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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(708): 1786-1789, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997447

RESUMO

Behavioral disorders in people with developmental and intellectual disability are frequent but their management is rarely taught. This article is to help primary physicians prescribe drug treatment. We will also discuss the key elements of two of the most commonly used classes of drugs, taking into account the patient's co-morbidities, contraindications and the main side effects.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Comorbidade , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações
3.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(9): 811-817, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867523

RESUMO

Causal pathways to disruptive behavior disorders, even within the same diagnostic category, are varied. Both equifinality and multifinality pose considerable challenges to uncovering underlying mechanisms and understanding varied developmental trajectories associated with disruptive behavior disorders. Uncovering genetic causes requires improved granularity in how we operationalize presentation and developmental trajectories associated with disruptive behavior disorders. If we want to integrate the study of genetic, environmental, and neurocognitive factors within a longitudinal framework, we need to improve measurement. Furthermore, brain changes associated with disruptive behavior disorders should not simply be understood as outcomes of genetic and environmental influences, but also as factors that reciprocally influence future social environments over time in ways that are important in contributing to risk and resilience. Advancing the field with regard to these challenges will result in more truly integrated investigation of disruptive behavior disorders, which holds the promise of improving our ability to develop more effective preventive and intervention approaches.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo , Encéfalo , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/etiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/métodos , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento/tendências , Psicopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237610, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810183

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, many new technologies have emerged, such as portable computers, the internet and smartphones, which have contributed to improving the lives of individuals. While the benefits of these new technologies are overwhelmingly positive, negative consequences are experienced by a minority of individuals. One possible negative aspect of new technologies is their problematic use due to impulsive use which may lead to lower life satisfaction. The present study investigated the mediating role of problematic video gaming (PVG) and problematic Facebook use (PFU) in the relationship between impulsivity dimensions and life satisfaction as well as the relationship between impulsivity dimensions and problematic behaviors. Additionally, the potential impact of gender differences was also examined. The study comprised 673 gamers (391 females) aged 17-38 years (M = 21.25 years, SD = 2.67) selected from 1365 individuals who completed an offline survey. PFU was assessed using the Facebook Intrusion Scale, and PVG was assessed using the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form (IGDS9-SF). Impulsivity dimensions such as attention, cognitive instability, motor, perseverance, self-control, and cognitive complexity were assessed using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and life satisfaction was assessed using the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Depending on the specific impulsivity dimension, findings showed both positive and negative relationships between impulsivity and life satisfaction. Attention and perseverance subtypes of impulsivity were primarily associated with problematic behaviors. Additionally, cognitive complexity was associated with PFU among female gamers, whereas cognitive instability was associated with PVG among male gamers. Additionally, PVG was primarily associated with lower life satisfaction. However, there was no mediation effects between impulsivity dimensions and life satisfaction via PFU or PVG. These findings provide a better understanding of the relationship between problematic behaviors, life satisfaction, and impulsivity among gamers and the differences between male and female gamers.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Problema , Mídias Sociais , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236648, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence factors of behavior problems of 8~18 years old children with malignant tumors in the treatment period, as well as the mediating effects of social support self-efficacy and post-traumatic growth. METHODS: From May 2019 to October 2019, 160 children with malignant tumors during the treatment were selected through convenience sampling method, and were investigated via the General Self-Efficacy Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, Post-Traumatic Growth Scale and Conners' Parent Symptom Questionnaire. Structural equation model was established on the basis of survey results. RESULTS: The total detection rate of behavior problems in 8~18 years old children with malignant tumors was 10.6%. The structural equation models indicated that boys had more behavior problems than girls, self-efficacy, social support and post-traumatic growth can directly affect the behavior problems of 8~18 years old children with malignant tumors in the treatment period, and the standardized total effect of self-efficacy in both of the first model and the second model was the largest. Self-efficacy is also able to indirectly and negatively predict the behavior problems based on social support or post-traumatic growth. Social support can directly affect behavior problems or indirectly predict behavior problems through self-efficacy and post-traumatic growth. After 2000 bootstrap tests, the mediating effects of social support self-efficacy and post-traumatic growth were confirmed. CONCLUSION: Reduced total detection rate of behavior problems suggests that targeted interventions in recent years may be effective. Interventions focused on improving self-efficacy, social support and post-traumatic growth may lessen behavior problems of children with malignant tumors in the treatment period.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Neoplasias/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e155, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787989

