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1.
Ecol Lett ; 23(4): 711-721, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056330

RESUMO

Apex predators can limit the abundance and behaviour of mesopredators, thereby reducing predation on smaller species. We know less about whether native apex predators are effective in suppressing invasive mesopredators, a major global driver of vertebrate extinctions. We use the severe disease-induced decline of an apex predator, the Tasmanian devil, as a natural experiment to test whether devils limit abundance of invasive feral cats and in turn protect smaller native prey. Cat abundance was c. 58% higher where devils had declined, which in turn negatively affected a smaller native prey species. Devils had a stronger limiting effect on cats than on a native mesopredator, suggesting apex predators may have stronger suppressive effects on evolutionarily naive species than coevolved species. Our results highlight how disease in one species can affect the broader ecosystem. We show that apex predators not only regulate native species but can also confer resistance to the impacts of invasive populations. Apex predators could therefore be a powerful but underutilised tool to prevent biodiversity loss.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Marsupiais , Animais , Biodiversidade , Gatos , Cadeia Alimentar , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Predatório
2.
Oecologia ; 192(3): 745-753, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016526

RESUMO

Biotic and abiotic factors may individually or interactively disrupt plant-pollinator interactions, influencing plant fitness. Although variations in temperature and precipitation are expected to modify the overall impact of predators on plant-pollinator interactions, few empirical studies have assessed if these weather conditions influence anti-predator behaviors and how this context-dependent response may cascade down to plant fitness. To answer this question, we manipulated predation risk (using artificial spiders) in different years to investigate how natural variation in temperature and precipitation may affect diversity (richness and composition) and behavioral (visitation) responses of flower-visiting insects to predation risk, and how these effects influence plant fitness. Our findings indicate that predation risk and an increase in precipitation independently reduced plant fitness (i.e., seed set) by decreasing flower visitation. Predation risk reduced pollinator visitation and richness, and altered species composition of pollinators. Additionally, an increase in precipitation was associated with lower flower visitation and pollinator richness but did not alter pollinator species composition. However, maximum daily temperature did not affect any component of the pollinator assemblage or plant fitness. Our results indicate that biotic and abiotic drivers have different impacts on pollinator behavior and diversity with consequences for plant fitness components. Even small variation in precipitation conditions promotes complex and substantial cascading effects on plants by affecting both pollinator communities and the outcome of plant-pollinator interactions. Tropical communities are expected to be highly susceptible to climatic changes, and these changes may have drastic consequences for biotic interactions in the tropics.


Assuntos
Polinização , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Flores , Insetos , Plantas
3.
Oecologia ; 192(3): 779-789, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060732

RESUMO

In large mammal communities, little is known about modification of interspecific interactions through habitat structure changes. We assessed the effects of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) on features of woody habitat structure that can affect predator-prey interactions. We then explored how this can influence where African lions (Panthera leo) kill their prey. Indeed, lions are stalk-and-ambush predators and habitat structure and concealment opportunities are assumed to influence their hunting success. During 2 years, in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, kill sites (n = 167) of GPS-collared lions were characterized (visibility distance for large mammals, distance to a potential ambush site and presence of elephant impacts). We compared characteristics of lion kill sites with characteristics of random sites (1) at a large scale (i.e. in areas intensively used by lions, n = 418) and (2) at the microhabitat scale (i.e. in the direct surrounding available habitat, < 150 m, n = 167). Elephant-impacted sites had a slightly higher visibility and a longer distance to a potential ambush site than non-impacted sites, but these relationships were characterized by a high variability. At large scale, kill sites were characterized by higher levels of elephant impacts compared to random sites. At microhabitat scale, compared to the direct nearby available habitat, kill sites were characterized by a reduced distance to a potential ambush site. We suggest a conceptual framework whereby the relative importance of habitat features and prey abundance could change upon the scale considered.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Leões , Animais , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Comportamento Predatório
4.
Oecologia ; 192(3): 791-799, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086561

