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1.
Dev Psychobiol ; 64(6): e22287, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748624

RESUMO

Prompt, appropriate, and contingent maternal behaviors play a role in early language acquisition, as do individual differences in children's temperament. However, little work has investigated the combined influence of maternal psychosocial and child biological factors on expressive language development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent and longitudinal contributions of responsive/intrusive parenting and child temperament to multiple expressive language outcomes at 10 and 24 months of age. Participants included 407 mothers and children (209 girls). Mothers completed questionnaires about their infant's temperament and language, and maternal parenting was coded during mother-child interaction tasks. Dependent variables included (1) gestures at 10 months, (2) vocabulary at 24 months, (3) mean length of utterance at 24 months, and (4) sentence complexity at 24 months. After controlling for child sex and maternal education, child temperament was associated with language outcomes at 10 and 24 months, whereas intrusive, but not responsive, parenting related to only 24 month language outcomes. Longitudinally, infant negative affectivity predicted sentence complexity in toddlerhood. These findings elucidate the presence of both psychological and biological predictors as they differentially influence various aspects of expressive language development across the first two postnatal years.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Temperamento , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia
2.
Infancy ; 27(4): 821-835, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524642

RESUMO

The presence of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders has typically been associated with decreases in the quality of mother-infant interactions. However, maternal anxiety symptoms during the postpartum period have been less studied than other mental health disorders like depression. In the current study, we examined associations among symptoms of maternal anxiety, maternal perceived stress, and mother-infant behavioral synchrony in the early postnatal period. Eighty-one mother-infant dyads participated in this study when the infants were 3 months old. Surveys were given to obtain demographic information and current maternal mental health symptoms, and dyads completed a 5-min free-play task to measure behavioral synchrony. Results indicated that maternal anxiety symptoms were positively associated with behavioral synchrony, but only for mothers reporting moderate levels of perceived stress. These findings highlight the differential impact of maternal postpartum mental health on behavioral synchrony and suggest that higher maternal anxiety symptoms during the postnatal period may play an adaptive role in fostering more dynamic mother-infant interactions.


Assuntos
Depressão , Relações Mãe-Filho , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez
3.
Infant Behav Dev ; 67: 101717, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452976

RESUMO

In a longitudinal study, mothers (N = 50) self-reported on their depressive symptoms (DS) and their child's behavior during the first year and at 36 months postpartum. Maternal DS during infancy were associated with child conduct problems (CP), suggesting a long-term association between maternal mental health and the development of child behavior. Infant temperament was also associated with child behavior so that negative affect predicted child CP, while infant surgency was associated with later hyperactivity-inattention. This study contributes to the literature by jointly assessing the role of maternal DS and infant temperament and showing that these are independent predictors of childhood behavior.


Assuntos
Depressão , Temperamento , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Mães/psicologia
4.
Infant Behav Dev ; 67: 101696, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35124297

RESUMO

Cooperative interactions are an essential aspect of human life, which children start to engage in the course of toddlerhood. Cooperation can often be challenging and requires repair and realignment. So far, little effort has been made to investigate how young children deal with emotionally challenging cooperative interactions. Therefore, we examined which factors explain 24-month-old toddlers' (n = 90) behavior to interruptions in two frustrating cooperative interactions, that is, their disengagement from the task, approach to the mother, active help seeking, and reengagement. We focused on child temperament (i.e., shyness) and child cognitive skills (i.e., language and self-control), and were especially interested whether mother-child interaction quality (i.e., sensitivity and non-intrusiveness) contributes beyond child characteristics. Results indicated that maternal intrusiveness significantly predicted more child disengagement and more approach to the mother. Furthermore, toddler self-control was positively associated with approach to mother, while toddler language skills were positively related to active help seeking. Reengagement was neither predicted by child characteristics nor by maternal emotional availability. We discuss how the findings of the current study expand our knowledge of the factors that impact toddlers' social competencies and coping strategies in emotionally challenging cooperative interactions with others.


