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2.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 81-92, jul.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183602

RESUMO

Traffic safety is an important social problem. Many accidents are due to non-compliance with traffic regulations. Serious or repeated offenses are sanctioned with penalty points or court conviction, and sanctions can lead to disqualification from driving. This paper explores the relevance of alcohol consumption and personality factors as predictors of driving disqualification. The aim of the study is to determine whether the behaviors of persistent offenders and their propensity for law-breaking are related to their characteristics and patterns of drinking. A sample of 358 drivers participated in the study: 126 non-offender habitual drivers and 232 persistent traffic offenders disqualified from driving for serious or repeated traffic offenses, 127 of them after conviction, 105 without conviction (by accumulation of penalties). Participants were given a battery of tests measuring a set of explanatory personality and alcohol consumption factors. We used a cross-sectional study design and performed statistical analysis of variance and regression searching for differences among the groups. The results reveal group effects, with significant differences in a number of factors between traffic offenders and non-offenders, and between both categories of offenders in a number of variables, including traffic violations that lead to demerit points and/or loss of a driver's license and crash involvement. Certain variables, including problem drinking, high levels of activity or excitement, penchant for thrill or sensation seeking, and propensity to hostility while driving, can accurately predict group membership. Alcohol disorders are the best predictors of disqualification from driving for serious or repeat traffic offenses, both penalized and convicted


La seguridad vial es un importante problema social. Muchos accidentes se deben al incumplimiento de las normas de tráfico. Las infracciones graves o reiteradas se sancionan por la vía administrativa o judicial y en ambos casos las sanciones pueden suponer la pérdida del permiso de conducir. Este artículo explora la relevancia del alcohol y la personalidad como factores predictivos. El objetivo del estudio es determinar si el comportamiento delictivo de los infractores persistentes está relacionado con sus características de personalidad y patrones de consumo de alcohol. Se utilizó una muestra de 358 conductores: 232 infractores persistentes, a los que les había sido retirado el carnet de conducir (127 por sentencia judicial y 105 por pérdida total de puntos), y 126 conductores habituales no infractores. Se administró una batería de pruebas que miden un conjunto de factores explicativos de personalidad y consumo de alcohol. Se utilizó un diseño transversal y se realizaron análisis estadísticos de varianza y regresión buscando diferencias entre los grupos. Los resultados revelan diferencias significativas en el tipo de infracciones y accidentes entre infractores de tráfico y no infractores y entre ambas categorías de infractores. Además, ciertas variables, como el abuso de alcohol, altos niveles de actividad, activación emocional, búsqueda de sensaciones y la tendencia a la hostilidad durante la conducción, pueden predecir con precisión la pertenencia a uno u otro grupo. Los problemas con la bebida son el mejor predictor de la pérdida del permiso de conducir, tanto por condena como por acumulación de sanciones


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Perigoso , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Direção Distraída/psicologia , Direção Agressiva/psicologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas
3.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 93-97, jul.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183603

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators were categorized based on whether they were generally violent (GV) or family only violent (FO) using self-report or arrest records. Classification criteria to assess recidivism in perpetrators of IPV were evaluated herein to determine the incremental validity of using a perpetrator's criminal history in addition to their self-report information for categorization purposes. The concordance rates for categorizing subtypes of male perpetrators were compared for two methods, namely, self-report versus criminal history data. Categorizations were made based on self-reported history of violence and federal criminal records separately. Between measures consistency was defined as whether or not the self-report categorizations matched federal criminal record categorizations. It was hypothesized that self-report would not be sufficient as the sole method of categorizing male perpetrators, and the use of criminal history data would add to the validity of the categorization system. Self-reports of aggression were higher than criminal records of aggression. Using data sources together may yield the best outcomes for offenders and society. Implications are discussed


