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1.
Zootaxa ; 4743(3): zootaxa.4743.3.10, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230329

RESUMO

The courtship, copulation and post-copulatory behavior, as well as acoustic communication of the Neotropical cricket Endecous (Notendecous) onthophagus is described under laboratory conditions and compared with other phalangopsids whose mating system was studied so far. We found that E. onthophagus present predictable mating sequences including seven events: (1) prolonged courtship; (2) male spermatophore extrusion during courtship; (3) female-above copulatory position; (4) prolonged copulation; (5) male forewings flipped over his head, exposing metanotal region along copulation; (6) copulation without spermatophore transfer; and (7) absence of guarding behavior. We suggest these events (1 to 7) as a behavioral line shared by phalangopsids, and we highlight variations that reflect the behavioral diversity of these crickets. The males of E. onthophagus produce the calling song (chirps) to attract females to mate, and also stridulates intermittently during the entire courtship period with distinct acoustic parameters during the stages of pre- and post-spermatophore extrusion.


Assuntos
Gryllidae , Acústica , Animais , Brasil , Copulação , Corte , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual Animal
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 623, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001689

RESUMO

Optical in vivo recordings from freely walking Drosophila are currently possible only for limited behaviors. Here, we expand the range of accessible behaviors with a retroreflective marker-based tracking and ratiometric brain imaging system, permitting brain activity imaging even in copulating male flies. We discover that P1 neurons, active during courtship, are inactive during copulation, whereas GABAergic mAL neurons remain active during copulation, suggesting a countervailing role of mAL in opposing P1 activity during mating.


Assuntos
Copulação/fisiologia , Drosophila/fisiologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Corte/psicologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Feminino , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Masculino , Neuroimagem/instrumentação , Neurônios/metabolismo , Córtex Olfatório/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0225354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040477

RESUMO

The North American cheetah population serves as a reservoir for the species, and acts as a research population to help understand the unique biology of the species. Little is known about the intrauterine physiology of the cheetah, including embryo differentiation, implantation, and the development of the placenta. After mating, cheetah females frequently experience (30-65% of matings) a non-pregnant luteal phase where progestogen metabolite levels match those found in pregnant females for the first ~55 days of gestation, but parturition does not occur. Immunoglobulin J chain (IgJ) is a molecule that is involved in the activation of the secretory immune response and has been found to be indicative of pregnancy in the cheetah using fecal monitoring. In this study, western blotting was employed to track IgJ abundance in pooled weekly fecal samples following natural breeding or exogenous stimulation to ovulate, and IgJ levels were compared between individuals undergoing a pregnant (n = 12) and non-pregnant (n = 19) luteal phase. It was revealed that IgJ abundance was increased in pregnant females compared to non-pregnant females at week 4 and week 8 post-breeding, indicating the potential modulation of maternal immunity in response to sensitive events such as implantation and the increased secretory activity of the placenta. IgJ levels also tended to be higher early after breeding in females that were bred naturally with intact males compared to exogenously stimulated females with no exposure to seminal plasma, potentially indicating a response to the act of intromission or the stress of breeding, or possibly demonstrating an immune response resulting in the promotion of maternal tolerance to seminal antigens present upon embryonic implantation. Monitoring fecal IgJ may be a potential method to determine gestational status in the cheetah and will aid future conservation efforts of the species.


Assuntos
Acinonyx/fisiologia , Cadeias J de Imunoglobulina/análise , Gravidez/imunologia , Reprodução/imunologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estrogênios/análise , Fezes/química , Feminino , Cadeias J de Imunoglobulina/metabolismo , Fase Luteal/imunologia , Masculino , Indução da Ovulação , Progestinas/análise , Sêmen , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Estados Unidos
4.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113883, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931411