Assuntos
Relações Mãe-Filho , Autocontrole , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Temperamento
5.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263632, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192674

RESUMO

Adults of many species will care for young offspring that are not their own, a phenomenon called alloparenting. However, in many cases, nonparental adults must be sensitized by repeated or extended exposures to newborns before they will robustly display parental-like behaviors. To capture neurogenomic events underlying the transition to active parental caring behaviors, we analyzed brain gene expression and chromatin profiles of virgin female mice co-housed with pregnant dams during pregnancy and after birth. After an initial display of antagonistic behaviors and a surge of defense-related gene expression, we observed a dramatic shift in the chromatin landscape specifically in amygdala of the pup-exposed virgin females compared to females co-housed with mother before birth, accompanied by a dampening of anxiety-related gene expression. This epigenetic shift coincided with hypothalamic expression of the oxytocin gene and the emergence of behaviors and gene expression patterns classically associated with maternal care. The results outline a neurogenomic program associated with dramatic behavioral changes and suggest molecular networks relevant to human postpartum mental health.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Epigênese Genética , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Ocitocina/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ansiedade/psicologia , Cromatina/química , Cromatina/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Camundongos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/classificação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Gravidez , Abstinência Sexual
6.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261222, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995296

RESUMO

Facilitating positive feeding practices from infancy may be an important strategy to prevent childhood overweight and obesity. Since the feeding situation early in life constitutes a bidirectional relationship, it is important to understand the impact of both maternal and infant characteristics on maternal feeding practices to intervene in a customized and tailored way. Few studies have concurrently examined associations between maternal and infant characteristics in relation to early maternal feeding practices. The aim of the present study was to explore potential associations between infant and maternal characteristics measured at child age five months, and maternal feeding styles and practices during the child's first two years. Cross-sectional data from a Norwegian randomized controlled trial in which participants responded to questionnaires at child age 5 months (n = 474), 12 months (n = 293) and 24 months (n = 185) were used to explore potential associations. All maternal and child predictor variables were collected at child age five months. Maternal feeding styles and practices were mapped using subscales from the Infant Feeding Questionnaire at child age 5 and 12 months and the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire at child age 24 months. The subscale-scores were split into roughly equal tertiles, and the upper or lower tertile for the outcome of interest were used to create binary outcome variables. Multivariable binary logistic regression models were conducted for each outcome. We found that maternal education and mental health symptoms as well as infant weight, temperament and feeding mode were associated with maternal feeding styles and practices over time. Our findings indicate that risk factors which may have long-term implications for child weight and health outcomes can be identified early. Larger, population-based studies with a longitudinal design are needed to further explore these pathways.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Noruega , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Dev Sci ; 25(3): e13185, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743364

RESUMO

Infant attachment is a key predictor of later socioemotional functioning, but it is not clear how parental responsivity to infant expressive behavior is associated with attachment outcomes. A mid-range model of responsivity holds that both unresponsive and highly reactive parental behaviors lead to insecure and disorganized attachment. We examined the relationship between maternal (and infant) contingent responsivity and attachment in a high-risk sample. Participants were 625 infant-mother pairs from a longitudinal study of children with and without prenatal drug exposure and variable levels of associated social risks. Infant-mother pairs participated in the Face-to-Face/Still-Face paradigm (FFSF) at 4-months and in the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) at 18-months. A model incorporating both linear and quadratic responsivity effects indicated that mothers who were either very high (reactive) or very low (unresponsive) in responsivity were more likely to have infants with disorganized attachment outcomes. While maternal responsivity was associated with attachment disorganization, no associations between maternal responsivity, and attachment security/insecurity were detected. Infant responsivity to mother was not associated with attachment outcomes. The findings suggest the importance of mid-range levels of maternal responsivity in the development of organized attachment among infants facing high levels of prenatal and social risk.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Lactente , Apego ao Objeto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Gravidez
8.
Child Dev ; 93(2): 556-570, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807453

RESUMO

This study assessed the effects of maternal smartphone use on mother-child interaction. Thirty-three Israeli mothers and their 24- to 36-month-old toddlers (16 boys) from middle-high socioeconomic status participated in three within-subjects experimental conditions: maternal smartphone use, maternal magazine reading, and uninterrupted dyadic free-play. The mothers produced fewer utterances, provided fewer responses to child bids, missed child bids more often, and exchanged fewer conversational turns with their children when engaged with a smartphone or printed magazines compared to uninterrupted free-play. The quality of maternal responsiveness was also decreased. These findings suggest maternal smartphone use compromises mother-child interaction, which given smartphone ubiquity in daily life may have negative effects on child development in various domains, including language, cognition, and socioemotional regulation.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Smartphone , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia
9.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959919

