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1.
Muscle Nerve ; 64(4): 504-508, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322897

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Perampanel, a selective noncompetitive α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) antagonist, is capable of slowing the progression of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) phenotype and increasing the number of anterior horn cells in transgenic mice. Trials of perampanel in epilepsy showed a favorable tolerability profile. In this study we aimed to determine the tolerability and safety of perampanel in patients with ALS. METHODS: Enrolled subjects were started on 2 mg/day of perampanel and the dose was increased by 2 mg/day every week to a maximum dose of 8 mg/day. Our primary outcome measure was tolerability, which was evaluated by monitoring adverse events. The secondary outcome measure was clinical progression, assessed using the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) and spirometry. RESULTS: Six participants were enrolled. All had adverse events, mostly behavioral. Two completed the trial and the other four withdrew due to adverse events. All participants reported resolution of these events after discontinuation of the drug. The trial was halted due to the large number of adverse events. DISCUSSION: The use of perampanel in this study of ALS was limited by its poor tolerability.


Assuntos
Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Agressão/psicologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/psicologia , Nitrilas/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Sonolência , Adulto , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrilas/uso terapêutico , Projetos Piloto , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Piridonas/uso terapêutico
2.
J Fam Psychol ; 35(7): 939-949, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110845

RESUMO

Youth who struggle to maintain positive peer relationships are more likely to display emotional and behavioral problems, particularly during adolescence. Alternative avenues of social support may buffer against these maladaptive outcomes, particularly sibling relations, as they oftentimes predict adolescent outcomes above and beyond that of parents and peers. The present study examined the role of objective sibling warmth on the longitudinal association between social problems and maladjustment in a sample of 45 adolescent sibling dyads, further testing how effects varied between younger (Mage = 12.1; 24 females) and older (Mage = 14.5; 21 females) siblings. Sibling interactions were observed during cooperative and stressful problem-solving tasks, and later coded for expressions of warmth directed from one sibling to the other. Adolescent social problems and internalizing and externalizing behaviors were collected by multi-informant report and at a 1-year follow-up. Multilevel analyses indicated that adolescents with older siblings who exhibited more warmth were buffered against the effect of social problems on externalizing behaviors, with marginal effects for internalizing symptoms. Younger sibling warmth did not serve as a buffer for older sibling maladjustment. These findings emphasize the importance of considering how multiple dimensions of social support operate to influence functioning, particularly early in adolescence. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Relações entre Irmãos , Irmãos/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Grupo Associado
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3769, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145259

RESUMO

Children's behavioral problems have been associated with their family environments. Here, we investigate whether specific features of brain structures could relate to this link. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging of 8756 children aged 9-11 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Developmental study, we show that high family conflict and low parental monitoring scores are associated with children's behavioral problems, as well as with smaller cortical areas of the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and middle temporal gyrus. A longitudinal analysis indicates that psychiatric problems scores are associated with increased family conflict and decreased parental monitoring 1 year later, and mediate associations between the reduced cortical areas and family conflict, and parental monitoring scores. These results emphasize the relationships between the brain structure of children, their family environments, and their behavioral problems.


Assuntos
Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
4.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253473, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161376

RESUMO

As COVID-19 dramatically changes human social life, restrictive lockdown periods to slow the spread of the virus have been suggested to particularly affect the psychological well-being of children and their families. To capture lockdown-related effects on a large scale, the present study used an online questionnaire completed by parents of 3-10-year-olds during the most restrictive lockdown period in Germany thus far (N = 2,672). Parents reported their stress level, their child's well-being, and their child's problem behaviors among others. Results showed that most parents and children experienced lockdown-related stress. Concerning children, not being able to meet with friends and family members outside the household emerged as the primary challenge. Older children (7-10 years) evidenced more emotional symptoms as well as less conduct problems and hyperactivity than younger children (3-6 years). Children's own and their parents' stress level, the degree to which children missed other children, and children's age all showed to be negatively related to children's general life satisfaction. Single parenthood and being an only child were associated with higher levels of child problems. Taken together, these findings shed light on the psychological well-being of children and their families during governmental lockdown measures, as well as on relations between children's coping and demographic background. They have implications for possible avenues for interventions, inter alia by encouraging policies that facilitate the maintenance of social relationships and focus particularly on children from single parent families, on only children as well as on families in challenging housing situations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Problema , Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Isolamento Social , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(5): 393-405, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914570