RESUMO

Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) is an emerging pollution, that dramatically keeps on increasing worldwide due to urbanisation and transport infrastructure development. In 2016, it nearly affected 23% of the Earth's surface. To date, all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems have been affected. The disruption of natural light cycles due to ALAN is particularly expected for nocturnal species, which require dark periods to forage, move, and reproduce. Apart from chiropterans, amphibians contain the largest proportion of nocturnal species among vertebrates exhibiting an unfavourable conservation status in most parts of the world and living in ALAN polluted areas. Despite the growing number of studies on this subject, our knowledge on the direct influence of nocturnal lighting on amphibians is still scarce. To better understand the consequences of ALAN on the breeding component of amphibian fitness, we experimentally exposed male breeding common toads (Bufo bufo) to ecologically relevant light intensities of 0.01 (control), 0.1 or 5 lux for 12 days. At mating, exposed males took longer than controls to form an amplexus, i.e. to pair with a female, and broke amplexus before egg laying, while controls never did. These behavioural changes were associated with fitness alteration. The fertilisation rate of 5 lux-exposed males was reduced by 25%. Salivary testosterone, which is usually correlated with reproductive behaviours, was not altered by ALAN. Our study demonstrates that ALAN can affect the breeding behaviour of anuran species and reduce one component of their fitness. Given the growing importance of ALAN, more work is needed to understand its long-term consequences on the behaviour and physiology of individuals. It appears essential to identify deleterious effects for animal populations and propose appropriate management solutions in an increasingly brighter world.


Assuntos
Bufo bufo , Luz , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Bufo bufo/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Fotoperíodo , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos da radiação
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 712: 136341, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931223

RESUMO

Increasing UVB radiation (UVB) reaching earth's surface following stratospheric ozone depletion is linked to serious consequences for organisms. While studies have focused on direct cytocidal and immunomodulatory effects of UVB, indirect consequences for fitness-related life-history traits are largely unexplored, although knowledge is needed to understand organismal responses to climate change. The present study investigates the effects of developmental exposure to enhanced, but ecologically relevant, ambient UVB levels on growth (body size), parental behavior (nest-building), fitness-enhancing traits of pre-mating (sexual ornamentation) and post-mating (sperm traits) sexual selection as well as their interrelationships in male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Moreover, potentially underlying direct UVB effects, testicular antioxidant capacity (TAC) and testes and skin melanization were quantified. Juvenile full-siblings were split into two groups and raised until adulthood in a semi-natural set-up under light conditions including either natural (UVBnormal) or elevated UVB levels (UVBenhanced). When becoming reproductive, males were kept individually before data collection took place at their reproductive peak. The results showed that males from the UVBenhanced-group were smaller than their brothers from the UVBnormal-treatment, whereas no treatment differences were observed for sexual ornamentation, sperm traits and TAC. Moreover, UVB-stressed males built their nests faster and the relationship between body size and nest size was negative for UVBenhanced-males while being positive for UVBnormal-males. These results demonstrate that, depending on physical state, UVB-stressed males adjusted their behavior to some extent. Additionally, a trade-off between the investment in pre- and post-mating traits was found for UVBenhanced-males, i.e. the intensity of their breeding coloration was negatively correlated with sperm number whereas this relationship was reversed for UVBnormal-males, thus showing an interaction between pre- and post-mating traits regarding exposure treatment. The interaction provides first experimental evidence that differential allocation to energetically demanding pre- and post-mating components of male fitness is triggered by a key environmental stressor of climate change.


Assuntos
Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Smegmamorpha , Animais , Masculino , Espermatozoides , Raios Ultravioleta
6.
Nature ; 578(7793): 137-141, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996852

RESUMO

Organisms have evolved diverse behavioural strategies that enhance the likelihood of encountering and assessing mates1. Many species use pheromones to communicate information about the location, sexual and social status of potential partners2. In mice, the major urinary protein darcin-which is present in the urine of males-provides a component of a scent mark that elicits approach by females and drives learning3,4. Here we show that darcin elicits a complex and variable behavioural repertoire that consists of attraction, ultrasonic vocalization and urinary scent marking, and also serves as a reinforcer in learning paradigms. We identify a genetically determined circuit-extending from the accessory olfactory bulb to the posterior medial amygdala-that is necessary for all behavioural responses to darcin. Moreover, optical activation of darcin-responsive neurons in the medial amygdala induces both the innate and the conditioned behaviours elicited by the pheromone. These neurons define a topographically segregated population that expresses neuronal nitric oxide synthase. We suggest that this darcin-activated neural circuit integrates pheromonal information with internal state to elicit both variable innate behaviours and reinforced behaviours that may promote mate encounters and mate selection.