RESUMO

Racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in childhood obesity in the United States (U.S.) originate in early life. Maternal sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is an early life risk factor for later offspring obesity. The goal of this study was to test the effects of policy-relevant messages delivered by text messages mobile devices (mHealth) on maternal SSB consumption. In this three-arm 1-month randomized controlled trial (RCT), pregnant women or mothers of infants in predominantly Hispanic/Latino New York City neighborhoods were randomized to receive one of three text message sets: graphic beverage health warning labels, beverage sugar content information, or attention control. The main outcome was change in maternal self-reporting of average daily SSB consumption from baseline to one month. Among 262 participants, maternal SSB consumption declined over the 1-month period in all three arms. No intervention effect was detected in primary analyses. In sensitivity analyses accounting for outliers, graphic health warning labels reduced maternal SSB consumption by 28 kcal daily (95% CI: -56, -1). In this mHealth RCT among pregnant women and mothers of infants, graphic health warning labels and beverage sugar content information did not reduce maternal SSB consumption.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Gravidez , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/análise , Açúcares/análise , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959955

RESUMO

Research addressing factors related to free sugar (FS) consumption among children in Saudi Arabia is lacking. We aimed to evaluate maternal knowledge, attitude, and practices toward FS and the associations with children's intake of FS. This cross-sectional study included 424 Saudi children aged 6-12 years and their mothers. Data related to maternal knowledge, attitude, and practices were collected using an online survey. Data concerning children's habitual intake of FS were collected through phone interviews using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Limited knowledge on FS was observed among mothers of children [median 7.00 [interquartile range 6.00-8.00] out of 11.0. Maternal knowledge was not correlated with maternal attitude or practices toward FS. Maternal knowledge towards FS did not predict children's intake of FS, whereas maternal attitude and practices toward limiting the consumption of FS predicted lower intake of FS among Saudi children, particularly the FS consumed from solid food sources (B: -5.73 [95% confidence interval (CI): -9.79 to -1.66]) and (B: -6.85 [95% CI: -11.9 to -1.80]), respectively. Despite the limited knowledge pertaining to FS among mothers in Saudi Arabia, they were making efforts to limit their children's consumption of FS.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil/fisiologia , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/psicologia , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(48)2021 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819363

RESUMO

Parental care can be partitioned into traits that involve direct engagement with offspring and traits that are expressed as an extended phenotype and influence the developmental environment, such as constructing a nursery. Here, we use experimental evolution to test whether parents can evolve modifications in nursery construction when they are experimentally prevented from supplying care directly to offspring. We exposed replicate experimental populations of burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides) to different regimes of posthatching care by allowing larvae to develop in the presence (Full Care) or absence of parents (No Care). After only 13 generations of experimental evolution, we found an adaptive evolutionary increase in the pace at which parents in the No Care populations converted a dead body into a carrion nest for larvae. Cross-fostering experiments further revealed that No Care larvae performed better on a carrion nest prepared by No Care parents than did Full Care larvae. We conclude that parents construct the nursery environment in relation to their effectiveness at supplying care directly, after offspring are born. When direct care is prevented entirely, they evolve to make compensatory adjustments to the nursery in which their young will develop. The rapid evolutionary change observed in our experiments suggests there is considerable standing genetic variation for parental care traits in natural burying beetle populations-for reasons that remain unclear.


Assuntos
Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Privação Materna , Relações Pais-Filho , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Evolução Biológica , Besouros/fisiologia , Feminino , Larva , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Gravidez
12.
Dev Psychobiol ; 63(7): e22173, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674243

RESUMO

Psychosocial stress is a top predictor of peripartum mood disorders in human mothers. In the present study, we developed a novel paradigm testing the effects of direct and vicarious social stress on maternal and mood-related behaviors in B6 mice. Using a novel housing paradigm, we examined the extent to which postpartum dams withdrew from litters following psychosocial stress. Repeated acute direct social stress involved exposing dams to a virgin male mouse for 7 min/day on postpartum days 5-7 during a brief (15-min) mother-pup separation. To remove the effects of direct stress, the vicarious social stress dams were housed in the same vivarium as direct social stressed dams, but without direct exposure to intruders. Control dams were given mock intruder exposure and housed in a separate vivarium room containing breeding mice. All dams experienced pup separation, and maternal care was investigated upon reunion. Direct and vicarious social stress induced significant deficits in maternal care and increased maternal anxiety relative to controls. Although vicarious stress effects were more likely to occur on days when there was acute stress exposure, direct stress sustained maternal deficits 24 h after the final stressor. Together, these data suggest psychosocial stress induces aberrant maternal phenotypes in mice.


