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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2518, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523813

RESUMO

The nervous and endocrine systems coordinate with each other to closely influence physiological and behavioural responses in animals. Here we show that WAKE (encoded by wide awake, also known as wake) modulates membrane levels of GABAA receptor Resistance to Dieldrin (Rdl), in insulin-producing cells of adult male Drosophila melanogaster. This results in changes to secretion of insulin-like peptides which is associated with changes in juvenile hormone biosynthesis in the corpus allatum, which in turn leads to a decrease in 20-hydroxyecdysone levels. A reduction in ecdysone signalling changes neural architecture and lowers the perception of the male-specific sex pheromone 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate by odorant receptor 67d olfactory neurons. These finding explain why WAKE-deficient in Drosophila elicits significant male-male courtship behaviour.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Insulinas , Acetatos , Animais , Corte , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Masculino , Percepção , Feromônios , Receptores de GABA-A , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
2.
Biol Lett ; 18(5): 20210576, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506241

RESUMO

While mouthbrooding is not an uncommon parental care strategy in fishes, paternal mouthbrooding only occurs in eight fish families and is little studied. The high cost of paternal mouthbrooding to the male implies a low risk of investment in another male's offspring but genetic parentage patterns are poorly known for paternal mouthbrooders. Here, we used single-nucleotide polymorphism genetic data to investigate parentage relationships of broods of two mouthbrooders of northern Australian rivers, mouth almighty Glossamia aprion and blue catfish Neoarius graeffei. For N. graeffei, we found that the parentage pattern was largely monogamous with the brooder male as the sire. For G. aprion, the parentage pattern was more heterogeneous including observations of monogamous broods with the brooder male as the sire (73%), polygyny (13%), cuckoldry (6%) and a brood genetically unrelated to the brooder male (6%). Findings demonstrate the potential for complex interrelationships of male care, paternity confidence and mating behaviour in mouthbrooding fishes.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Austrália , Peixes , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Paterno
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5948, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396561

RESUMO

Each species and sex can develop different reproductive strategies to optimize their fitness while assigning reproductive effort. Allocosa senex is a sex-role reversed spider whose males construct long burrows in the sand. They wait for wandering females to approach, assess their sexual partners and donate their constructions to females after copulation. Females stay in the burrow and lay their egg-sac. When offspring are ready for dispersion, females leave the burrow and gain access to new mating opportunities. Males are choosy during mate courtship, preferring to mate with virgin females over copulated ones, which can even be cannibalized if males reject them. This situation turns new mating opportunities dangerous for copulated females. We wondered whether a copulated female inside the previous mate's burrow responds to courtship from a new male and if this new male can copulate, avoiding burrow construction costs. We also explored whether courtship and copulation behaviors during the first sexual encounter affected the probability of occurrence of a second copulation. For that purposes we exposed copulated females inside male burrows to new males (non-donor males). Males could locate and court females inside the previous male's burrow, and females accepted a second copulation. Hence, A. senex females are not monogamous as was expected but increase their reproductive success by copulating with non-donor males. Also, males can develop opportunistic tactics, suggesting a more dynamic mating system for this sex-role reversed spider than assumed.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Copulação , Corte , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal
4.
J Therm Biol ; 105: 103222, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393056

RESUMO

Infection may cause some insects to increase their body temperature to deal against pathogens successfully. However, one unclear aspect is whether females may use male temperature to discriminate sick from healthy partners. We tested this by using Tenebrio molitor beetles whose females use the intensity of male antennal and leg stroking that take place during mating, to discriminate among partners. We predicted that females will not choose males that are too hot and/or will penalize these male partners in terms of a reduced egg number and hatching success. We manipulated males by infecting them with an entomopathogenic fungus, and exposed these males versus control males to females. Infected and non-infected males increased their temperature during copulation but females did not choose on the basis of male's temperature or infection status. However, females laid fewer eggs and/or had a reduced hatching success after mating with infected males that had a body temperature higher than ca. 24 °C. We postulate that male temperature is another source of information involved in postcopulatory mate choice that, along with courtship traits, compose a multimodal signaling system.