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate behavioural problems throughout childhood and adolescent, and its relationship with socioeconomic position (SEP) and early parenting environment. METHODS: Using data from the Millennium Cohort Study conducted in the UK, behavioural problems of 14 452 children were analysed using a growth curve model. The children were followed from birth to adolescence, and their behavioural problems were measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The SDQ was sub-scaled into externalising and internalising problems. After assessing the general trajectory of children's behavioural problems, variables representing SEP and parenting environments were introduced to the model to analyse the association with children's outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, children's trajectories in externalising problems showed a decreasing trend while internalising problems increased as they aged. Household income and maternal education in early childhood were independently associated with children's behavioural problems, while the association for maternal occupation was significantly weaker. Positive early parenting environments attenuated the association between SEP and children's behavioural problems. Also, with regards to children's behavioural problems, positive parenting explained more variance between children compared to SEP. Favourable parent-child relationship buffered the income gradient in children's behavioural problems during early childhood, and although this buffering effect did not last until adolescence, those who had good parent-child relationships developed better outcomes regardless of their SEP. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study emphasise the importance of a positive early parenting environment for improving and reducing the socioeconomic gap in children's behavioural problems and encourages policies to promote better parenting circumstances.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Classe Social , Meio Social , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD010515, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with dementia living in the community, that is in their own homes, are often not engaged in meaningful activities. Activities tailored to their individual interests and preferences might be one approach to improve quality of life and reduce challenging behaviour. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of personally tailored activities on psychosocial outcomes for people with dementia living in the community and their caregivers. To describe the components of the interventions. To describe conditions which enhance the effectiveness of personally tailored activities in this setting. SEARCH METHODS: We searched ALOIS: the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register on 11 September 2019 using the terms: activity OR activities OR occupation* OR "psychosocial intervention" OR "non-pharmacological intervention" OR "personally-tailored" OR "individually-tailored" OR individual OR meaning OR involvement OR engagement OR occupational OR personhood OR "person-centred" OR identity OR Montessori OR community OR ambulatory OR "home care" OR "geriatric day hospital" OR "day care" OR "behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia" OR "BPSD" OR "neuropsychiatric symptoms" OR "challenging behaviour" OR "quality of life" OR depression. ALOIS contains records of clinical trials identified from monthly searches of a number of major healthcare databases, numerous trial registries and grey literature sources. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental trials including a control group offering personally tailored activities. All interventions comprised an assessment of the participant's present or past interests in, or preferences for, particular activities for all participants as a basis for an individual activity plan. We did not include interventions offering a single activity (e.g. music or reminiscence) or activities that were not tailored to the individual's interests or preferences. Control groups received usual care or an active control intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently checked the articles for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed the methodological quality of all included studies. We assessed the risk of selection bias, performance bias, attrition bias, and detection bias. In case of missing information, we contacted the study authors. MAIN RESULTS: We included five randomised controlled trials (four parallel-group studies and one cross-over study), in which a total of 262 participants completed the studies. The number of participants ranged from 30 to 160. The mean age of the participants ranged from 71 to 83 years, and mean Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores ranged from 11 to 24. One study enrolled predominantly male veterans; in the other studies the proportion of female participants ranged from 40% to 60%. Informal caregivers were mainly spouses. In four studies family caregivers were trained to deliver personally tailored activities based on an individual assessment of interests and preferences of the people with dementia, and in one study such activities were offered directly to the participants. The selection of activities was performed with different methods. Two studies compared personally tailored activities with an attention control group, and three studies with usual care. Duration of follow-up ranged from two weeks to four months. We found low-certainty evidence indicating that personally tailored activities may reduce challenging behaviour (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.77 to -0.10; I2 = 44%; 4 studies; 305 participants) and may slightly improve quality of life (based on the rating of family caregivers). For the secondary outcomes depression (two studies), affect (one study), passivity (one study), and engagement (two studies), we found low-certainty evidence that personally tailored activities may have little or no effect. We found low-certainty evidence that personally tailored activities may slightly improve caregiver distress (two studies) and may have little or no effect on caregiver burden (MD -0.62, 95% CI -3.08 to 1.83; I2 = 0%; 3 studies; 246 participants), caregivers' quality of life, and caregiver depression. None of the studies assessed adverse effects, and no information about adverse effects was reported in any study. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Offering personally tailored activities to people with dementia living in the community may be one approach for reducing challenging behaviour and may also slightly improve the quality of life of people with dementia. Given the low certainty of the evidence, these results should be interpreted with caution. For depression and affect of people with dementia, as well as caregivers' quality of life and burden, we found no clear benefits of personally tailored activities.