Assuntos
Feromônios/fisiologia , Proteínas/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Bulbo Olfatório/fisiologia , Reforço Psicológico
7.
Biol Lett ; 16(1): 20190730, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964258

RESUMO

Cooperative breeding animals frequently inhabit harsh environments. It is widely accepted that harsh environments hinder independent reproduction, and this constraint maintains individuals in family groups. Yet the assumption that harsh ecological conditions reduce the success of members of cooperative breeding groups when breeding independently has not been experimentally tested. We addressed this shortcoming using the socially polymorphic Alpine silver ant, Formica selysi. This species has single-queen (independent breeders) and multiple-queen (cooperative breeders) colonies coexisting within populations. We placed newly mated queens emerging from each type of colony to breed alone in either a harsh or mild winter condition and recorded their brood production and survival. Queens emerging from single-queen colonies were unaffected by the winter condition and were more successful at founding a nest independently than queens from multiple-queen colonies. By contrast, queens from multiple-queen colonies had higher mortality after a harsh than after a mild winter. These results support the long-held assumption that harsh environments constrain independent reproduction of members of cooperative breeding groups.


Assuntos
Formigas , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Comportamento Social , Animais , Cruzamento , Genética Populacional , Reprodução
8.
Naturwissenschaften ; 107(1): 6, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900596

RESUMO

In polygynous species, males typically mate with more than one female, and male investment in any one mating should decrease if securing that mating reduces future mating opportunities. In contrast, monogynous males mate only once, so they should invest maximally in that single mating. In two monogynous, sexually cannibalistic Latrodectus spider species (L. geometricus, L. hasselti), males can mate and fertilize immature females. This recently described tactic is time-consuming because males must wait days for females to be capable of mating. It is also risky since immature females approached too early may kill males outright. However, if males typically find only one female in their lifetime, increasing the opportunity to mate may be worth these costs. We investigated whether this tactic is also practiced by a polygynous congener, L. hesperus, in which males typically mate more than once and may avoid time-consuming, risky encounters. In laboratory trials, we showed that males copulate with immature females. Moreover, males mounted immatures more rapidly, copulated for longer, and fathered more offspring than males that mated adults females. We concluded that monogyny is not a necessary condition for immature mating to be favored as an alternative reproductive tactic and suggest that it may be common in other spider taxa.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual Animal , Aranhas/fisiologia , Animais , Reprodução/fisiologia
9.
J Chem Ecol ; 46(2): 128-137, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907752

RESUMO

Cuticular compounds (CCs) that cover the surface of insects primarily serve as protection against entomopathogens, harmful substances, and desiccation. However, CCs may also have secondary signaling functions. By studying the role of CCs in intraspecific interactions, we may advance our understanding of the evolution of pheromonal communication in insects. We previously found that the gregarious parasitoid, Cotesia glomerata (L.), uses heptanal as a repellent pheromone to help avoid mate competition among sibling males, whereas another cuticular aldehyde, nonanal, is part of the female-produced attractive sex pheromone. Here, we show that the same aldehydes have different pheromonal functions in a related solitary parasitoid, Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson). Heptanal enhances the attractiveness of the female's sex pheromone, whereas nonanal does not affect a female's attractiveness. Hence, these common aldehydes are differentially used by the two Cotesia species to mediate, synergistically, the attractiveness of the main constituents of their respective sex pheromones. The specificity of the complete sex pheromone blend is apparently regulated by two specific, less volatile compounds, which evoke strong electroantennographic (EAG) responses. This is the first demonstration that volatile CCs have evolved distinct pheromonal functions to aid divergent mating strategies in closely related species. We discuss the possibility that additional compounds are involved in attraction and that, like the aldehydes, they are likely oxidative products of unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/química , Himenópteros/fisiologia , Atrativos Sexuais/química , Aldeídos/análise , Aldeídos/farmacologia , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Masculino , Atrativos Sexuais/análise , Atrativos Sexuais/farmacologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
10.
Biol Lett ; 16(1): 20190568, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937213

RESUMO

Passerine birds produce costly traits under intense sexual selection, including elaborate sexually dichromatic plumage and sperm morphologies, to compete for fertilizations. Plumage and sperm traits vary markedly among species, but it is unknown if this reflects a trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory investment under strong sexual selection producing negative trait covariance, or variation in the strength of sexual selection among species producing positive covariance. Using phylogenetic regression, we analysed datasets describing plumage and sperm morphological traits for 278 passerine species. We found a significant positive relationship between sperm midpiece length and male plumage elaboration and sexual dichromatism. We did not find a relationship between plumage elaboration and testes mass. Our results do not support a trade-off between plumage and sperm traits, but may be indicative of variance among species in the strength of sexual selection to produce both brightly coloured plumage and costly sperm traits.