Assuntos
Besouros , Tenebrio , Animais , Copulação , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Temperatura
5.
J Evol Biol ; 35(5): 693-707, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411988

RESUMO

Speciation is driven by traits that can act to prevent mating between nascent lineages, including male courtship and female preference for male traits. Mating barriers involving these traits evolve quickly because there is strong selection on males and females to maximize reproductive success, and the tight co-evolution of mating interactions can lead to rapid diversification of sexual behaviour. Populations of Drosophila melanogaster show strong asymmetrical reproductive isolation that is correlated with geographic origin. Using strains that capture natural variation in mating traits, we ask two key questions: which specific male traits are females selecting, and are these traits under divergent sexual selection? These questions have proven extremely challenging to answer, because even in closely related lineages males often differ in multiple traits related to mating behaviour. We address these questions by estimating selection gradients for male courtship and cuticular hydrocarbons for two different female genotypes. We identify specific behaviours and particular cuticular hydrocarbons that are under divergent sexual selection and could potentially contribute to premating reproductive isolation. Additionally, we report that a subset of these traits are plastic; males adjust these traits based on the identity of the female genotype they interact with. These results suggest that even when male courtship is not fixed between lineages, ongoing selection can act on traits that are important for reproductive isolation.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Animais , Corte , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Hidrocarbonetos , Masculino , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Comportamento Sexual Animal
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1972): 20220212, 2022 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382592

RESUMO

How do female sexual preferences for male ornamental traits arise? The developmental origins of female preferences are still an understudied area, with most explanations pointing to genetic mechanisms. One intriguing, little-explored, alternative focuses on the role of associative learning in driving this process. According to this hypothesis, a preference learned in an ecological context can be transferred into a sexual context, resulting in changes in mating preferences as a by-product. I tested this hypothesis by first training female guppies to associate either orange or black colour with food delivery; I then presented videos of males with computer-manipulated coloured spots and measured female preference towards them. I also allowed females from both treatments to mate with males differing in their ratio of orange-to-black spots and measured the males' reproductive success. After training, female sexual preferences significantly diverged among treatments in the expected direction. In addition, orange males sired a greater proportion of offspring with females food-conditioned on orange compared to those conditioned on black. These results show that mating preferences can arise as a by-product of associative learning, which, via translation into variation in male fitness, can become associated with indirect genetic benefits, potentially leading to further evolution.


Assuntos
Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Poecilia , Animais , Cor , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal
7.
J Evol Biol ; 35(5): 742-751, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384100

RESUMO

Sexual selection and sexual conflict are expected to affect all aspects of the phenotype, not only traits that are directly involved in reproduction. Here, we show coordinated evolution of multiple physiological and life-history traits in response to long-term experimental manipulation of the mating system in populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Development time was extended under polyandry relative to monogamy in both sexes, potentially due to higher investment in traits linked to sexual selection and sexual conflict. Individuals (especially males) evolving under polyandry had higher metabolic rates and locomotor activity than those evolving under monogamy. Polyandry individuals also invested more in metabolites associated with increased endurance capacity and efficient energy metabolism and regulation, namely lipids and glycogen. Finally, polyandry males were less desiccation- and starvation resistant than monogamy males, suggesting trade-offs between resistance and sexually selected traits. Our results provide experimental evidence that mating systems can impose selection that influences the evolution of non-sexual phenotypes such as development, activity, metabolism and nutrient homeostasis.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Seleção Sexual , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Drosophila/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(1): e20200694, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442264

RESUMO

Night-foraging cyclocephaline scarab beetles rely on floral structures of specific plant hosts for food and shelter, as well as mating sites. Although the role of floral fragrances as long-range attractants in these interactions has been elucidated, the mechanisms that mediate close-range mate discrimination in aggregations are still unclear. We recorded the mating-oriented behavior of male Cyclocephala distincta, focusing on the influence of contact signaling and movement over mate selection in a series of controlled bioassays. Roughly half of the males chose a conspecific female over another male, readily engaging in copulation upon initial contact. The remainder males required more experience, acquired through successive mounts on both females and males. Eventually, all focal males invested in copulation with females. When faced with the choice for a live or an inert conspecific female, male C. distincta preferred the former in 76% of cases, although we also recorded sexual investment on inert females (10% of cases). In paired experiments with an inert female or a male, nonetheless, focal males significantly opted for the opposite sex, and that included mating with the inert females. Innate characteristics of the females of C. distincta are evaluated by males synergistically, and not separately, in discriminating potential sexual partners.


