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1.
F1000Res ; 13: 123, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38974941

RESUMO

Background: Zoos use environmental enrichments, including scents, which may have applications to improve breeding success for taxa, such as lemurs, which rely heavily on olfactory communication. We aimed to develop novel, biologically-relevant scent enrichments to trigger mating behaviours of zoo-housed lemur species, which are critically endangered in the wild and show a low success rate in captive breeding programmes. Methods: We examined anogenital odour secretions, released by female gentle ( Hapalemur alaotrensis) and ruffed ( Varecia variegata) lemurs, using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. We identified the key compounds distinguishing the volatile chemical profile of female lemurs during the breeding season and used them to develop species-specific scent enrichments. We then tested the scent enrichments, made up of synthesized mixtures conveying information about female lemur fertility, on unsuccessful breeding pairs of lemurs hosted in European zoos. We evaluated the effects of the newly designed scent enrichments on their target species by combining behavioural observations with faecal endocrinology. Results: We identified and reproduced fertility-specific signals associated with female scents. These scent mixtures triggered male sexual behaviours, including mating, during and after the enrichment condition. We also found effects on faecal testosterone levels, with increased levels after the enrichment condition albeit not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that biologically-relevant scent enrichments may trigger natural species-specific behaviours, with potential implications for conservation breeding of zoo-based endangered lemur species, and highlight that combining more assessment methods may assist with evaluating the impact of environmental enrichments.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Cruzamento , Lemur , Odorantes , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/fisiologia , Feminino , Odorantes/análise , Lemur/fisiologia , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Lemuridae/fisiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
2.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0301942, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976699

RESUMO

Historically, males have frequently been portrayed as the manipulative and deceptive gender, while females are often seen as adopting a coy and passive role. In this context, it is proposed that males use a terminal investment strategy, misleading females about their true poor condition, while females passively opt to mate with these deceptive males. However, we hypothesize that females in suboptimal condition may also engage in a terminal investment strategy by mimicking or enhancing their attractiveness to match that of females in better conditions. We studied this hypothesis in Tenebrio molitor, by subjecting females to three varying doses of lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli (LPS; 0.25, 0.5, or 1 mg ml-1), or three doses of the pro-oxidant Paraquat (PQ; 20, 40 or 80 mM), and subsequently assessing their survival and attractiveness to males. The LPS treatments and 20 mM of PQ had no significant effect on the survival or attractiveness of the females. However, females treated with 40 or 80 mM PQ survived fewer days compared to the control group. Those injected with 40 mM were more attractive than their control counterparts, while those treated with 80 mM were less attractive. Since the identical doses of LPS, which induce terminal investment in males, had no effect on females, we suggest sexual dimorphism in terminal investment. Furthermore, similar to males, if the stressor reaches a sufficiently high level, the signal becomes honest. These findings highlight how the quantity of stressors influences support for the terminal investment strategy in both males and females. Notably, this study challenges prevailing notions regarding gender roles in sexual selection, indicating that females, not just males, conceal their poor condition to attract mating partners.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Tenebrio/fisiologia , Tenebrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Paraquat/farmacologia
3.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 150, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38973001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate detection of pheromones is crucial for chemical communication and reproduction in insects. In holometabolous flies and moths, the sensory neuron membrane protein 1 (SNMP1) is essential for detecting long-chain aliphatic pheromones by olfactory neurons. However, its function in hemimetabolous insects and its role for detecting pheromones of a different chemical nature remain elusive. Therefore, we investigated the relevance of SNMP1 for pheromone detection in a hemimetabolous insect pest of considerable economic importance, the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria, which moreover employs the aromatic pheromone phenylacetonitrile (PAN) to govern reproductive behaviors. RESULTS: Employing CRISPR/Cas-mediated gene editing, a mutant locust line lacking functional SNMP1 was established. In electroantennography experiments and single sensillum recordings, we found significantly decreased electrical responses to PAN in SNMP1-deficient (SNMP1-/-) locusts. Moreover, calcium imaging in the antennal lobe of the brain revealed a substantially reduced activation of projection neurons in SNMP1-/- individuals upon exposure to PAN, indicating that the diminished antennal responsiveness to PAN in mutants affects pheromone-evoked neuronal activity in the brain. Furthermore, in behavioral experiments, PAN-induced effects on pairing and mate choice were altered in SNMP1-/- locusts. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings emphasize the importance of SNMP1 for chemical communication in a hemimetabolous insect pest. Moreover, they show that SNMP1 plays a crucial role in pheromone detection that goes beyond long-chain aliphatic substances and includes aromatic compounds controlling reproductive behaviors.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Proteínas de Membrana , Animais , Gafanhotos/fisiologia , Gafanhotos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Feromônios/farmacologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Corte , Acetonitrilas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2026): 20240804, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955230