Se clasificaron los varones que ejercen violencia en las relaciones de pareja (VP) en función de si eran violentos en general (VG) o solo en el entorno familiar (VF), empleando registros de autoinformes o de arrestos. Se analizaron los criterios de clasificación para evaluar la reincidencia de los infractores de VP con el fin de determinar la validez incremental del uso de los antecedentes penales del infractor, además de la información procedente de su autoinforme para la clasificación. Se compararon los índices de concordancia para categorizar los subtipos de infractores masculinos para dos métodos: los datos procedentes de autoinforme y los de antecedentes penales. La categorización se basó en la historia de violencia autoinformada y en los antecedentes penales por separado. La congruencia entre medidas se definió como la coincidencia o discrepancia de la categorización de autoinforme con la categorización de antecedentes penales. Se planteó la hipótesis de que el autoinforme no bastaba como único método para clasificar a los infractores masculinos y que el uso de datos procedentes de antecedentes penales aumentaba la validez del sistema de categorización. Hubo más autoinformes sobre agresión que antecedentes penales de agresión. El uso conjunto de ambos podría tener mejores resultados, tanto para los delincuentes como para la sociedad. Se discuten las implicaciones de estos resultados


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Violência de Gênero/classificação , Criminosos/psicologia , Agressão/classificação , Comportamento Perigoso , Violência contra a Mulher , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Accid Anal Prev ; 132: 105256, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442922

RESUMO

This study analyzed the potentially dangerous driving behaviors of commercial truck drivers from both macro and micro perspectives. The analysis was based on digital tachograph data collected over an 11-month period and comprising 4373 trips made by 70 truck drivers. First, different types of truck drivers were identified using principal component analysis (PCA) and a density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) at the macro level. Then, a multilevel model was built to extract the variation properties of speeding behavior at the micro level. Results showed that 40% of the truck drivers tended to drive in a substantially dangerous way and the explained variance proportion of potentially extremely dangerous truck drivers (79.76%) was distinctly higher than that of other types of truck drivers (14.70%˜34.17%). This paper presents a systematic approach to extracting and examining information from a big data source of digital tachograph data. The derived findings make valuable contributions to the development of safety education programs, regulations, and proactive road safety countermeasures and management.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Comportamento Perigoso , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Big Data , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multinível , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
6.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 19(9): 902-906, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359572

RESUMO

AIM: To clarify the factors related to outcomes of individuals missing through dementia wandering. METHODS: We carried out binary logistic regression analysis with 160 family members of missing persons (88 survivors, 72 decedents). RESULTS: Living alone at the point of going missing (OR 13.45, 95% CI 1.12-161.56), being found within the local area (OR 6.36, 95% CI 2.26-17.88), and a long period between going missing and being found (OR 6.14, 95% CI 3.14-12.00) were significantly related with death. CONCLUSIONS: Early detection of missing persons is essential in preventing dementia wandering-related deaths. The time taken to locate missing dementia patients who lived alone was longer, relative to that of those who lived with others, and this increased the risk of death. Furthermore, the locations where the deceased were located tended to be local, rather than distant areas. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 902-906.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Demência , Comportamento Errante , Idoso , Controle Comportamental/métodos , Comportamento Perigoso , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/psicologia , Demência/terapia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Características de Residência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Errante/psicologia , Comportamento Errante/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 65(6): 479-487, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a handful of studies have explored the effect of the financial crisis on public attitudes to mental illness. AIMS: This study examines changes in lay attitudes to depression and psychiatric medication between 2009 and 2014 in Attica region. Furthermore, it explored a potential interaction with employment status. METHODS: Data were drawn from two surveys conducted in 2009 and 2014 using the same sampling procedure, interview mode, and survey instrument. Specifically, a random and representative sample of 586 people was recruited in 2009 and of 604 in 2014. Attitudes to depression were measured by the Personal Stigma subscale of the Depression Stigma Scale and attitudes to psychiatric medication by a self-constructed scale with good psychometric properties. Data collection occurred via telephone. RESULTS: There has been no overall change in lay attitudes to depression. Nonetheless, a positive change was recorded with regard to the belief that depression is a sign of personal weakness and a negative change with respect to people with depression being dangerous. Attitudes to psychiatric medication have worsened during the study period. Employment status was not found to interact with the survey year. CONCLUSION: Anti-stigma efforts should be tailored on counteracting the dangerousness stereotype, while they should prioritize targeting attitudes to psychiatric medication.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Recessão Econômica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estigma Social , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento Perigoso , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estereotipagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desemprego/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(5): e194319, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150072