Assuntos
Besouros , Comportamento Reprodutivo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal
9.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 383, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444217

RESUMO

Estrogen receptor (ER) α is involved in several estrogen-modulated neural and peripheral functions. To determine its role in the expression of female and male reproductive behavior, a mouse line lacking the ERα in the nervous system was generated. Mutant females did not exhibit sexual behavior despite normal olfactory preference, and had a reduced number of progesterone receptor-immunoreactive neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Mutant males displayed a moderately impaired sexual behavior and unaffected fertility, despite evidences of altered organization of sexually dimorphic populations in the preoptic area. In comparison, males deleted for both neural ERα and androgen receptor (AR) displayed greater sexual deficiencies. Thus, these data highlight a predominant role for neural ERα in females and a complementary role with the AR in males in the regulation of sexual behavior, and provide a solid background for future analyses of neuronal versus glial implication of these signaling pathways in both sexes.


Assuntos
Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Área Pré-Óptica/metabolismo
10.
Am Nat ; 199(5): 653-665, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472015

RESUMO

AbstractTo thoroughly understand the drivers of dynamic signal elaboration requires assessing the direct and indirect effects of naturally interacting factors. Here, we use structural equation modeling to test multivariate data from in situ observations of sexual signal production against a model of causal processes hypothesized to drive signal elaboration. We assess direct and indirect effects, and relative impacts, of male-male competition and attacks by eavesdropping frog-biting midges (Diptera: Corethrellidae) on call elaboration of male túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus). We find that the intensity of attacks by these micropredator flies drives the extent to which frogs elaborate their calls, likely due to a temporal trade-off between signaling and antimicropredator defense. Micropredator attacks appear to dynamically limit a male's call rate and complexity and consequently dampen the effects of intrasexual competition. In accounting for naturally interacting drivers of signal elaboration, this study presents a counterpoint to the mechanisms traditionally thought to drive sexual selection in this system. Moreover, the results shed light on the relatively unexamined and potentially influential role of eavesdropping micropredators in the evolution of sexual communication systems.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Anuros , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual Animal
11.
Curr Biol ; 32(8): R354-R355, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35472419

RESUMO

In the animal world, numerous mechanisms have been described that allow for extremely fast actions or reactions via the slow storage of energy, typically in elastic structures, which is then nearly instantly released1-4, similar to the operation of a catapult. Many of these mechanisms are employed for prey capture1,2 or for predator avoidance3,4; however, such superfast actions have not yet been reported as a means to dodge sexual cannibalism. Here, we unveil a novel mechanism in a communal orb-weaving spider Philoponella prominens (Uloboridae) (Figure S1), whereby males undertake a split-second catapult action immediately after mating, thereby fleeing their partner (Video S1). We demonstrate that males achieve their superfast action (up to 88.2 cm/s) by extending the tibia-metatarsus joint of their first leg pair via hydraulic pressure in a joint that is known to lack extensor muscles in spiders. This rapid expansion greatly reduces the likelihood of the male being sexually cannibalized.


Assuntos
Canibalismo , Aranhas , Animais , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Aranhas/fisiologia
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6177, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418584

RESUMO

Peripheral sensory neurons are the gateway to the environment across species. In Drosophila, olfactory and gustatory senses are required to initiate courtship, as well as for the escalation of courtship patterns that lead to copulation. To be successful, copulation must last long enough to ensure the transfer of sperm and seminal fluid that ultimately leads to fertilization. The peripheral sensory information required to regulate copulation duration is unclear. Here, we employed genetic manipulations that allow driving gene expression in the male genitalia as a tool to uncover the role of these genitalia specific neurons in copulation. The fly genitalia contain sex-specific bristle hairs innervated by mechanosensory neurons. To date, the role of the sensory information collected by these peripheral neurons in male copulatory behavior is unknown. We confirmed that these MSNs are cholinergic and co-express both fru and dsx. We found that the sensory information received by the peripheral sensory neurons from the front legs (GRNs) and mechanosensory neurons (MSNs) at the male genitalia contribute to the regulation of copulation duration. Moreover, our results show that their function is required for copulation persistence, which ensures copulation is undisrupted in the presence of environmental stress before sperm transfer is complete.