Assuntos
Lactação , Comportamento Materno , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Camundongos , Mães , Período Pós-Parto , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257956, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624025

RESUMO

Smartphone use during parent-child interactions is highly prevalent, however, there is a lack of scientific knowledge on how smartphone use during breastfeeding or face-to-face interactions may modulate mothers' attentive responsiveness towards the infant as well as maternal physiological arousal. In the present study, we provide the first evidence for the influence of the smartphone on maternal physiological responses and her attention towards the infant during breastfeeding and face-to-face interactions. Twenty breastfeeding mothers and their infants participated in this lab study during which electrodermal activity, cardiograph impedance, and gaze patterns were monitored in breastfeeding and face-to-face interactions with three conditions manipulating the level of maternal smartphone involvement. We report that mothers' gaze toward their infants decreased when breastfeeding while using the smartphone compared to face-to-face interaction. Further, we show that greater maternal electrodermal activity and cardiac output were related to longer maternal gaze fixation toward the smartphone during breastfeeding. Finally, results indicate that mothers' smartphone addiction levels were negatively correlated with electrodermal activity during breastfeeding. This study provides an initial basis for much required further research that will explore the influence of smartphone use on maternal biobehavioral responses in this digital age and the consequences for infant cognitive, emotional, and social development.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Smartphone , Adulto , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Mães/psicologia
14.
Child Abuse Negl ; 122: 105348, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of parent's emotion-related socialization behaviors (ERSBs) on children, and predictors of such ERSBs has been studied extensively. However, to our knowledge, no study used a person-centered approach for subtyping the parental ERSB patterns and identifying parental characteristics that could discriminate the patterns. OBJECTIVES: The present study explored establishing heterogeneous maternal ERSBs and confirmed whether mothers' depression and maltreatment experienced in childhood are predictive of the subtypes. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: In Korean, 695 mothers of 7-12-year-old children participated in the study. We conducted a latent profile analysis (LPA) using the six reaction categories of the Korean version of the Coping with Children's Negative Emotions Scale (K-CCNES). We compared the characteristics of children and mothers among the derived classes and conducted a multinomial regression analysis to evaluate the predictors for each class. RESULTS: Five classes emerged based on the LPA: "restrained" (25.0%), "ineffective" (19.0%), "harsh" (7.3%), "dismissive" (28.9%), and "supportive" (19.7%). Demographics, children's behavioral problems, maternal depression, and maltreatment history showed differences between the subgroups. Maternal depression and experiences of emotional neglect contributed to differentiating the negative ERSBs subgroups from positive styles. CONCLUSIONS: We were able to categorize mothers into subgroups displaying heterogeneous patterns of ERSBs. While maternal depression was the strongest predictor of negative patterns, mothers' emotional neglect experiences were an additional characteristic that uniquely predicted the lack of supportive responses to children's negative emotions. Therefore, exploring maternal emotional states and maltreatment experiences could be helpful for clinicians seeking to establish intervention strategies to improve parental ERSBs.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Depressão , Emoções , Relações Mãe-Filho , Socialização , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , República da Coreia
15.
CMAJ Open ; 9(3): E834-E840, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin-to-skin contact between mother and infant immediately after birth is recommended regardless of delivery method; however, it is less common after cesarean delivery. We aimed to describe and compare women's experiences of cesarean birth with and without skin-to-skin contact at an urban tertiary care hospital. METHODS: In this hermeneutic phenomenologic study, we used semistructured telephone interviews from 2015 to 2018 to interview a convenience sample of women who delivered at term by scheduled skin-to-skin cesarean birth at an urban tertiary care hospital in Toronto, Ontario. Women were invited to participate if they had had a previous planned or unplanned cesarean birth and a scheduled skin-to-skin cesarean birth between 2013 and 2017. Participants were excluded if they had antenatally diagnosed conditions, they delivered before 37 weeks, they had general anesthesia, their condition was unstable at the time of surgery, a skin-to-skin cesarean birth was not possible or they declined skin-to-skin cesarean birth. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed by means of thematic analysis. RESULTS: Ten women were interviewed 1-19 months postpartum. Four central themes emerged: support for skin-to-skin cesarean birth (women feeling supported by their families and health care providers); control (participants experiencing greater control during their skin-to-skin cesarean birth); connection with the infant, which enabled women to be active participants in their delivery, enhanced bonding and intimacy, facilitated breastfeeding and bolstered confidence during early parenthood; and logistic considerations, with participants recognizing that skin-to-skin cesarean birth required additional resources. INTERPRETATION: These findings refine what is known about skin-to-skin cesarean birth and provide a critical perspective, that of mothers. They support the transformation of traditional operating room dynamics to a more patient-centred environment.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Cesárea/métodos , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ontário , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Tato
16.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444678