RESUMO

The evolution of nuptial gifts has traditionally been considered a harmonious affair, providing benefits to both mating partners. There is growing evidence, however, that receiving a nuptial gift can be actively detrimental to the female. In decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus), males produce a gelatinous spermatophylax that enhances sperm transfer but provides little nutritional benefit and hinders female post-copulatory mate choice. Here, we examine the sexually antagonistic coevolution of the spermatophylax and the female feeding response to this gift in G. sigillatus maintained in experimental populations with either a male-biased or female-biased adult sex ratio. After 25 generations, males evolving in male-biased populations produced heavier spermatophylaxes with a more manipulative combination of free amino acids than those evolving in female-biased populations. Moreover, when the spermatophylax originated from the same selection regime, females evolving in male-biased populations always had shorter feeding durations than those evolving in female-biased populations, indicating the evolution of greater resistance. Across populations, female feeding duration increased with the mass and manipulative combination of free amino acids in the spermatophylax, suggesting sexually antagonistic coevolution. Collectively, our work demonstrates a key role for interlocus sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic coevolution in the mating system of G. sigillatus.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Gryllidae , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Gryllidae/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Coevolução Biológica , Evolução Biológica , Razão de Masculinidade
5.
PeerJ ; 12: e17574, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38948235

RESUMO

Anurans are among the most vocally active vertebrate animals and emit calls with different functions. In order to attract a mate, during the breeding season male frogs produce mating calls which have species-specific structure and parameters, and have been successfully used to resolve issues in taxonomy and phylogenetic relations. This is particularly useful when closely related taxa are concerned, as many species are morphologically almost identical, but still their status is well-supported by molecular and genetic data, suggesting the existence of mechanisms for reproductive isolation. Such is the case for treefrogs from the Hyla arborea group, which are now recognized as several distinct species. The present study aims to establish differences in call parameters between the European tree frog, Hyla arborea, and the Eastern tree frog, Hyla orientalis, which both occur on the territory of Bulgaria. Using autonomous audio loggers, calls from six sites (three in the range of H. arborea and three in the range of H. orientalis) were recorded between 7 p.m. and 12 a.m. during the breeding season in 2020-2023. The following parameters in a total of 390 mating calls were analyzed: call count, pulse count, call series duration, call period, peak (dominant) frequency, entropy. Results indicated that sites formed two distinct groups, which corresponded to the known distribution ranges of H. arborea and H. orientalis. The first two components of the PCA explained 71% of the total variance, with variables call count, call series duration, peak frequency and entropy being most important for differentiation between the sites. This study presents the first attempt to differentiate between the calls of these two sister taxa, which both fall within the "short-call treefrogs" group, and results are discussed in terms of known data for mating calls in Hyla sp., as well as limitations and future perspectives.


Assuntos
Anuros , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Bulgária , Masculino , Anuros/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Filogenia , Feminino
6.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 36(3): 321-328, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952321

RESUMO

More than 80% of the world's populations are at risk of vector-borne diseases, with mosquito-borne diseases as a significant global public health problem. Mosquito populations control is critical to interrupting the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. This review summarizes the physical attributes, smell, vision, touch, and hearing of mosquitoes to unravel the preferences of female mosquitoes, and describes the mechanisms underlying the best male mating by female mosquitoes, so as to provide new insights into management of mosquito-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Culicidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia
7.
Curr Biol ; 34(13): R623-R625, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38981426

RESUMO

The fly Drosophila yakuba has lost an ancestral component of the male courtship song: this is due to ontogenetic death of effector neurons in the ventral nerve cord, a result of the D. yakuba sex-determining gene dsx producing a male isoform, dsxM, with cell-death-promoting activity similar to that of the female isoform, dsxF, in D. melanogaster.


Assuntos
Corte , Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Feminino , Drosophila/fisiologia , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15122, 2024 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956289

RESUMO

Natalisin (NTL) is a conserved neuropeptide, only present in insects, that has been reported to regulate their sexual activity. In this study, we investigated the involvement of NTL in the reproductive behaviors of a major invasive pest, Spodoptera frugiperda. We identified NTL precursor-encoded transcripts, and evaluated their transcript levels in different stages and tissues of S. frugiperda. The results showed that the NTL transcript level was expressed in both male and female pupae and both male and female adults in the later stage. It was highly expressed in male pupae, 3-day-old male and female adults, and 5-day-old male adults. In different tissues, the expression level is higher in the male and female adult brain and male testis. Immunohistochemical staining of the brain of S. frugiperda female and male adults revealed that three pairs of brain neurons of S. frugiperda adults of both sexes secreted and expressed NTL. To study the role of NTL in reproductive behaviors, NTL was silenced in S. frugiperda male and female adults by RNA interference (RNAi) technology, the results showed that silencing NTL could significantly affect the sexual activity behavior of the adults, reducing the calling rate of females, the courtship rate of males, and the mating rate. In summary, this study emphasizes the important role of NTL in regulating the mating behavior and sexual activity of S. frugiperda in both male and female adults, potentially laying a foundation to employ NTL as a new insect-specific target to control populations of pest insects.