RESUMO

Importance: Among resource-rich countries, the United States has the highest rate of child mortality by unintentional firearm use. Objective: To test whether children's exposure to violent video games increases dangerous behavior around firearms. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial was set in a university laboratory and included pairs of children aged 8 to 12 years who knew each other. Of 313 participants who signed up, 250 were tested (2 arrived without partners, 61 did not arrive to participate). Of the 250 children tested, 8 were excluded (2 did not complete the study, 2 had participated in a related study, and 4 were outliers). Each child was paid $25. Data were collected July 1, 2017, to July 31, 2018. Interventions: In a 3-group randomized design, pairs of children played or watched 1 of 3 versions of the game Minecraft for 20 minutes: (1) violent with guns, (2) violent with swords, or (3) nonviolent. The pairs of children were then placed in a different room and were told they could play with toys and games for 20 minutes. A cabinet in the room contained 2 hidden disabled handguns with counters for trigger pulls. Play sessions were videotaped. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes were touching a handgun, seconds spent holding a handgun, and number of trigger pulls (including at oneself or the partner). Control variables included sex, age, trait aggressiveness, exposure to violent media, attitudes toward guns, presence of firearms in the home, interest in firearms, and whether the child had taken a firearm safety course. Results: Of 242 participants, 220 children (mean [SD] age, 9.9 [1.4] years; 129 [58.6%] boys) found a gun and were included in analysis. Among the 76 children who played the video game that included gun violence, 47 children (61.8%) touched a handgun. Among the 74 children who played the video game that included sword violence, 42 (56.8%) touched a handgun. Among the 70 children who played the nonviolent video game, 31 (44.3%) touched a handgun. Participants who played a violent version of the game were more likely to shoot at themselves or their partners than those who played a nonviolent game. Other risk factors for dangerous behavior around firearms included self-reported habitual exposure to violent media and trait aggressiveness. Self-reported exposure to violent media was positively associated with total trigger pulls (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.40; 95% CI, 1.00-1.98) and trigger pulls at oneself or one's partner (IRR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.29-2.72). Trait aggression was positively associated with total trigger pulls (IRR, 13.52; 95% CI, 3.14-58.29), trigger pulls at oneself or one's partner (IRR, 25.69; 95% CI, 5.92-111.39), and time spent holding a handgun (IRR, 4.22; 95% CI, 1.62-11.02). One protective factor was having taken a firearm safety training course. Conclusions and Relevance: Exposure to violent video games increases children's dangerous behavior around firearms. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03259139.


Assuntos
Comportamento Perigoso , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Violência com Arma de Fogo , Jogos de Vídeo/efeitos adversos , Agressão/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Método Simples-Cego
11.
J Surg Res ; 243: 47-51, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Safety restraint system (SRS) use is known to improve maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant women. Factors associated with seatbelt use in females of childbearing age are largely unstudied despite global public health endeavors to increase use. We sought to define its use and uncover risk factors for not using a restraint system in this vulnerable patient cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all female patients aged 15-35 y presenting from 2007 to 2017 was performed using our institutional level 1 trauma database. Age, pregnancy, insurance status (commercial or private, Medicaid plan, and uninsured), race, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) were examined in unmatched data. A matched cohort was created to evaluate the impact of pregnancy on SRS use based on ISS, age, race, and insurance status with blinding to belt use during matching (two nonpregnant to one pregnant). Differences in restraint use were then examined using Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests. RESULTS: A total of 779 patients met inclusion criteria, of which 140 were pregnant. In unmatched data, there was no difference in belt use with regard to age, race, or insurance type. Overall belt use was 59%. Twenty-five percent of patients were uninsured, and 39% used a Medicaid plan. Pregnant patients were statistically more likely to wear belts (71% versus 57%, P = 0.003). In ISS-matched data, this difference was not upheld (63% pregnant belt use versus 58%, P = 0.615). CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy did not induce improved safety behavior in our population. More study is needed to confirm our findings. Overall SRS use in our urban population is very poor, lags behind the national average, and requires additional public health attention.