RESUMO

Objective: Although there is evidence that the positive impact of multisystemic therapy for problem sexual behaviors (MST-PSB) reaches as far as young adulthood, the longer-term effects of MST-PSB into midlife are unknown. The present study examined criminal and civil court outcomes for sexually offending youths who participated on average 24.9 years earlier in a clinical trial of MST-PSB (Borduin et al., Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2009, 77, p. 26). Method: Participants were 48 individuals who were originally randomized to MST-PSB or usual community services (UCS) and were at high risk of continued criminality. Arrest, incarceration, and civil suit data were obtained in middle adulthood when participants averaged 39.4 years of age. Results: Intent-to-treat analyses showed that MST-PSB participants had 85% fewer sexual offenses and 70% fewer nonsexual offenses than did UCS participants. In addition, MST-PSB participants were sentenced to 46% fewer days of incarceration and had 62% fewer family-related civil suits. Moreover, the favorable effects of MST-PSB on participants' crimes and civil suits were mediated by improved peer and family relations during treatment. Conclusion: The current study represents the longest and most comprehensive follow-up to date of an MST-PSB clinical trial and demonstrates that the positive effects of an evidence-based youth treatment for sexual crimes can last well into adulthood. Implications of the findings for policymakers, service providers, and researchers are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criminosos/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Adulto Jovem
6.
N Z Med J ; 134(1534): 17-30, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927435

RESUMO

AIM: To document the prevalence of child physical punishment by parents and associated predictors in the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) birth cohort over a 15-year period. METHOD: A cohort of 1,265 CHDS individuals were followed from birth (1977) to age 40 years. At ages 25 (n=155), 30 (n=337), 35 (n=585) and 40 years (n=636), the cohort members with dependent children (<16 years of age) were interviewed about their use of child physical punishment in the past 12 months using the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale. Parent, child and family predictors were also examined. RESULTS: The most common forms of physical punishment were smacking on bottom and slapping on hand, arm or leg. Rates of all forms of physical punishment declined with age, ranging from 77% reporting any physical punishment at age 25 to 42% at age 40. In multivariable models, significant predictors included parental age, numbers/ages of children in the household, childhood family socioeconomic status, parental history of adolescent mental health problems and concurrent intimate partner violence. CONCLUSION: Use of physical punishment remains a relatively common form of child discipline despite the 2007 anti-smacking legislation and reduced public tolerance for physical violence towards children. Implications for prevention/intervention are discussed.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Punição/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia
7.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 33(1): 105-108, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to explore the occurrence of aggression, disruptive behavior and nature of self-concept among internally displaced and un-displaced children. This study also examines the effectiveness of art therapy and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) technique of behavior therapy in the treatment of psychological problems among internally displaced children. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study a semi-structured interview and Beck Youth Inventory for children and adolescents (2nd edition) were used for assessment. The sample comprised 192 internally displaced and 90 un-displaced children. After taking formal permission from head of the schools, internally displaced children were assessed in their schools arranged for them at Jalozi camp, whereas un-displaced children were assessed at different schools of settled areas in Peshawar. Independent sample t-test was used to analyze mean differences, standard deviation and t-values. RESULTS: Results supported the hypothesis. Internally displaced children showed higher levels of aggression (39.38±6.60) with t (280) = 8.57, and disruptive behavior (40.97±3.90) with t (280) = 6.76, and lower levels of self-concept (48.71±8.31) with t (280) = -15.32. CONCLUSIONS: Internally displaced children showed high levels of aggression and disruptive behavior, whereas their self-esteem was lower than the un-displaced children. This study also provides support to the idea that art therapy and technique of behavior therapy can be helpful in treatment of post trauma psychological issues in children.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Terapia pela Arte , Terapia Comportamental , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
8.
Dev Neurorehabil ; 24(6): 397-407, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706637