Assuntos
Passeriformes , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Masculino , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Espermatozoides
11.
Biol Lett ; 16(1): 20190905, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964263
12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226203, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910439

RESUMO

Adenoviruses are double-strained DNA viruses found in a great number of vertebrates, including humans. In order to understand their transmission dynamics, it is crucial, even from a human health perspective, to investigate how host traits influence their prevalence. Bats are important reservoirs for adenoviruses, and here we use the results of recent screenings in Western Europe to evaluate the association between characteristic traits of bat species and their probability of hosting adenoviruses, taking into account their phylogenetic relationships. Across species, we found an important phylogenetic component in the presence of adenoviruses and mating strategy as the most determinant factor conditioning the prevalence of adenoviruses across bat species. Contrary to other more stable mating strategies (e.g. harems), swarming could hinder transmission of adenoviruses since this strategy implies that contacts between individuals are too short. Alternatively, bat species with more promiscuous behavior may develop a stronger immune system. Outstandingly high prevalence of adenoviruses was reported for the Iberian species Pipistrellus pygmaeus, P. kuhlii and Nyctalus lasiopterus and we found that in the latter, males were more likely to be infected by adenoviruses than females, due to the immunosuppressing consequence of testosterone during the mating season. As a general trend across species, we found that the number of adenoviruses positive individuals was different across localities and that the difference in prevalence between populations was correlated with their geographic distances for two of the three studied bat species (P. pygmaeus and P.kuhlii). These results increase our knowledge about the transmission mechanisms of adenoviruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Adenoviridae/classificação , Adenoviridae/genética , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Quirópteros/psicologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência
13.
Bull Entomol Res ; 110(1): 96-105, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190656

RESUMO

Diamides have been used worldwide to manage the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), however some strains showed resistance to these molecules. Also, pheromone traps could be used to manage this pest, hence reducing the use of insecticides in the field. Resistant DBM strains may have biological disadvantages in comparison to susceptible strains in areas without sprays, including reduction in fitness or behavioral changes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether DBM strains resistant to chlorantraniliprole showed adaptive costs that could alter male attraction to the sex pheromone, in comparison to susceptible strains in the laboratory and semi-field conditions. First, the LC1, LC10, LC25, and LC50 of DBM to chlorantraniliprole were established, which were 0.003, 0.005, 0.007, and 0.011 mg a.i. liter-1, and 5.88, 24.80, 57.22, and 144.87 mg a.i. liter-1 for the susceptible and resistant strains, respectively. Development and reproduction of DBM strains subjected to those concentrations were compared. Later, male response to the sex pheromone was investigated in a Y-tube in the laboratory and in a greenhouse to pheromone traps. Resistant DBM strain showed an adaptive cost in comparison to the susceptible strain that can result in a delay in population growth in the field when selection pressure is absent. Conversely, resistant males have no olfactory response alteration in comparison to susceptible males, consistently at 3 (P = 0.6848) and 7 days (P = 0.9140) after release, suggesting that pheromone traps continue to be a viable alternative to manage DBM in an IPM system.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Inseticidas , Mariposas/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , ortoaminobenzoatos , Animais , Resistência a Inseticidas/fisiologia , Masculino , Atrativos Sexuais , Olfato
14.
Insect Sci ; 27(2): 317-335, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30381878