RESUMO

Children exhibiting picky eating behavior often demonstrate strong food preferences and rejection of particular foods or food texture, which may lead to limited dietary variety and possibly inadequate or unhealthy diet. Yet, the relationship between picky eating and nutrient intake in school-aged children has not been established previously. This study aimed to investigate the sociodemographic determinants of picky eating and the associations between picky eating and dietary intake in children. Data of 424 healthy Saudi children aged 6-12 years were collected from their mothers. A child's picky eating habits were captured using a validated questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics of the children were assessed. Dietary data, including 24 h dietary recalls and frequency of fruit, vegetable, and milk consumption, were collected by dietetic professionals using phone-administered interviews. Compared to those of normal-weight mothers, children of mothers with obesity had higher odds of being in the highest tertile of picky eating (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.02, 3.63). Children exhibiting higher levels of picky eating consumed less fruits (B = -0.03; 95% CI -0.06, -0.01), vegetables (B = -0.05; 95% CI -0.07, -0.02), and protein (B = -0.21; 95% CI -0.33, -0.09), and had higher consumption of trans fatty acid intake (B = 1.10; 95% CI 0.06, 2.15). Children with higher levels of picky eating presented unhealthy dietary behaviors. Future studies are needed to examine the long-term effect of picky eating on cardiovascular health. Dietary behaviors of mothers with obesity must be taken into consideration when designing intervention programs aiming to improve eating behaviors of children.


Assuntos
Dieta , Seletividade Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Leite , Mães , Obesidade , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
17.
Nature ; 596(7873): 553-557, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381215