Assuntos
Demência/reabilitação , Vida Independente , Preferência do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Participação Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cuidadores/educação , Cuidadores/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Demência/psicologia , Depressão/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Cônjuges/educação , Cônjuges/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 1-10, ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-189156

RESUMO

Current emergent studies are seriously questioning if parental strictness contributes to adolescent adjustment. This study examined whether the relationship between authoritative (warmth and strictness), authoritarian (strictness without warmth), indulgent (warmth without strictness), and neglectful (neither warmth nor strictness) parenting styles shows equal or different pattern of adjustment and maladjustment for aggressive and non-aggressive adolescents. The sample consisted of 969 Spanish adolescents, 554 females (57.2%) and 415 males, ranging from 12 to 17 years old. Families were classified into one of four typologies by their scores on warmth and strictness, and the adolescents were grouped by their aggressiveness (low vs. high). Adolescent adjustment was captured with three self-esteem indicators (emotional, physical, and family) and personal maladjustment with five indicators (negative self-esteem, negative self-adequacy, emotional irresponsiveness, emotional instability, and negative worldview). It was tested main and interaction effects between parenting and aggressiveness considering also sex and age factors. Findings showed that aggressive adolescents always had the worst socialization outcomes (i.e., the lowest self-esteem and the highest personal maladjustment). Aggressive and non-aggressive adolescents have a common pattern: both, indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were always associated with better outcomes than either authoritarian or neglectful parenting, but indulgent parenting style was associated with the best outcomes across all the criteria. In contrast with previous evidence about the idea that parental strictness and imposition might be beneficial to raise aggressive adolescents, present findings highlight the positive impact of parental warmth even with aggressive adolescents. Implications for family interventions were considered


Investigaciones emergentes cuestionan que la severidad parental contribuya al ajuste del adolescente. Este estudio examina si la relación entre los estilos parentales autorizativo (afecto y severidad), autoritario (severidad sin afecto), indulgente (afecto sin severidad) y negligente (ni afecto ni severidad) presenta patrones de ajuste y desajuste iguales o diferentes en adolescentes agresivos y no agresivos. Participaron 969 adolescentes españoles, 554 mujeres (57.2%) y 415 varones, de 12 a 17 años. Las familias se clasificaron en un estilo parental según sus puntuaciones en afecto y severidad y los adolescentes se agruparon por agresividad (baja vs. alta). Se captó el ajuste mediante tres indicadores de autoestima (emocional, física y familiar) y el desajuste personal con cinco indicadores (autoestima negativa, autoeficacia negativa, falta de respuesta emocional, inestabilidad emocional y visión negativa del mundo). Se probaron efectos principales y de interacción para estilos parentales y agresividad, considerando también sexo y edad. Los análisis mostraron que los adolescentes agresivos siempre tenían los peores resultados (i.e., la menor autoestima y el mayor desajuste personal). Los adolescentes agresivos y no agresivos comparten un patrón común: los estilos indulgente y autorizativo siempre se asociaron con mejores resultados que el autoritario o el negligente, pero el estilo indulgente se asoció con los mejores resultados en todos los criterios. A diferencia de estudios previos que consideraban que el rigor y la severidad de los padres podrían ser beneficiosos en hijos agresivos, los presentes resultados resaltan el impacto positivo del afecto parental incluso en adolescentes agresivos. Se consideraron las implicaciones para las intervenciones familiares