Assuntos
Copulação , Proteínas de Drosophila , Animais , Copulação/fisiologia , Corte , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
Curr Biol ; 32(6): R284-R287, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349817

RESUMO

Quantitative behavioral analysis of Drosophila courtship reveals that visual cues of a female's body influence which actions a male performs during courtship. These actions in turn influence female actions, producing a mutual synchronization of courtship between male and female flies.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Corte , Drosophila , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Social
14.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 135: 104595, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231490

RESUMO

Sexual incentive stimuli activate sexual motivation and heighten the level of general arousal. The sexual motive may induce the individual to approach the incentive, and eventually to initiate sexual acts. Both approach and the ensuing copulatory interaction further enhance general arousal. We present data from rodents and humans in support of these assertions. We then suggest that orgasm is experienced when the combined level of excitation surpasses a threshold. In order to analyze the neurobiological bases of sexual motivation, we employ the concept of a central motive state. We then discuss the mechanisms involved in the long- and short-term control of that state as well as those mediating the momentaneous actions of sexual incentive stimuli. This leads to an analysis of the neurobiology behind the interindividual differences in responsivity of the sexual central motive state. Knowledge is still fragmentary, and many contradictory observations have been made. Nevertheless, we conclude that the basic mechanisms of sexual motivation and the role of general arousal are similar in rodents and humans.


Assuntos
Motivação , Comportamento Sexual , Animais , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Humanos , Neurobiologia , Ratos , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
15.
Evolution ; 76(4): 829-836, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276016

RESUMO

Male harm arises when traits that increase reproductive success in competition with other males also harm females as a side effect. The extent of harm depends on male and female phenotypes, both of which can diverge between populations. Within a population, harm is inferred when increased exposure to males reduces female fitness, but studies of the divergence of male harm rarely manipulate male exposure. Here, we quantify male harm and compare its magnitude between two lab populations of Drosophila serrata that were derived from a common ancestor 7 years earlier and subsequently held under conditions that minimized environmental differences. We manipulated female exposure to males in a factorial design involving all four combinations of males and females from these populations, providing insight into divergence in both sexes. Our results reveal substantial harm to females and provide stronger evidence of divergence in males than in females. Using these and other published data, we discuss conceptual issues surrounding the quantification and comparison of harm that arise because it involves a comparison of multiple quantities (e.g., female fitness under varying male exposure), and we demonstrate the increased insight that is gained by manipulating male exposure to quantify these quantities.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reprodução
16.
Neuron ; 110(5): 737-739, 2022 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240060

RESUMO

In this issue of Neuron, Liu et al. (2022) molecularly identify subsets of estrogen receptor-1-positive neurons within the female ventrolateral subdivision of the ventromedial hypothalamus activated during sexual receptivity versus agonistic behaviors in distinct reproductive states and demonstrate that these subsets control state-dependent changes in social behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual Animal , Ursidae , Animais , Feminino , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Social
17.
J Econ Entomol ; 115(2): 556-564, 2022 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35296884

RESUMO

Insect responses to chemical attractants are often measured using olfactory bioassays prior to testing in field experiments. The attraction of sexually mature male Bactrocera dorsalis to methyl eugenol (ME) and the loss of attraction by ME pre-fed males have been demonstrated in laboratory bioassays and field trapping studies. It has been suggested that ME nonresponsiveness can be exploited to improve the effectiveness of B. dorsalis management programs by protecting sterile males from ME-based control measures. Currently, work is underway to identify alternatives that reduce or eliminate ME response. To support the development of compounds and evaluation of their effect on B. dorsalis attraction to ME, we compared the effectiveness of three common bioassay methods that have been used to measure lure response in Bactrocera flies under controlled conditions (choice assays using Y-tube [Y], small-cage arena [SC], and rotating carousel field-cage [RC]) to determine which bioassay method is efficient and reliable. A series of bioassays comparing ME-exposed and ME-naïve wild-type and genetic sexing strain males showed that the RC and SC were effective at both observing attraction to ME and detecting a significant reduction in ME response from ME-exposed males. However, the male attraction to ME and a significant decrease in response to ME after ME feeding was not observed in our Y-tube assays. These suggest that RC and SC are preferable options to evaluate ME non-responsiveness in B. dorsalis, and that Y-tube tests are difficult to administer correctly.