Assuntos
Neuropeptídeos , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Spodoptera , Animais , Spodoptera/genética , Spodoptera/fisiologia , Masculino , Feminino , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Reprodução
9.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 81(1): 259, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38878072

RESUMO

Sex pheromones play crucial role in mating behavior of moths, involving intricate recognition mechanisms. While insect chemical biology has extensively studied type I pheromones, type II pheromones remain largely unexplored. This study focused on Helicoverpa armigera, a representative species of noctuid moth, aiming to reassess its sex pheromone composition. Our research unveiled two previously unidentified candidate type II sex pheromones-3Z,6Z,9Z-21:H and 3Z,6Z,9Z-23:H-in H. armigera. Furthermore, we identified HarmOR11 as an orphan pheromone receptor of 3Z,6Z,9Z-21:H. Through AlphaFold2 structural prediction, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulations, we elucidated the structural basis and key residues governing the sensory nuances of both type I and type II pheromone receptors, particularly HarmOR11 and HarmOR13. This study not only reveals the presence and recognition of candidate type II pheromones in a noctuid moth, but also establishes a comprehensive structural framework for PRs, contributing to the understanding of connections between evolutionary adaptations and the emergence of new pheromone types.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Receptores de Feromônios , Atrativos Sexuais , Animais , Atrativos Sexuais/metabolismo , Atrativos Sexuais/química , Mariposas/metabolismo , Mariposas/fisiologia , Receptores de Feromônios/metabolismo , Receptores de Feromônios/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Feminino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Filogenia , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
10.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 70(3): 252-261, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38945891

RESUMO

Pyridoxamine (PM) is one of the natural vitamins B6 (VB6) and functions as an endogenous inhibitor for the formation of AGEs (advanced glycation end products). The AGEs are implicated in aging, diabetes, and various neuropsychiatric disease, including schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. However, it is unclear whether the absence of PM per se accumulates AGEs in vivo and causes behavioral dysfunctions. To address these points, we raised PM-deficient fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, with the sterilized defined medium. Flies reared in a PM-deficient medium accumulated AGEs and reduced lifespan, impaired gustatory response, sleep, courtship behavior, and olfactory learning. These results suggest that PM suppresses AGE accumulation in vivo and is required for regulating innate and empirical behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Drosophila melanogaster , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Longevidade , Piridoxamina , Animais , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Piridoxamina/farmacologia , Masculino , Sono/fisiologia , Feminino , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem
12.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304885, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38900815

RESUMO

Same-sex sexual behaviour (SSSB) occurs in most animal clades, but published reports are largely concentrated in a few taxa. Thus, there remains a paucity of published reports for most mammalian species. We conducted a cross-sectional expert survey to better understand the underlying reasons for the lack of publications on this topic. Most respondents researched Primates (83.6%, N = 61), while the rest studied Carnivora (6.9%, N = 5), Rodentia (4.1%, N = 3), Artiodactyla (2.7%, N = 2), and Proboscidea (2.7%, N = 2). Most respondents (76.7%, N = 56) had observed SSSB in their study species, but only 48.2% (N = 27) collected data on SSSB, and few (18.5%, N = 5) had published papers on SSSB. Of the unique species identified as engaging in SSSB in the survey, 38.6% (N = 17) have no existing reports of SSSB to the knowledge of the authors. In both the survey questions and freeform responses, most respondents indicated that their lack of data collection or publication on SSSB was because the behaviours were rare, or because it was not a research priority of their lab. No respondents reported discomfort or sociopolitical concerns at their university or field site as a reason for why they did not collect data or publish on SSSB. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to assess whether taxa studied, education level, or identification within the LGBTQ+ community predicted observing, collecting data on, or publishing on SSSB, but none of these variables were significant predictors. These results provide preliminary evidence that SSSB occurs more frequently than what is available in the published record and suggest that this may be due to a publishing bias against anecdotal evidence.