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Autoimagem , Características da Família , Relações Pais-Filho , Agressão/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Afeto/classificação , Autoritarismo , Fatores de Risco , Psicometria/instrumentação
9.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 11-21, ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-189157

RESUMO

This study aimed to address how multiple risk factors that were previously related and derived from ecological levels, when taken together, could explain child-to-mother and child-to-father violence. A total of 298 Spanish adolescents (140 girls) who had committed CPV, with a mean age of 15.91 (SDage = 1.89), offender residents of specialized closed institutions for adolescents who had aggressed their parents (49.5%) and educational centres (50.6%) completed all measures. Both models obtained adequate fit indexes and explained about 50% of the variance in the two types of violence. At contextual (exosystem) level, peer deviance was indirectly related to both types of CPV. At family level (microsystem), the strongest direct predictor in both models was parental ineffectiveness in applying discipline. An additional direct path to child-to-mother violence was the use of corporal punishment. At individual level (ontogenic), the two strongest direct predictors in both models were adolescents' impulsivity and substance abuse. The models highlight the complexity of the variables involved in the development of CPV. Regarding intervention implications, the models show the importance of paying attention to family variables, such as parents' mode of implementation of disciplinary measures, and individual factors, such as adolescents' impulsivity and substance abuse


Este estudio tuvo como fin abordar de qué modo podría explicar la violencia filio-parental (VFP) hacia la madre y hacia el padre los múltiples factores de riesgo relacionados previamente y derivados de niveles ecológicos en su conjunto. Un total de 298 adolescentes españoles (140 chicas) que presentaban índices elevados de VFP, con una edad media de 15.91 (DT = 1.89) y pertenecientes a centros psicoterapéuticos cerrados especializados en el trabajo de la VFP (49.5%) y a centros educativos (50.6%) cumplimentaron todas las medidas. Ambos modelos obtuvieron índices de ajuste adecuados y explicaron aproximadamente el 50% de la varianza de los dos tipos de VPF. En el nivel contextual (exosistema), la influencia de compañeros conflictivos se relacionó indirectamente con ambos tipos de VFP. A nivel familiar (microsistema), el mayor predictor directo en ambos modelos fue la ineficacia parental en la aplicación de la disciplina. Una relación directa adicional en el caso de la VFP hacia la madre fue el uso del castigo físico. Al nivel individual (ontogénico), los dos mejores predictores directos en ambos modelos fueron la impulsividad y el abuso de sustancias por parte de los adolescentes. Los modelos subrayan la complejidad de las variables involucradas en el desarrollo de la VFP. Respecto a las implicaciones para la intervención, los modelos enfatizan la importancia de prestar atención a las variables familiares, como el modo en el que los progenitores implementan las estrategias disciplinarias, y a factores individuales, como la impulsividad y el abuso de sustancias de los adolescentes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Agressão/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Análise Multivariada , Psicometria/métodos , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/classificação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Delinquência Juvenil/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 43-51, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-189160