Assuntos
Tephritidae , Animais , Bioensaio , Eugenol/análogos & derivados , Eugenol/farmacologia , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Tephritidae/fisiologia
18.
Horm Behav ; 141: 105149, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248868

RESUMO

Repeated formation and subsequent dissolution of romantic relationships is common in humans across a lifetime. The socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is used to study mechanisms of these bonds. At least in the laboratory, male prairie voles form bonds with a new female partner after loss of a previous partner. Initial bond formation depends on activation of dopamine D2-like receptors in the nucleus accumbens. Blocking activity of this receptor subtype disrupts formation of an animal's first pair bond. It is not known if these same D2-like receptors facilitate pair bonding with a subsequent partner after previous partner loss. This study examined the effects of D2-like receptor blockade on repeated pair bonding in male prairie voles. Males were paired with an initial female and allowed to mate before being separated. After a 5-day separation, males were then treated with either saline or eticlopride, a selective D2-receptor antagonist, prior to being paired with a second female and being allowed to mate. After a second separation, males were tested to determine if they developed a preference for spending time with their first or second mate. Eticlopride-treated males spent more time in a cage containing one of their previous partners compared to time in an empty cage but did not form a selective preference for either partner. Saline-treated males preferred their second, more recent partner. D2 receptor antagonism, then, disrupts bond formation in a second pairing but does not help to maintain a bond with the initial partner.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Ligação do Par , Animais , Arvicolinae/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/farmacologia , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Social
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(11): e2119899119, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35254899

RESUMO

SignificanceIn species with internal fertilization, sperm spend an important part of their lives within the female. To examine the life history of the sperm during this time, we used semiquantitative proteomics and sex-specific isotopic labeling in fruit flies to determine the extent of molecular continuity between male and female reproductive tracts and provide a global catalog of sperm-associated proteins. Multiple seminal fluid proteins and female proteins associate with sperm immediately after mating. Few seminal fluid proteins remain after long-term sperm storage, whereas female-derived proteins constitute one-fifth of the postmating sperm proteome by then. Our data reveal a molecular "hand-off" from males to females, which we postulate to be an important component of sperm-female interactions.


Assuntos
Drosophila/fisiologia , Genitália , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Animais , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Masculino , Proteoma , Proteômica , Reprodução , Proteínas de Plasma Seminal/metabolismo , Comportamento Sexual Animal
20.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1971): 20212687, 2022 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35317675

RESUMO

Following the modern synthesis, mating signals were thought of principally as species recognition traits, a view later challenged by a burgeoning interest in sexual selection-specifically mate choice. In the 1990s, these different signal functions were proposed to represent a single process driven by the shape of female preference functions across both intra- and interspecific signal space. However, the properties of reliable 'recognition' signals (stereotyped; low intraspecific variation) and informative 'quality' signals (condition dependent; high intraspecific variation) seem at odds, perhaps favouring different signal components for different functions. Surprisingly, the idea that different components of mating signals are evaluated in series, first to recognize generally compatible mates and then to select for quality, has never been explicitly tested. Here I evaluate patterns of (i) intraspecific signal variation, (ii) female preference function shape and (iii) phylogenetic signal for male cricket call components known to be processed in series. The results show that signal components processed first tend to have low variation, closed preference functions and low phylogenetic signal, whereas signal components processed later show the opposite, suggesting that mating signal evaluation follows an 'order-of-operations'. Applicability of this finding to diverse groups of organisms and sensory modalities is discussed.


Assuntos
Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Seleção Sexual
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