RESUMO

Numerous studies have found that predators can suppress prey densities and thereby impact important ecosystem processes such as plant productivity and decomposition. However, prey suppression by spiders can be highly variable. Unlike predators that feed on prey within a single energy channel, spiders often consume prey from asynchronous energy channels, such as grazing (live plant) and epigeic (soil surface) channels. Spiders undergo few life cycle changes and thus appear to be ideally suited to link energy channels, but ontogenetic diet shifts in spiders have received little attention. For example, spider use of different food channels may be highly specialized in different life stages and thus a species may be a multichannel omnivore only when we consider all life stages. Using stable isotopes, we investigated whether wolf spider (Pardosa littoralis, henceforth Pardosa) prey consumption is driven by changes in spider size. Small spiders obtained > 80% of their prey from the epigeic channel, whereas larger spiders used grazing and epigeic prey almost equally. Changes in prey consumption were not driven by changes in prey density, but by changes in prey use by different spider size classes. Thus, because the population size structure of Pardosa changes dramatically over the growing season, changes in spider size may have important implications for the strength of trophic cascades. Our research demonstrates that life history can be an important component of predator diet, which may in turn affect community- and ecosystem-level processes.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Aranhas , Animais , Ecossistema , Densidade Demográfica , Comportamento Predatório
5.
Oecologia ; 192(3): 801-812, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002648

RESUMO

Spiders are important bio-control agents of rice insect pests such as plant- and leafhoppers. To investigate temporal changes in spider prey and variations in prey due to landscape structure around rice fields, carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of rice field arthropods were analysed over three consecutive sampling dates during the rice cropping season. Initial isotope composition of gnats and midges emerging from submersed rice fields indicates a larval algae diet, while later values suggest a switch to rice-derived carbon. Initial δ13C values of plant- and leafhoppers were higher in fields of rice-heterogeneous landscapes, indicating migration from source populations feeding on C4 grasses into rice fields; later, their δ13C values approached those of rice. Isotope values of web-building and cursorial spiders in the earliest samples indicate aquatic gnat and midge prey. The later shift toward terrestrial herbivore prey was more pronounced for small than for larger species and in rice paddies near permanent vegetation, indicating use of prey from the surrounding landscape. The results suggest that rice field spiders are supported by three different carbon pools: (1) aquatic carbon originating from algae and (2) legacy carbon from previous growing cycles, both incorporated via between-season predation on gnats and midges, and (3) carbon from the current rice season incorporated via herbivore prey. In conclusion, fostering aquatic midge and gnat larvae, e.g. via mulching, and integrating rice fields into rice-heterogeneous landscapes likely strengthens biological control of pest species in rice paddies by supporting high populations of spiders between cropping seasons.


Assuntos
Oryza , Aranhas , Animais , Carbono , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Comportamento Predatório
6.
Oecologia ; 192(3): 699-711, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008080

RESUMO

Fluctuations in the abundance of main prey species might shape animal communities, by inducing numerical responses and dietary shifts in predators. Whether numerical responses and dietary shifts differ among individuals of different age and sex has so far gained little attention. These differences could affect how much predators consume main and alternative prey, thus causing variation in predation pressure on main and alternative prey species. We studied the effect of fluctuating main prey abundance (voles) in autumn on the age and sex composition of a food-hoarding population of Eurasian pygmy owls Glaucidium passerinum (327 individuals), and on the species composition of their food stores in western Finland during 2003-2017 (629 food stores). Numbers of yearlings (< 1-year old) of both sexes and adult (+ 1-year old) females increased with increasing vole abundance. During low vole abundance, adult owls stored more small birds and less small mammals than yearlings. Females stored more small mammals than males and showed a tendency to store less birds. The amount of consumed birds (the most important alternative prey), and in particular of crested, willow, great, and blue tits, increased with low vole densities. Our results show that numerical, functional, and total responses of pygmy owls, and probably also other vertebrate predators, to the availability of the main prey in winter are shaped by the age and sex composition of the predator population, which both show large spatio-temporal variation in boreal forests.