RESUMO

Aim: Comorbid psychopathology refers to having a diagnosis of two or more co-occurring psychological disorders. The current study investigated the differences between children and adolescents with no-mild, moderate and severe comorbid psychopathology in children and adolescents with ASD.Method: Parents of 133 children completed the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Comorbid for Children, Behavior Problems Inventory-Short Form, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Social Communication Questionnaire, Short Sensory Profile, and Behavioral/Educational Interventions and Complementary/Alternative Medicine (CAM) Interventions of the Autism Treatment Network Registry Parent Baseline Assessment.Results: A significant difference was found between severity of comorbid psychopathology and all types of challenging behavior and all sensory issues except movement. A small effect size was also found between comorbid psychopathology and quality of life.Conclusion: The findings from this study show significant difficulties associated with those with comorbid psychopathology in ASD in challenging behavior, sensory issues and quality of life.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(2): 96-109, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study is the first to investigate the effect of psychodynamic technique (PT), therapeutic alliance, and their interactions with outcome in psychodynamic child psychotherapy. METHOD: The sample comprised 79 Turkish children (mean age = 6.86 years, 38% girls) with discrete internalizing (22%), discrete externalizing (11%) and comorbid internalizing and externalizing (67%) problems. Independent raters coded 359 sessions from different phases of treatment using the Child Psychotherapy Process Q-Sort for PT and Therapy Process Observational Coding System-Alliance Scale. Problem-assessment measures were collected at intake and every 10th session in treatment using the Children's Behavior Checklist and Brief Problem Monitor. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that the PT and therapeutic alliance interacted such that more use of the PT in the context of high therapeutic alliance predicted less problem behaviors, whereas in the context of low therapeutic alliance PT predicted more problem behaviors. This relationship was moderated by problem comorbidity such that for children with comorbid problems, though a strong therapeutic alliance was indicated, an increase in PT use did not have a significant effect. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that the use of psychodynamic interventions is indicated in the context of a strong therapeutic alliance, especially for children with noncomorbid problems. Psychodynamic interventions may have an adverse effect if a therapeutic alliance is not established. For children with comorbid problems, keeping the relationship strong is important. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/terapia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/métodos , Aliança Terapêutica , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 94(2): 99-106, feb. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-201820

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los trastornos del espectro autista (TEA) se caracterizan por deficiencias generalizadas en la comunicación social, estereotipias e intereses restringidos. Los TEA presentan una alta prevalencia de trastornos psiquiátricos adicionales que empeoran su funcionamiento diario y reducen la calidad de vida de ellos y sus familias. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: En el esfuerzo de identificar características ambientales que expliquen esta alta comorbilidad, esta investigación se ha centrado en la sintomatología de estrés y malestar psicológico de los padres como posibles factores de riesgo. Se realizó un estudio transversal de asociación entre estrés y malestar psicológico de padres de niños preescolares con TEA (2-6 años) y su relación con psicopatología coexistente en niños con TEA. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Altos niveles de estrés y malestar psicológico en los padres están asociados ya desde la primera infancia con psicopatología coexistente en dicha población, específicamente con problemas emocionales y conductuales (p < 0,05). Sin embargo, se necesitan futuros estudios longitudinales para entender mejor la relación causal entre estas variables y su posible relación bidireccional


INTRODUCTION: The Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by general deficits in social communication, stereotypes, and restricted interests. The ASD have a high prevalence of additional psychiatric disorders that make their daily functioning worse, and reduces the quality of life of them and their families. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In an effort to identify family environmental characteristics that may influence in the course of additional psychiatric disorders, this study has focused on the symptoms of parental stress and psychological distress as possible risk factors. A cross-section study was carried out on the relationship between the stress and psychological distress of the parents and its relationship with co-existing psychopathology in a population of pre-school children with ASD (2-6 years). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: High levels of stress and psychological distress of the parents arealready associated, since early childhood, with co-existing psychiatric symptoms, specifically with emotional and behavioural problems (p < 0.05). However, further longitudinal studies are needed for a better understanding of the causal relationship between these variables and their possible bidirectional relationship


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Emoções , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Relações Pais-Filho , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Risco , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma
11.
Child Dev ; 92(2): 502-516, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528841