RESUMO

Child-to-parent violence takes different forms (physical, psychological or economic) and can be addressed in the judicial system or in clinical practice. The current paper compares 61 clinical and 30 judicialized cases that were evaluated using the Child-to-Parent Violence Risk assessment tool (CPVR). Results showed a higher prevalence of risk factors in the judicial sample. This group of aggressors had worse profiles of violence (bidirectionality of the parent/child violence, violence other than CPV, and more CPV complaints), more psychological issues (low frustration tolerance, little anger management,narcissism, and violent attitudes) and, most notably, more dysfunctional families (violence between parents, cohabitation problems, inversion of the hierarchy, non-violent conflicts, and even criminal history of the parents). Logistic regression showed that narcissism, attitudes justifying violence, violence between parents, and problems of parents themselves (such mental disorders or drug abuse) allowed for correct classification of 89.4% of cases. Total CPVR scores differed between groups (25.8 vs. 14.2), and classification was good for both type of group (AUC = .830) and injuries to mother (AUC= .764). A cut-off score between 22 and 23 showed the best results in prediction of group and injuries to mother. Utility ofthe CPVR, and next steps in its development are discussed


La Violencia Filio-Parental (VFP) puede manifestarse de distintas formas (física, psicológica o económica) y su abordaje puede hacerse desde el sistema judicial o desde la práctica clínica. El presente estudio compara 61 casos clínicos (no judicializados) y 30 judicializados que fueron evaluados con la Guía para la Valoración del Riesgo de Violencia Filio-Parental (RVFP). Los resultados mostraron una mayor prevalencia de los factores de riesgo en la muestra judicial, con un perfil de violencia peor (más bidireccionalidad, más violencia distinta a la VFP y más denuncias por VFP), más complicaciones psicológicas en los agresores (baja tolerancia a la frustración, poco control de la ira, narcisismo y actitudes violentas) y, en especial, un perfil familiar más disfuncional (violencia entre los padres, problemas de convivencia, inversión de jerarquía, conflictos e incluso antecedentes delictivos en los padres). Una regresión logística puso de manifiesto que el narcisismo, las actitudes que justifican la violencia, la violencia entre los progenitores y los problemas de los padres (como trastorno mental o abuso de drogas) permitían clasificar correctamente al 89.4% de los casos. El grupo midió diferencias en la puntuación en la Guía RVFP (25.8vs. 14.2) y la clasificación fue buena para el tipo de grupo (AUC = .830) y lesiones a la madre (AUC = .764). Un punto de corte entre 22 y 23 mostró los mejores resultados en la predicción del grupo y las lesiones a la madre. Se discute la utilidad de la RVFP y los siguientes pasos en su desarrollo


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Narcisismo , Frustração , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Características da Família , Fatores de Risco , Violência Doméstica/legislação & jurisprudência , Medição de Risco/métodos
11.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(3): 218-235, 2020 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394820

RESUMO

Do Children and Adolescents with Different Reasons for Admission Equally Benefit from Institutional Care? Currently, almost 150.000 children and adolescents are placed in institutional care in Germany with the aim to improve their living conditions. Various studies showed positive effects concerning the development of those institutionalized children and adolescents. Within the present study, 500 children and adolescents in institutional care were examined regarding the improvement of quality of life and social competencies during their care placement depending on the respective reason for admission (group A: admission due to mental health and behavior problems; group S: problems in the context of the school; group O: no mental health problems, but other reasons). Furthermore, differences in the development of children and adolescents who initiated the placement by themselves and those who did not were examined. Results show that over a period of 18-24 months, all three groups developed effectively equally. Group A had a lower initial level regarding quality of life and social competencies compared to group S and group O and therefore reached lower outcomes within the investigation period. Development was irrespective of whether or not children and adolescents initiated the institutional placement by themselves. The results demonstrate that all three groups were able to benefit from institutional care, although children and adolescents with mental health problems had a notable potential for further development.