RESUMO

Drosophila suzukii is an invasive pest causing severe damages to a large panel of cultivated crops. To facilitate its biocontrol with strategies such as sterile or incompatible insect techniques, D. suzukii must be mass-produced and then stored and transported under low temperature. Prolonged cold exposure induces chill injuries that can be mitigated if the cold period is interrupted with short warming intervals, referred to as fluctuating thermal regimes (FTR). In this study, we tested how to optimally use FTR to extend the shelf life of D. suzukii under cold storage. Several FTR parameters were assessed: temperature (15, 20, 25 °C), duration (0.5, 1, 2, 3 h), and frequency (every 12, 24, 36, 48 h) of warming intervals, in two wild-type lines and in two developmental stages (pupae and adults). Generally, FTR improved cold storage tolerance with respect to constant low temperatures (CLT). Cold mortality was lower when recovery temperature was 20 °C or higher, when duration was 2 h per day or longer, and when warming interruptions occurred frequently (every 12 or 24 h). Applying an optimized FTR protocol to adults greatly reduced cold mortality over long-term storage (up to 130 d). Consequences of FTR on fitness-related traits were also investigated. For adults, poststorage survival was unaffected by FTR, as was the case for female fecundity and male mating capacity. On the other hand, when cold storage occurred at pupal stage, poststorage survival and male mating capacity were altered under CLT, but not under FTR. After storage of pupae, female fecundity was lower under FTR compared to CLT, suggesting an energy trade-off between repair of chill damages and egg production. This study provides detailed information on the application and optimization of an FTR-based protocol for cold storage of D. suzukii that could be useful for the biocontrol of this pest.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio , Drosophila/fisiologia , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual Animal
15.
Ecol Lett ; 23(2): 283-292, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755210

RESUMO

Larger testes produce more sperm and therefore improve reproductive success in the face of sperm competition. Adaptation to social mating systems with relatively high and low sperm competition are therefore likely to have driven changes in relative testes size in opposing directions. Here, we combine the largest vertebrate testes mass dataset ever collected with phylogenetic approaches for measuring rates of morphological evolution to provide the first quantitative evidence for how relative testes mass has changed over time. We detect explosive radiations of testes mass diversity distributed throughout the vertebrate tree of life: bursts of rapid change have been frequent during vertebrate evolutionary history. In socially monogamous birds, there have been repeated rapid reductions in relative testes mass. We see no such pattern in other monogamous vertebrates; the prevalence of monogamy in birds may have increased opportunities for investment in alternative behaviours and physiologies allowing reduced investment in expensive testes.


Assuntos
Aves , Testículo , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Masculino , Filogenia , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Espermatozoides
16.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 1-10, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689472

RESUMO

Chlorocholine chloride (CCC), a plant growth retardant, may act as an endocrine disruptor. Our previous study showed that pubertal CCC exposure in rats might decrease testosterone (T) synthesis. This study observed the changes in pubertal development and reproduction of male rats exposed to CCC and its underlying mechanisms. Rats were exposed to CCC (0, 75, 137.5 and 200 mg/kg bw/day) from postnatal day 23 to 60. The results showed that CCC treatment delayed the onset of puberty and reduced the relative organ weight of prostate. Seminiferous tubules with deciduous spermatogenic cells were observed in the 200 mg/kg bw/day group. Sexual behavior was inhibited in the 137.5 and 200 mg/kg bw/day groups. Sperm motility, litter size and normalized anogenital distance (AGD) of male pups were decreased in the 137.5 and 200 mg/kg bw/day groups. Serum kisspeptin level and serum and testicular levels of T were reduced in all CCC treated groups. Crucial hormones in hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis were reduced subsequently after CCC treatment. Collectively, our results demonstrated that CCC might disturb HPT axis through suppressing the secretion of kisspeptin and subsequently lead to delayed puberty onset and impaired reproductive functions.


Assuntos
Clormequat/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Genitália/anatomia & histologia , Genitália/efeitos dos fármacos , Genitália/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Túbulos Seminíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue
17.
Ecol Lett ; 23(3): 447-456, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840374

RESUMO

Although it is often expected that adverse environmental conditions depress the expression of condition-dependent sexually selected traits, the full consequences of environmental change for the action of sexual selection, in terms of the opportunity for total sexual selection and patterns of phenotypic selection, are unknown. Here we show that dietary stress in guppies, Poecilia reticulata, reduces the expression of several sexually selected traits and increases the opportunity for total sexual selection (standardized variance in reproductive success) in males. Furthermore, our results show that dietary stress modulates the relative importance of precopulatory (mating success) and postcopulatory (relative fertilization success) sexual selection, and that the form of multivariate sexual selection (linear vs. nonlinear) depends on dietary regime. Overall, our results are consistent with a pattern of heightened directional selection on condition-dependent sexually selected traits under environmental stress, and underscore the importance of sexual selection in shaping adaptation in a changing world.