Assuntos
Comportamento Predatório , Estrigiformes , Animais , Arvicolinae , Feminino , Finlândia , Cavalos , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional
7.
Biol Lett ; 16(1): 20190758, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964265

RESUMO

The functional response of a consumer to a gradient of resource density is a widespread and consistent framework used to quantify the importance of consumption to population dynamics and stability. Within benthic marine ecosystems, both crustaceans and fishes can provide strong top-down pressure on prey populations. Taxon-specific differences in biomechanics or habitat use, among other factors, may lead to variable functional response forms or parameter values (attack rate, handling time). Based on a review of 189 individual functional response fits, we find that these predator guilds differ in their frequency distribution of functional response types, with crustaceans exhibiting nearly double the proportion of sigmoidal, density-dependent functional responses (Holling type III) as predatory fishes. The implications of this finding for prey population stability are significant because type III responses allow prey persistence while type II responses are de-stabilizing and can lead to extinction. Comparing per capita predation rates across diverse taxa can provide integrative insights into predatory effects and the ability of predation to drive community structure.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Dinâmica Populacional
8.
Oecologia ; 192(2): 553-564, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932922

RESUMO

Trait variation among populations is important for shaping ecological dynamics. In marine intertidal systems, seawater temperature, low tide emersion temperature, and pH can drive variation in traits and affect species interactions. In western North America, Nucella dogwhelks are intertidal drilling predators of the habitat-forming mussel Mytilus californianus. Nucella exhibit local adaptation, but it is not known to what extent environmental factors and genetic structure contribute to variation in prey selectivity among populations. We surveyed drilled mussels at sites across Oregon and California, USA, and used multiple regression and Mantel tests to test the effects of abiotic factors and Nucella neutral genetic relatedness on the size of mussels drilled across sites. Our results show that Nucella at sites characterized by higher and less variable temperature and pH drilled larger mussels. Warmer temperatures appear to induce faster handling time, and more stable pH conditions may prolong opportunities for active foraging by reducing exposure to repeated stressful conditions. In contrast, there was no significant effect of genetic relatedness on prey size selectivity. Our results emphasize the role of climate in shaping marine predator selectivity on a foundation species. As coastal climates change, predator traits will respond to localized environmental conditions, changing ecological interactions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , California , Clima , Oregon
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 526, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988279

RESUMO

Animal alarm calls can contain detailed information about a predator's threat, and heterospecific eavesdropping on these signals creates vast communication networks. While eavesdropping is common, this indirect public information is often less reliable than direct predator observations. Red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) eavesdrop on chickadee mobbing calls and vary their behaviour depending on the threat encoded in those calls. Whether nuthatches propagate this indirect information in their own calls remains unknown. Here we test whether nuthatches propagate direct (high and low threat raptor vocalizations) or indirect (high and low threat chickadee mobbing calls) information about predators differently. When receiving direct information, nuthatches vary their mobbing calls to reflect the predator's threat. However, when nuthatches obtain indirect information, they produce calls with intermediate acoustic features, suggesting a more generic alarm signal. This suggests nuthatches are sensitive to the source and reliability of information and selectively propagate information in their own mobbing calls.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Predatório
10.
Biol Lett ; 16(1): 20190654, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964256

RESUMO

Predation is a near ubiquitous factor of nature and a powerful selective force on prey. Moreover, it has recently emerged as an important driver in the evolution of brain anatomy, though population comparisons show ambiguous results with considerable unexplained variation. Here, we test the reproducibility of reduced predation on evolutionary trajectories of brain evolution. We make use of an introduction experiment, whereby guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from a single high predation stream were introduced to four low predation streams. After 8-9 years of natural selection in the wild and two generations of common garden conditions in the laboratory, we quantified brain anatomy. Relative brain region sizes did not differ between populations. However, we found a general increase and striking variation in relative brain size of introduced populations, which varied from no change to a 12.5% increase in relative brain weight, relative to the ancestral high predation population. We interpret this as evidence for non-parallel evolution, which implies a weak or inconsistent association of relative brain size with fitness in low predation sites. The evolution of brain anatomy appears sensitive to unknown environmental factors, or contingent on either chance events or historical legacies of environmental change.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Poecilia , Animais , Tamanho do Órgão , Comportamento Predatório , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Oecologia ; 192(2): 341-350, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919694