Assuntos
Criança Institucionalizada/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Criança , Alemanha , Humanos , Saúde Mental
12.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(3): 203-217, 2020 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394821

RESUMO

Evaluation of a Manualized Group Program for Siblings of Children with Diseases or Disabilities This study evaluates a manualized group program for siblings of children with life-threatening/life-limiting diseases or disabilities. The program aims to activate resources and to reduce emotional and behavioral problems, using cognitive-behavioral methods and experience-based interventions. In this multi-center study, 13 GeschwisterTREFFs were conducted by 11 study sites in Germany. Prior to and after the intervention 97 siblings aged 7 to 14 years and their parents were examined with standardized questionnaires. At baseline, the siblings of children with diseases or disabilities showed significant more emotional and behavioral problems compared to the respective norm samples. After the intervention, the siblings reported declined problem behavior scores that were mostly in the range of the particular norm values. Furthermore, the children indicated a significant improvement of self-esteem, self-efficacy, school competences and relations to their siblings. However, parents reported more problem behavior and less health-related quality of life of their children at both assessments. The present multi-center study showed the interventions' feasibility in different settings and confirmed expected improvements of target variables during the intervention period. Randomized-controlled trails are warranted to verify our results.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Pessoas com Deficiência , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Irmãos/psicologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Alemanha , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Autoimagem , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(6): 371-376, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456454

RESUMO

Digital media (DM) is omnipresent in society today and impacts every aspect of our life. Previous studies have shown DM to cause problems in interpersonal relationships by creating problematic interruptions in interactions, this has been termed technoference. The current study focuses on parent's self-rated perceived technoference and the rated behavior of their 4- to 5-year-old children. Parents (N = 153) filled out an online questionnaire regarding family DM use and technoference as well as questions regarding their child's behavior. Parents rated the level of technoference caused by their own use of DM as well as the rate of technoference caused by the child's use of DM. Parents were also asked questions regarding their own possible problematic cell phone use. The findings reveal a statistically significant contribution of technoference, caused by the parents' use of DM, to the behavior repertoire of the children.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Internet , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(3): 499-511, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443989

RESUMO

This article summarizes the literature on prevalence and establishment of severe problem behavior in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, empirical support for applied behavior analysis, and evidence-based behavioral assessment and treatment procedures. Early intervention and prevention approaches and the role of the pediatrician with regard to surveillance, early intervention, and coordination of care are discussed.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/terapia , Deficiência Intelectual/terapia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
16.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 48(4): 277-288, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301650

RESUMO

The impact of adolecent motherhood on child development in preschool children- identification of maternal risk factors Abstract. Objective: This longitudinal study aims to identify relevant risk factors in adolescent mothers which might impact their child's cognitive and speech development as well as behavior problems at preschool age. Based on earlier findings, maternal sensitivity (EA), socioeconomic status (SES) and psychological stress were identified as potentially influencing factors. Method: N = 31 adolescent and N = 47 adult mothers with their children aged 3;0 to 5;9 (M = 3;55) participated in this study. Child variables included cognitive development (WPPSI-III), language development (SSV), and behavioral problems (SDQ). Maternal factors were EA, SES, and mental health problems (BSI-18). Results: Children of adolescent mothers performed worse on cognitive and speech development and are described by their mothers as exhibiting more behavioral problems compared to children of adult mothers. Mediation analyses revealed that the effect of maternal age on children's cognitive development is occurs through reduced maternal sensitivity of adolescent mothers. Further, higher psychological stress of adolescent mothers mediated the effect of maternal age on children's behavior problems. Conclusion: Preschool children of adolescent mothers showed poorer developmental outcomes compared to children of adult mothers. This is partly explained by lower maternal sensitivity and higher rates of psychological stress among adolescent mothers.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez na Adolescência , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208045