RESUMO

Maternal care, including by non-biological parents, is important for offspring survival1-8. Oxytocin1,2,9-15, which is released by the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), is a critical maternal hormone. In mice, oxytocin enables neuroplasticity in the auditory cortex for maternal recognition of pup distress15. However, it is unclear how initial parental experience promotes hypothalamic signalling and cortical plasticity for reliable maternal care. Here we continuously monitored the behaviour of female virgin mice co-housed with an experienced mother and litter. This documentary approach was synchronized with neural recordings from the virgin PVN, including oxytocin neurons. These cells were activated as virgins were enlisted in maternal care by experienced mothers, who shepherded virgins into the nest and demonstrated pup retrieval. Virgins visually observed maternal retrieval, which activated PVN oxytocin neurons and promoted alloparenting. Thus rodents can acquire maternal behaviour by social transmission, providing a mechanism for adapting the brains of adult caregivers to infant needs via endogenous oxytocin.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/citologia , Abstinência Sexual/psicologia , Ensino , Animais , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Camundongos , Comportamento de Nidação , Plasticidade Neuronal
18.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 105, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infant obesogenic appetitive behaviors are associated with greater infant weight and child obesity, yet little is known about maternal influences on infant appetitive behaviors. This study examines the relations between maternal eating behaviors, feeding to soothe, and infant appetitive behaviors in a longitudinal sample of United States mothers. METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited in the first trimester (< 12 weeks) and followed through 1 year postpartum. Mothers reported their own eating behaviors (eating competence, restrained, emotional, and external eating) in pregnancy; feeding to soothe their infant at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum; and their infants' appetitive behaviors (enjoyment of food, food responsiveness, slowness in eating, and satiety responsiveness) at 6 months. Three path models were estimated to examine the direct relations of maternal eating behaviors with infant appetitive behaviors, the indirect relations of maternal eating behaviors with infant appetitive behaviors through feeding to soothe, and the longitudinal relations between feeding to soothe and infant appetitive behaviors. RESULTS: Maternal eating behaviors and infant appetitive behaviors were directly and indirectly related in all three models. Greater maternal eating competence was related to greater enjoyment of food but was not related to feeding to soothe. Greater maternal restrained and external eating were not directly related to infant appetitive behaviors but were indirectly related to greater infant responsiveness to food through more frequent feeding to soothe. Additionally, several longitudinal relations between feeding to soothe behaviors and infant appetitive behaviors were present. More frequent feeding to soothe at 2 months was related to greater responsiveness to food at 6 months, which was then related to more frequent feeding to soothe at 6 months. Furthermore, greater satiety responsiveness, faster eating speed, and greater responsiveness to food at 6 months were related to more frequent feeding to soothe at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal eating behaviors were related to infant appetitive behaviors directly and indirectly through feeding to soothe. Additionally, results suggest feeding to soothe and infant appetitive behaviors may be bidirectionally linked. These results underscore the need to examine how parental feeding behaviors are influenced both by parental eating behaviors and child appetitive behaviors throughout infancy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov. Registration ID - NCT02217462 . Date of registration - August 13, 2014.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Comportamento Apetitivo , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Relações Mãe-Filho , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 450, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are associated with adverse maternal and foetal health outcomes. Interventions targeting dietary and physical activity behaviours during pregnancy have typically been directed at women only. A digital intervention targeting couples could encourage expectant parents to support each other in improving energy balance (dietary and physical activity) behaviours. AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the role partners play in pregnant women's energy balance behaviours, and to identify barriers and facilitators to participating as a couple in a digital intervention to encourage healthy eating and physical activity in pregnancy. METHODS: A qualitative design combined online focus groups and telephone interviews. Three focus groups were held with men (n = 15) and one mini focus group (n = 3) and 12 telephone interviews were conducted with women. Participants were either in the last trimester of pregnancy or had a baby under 18 months old. Most were from more deprived population groups where prevalence of maternal obesity is higher. Data were analysed thematically. Barriers and facilitators to participating as a couple in a digital intervention were mapped to the COM-B model and the Theoretical Domains Framework. RESULTS: Four main themes were identified; partner involvement and support; partner understanding of good energy balance behaviours; couple concordance of energy balance behaviours; partner influence on her energy balance behaviours. Most facilitators to participating in a digital intervention as a couple fell within the Reflective Motivation domain of COM-B. Men were motivated by the desire to be supportive partners and good role models. Women were motivated by their belief that partner involvement would improve their success in achieving goals and enhance couple-bonding. Other facilitators included concordance in dietary behaviours (Physical Opportunity), healthcare practitioner recommendation, perceptions of pregnancy as 'ours' (Social Opportunity) and feeling supported and involved (Automatic Motivation). Barriers were rarely mentioned but included potential for partner conflict, perceptions of pregnancy as 'hers' and economic constraints. CONCLUSIONS: An opportunity exists to harness partner support to improve maternal energy balance behaviours. Barriers and facilitators to participating in a digital intervention as a couple indicate its potential to benefit emotional and relationship wellbeing in addition to physical health.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Gestantes/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Cônjuges/psicologia , Adulto , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Características da Família , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Motivação , Obesidade Materna/psicologia , Obesidade Materna/terapia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
20.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs ; 46(4): 205-210, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166238

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Maternal self-confidence facilitates infant growth and new mother role development. Infant ability to breastfeed and maternal breastfeeding self-confidence are imperative to helping mothers meet their breastfeeding goals. Consistent opportunity for infant movement in the prone position has been shown to improve breastfeeding ability; however, families report a lack of knowledge of how to safely support this activity. Perceptions of maternal self-confidence, infant development, and breastfeeding success upon completion of an infant prone positioning program with focus on posture, movement, and connection were studied. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted among breastfeeding mothers in three states to explore maternal perceptions of learning about infant prone positioning. RESULTS: Thirty-five mothers who completed an infant prone positioning program shared their perceptions of infant interaction, prone play and positioning, and breastfeeding self-confidence. Four primary themes were identified from the analysis: maternal knowledge and self-confidence; strategies and practices learned; breastfeeding benefits of infant prone positioning; and motivation for program participation. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Our findings support consideration of teaching new mothers about prone positioning to enhance self-confidence in mothering, breastfeeding skills, infant development, and maternal-infant dyad bonding.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/educação , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Decúbito Ventral , Autoimagem
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