Assuntos
Comportamento Perigoso , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Hospitais Urbanos , Provedores de Redes de Segurança , Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Cintos de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Materno , Philadelphia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Behav Sci Law ; 37(3): 313-328, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157923

RESUMO

This is an illustrative article rather than a research study. We offer opinions and recommendations about what we view as unfortunate clinician testimony in suicide-related malpractice cases, testimony that - inadvertently or not - supports or encourages inadequate care of suicidal patients. The principles apply to both psychiatrists and non-psychiatrists, although the former appear more often in our work. We particularly consider the roles and testimony, in court or at deposition, of psychiatrists, whether as defendants, expert witnesses, or fact witnesses. We cite examples of what we view as poor, disingenuous, dishonest and even dangerous testimony that we believe moves the profession toward unsafe patient care. The examples illustrate what we (and sometimes others) describe as normalization of deviance, pre-suit puffery, self-serving defendant testimony, expert pride supplanting testimonial responsibility, expert arrogance, expert parroting of attorney suggestions, witness ignorance and avoiding facts, unconscious expert bias, inexperience thwarting justice, misleading use of terms such as "predictability," and expert witnesses who lack the direct-care experience that jurisdictions often require in order to opine about defendant clinicians' day-to-day patient care. The examples often reveal concerns beyond the category chosen, and should not be expected to convey all of the facts of a particular case.


Assuntos
Prova Pericial/legislação & jurisprudência , Imperícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Suicídio/legislação & jurisprudência , Comportamento Perigoso , Humanos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/legislação & jurisprudência
13.
Pediatrics ; 144(1)2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because little is known about long-term effects of adolescent protective factors across multiple health domains, we examined associations between adolescent connectedness and multiple health-related outcomes in adulthood. METHODS: We used weighted data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 14 800). Linear and logistic models were used to examine associations between family and school connectedness in adolescence and self-reported health risk behaviors and experiences in adulthood, including emotional distress, suicidal thoughts and attempts, physical violence victimization and perpetration, intimate partner physical and sexual violence victimization, multiple sex partners, condom use, sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis, prescription drug misuse, and other illicit drug use. RESULTS: In multivariable analyses, school connectedness in adolescence had independent protective associations in adulthood, reducing emotional distress and odds of suicidal ideation, physical violence victimization and perpetration, multiple sex partners, STI diagnosis, prescription drug misuse, and other illicit drug use. Similarly, family connectedness had protective effects for emotional distress, all violence indicators, including intimate partner violence, multiple sex partners, STI diagnosis, and both substance use indicators. Compared to individuals with low scores for each type of connectedness, having high levels of both school and family connectedness was associated with 48% to 66% lower odds of health risk behaviors and experiences in adulthood, depending on the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Family and school connectedness may have long-lasting protective effects across multiple health outcomes related to mental health, violence, sexual behavior, and substance use. Increasing both family and school connectedness during adolescence has the potential to promote overall health in adulthood.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Distância Social , Identificação Social , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Marginalização Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Perigoso , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Proteção , Psicologia do Adolescente , Autorrelato
15.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(1): 41-49, ene.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183541

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe and compare the educational, social, and family profiles of adults with and without ADHD from two different settings: a prison and an outpatient psychiatric setting. A total of 542 participants, aged between 17 and 69 years, took part in the study. The participants consisted of four groups: a prison sample with ADHD (n = 69) and without ADHD (n = 183), and an outpatient psychiatric sample with ADHD (n = 218) and without ADHD (n = 72). The results showed that, firstly, there were some statistically significant differences between the groups in academic history, social and family situation, and the adoption of risk behaviors during adolescence and early adulthood. Secondly, some of these differences were related to diagnosis (ADHD versus non-ADHD) while others were related to the sample being examined (prison versus psychiatric). The findings from the study showed the presence of significant implications in social, family, educational, and employment achievements both for adults with ADHD (both prison and psychiatric samples) and for adults without ADHD