RESUMO

Background: This study examined change in individually defined problem behaviors during a telephone-assisted self-help (TASH) intervention for parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Parents of children with ADHD and functional impairment despite methylphenidate treatment participated in a 12-month TASH intervention (8 self-help booklets plus up to 14 counseling telephone calls). The severity of three individually defined target problems, of ADHD symptoms, and oppositional symptoms were rated at baseline and after 6 and 12 months; parental satisfaction with the intervention was assessed after 12 months. The problems were categorized according to the type of behavior and the disorder to which they were related (ADHD vs. oppositional symptoms). Results: Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed a significant decrease in problem severity during the intervention. The change in problem severity was greater than the change in ADHD and oppositional symptoms. Correlations between problem severity and symptom severity were low to moderate. Correlations between the change in problem severity and parental satisfaction were moderate. Discussion: The decrease in the individual problem severity during TASH is stronger than the decrease in ADHD and oppositional symptoms. Individually defined problems should be attended to in psychotherapy research to avoid underestimating the benefit of interventions by solely considering standardized measures.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Aconselhamento/métodos , Pais , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Telefone , Criança , Humanos , Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico , Autocuidado
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230626, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203544

RESUMO

Internalizing and externalizing behavior problems are established risk factors for many unpleasant outcomes and psychopathology in adulthood, and understanding the interplay between genes and environment is important for deducing implications for therapeutic interventions. Among genetic studies on internalizing and externalizing problem behavior, the heritability estimates differ widely. Most research only uses twin data and other-reports, and therefore certain limitations are inevitable. Our study is the first to investigate genetic and environmental influences on problem behavior using a Nuclear Twin Family Design and self-reports, in order to address these limitations. Internalizing and externalizing problem behavior of 3,087 twin pairs (age 11-23), a sibling, and their parents were analyzed with structural equation modeling to estimate heritability separately for each of three twin birth cohorts. Genetic influences account for about one-third of the variance for both internalizing and externalizing. Shared environmental influences were only found for internalizing, and through the advantages of considering data from the whole twin family, firstly could be identified as solely twin-specific. Our findings could contribute to a better understanding of the gap between heritability based on twin studies and DNA-based heritability ('missing heritability problem'): Results indicate that heritability estimates gained via classic twin design and other-reports are slightly overestimated and therefore environmental influences, in general, are more important than previous research suggests. Simultaneously, we showed that family-specific environment either contributes to behavior problems only on an individual level, or that it has a lesser influence than originally thought.


Assuntos
Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Gêmeos/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 45(3): 154-166, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114802

RESUMO

This study examined the influence of executive functions on the association between callous-unemotional traits and severity and type of childhood disruptive behavior. Eighty one children aged 8-12 years and their parents participated in the study. We assessed children's callous-unemotional traits, executive functions, and two indices of disruptive behavior. Callous-unemotional traits and parent ratings of executive dysfunction were uniquely correlated with elevated conduct problems and oppositional and defiant behavior. Neither performance-based measures, nor parent ratings of executive function, moderated the association between callous-unemotional traits and disruptive behavior. Study findings suggest that executive functions and callous-unemotional traits may impact children's behavior independently.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Behav Ther ; 51(2): 334-349, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138942

RESUMO

Recent work has drawn attention to the previously underrecognized role that irritability plays in childhood psychopathology. Despite increased recognition of the clinical importance of pediatric irritability as a transdiagnostic symptom dimension, there is a lack of evidence-based treatments for this population that simultaneously and equitably addresses both child and contextual (e.g., parental) factors implicated in the development and maintenance of associated emotional and behavioral difficulties. In the current pilot study, we adapted the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Children (UP-C) for the treatment of pediatric irritability in a sample of 19 children (ages 8 to 12) with primary presenting concerns of irritability and/or disruptive behaviors. Results supported the feasibility and acceptability of this treatment and provided preliminary evidence that such an approach may yield improved outcomes for symptoms of pediatric irritability and disruptive behaviors. Implications of these findings for future research and clinical interventions for pediatric irritability are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Humor Irritável , Transtornos do Humor/terapia , Adolescente , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos Piloto , Comportamento Problema/psicologia
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