RESUMO

As acute stress induced by predation risk can generate significant oxidative damage, prey organisms are forced to balance their defence reaction and the cost of activating the cellular defence system. Stress tolerance differs significantly among species; therefore predator pressure indirectly shapes the community structure. To test adaptation abilities of amphipod crustaceans (Dikerogammarus villosus and Gammarus jazdzewskii) we exposed them to acute (35 min.) and chronic (1 or 7 days) predation risk (the Eurasian perch). We measured respiration (related to metabolic rate), cellular defence systems (antioxidant enzyme (catalase) activity and heat shock protein (Hsp70) concentration), and the level of oxidative damage (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration). Both amphipods increased their respiration rate in the presence of predation cues, irrespective of the duration of their pre-exposure to danger. This increase in D. villosus was initiated more quickly (immediately vs. after 10 min. of the test) and lasted for a longer time (20 vs. 10 min.) than in G. jazdzewskii. However, only G. jazdzewskii after a short exposure to predation risk exhibited an increase in its catalase activity, Hsp70 concentration and oxidative damage. No changes in these parameters were exhibited by D. villosus or after a chronic exposure of G. jazdzewskii to predation cues. Our results show that prey organisms are able to reconfigure their physiology to maintain increased metabolic rate under prolonged predator pressure and, at the same time, reduce oxidative damage as well as costs related to anti-oxidant defence.


Assuntos
Anfípodes , Comportamento Predatório , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia)
12.
Oecologia ; 192(3): 767-778, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989320

RESUMO

Trophic cascades have become a dominant paradigm in ecology, yet considerable debate remains about the relative strength of density- (consumptive) and trait-mediated (non-consumptive) effects in trophic cascades. This debate may, in part, be resolved by considering prey experience, which shapes prey traits (through genetic and plastic change) and influences prey survival (and therefore density). Here, we investigate the cascading role of prey experience through the addition of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) from predator-experienced or predator-naïve sources to mesocosms containing piscivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), zooplankton, and phytoplankton. These two sources were positioned along a competition-defense tradeoff. Results show that predator-naïve mosquitofish suffered higher depredation rates, which drove a density-mediated cascade, whereas predator-experienced mosquitofish exhibited higher survival but fed less, which drove a trait-mediated cascade. Both cascades were similar in strength, leading to indistinguishable top-down effects on lower trophic levels. Therefore, the accumulation of prey experience with predators can cryptically shift cascade mechanisms from density- to trait-mediated.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Comportamento Predatório , Aclimatação , Animais , Fitoplâncton , Zooplâncton
13.
Nature ; 577(7789): 172-173, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911678
14.
Oecologia ; 192(3): 687-698, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950263

RESUMO

Inducible defenses against predators are widespread among plants and animals. For example, some Daphnia species form neckteeth against predatory larvae of the dipteran genus Chaoborus. Though thoroughly studied in D. pulex, knowledge about neckteeth in other Daphnia species is limited. The occurrence of this trait in the D. longispina species complex is only sporadically reported and the specific shape of neckteeth or the occurrence of other morphological defense traits is scarcely known in this widespread group. Here, we explored neckteeth occurrence in a large number of D. longispina populations across Scandinavia and studied neckteeth formation and other morphological defense traits on three D. longispina clones in the laboratory. In the study region, neckteeth on juvenile D. longispina s. str. were observed frequently in permanent ponds, but only when Chaoborus spp. larvae were present. In the laboratory experiments, all three D. longispina clones developed neckteeth (very similar to D. pulex) in response to Chaoborus kairomone exposure. The D. longispina clones also developed a longer tail spine, wider body, and larger neckteeth pedestal in response to predation threat-likely as a defense against the gape-limited predator. The intensity of neckteeth expression also depended on the clone studied and the concentration of Chaoborus kairomone. Our results demonstrate that neckteeth on D. longispina can be common in nature and that D. longispina can also induce other morphological defenses against predators. The similarity of neckteeth in D. longispina and D. pulex imposes yet unresolved questions on the evolutionary origin in these distantly related Daphnia groups.