RESUMO

This meta-analysis synthesizes the empirical data on problem behaviors among foreign- (G1) and U.S-born (G2+) youth and explores the effects of immigrant status on youth internalizing and externalizing problems. A random effects meta-regression with robust variance estimates summarized effect sizes for internalizing and externalizing problems across 91 studies (N = 179,315, Mage  = 13.98). Results indicated that G1 youth reported significantly more internalizing problems (g = .06), and fewer externalizing problems than G2+ youth (g = -.06). Gender and sample type moderated the effects. The findings provide a first-step toward reconciling mixed support for the immigrant paradox by identifying for whom and under what conditions the immigrant experience serves as a risk or protective factor for youth.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
12.
Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 27(1): 1-11, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199704

RESUMO

This study examines how teacher perceptions of student misbehaviour correlate with their perceptions of school climate and student self-reports, using multi-informant two-level multilevel modelling. School climate questionnaires completed by 4,055 teachers and 16,017 students (1rd to 4th year of compulsory secondary education from 187 schools) showed that teachers' characteristics are marginally related to perceived disruption. Fair rules and support of students' families acted as protective factors, while a lack of educational leadership was a risk factor. Furthermore, the student variable of pro-violence messages from parents acted as a moderator for leadership and rules, while perceived coercive treatment from teachers acted as a moderator for family support of teachers


Esta investigación examina en qué medida la percepción del profesorado sobre el comportamiento disruptivo correlaciona con la percepción del clima escolar y los autoinformes del alumnado, mediante una modelización multi-informante y multinivel. Los cuestionarios sobre el clima escolar, cumplimentados por 4,055 profesores y 16,017 estudiantes (de 1º a 4º curso de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria pertenecientes a 187 centros educativos), muestran que las características de los profesores se relacionan solo marginalmente con la disrupción percibida. La existencia de unas reglas justas y el apoyo de las familias de los estudiantes se mostraron como factores de protección, mientras que la ausencia de un adecuado liderazgo en el equipo directivo aparecía como factor de riesgo. Además, los mensajes que los alumnos reciben de sus padres a favor de la violencia actuaron como moderadores del liderazgo y las reglas, mientras que el trato coercitivo de los profesores que percibían los estudiantes actuó de moderador del apoyo de la familia hacia el profesorado


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudantes/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Meio Social , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Análise Multinível , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Percepção , Autorrelato , Liderança , Violência/psicologia
13.
Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 27(1): 93-99, ene. 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199713

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to describe the behavioral and emotional disturbances in the Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and to analize the impact of having a member with FXS on different aspects of family functioning. A sample of 79 parents with a member with FXS and 80 parents with a member with typical development participated in the study. Results showed that between 17% and 66% of children and adolescents with FXS displayed significant behavioral and emotional disturbances and fewer prosocial behaviors. In addition, after controlling for behavioral and emotional difficulties, our results showed that families affected by FXS experienced a more negative impact on feelings about parenting, finances, siblings, and the degree of difficulty of living with a child or adolescent with FXS, and greater family adaptability and cohesion than the comparison group. In conclusion, our results highlight that it is important to consider these differences in clinical practice when supporting and counselling families affected by FXS


El objetivo del presente estudio es describir las alteraciones conductuales y emocionales en el síndrome de X frágil (SXF) y analizar las reperecusiones de tener un miembro con SXF en diferentes aspectos del funcionamiento familiar. Participaron 79 padres con un miembro con SXF y 80 padres con un miembro con desarrollo típico. Los resultados mostraron que entre el 17% y el 66% de los niños y adolescentes con SXF mostraron trastornos conductuales y emocionales significativos y menos comportamientos prosociales. Además, después de controlar las dificultades emocionales y de comportamiento, nuestros resultados mostraron que las familias afectadas por SXF experimentaron un impacto más negativo en los sentimientos relativos a la crianza de los hijos, las finanzas, los hermanos y el grado de dificultad de vivir con un niño o adolescente con SXF y más capacidad de adaptación familiar y cohesión que el grupo de comparación. Como conclusión, nuestros resultados destacan que en la práctica clínica es importante tener en cuenta estas diferencias al apoyar y asesorar a las familias afectadas por SXF


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Adolescente , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Características da Família , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Perfil de Impacto da Doença
14.
Child Dev ; 92(2): 704-714, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427312