Este estudio tiene como objetivo describir y comparar los perfiles educativos, sociales y familiares de un grupo de adultos con y sin TDAH de dos muestras diferentes: una de carcelarios y una población clínica. Formaron parte del estudio 542 participantes, con edades comprendidas entre los 17 y 69 años. La muestra se dividió en cuatro grupos, un grupo de carcelarios con TDAH (n = 69) y sin TDAH (n = 183) y un grupo clínico con TDAH (n = 218) y sin TDAH (n = 72). Los resultados apoyan la hipótesis inicial, que establece que, primero, hay diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos en cuanto a historial académico, situación social y familiar y la adopción de conductas de riesgo durante la adolescencia y la adultez temprana; en segundo lugar, algunas de las diferencias se relacionarán con el diagnóstico de TDAH, mientras que otras estarán más vinculadas a la población examinada. Los hallazgos del estudio mostraron la presencia de consecuencias significativas para los contextos sociales, familiares, educativos y laborales tanto en poblaciones adultas con TDAH (pacientes en carcelarios y clínicos) como aquellas sin TDAH


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Jurisprudência , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Características da Família , Habilidades Sociais , Escolaridade , Condições Sociais , Comportamento Perigoso , Prisioneiros/psicologia
16.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215211, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042719

RESUMO

Most people lack the opportunity to see non-domesticated animals in the wild. Consequently, people's perception of wild animals is based on what they see on (social) media. The way in which (social) media portrays non-domesticated animals determines our perception of and behaviour to these animals. People like to interact with animals, which is why venues which offer the opportunity to interact with non-domesticated animals are popular wildlife tourist attractions (WTAs). However, these WTAs more often than not profit at the expense of animal welfare, conservation and human safety. Participation in such WTAs should therefore be discouraged. Through (social) media we are regularly exposed to images of non-domesticated animals in close interactions with humans. Exposure to such images seems to blur the line between what is a friendly domesticated animal and what is a potentially dangerous wild animal. Such images may also increase our desire to engage in interactions with non-domesticated animals ourselves and reduce moral concerns about the use of non-domesticated animals for such interactions, thereby promoting WTAs in which tourists can interact with non-domesticated animals. Wild cat species are commonly used in the wildlife tourism industry to interact with tourists. In this study, we determine whether portrayal of wild cat species in interactions with humans promotes WTAs with wild cats. We presented respondents with an image of a wild cat species (lion, cheetah, caracal) in a control setting, walked by a human (WTA), petted by a human (WTA) or in the wild and asked them to answer a fixed set of questions. We found that portraying wild cat species in interactions with humans reduced the fear of wild cats, encouraged people to regard WTAs with wild cats as acceptable and stimulated them to participate in such activities themselves.


Assuntos
Distorção da Percepção/fisiologia , Acinonyx , Adulto , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Gatos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Comportamento Perigoso , Felis , Feminino , Humanos , Leões , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 54(4): 417-427, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062859

RESUMO

AIMS: An updated Cochrane systematic review assessed effectiveness of screening and brief intervention to reduce hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption in general practice or emergency care settings. This paper summarises the implications of the review for clinicians. METHODS: Cochrane methods were followed. Reporting accords with PRISMA guidance. We searched multiple resources to September 2017, seeking randomised controlled trials of brief interventions to reduce hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption in people attending general practice, emergency care or other primary care settings for reasons other than alcohol treatment. Brief intervention was defined as a conversation comprising five or fewer sessions of brief advice or brief lifestyle counselling and a total duration of less than 60 min. Our primary outcome was alcohol consumption, measured as or convertible to grams per week. We conducted meta-analyses to assess change in consumption, and subgroup analyses to explore the impact of participant and intervention characteristics. RESULTS: We included 69 studies, of which 42 were added for this update. Most studies (88%) compared brief intervention to control. The primary meta-analysis included 34 studies and provided moderate-quality evidence that brief intervention reduced consumption compared to control after one year (mean difference -20 g/wk, 95% confidence interval -28 to -12). Subgroup analysis showed a similar effect for men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Brief interventions can reduce harmful and hazardous alcohol consumption in men and women. Short, advice-based interventions may be as effective as extended, counselling-based interventions for patients with harmful levels of alcohol use who are presenting for the first time in a primary care setting.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/terapia , Comportamento Perigoso , Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Médicos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos
19.
An. psicol ; 35(2): 214-224, mayo 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181691