Assuntos
Cladóceros , Daphnia , Animais , Larva , Comportamento Predatório , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 714: 136798, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986391

RESUMO

Livestock depredation is the most ubiquitous type of negative interaction between humans and carnivores. We conducted a range-wide assessment linking diet patterns of the endangered dhole Cuon alpinus, with livestock consumption and human-dhole interactions. We first performed a reanalysis of dhole diet data from all published studies (1973-2013) incorporating a recently-developed non-linear correction factor for quantifying prey biomass consumed. We then determined the relative livestock numbers consumed by dholes over time across its range, compared these with earlier estimates, and investigated the relative importance of wild vs. non-wild prey in dhole diet. Using information from >70 studies, we explored links between livestock consumption by dholes, availability of wild versus non-wild prey, sympatric depredation-prone carnivores, and people's perception of dholes as livestock predators. We found that (a) dhole diet profiles varied regionally, (b) dholes consumed fewer livestock compared to estimates generated using other, widely used methods, (c) livestock consumption by dholes was associated with wild and non-wild prey densities, and number of co-predator species, and (d) people's negative perception of dholes was associated with pack sizes, levels of livestock depredation and number of sympatric carnivore species. Global efforts for dhole conservation should involve different strategies based on region-specific realities that account for ecological context as well as human perceptions, which would require well-designed studies of dhole social and population dynamics, and human-dhole interactions. We also call for more such range-wide assessments of livestock depredation by wild canids, complemented with direct investigations of human-canid interactions.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Gado , Animais , Biomassa , Dieta , Cães , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório
16.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(2): 148-155, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927677

RESUMO

Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley) and Cosmolaelaps brevistilis (Karg) (Acari: Laelapidae) are predatory mites of soil-inhabiting pests, mainly small insects. Fungus gnats fly species are found in greenhouse strawberry production and may be controlled with predatory mites, being important to know their compatibility with the pesticides used in strawberry crops. In this study, the compatibility of seven commercial pesticides used in strawberry cultivation with the predatory mites S. scimitus and C. brevistilis was assessed in laboratory conditions. Survival and oviposition rates were evaluated between 0.5 and 120 h after treatment (HAT). The results demonstrate that lambda-cyhalothrin treatment resulted in the lowest survival rate for both mites in the first evaluations, being moderately harmful, while spinetoran was slightly harmful to C. brevistilis. On the other hand, abamectin, azadirachtin, azoxystrobin + difenoconazole, iprodione and thiamethoxam were harmless for both mites and, oviposition rate was significantly different only at 72 and 120 HAT for S. scimitus and C. brevistilis respectively. These results may be used to develop guidelines for the adoption of selective pesticides in integrated pest management programs that conserves predatory mites.


Assuntos
Fragaria/fisiologia , Ácaros/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Praguicidas , Animais , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Oecologia ; 192(1): 29-41, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773312