RESUMO

A sample of 10,460 U.S. elementary schoolchildren was analyzed to identify early predictors of frequent use of online technologies (i.e., messaging, online gaming, and social networking). Children (Mage  = 67.44 months) at greater risk displayed more externalizing problem behaviors in kindergarten (messaging OR = 1.11; online gaming OR = 1.21; social networking OR = 1.12) or were Black (messaging OR = 1.65; online gaming OR = 1.64; social networking OR = 1.68). Children from higher-income families were at lower risk (online gaming OR = 0.89; social networking OR = 0.89). Boys were more frequent users of online gaming (OR = 3.35) but less frequent users of messaging (OR = 0.62) and social networking (OR = 0.80). Protective factors included specific parenting behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Mídias Sociais/tendências , Rede Social , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/tendências , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Poder Familiar/tendências , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco
15.
Psychol Trauma ; 13(4): 486-495, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475409

RESUMO

Objective: Internalizing and externalizing problems are prevalent in disaster-exposed children but few studies have investigated these problems in relation to parental factors. This study examined how parental worry and family-based disaster education related to children's internalizing and externalizing problems during the outbreak of COVID-19 in China. Method: Parents reported parental worry, family-based disaster education and their children's (5-8-year-old young elementary schoolchildren [n = 245] and 245 9-13-year-old early adolescents [n = 245]) internalizing and externalizing problems. Results: Data analysis showed that (a) across ages, parental worry related to children's internalizing and externalizing problems significantly and positively; (b) the significant and negative relationships between family-based disaster education and internalizing and externalizing problems were only supported in young elementary schoolchildren; and (c) high level of parent worry attenuated the negative link between family-based disaster education and young elementary schoolchildren's internalizing problems. Conclusion: This study expands our knowledge about relationships between parental worry and children's disaster-related well-being, and highlights the importance of adapting family-based disaster education to different ages. Data suggest that parents of young elementary schoolchildren and early adolescents both should avoid showing excessive worry in front of their children during the pandemic to help reduce their children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Effective family-based disaster education can mitigate young elementary schoolchildren's emotional distress and behavioral problems, the effect of which may be maximized if parents can avoid being overly worried. Parents of early adolescents should support their children in acquiring pandemic-related information independently and encourage them to seek support outside the family. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Desastres , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Poder Familiar/psicologia
16.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 3, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that screen time (ST) has a negative effect on children's emotional and behavioral health, but there are few longitudinal studies that have been conducted with infants and toddlers. This study sought to examine the effect of ST in early childhood on emotional and behavioral problems in children aged 4 years, based on a birth cohort study in China. METHODS: A total of 2492 children aged 4 years were enrolled in this study. The parents and guardians of each child completed a questionnaire that included items eliciting information on children's birth information, socio-demographic information at baseline, and ST at each follow-up. Emotional and behavioral problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) at 4 years of age. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to explore the effects of ST on emotional and behavioral problems. RESULTS: The percentages of children with ST > 0 h/day at age 0.5 years, ST > 2 h/day at age 2.5 years, and ST > 2 h/day at age 4 years were 45.7, 55.5, and 34.5% respectively. The prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems was 10.8%. ST at 6 months was a risk factor for emotional symptoms and hyperactivity at the age of 4 years. ST at age 2.5 years was a risk factor for hyperactivity at the age of 4 years. However, ST at age 4 years was a risk factor for total difficulties, conduct problems, peer problems, hyperactivity, and prosocial behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Higher ST exposure at early childhood is associated with later emotional and behavioral problems. In particular, sustained high ST exposure is a risk factor for behavioral problems. These findings suggested the importance of controlling ST to prevent the occurrence of emotional and behavioral problems in the early years.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Emoções , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Agitação Psicomotora/epidemiologia , Tempo de Tela , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Agitação Psicomotora/psicologia
17.
Am J Psychiatry ; 178(4): 294-304, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prolonged grief disorder was newly included in ICD-11 and resembles persistent complex bereavement disorder, newly included in DSM-5. Although prolonged grief disorder in adults can be successfully treated by cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), there is no evidence yet that CBT interventions can successfully alleviate the disorder in children and adolescents. The goal of this randomized clinical trial was to examine the effects of a CBT program, CBT Grief-Help, for prolonged grief disorder in children and adolescents in comparison with the effects of nondirective supportive counseling. METHODS: A total of 134 children and adolescents with prolonged grief disorder (mean age, 13.10 years [SD=2.84], bereaved a mean of 37.79 months [SD=36.23] earlier) were randomly assigned to receive either CBT Grief-Help (N=74) or supportive counseling (N=60). Both treatment conditions encompassed nine individual sessions with children and adolescents paralleled by five counseling sessions with parents or caretakers. Children and adolescents completed measures of prolonged grief disorder, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and their parents or caretakers completed measures of their children's problem behavior before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. RESULTS: Both treatments yielded moderate to large effect sizes across prolonged grief disorder and most other outcome measures. Compared with supportive counseling, CBT Grief-Help resulted in significantly greater reductions in prolonged grief disorder symptoms at all posttreatment assessments, and it was more successful in alleviating depression, PTSD symptoms, and internalizing problems 6 and 12 months after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged grief disorder and its symptoms in bereaved children and adolescents can be effectively treated by CBT interventions. The superior long-term effects of CBT Grief-Help relative to supportive counseling suggest that this treatment successfully strengthens children and adolescents in facing challenges brought about by bereavement.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Depressão/psicologia , Pesar , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Morte Parental/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Cuidadores , Criança , Aconselhamento/métodos , Feminino , Avós , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pais , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Irmãos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 51(5): 1781-1788, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767172