RESUMO

La relación entre el sexting y la personalidad en los adolescentes ha sido escasamente investigada. Además, es notoria la escasez de estudios longitudinales que aborden los predictores y consecuencias del sexting. Este estudio analiza los datos de 624 adolescentes que fueron evaluados en dos ocasiones (T1 y T2) distanciadas por un período de un año, y a los que se administraron cuestionarios para medir el sexting, los rasgos de personalidad del modelo de cinco factores (MCF), y posibles consecuencias psicosociales del sexting (acoso/ciberacoso, bienestar emocional). Los resultados indican que mayor extraversión y menor amabilidad y responsabilidad (T1) se relacionan con sexting (T2). El estudio permite también identificar qué facetas específicas de personalidad (T1) se asocian con el sexting registrado en T2. Además, los análisis de regresión muestran que la extraversión predice aumentos en sexting entre T1 y T2. En cuanto a las consecuencias, una alta implicación en sexting T1 predice descensos en la victimización y en las emociones positivas experimentadas entre T1 y T2. Por tanto, este estudio muestra que la personalidad permite predecir los cambios en sexting a lo largo de la adolescencia; el sexting, a su vez, parece asociarse a consecuencias psicosociales relevantes en este período del desarrollo


The relationships between personality and sexting have been scarcely studied. In addition, the scarcity of longitudinal studies about predictors and consequences of sexting is notorious. This study analyzed the longitudinal data from 624 adolescents who were evaluated on two occasions (T1 and T2) separated by a period of one year, and to whom questionnaires were administered to measure sexting, the personality traits of the five factor model (FFM), as well as possible psychosocial consequences of sexting. The results indicate that high extraversion and low agreeableness and conscientiousness (T1) are related to sexting (T2). In addition, the study also allows us to identify which specific facets of personality (T1) are associated with sexting registered in T2. On the other hand, regression analyses indicate that extraversion predicts increases in sexting between T1 and T2. As for the outcomes of sexting, a high involvement in sexting T1 predicts decreases in victimization and in the positive emotions experienced between T1 and T2. Therefore, this study shows that personality allows for prediction of changes in sexting throughout adolescence; sexting, in turn, seems to be associated with relevant psychosocial consequences in this developmental period


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Webcasts como Assunto , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Perigoso
20.
Psiquiatr. biol. (Internet) ; 26(1): 35-37, ene.-abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185025

RESUMO

La Fundación Nacional para la Investigación del Suicidio es una unidad de investigación independiente y multidisciplinar que estudia diferentes temas relacionados con el suicidio y con las autolesiones en Irlanda. Recoge datos empíricos para el desarrollo de programas para la prevención y el manejo de la conducta suicida. El objetivo principal es producir un cuerpo de conocimiento sólido con relevancia nacional e internacional en relación con la temática de la conducta suicida. Para ello utilizan una perspectiva multi- e interdisciplinar, centrándose en los factores de riesgo y de protección asociados con el comportamiento suicida. Se describen dos casos clínicos que cumplen criterios para paciente con alto riesgo suicida y gran repetidor, como ejemplos de evaluación y manejo seguidos en la Fundación Nacional para la Investigación del Suicidio. El manejo se basa en la terapia cognitivo-conductual


The National Suicide Research Foundation is an independent, multi-disciplinary research unit that investigates different topics related to suicide and self-harm in Ireland. They provide empirical knowledge for suicide prevention and its assessment. The main objective is to produce a nationally and internationally body of reliable knowledge, from a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary perspective, on the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal behaviour, and the effectiveness of self-harm intervention and suicide prevention programmes. Two case reports are presented that meet the criteria for high risk self-harm and major repeater patients as an example of the assessment and management followed in the National Suicide Research Foundation. This management is based on cognitive behaviour therapy


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Comportamento Perigoso , Suicídio/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Recidiva , Planos e Programas de Saúde/tendências , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Despersonalização/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia
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