RESUMO

The ability of an organism to adapt to short-term environmental changes within its lifetime is of fundamental importance. This adaptation may occur through phenotypic plasticity. Insects and mites, in particular, are sensitive to changes in temperature and humidity, especially during the juvenile stages. We studied the role of phenotypic plasticity in the adaptation of eggs to different relative humidity conditions, in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis, used worldwide as a biological control agent of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. The biocontrol efficacy of P. persimilis decreases under dry conditions, partly because P. persimilis eggs are sensitive to drought. We exposed P. persimilis adult females from two different strains to constant and variable humidity regimes and evaluated the hatching rate of their eggs in dry conditions, as well as the survival and oviposition rates of these females. Whereas the eggs laid by P. persimilis females exposed to constant high humidity did not survive in dry conditions, females exposed to constant low humidity started laying drought-resistant eggs after 24 h of exposure. Survival and oviposition rates of the females were affected by humidity: females laid fewer eggs under constant low humidity and had a shorter lifespan under constant high and constant low humidity. The humidity regimes tested had similar effects across the two P. persimilis strains. Our results demonstrate that transgenerational phenotypic plasticity, called maternal effect, allows P. persimilis females to prepare their offspring for dry conditions.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Tetranychidae , Animais , Secas , Feminino , Herança Materna , Comportamento Predatório
18.
Oecologia ; 192(1): 1-12, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773313

RESUMO

Despite being a major selective force, predation can induce puzzling variability in anti-predator responses-from lack of predator aversion to lifelong predator-induced fear. This variability is hypothesised to result from variation in the trade-offs associated with avoiding predators. But critical information on fitness outcomes of these trade-offs associated with anti-predator behaviours is lacking. We tested this trade-off hypothesis in Aedes aegypti, by examining oviposition site selection decisions in response towards larval predation risk and comprehensively measuring the fitness implications of trade-offs of avoiding larval predators, using three fitness measures: larval survival, development time and size. In a field study, we find that adult females show a surprisingly variable response to predators, ranging from attraction to avoidance. This variation is explained by fitness outcomes of oviposition along a predation-risk gradient that we measured in the laboratory. We show that ovipositing females could gain fitness benefits from ovipositing in pools with a low density of predators, rather than in predator-free pools, as predators provide a release from negative density effects of conspecific larvae that might co-occur in a pool. Interacting selection pressures may thus explain diverse prey responses. We suggest other systems in which similarly unexpected prey behaviour is likely to occur.


Assuntos
Oviposição , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Feminino , Larva
19.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113479, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679869

RESUMO

Litter is omnipresent in the ocean where it can be ingested by marine biota. Although ingestion of microplastics (MPs) is abundantly reported, insights into how MP can influence predator-prey interactions currently limits our understanding of the ecological impact of MPs. Here we demonstrate trophic transfer of MPs from zooplankton to benthic filter feeders, through consumption of contaminated prey (i.e. prey with ingested MP). However, predation rates of contaminated prey were significantly lower as compared to predation rates of prey that had no MPs ingested. As filter feeder clearance rates were not affected by consumption of MPs, the lower predation rates of contaminated prey appear to be primarily explained by disruption in zooplankton swimming behaviour that reduces their filtration risk. This is the first study that shows how MPs can change predator-prey interactions that are involved in the coupling between the pelagic and seabed habitat.


Assuntos
/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zooplâncton/fisiologia , Animais , Biota , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Plásticos , Comportamento Predatório , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
Ecol Lett ; 23(2): 399-408, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811699

RESUMO

Research focusing on among-individual differences in behaviour ('animal personality') has been blooming for over a decade. Central theories explaining the maintenance of such behavioural variation posits that individuals expressing greater "risky" behaviours should suffer higher mortality. Here, for the first time, we synthesize the existing empirical evidence for this key prediction. Our results did not support this prediction as there was no directional relationship between riskier behaviour and greater mortality; however there was a significant absolute relationship between behaviour and survival. In total, behaviour explained a significant, but small, portion (5.8%) of the variance in survival. We also found that risky (vs. "shy") behavioural types live significantly longer in the wild, but not in the laboratory. This suggests that individuals expressing risky behaviours might be of overall higher quality but the lack of predation pressure and resource restrictions mask this effect in laboratory environments. Our work demonstrates that individual differences in behaviour explain important differences in survival but not in the direction predicted by theory. Importantly, this suggests that models predicting behaviour to be a mediator of reproduction-survival trade-offs may need revision and/or empiricists may need to reconsider their proxies of risky behaviours when testing such theory.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Personalidade , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Predatório , Reprodução , Assunção de Riscos
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