RESUMO

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for bullying victimization. School refusal is a 'red flag' for identification of bullying in children with ASD and/or ADHD. This study examined the impact of diagnoses, demographics, and school variables on school refusal due to bullying. Participants were 97 parents of 154 children with ASD, ADHD, ASD + ADHD, other diagnoses, or no diagnosis. Children with ASD + ADHD were most likely to refuse school due to bullying. Classroom aides and behavior problems were protective and risk factors, respectively. In the final regression model, child diagnosis no longer predicted school refusal. School refusal and problem behavior warrant consideration as a marker of distress for victimized children.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
19.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 63(1): 68-74, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710687

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the evolution of child-parent discrepancy in reporting quality of life (QoL) between childhood and adolescence in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to investigate potential factors associated with such a discrepancy. METHOD: We used data from the SPARCLE (Study of PARticipation of Children with CP Living in Europe) study, a population-based cohort study of children with CP, aged 8 to 12 years at baseline (in 2004-2005), in nine European centres, who were followed up at the age of 13 to 17 years. The KIDSCREEN-52 Quality of Life measure was used at baseline and follow-up; 354 child-parent dyads out of 500 eligible dyads were followed up (201 males, 153 females). We used intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to examine agreement between parent proxy-reports and self-reported QoL. We used linear regression to examine factors associated with child-parent discrepancy in QoL reporting. RESULTS: Agreement was low to moderate (ICC=0.16-0.48) in childhood and in adolescence across all QoL domains. In four domains (moods and emotions, self-perception, relationship with parents and home life, and social support and peers), the extent of the discrepancy increased significantly between childhood and adolescence. Parenting stress, child pain, and child behaviour problems influenced parent proxy-reports during both childhood and adolescence. INTERPRETATION: The points of view of the child and their parents should be treated as complementary to obtain better knowledge regarding the QoL of children and adolescents with CP.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/psicologia , Dor/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Dor/etiologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Psicometria/normas , Autoimagem , Autorrelato/normas , Apoio Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
20.
Scand J Psychol ; 62(1): 74-81, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022777

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between externalizing behaviors and the quality of attachment representations in preschool children, and to determine if family type and custody arrangement had a moderating effect on this relationship. The participants were 33 girls and 31 boys (n = 64) aged between three and six years (M = 4.75; SD = 0.87 years) and their mothers. Among them, 36 came from "intact" families, 13 were living mainly with their mothers and 15 were in joint physical custody. Children's attachment representations were assessed with the Attachment Story Completion Task (Bretherton, Ridgeway & Cassidy, 1990). Mothers reported on their child's behavior problems using the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) and on their alliance with the father using the Parenting Alliance Inventory (Abidin & Brunner, 1995). Although children's externalizing behaviors were found to be associated with the disorganization of their attachment representations, this relationship was significantly weaker and was non-significant for children in joint physical custody. Thus, the results of this pilot study suggest that joint custody may protect children of separated parents from the effects of attachment disorganization on externalizing behaviors.


Assuntos
Divórcio/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
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