through the effects of higher dyadic positive synchrony. Findings suggest dynamic, dyadic emotional processes should be considered as a mechanism of emotion socialization and that parent-child positive emotional synchrony is supportive of early childhood emotional development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Emoções , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Paterno/psicologia , Socialização , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
19.
Dev Psychol ; 56(3): 595-607, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077727

RESUMO

Although research has demonstrated that both parents and peers influence adolescent development, it is not clear whether these relationships also serve as contexts for emotion socialization. In the current longitudinal study, we investigated whether maternal and peer emotion socialization were related to adolescent girls' daily emotions, emotion regulation, and social and emotional adjustment. The sample included 160 adolescent girls from low-income families followed across 2 years. At Time 1 (T1), girls reported on maternal and peer emotion socialization practices during laboratory visits. At Time 2 (T2), girls reported on daily negative and positive affect using ecological momentary assessment across 2 weeks. Emotion regulation, internalizing problems, and prosocial behavior were assessed during laboratory visits at both T1 and 2 years later (Time 3 [T3]). Results demonstrated that higher levels of maternal and peer emotionally supportive socialization practices were associated with lower levels of girls' daily negative affect. Mothers' supportive practices also predicted increases in girls' emotion regulation over time. Both maternal and peer unsupportive practices predicted more internalizing problems, and peer unsupportive practices predicted less prosocial behavior over time. This study supports and expands Eisenberg's heuristic model by demonstrating that both maternal and peer emotion socialization are associated with adolescent girls' emotional and behavioral outcomes, and maternal and peer emotion socialization have differential effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Regulação Emocional , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Comportamento Social , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Dev Psychol ; 56(3): 608-622, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077728

RESUMO

Maltreated children are susceptible to dysregulation, but developmental mechanisms at the family level that influence this process are understudied. In the current investigation, 4 mediators (positive parenting, positive and negative family expressiveness, and maternal sensitive guidance during reminiscing) were examined as process variables through which maltreatment relates to 2 dimensions of child emotional self-regulation (adaptive emotion regulation and lability/negativity) measured across 3 time points (baseline, 2 months, and 6 months later) using longitudinal mediation analysis with latent growth modeling. These processes were evaluated in the context of a randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention aimed at improving maternal sensitive guidance during reminiscing. Participants included 160 maltreating mothers randomized into intervention (n = 81) or control intervention (n = 79) conditions and 78 demographically matched, nonmaltreating mothers and their 3- to 6-year-old children (N = 238). In the primary analysis, maternal sensitive guidance at baseline mediated relations between early maltreatment and emotion regulation and lability/negativity at 6 months, and latent change in emotion regulation across the 3 time points. Additionally, the intervention predicted steeper positive change in emotion regulation. In the secondary analysis, there was evidence of indirect effects of the intervention on emotional self-regulation through maternal sensitive guidance, positive parenting, and positive family expressiveness. Implications and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Socialização , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Psicoterapia
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