Assuntos
Preferência de Acasalamento Animal , Poecilia , Animais , Dieta , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal
18.
J Chem Ecol ; 46(1): 30-39, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808075

RESUMO

Cerambycid beetles of the subfamily Lamiinae use male-produced aggregation-sex pheromones that are attractive to both sexes. Terpenoid pheromones have been identified from species in the tribes Acanthoderini and Acanthocinini native to North and South America, comprised of (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-one (geranylacetone), the structurally related 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one (sulcatone), and/or specific enantiomers or nonracemic ratios of enantiomers of the related compounds (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-ol (fuscumol), its acetate ester, (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-yl acetate (fuscumol acetate), and 6-methylhept-5-en-2-ol (sulcatol). Here, we present new information about the chemical ecology of six acanthoderine and acanthocinine species native to the eastern USA. The pheromone of Astyleiopus variegatus (Haldeman) previously was identified as a blend of (S)-fuscumol and (S)-fuscumol acetate, and we report here that geranylacetone is a synergistic component. Males of Aegomorphus modestus (Gyllenhal), Lepturges angulatus (LeConte), and Lepturges confluens (Haldeman) were found to produce similar blends composed of the enantiomers of fuscumol acetate and geranylacetone, whereas males of Astylidius parvus (LeConte) and Sternidius alpha (Say) produced both enantiomers of fuscumol together with (R)-fuscumol acetate and geranylacetone. Field experiments with synthesized chemicals revealed that species with similar pheromone composition nevertheless differed in their responses to individual components, and to various blends of components, and in how attraction was influenced by chemicals that were pheromone components of other species. Sulcatone and/or sulcatol antagonized attraction of some species to pheromones of the geranylacetone class, suggesting that there is an adaptive advantage in an ability to detect these heterospecific compounds, such as in avoiding cross attraction to other cerambycid species, as yet unknown, that use pheromones composed of both chemical classes.


Assuntos
Besouros/química , Feromônios/química , Animais , Besouros/metabolismo , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Masculino , Feromônios/isolamento & purificação , Feromônios/farmacologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade da Espécie , Estereoisomerismo , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
19.
Insect Sci ; 27(2): 304-316, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176124

RESUMO

Environmental cues, mainly photoperiod and temperature, are known to control female adult reproductive diapause in several insect species. Diapause enhances female survival during adverse conditions and postpones progeny production to the favorable season. Male diapause (a reversible inability to inseminate receptive females) has been studied much less than female diapause. However, if the males maximized their chances to fertilize females while minimizing their energy expenditure, they would be expected to be in diapause at the same time as females. We investigated Drosophila montana male mating behavior under short-day conditions that induce diapause in females and found the males to be reproductively inactive. We also found that males reared under long-day conditions (reproducing individuals) court reproducing postdiapause females, but not diapausing ones. The diapausing flies of both sexes had more long-chain and less short-chain hydrocarbons on their cuticle than the reproducing ones, which presumably increase their survival under stressful conditions, but at the same time decrease their attractiveness. Our study shows that the mating behavior of females and males is well coordinated during and after overwintering and it also gives support to the dual role of insect cuticular hydrocarbons in adaptation and mate choice.


Assuntos
Diapausa de Inseto , Drosophila/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Oviparidade , Reprodução
20.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(1): 25-30, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516064

RESUMO

The Japanese orange fly, Bactrocera tsuneonis, infests various citrus crops. While male pheromone components accumulated in the rectal glands are well characterized for Bactrocera, but information regarding the chemical factors involved in the life cycles of B. tsuneonis remains scarce. Herein, several volatile chemicals including a γ-decalactone, (3R,4R)-3-hydroxy-4-decanolide [(3R,4R)-HD], were identified as major components, along with acetamide and spiroketals as minor components in the rectal gland complexes of male B. tsuneonis flies. The lactone (3R,4R)-HD was also identified in female rectal gland complexes. The amount of this compound in mature males was significantly higher than those observed in females and immature males. The lactone (3R,4R)-HD was detected in flies fed with sucrose only, indicating that this lactone is not derived from dietary sources during adulthood, but biosynthesized in vivo. The predominant accumulation of (3R,4R)-HD in mature males also suggests a possible role in reproductive behavior.


Assuntos
Lactonas/química , Glândula de Sal/química , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Acetamidas/síntese química , Acetamidas/química , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa , Citrus , Dieta , Feminino , Furanos/síntese química , Furanos/química , Japão , Lactonas/síntese química , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Reprodução/fisiologia , Atrativos Sexuais/química , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Compostos de Espiro/síntese química , Compostos de Espiro/química , Sacarose
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