Assuntos
Mamíferos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 265, 2024 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38902750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Camels are bred for their milk, meat, wool and hair, transportation, and their excrement as fuel. The seasonal reproduction of camel bull is accompanied by changes in sexual activity, the morphology, and function of the testes. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal fluctuations in serum testosterone (T) levels as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the testes of dromedary bulls (Camelus dromedarius) during the rutting and non-rutting seasons. Moreover, the impact of rutting season on the testicular size and histomorphology was also observed. Seventy mature dromedary bulls were divided into a rutting group (n = 35) and a non-rutting group (n = 35). From these bulls, blood samples and testes were collected during the rutting season (October to April) and non-rutting season (May to September) from a local slaughterhouse. RESULTS: All parameters changed significantly during rutting and non-rutting periods in camel bulls. The levels of TAC in testes, and serum T were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the rutting group than in the non-rutting group. However, testicular MDA was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the rutting group than in the non-rutting group. TAC was negatively correlated with MDA (r = -0.59, p < 0.01). Moreover, in the rutting group and the non-rutting group, T was positively correlated with levels of TAC (r = 0.66, p < 0.0003). Additionally, testicular size (length, breadth, and thickness) was significantly greater in camels during the rutting season than in camels during the non-rutting season. Moreover, the number and diameter of seminiferous tubules, and spermatogenesis increased during the rutting season, whereas, the collagen content and apoptosis increased during the non-rutting season. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the rutting normal breeding season (NBS, rutting group) was associated with higher levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), T, and spermatogenic activity while the collagen content, concentrations of MDA (the oxidative stress factor) and apoptosis (an outcome of oxidative stress) were lower than those in the low breeding season (LBS, non-rutting group). In addition, the testicular size and seminiferous tubule diameter and number were higher during the NBS.


Assuntos
Camelus , Malondialdeído , Estações do Ano , Testículo , Testosterona , Animais , Masculino , Camelus/fisiologia , Camelus/sangue , Camelus/anatomia & histologia , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Malondialdeído/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 14259, 2024 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38902251

RESUMO

Cryptic female choice (CFC) is a component of postcopulatory sexual selection that allows females to influence the fertilization success of sperm from different males. While its precise mechanisms remain unclear, they may involve the influence of the protein composition of the female reproductive fluids on sperm functionality. This study maps the protein composition of the cloacal fluid across different phases of female reproductive cycle in a sexually promiscuous passerine, the barn swallow. Similar to mammals, the protein composition in the female reproductive tract differed between receptive (when females copulate) and nonreceptive phases. With the change in the protein background, the enriched gene ontology terms also shifted. Within the receptive phase, distinctions were observed between proteomes sampled just before and during egg laying. However, three proteins exhibited increased abundance during the entire receptive phase compared to nonreceptive phases. These proteins are candidates in cryptic female choice, as all of them can influence the functionality of sperm or sperm-egg interaction. Our study demonstrates dynamic changes in the cloacal environment throughout the avian breeding cycle, emphasizing the importance of considering these fluctuations in studies of cryptic female choice.


Assuntos
Cloaca , Proteômica , Reprodução , Animais , Feminino , Proteômica/métodos , Cloaca/metabolismo , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteoma/análise , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Passeriformes/metabolismo
15.
J Insect Sci ; 24(3)2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38913610

RESUMO

Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera neohumeralis (Hardy) are sibling fruit fly species that are sympatric over much of their ranges. Premating isolation of these close relatives is thought to be maintained in part by allochrony-mating activity in B. tryoni peaks at dusk, whereas in B. neohumeralis, it peaks earlier in the day. To ascertain whether differences in pheromone composition may also contribute to premating isolation between them, this study used solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to characterize the rectal gland volatiles of a recently collected and a more domesticated strain of each species. These glands are typical production sites and reservoirs of pheromones in bactrocerans. A total of 120 peaks were detected and 50 were identified. Differences were found in the composition of the rectal gland emissions between the sexes, species, and recently collected versus domesticated strains of each species. The compositional variation included several presence/absence and many quantitative differences. Species and strain differences in males included several relatively small alcohols, esters, and aliphatic amides. Species and strain differences in females also included some of the amides but additionally involved many fatty acid esters and 3 spiroacetals. While the strain differences indicate there is also heritable variation in rectal gland emissions within each species, the species differences imply that compositional differences in pheromones emitted from rectal glands could contribute to the premating isolation between B. tryoni and B. neohumeralis. The changes during domestication could also have significant implications for the efficacy of Sterile Insect Technique control programs.


Assuntos
Feromônios , Tephritidae , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Tephritidae/genética , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Tephritidae/metabolismo , Simpatria , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Especificidade da Espécie , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Microextração em Fase Sólida
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(25): e2305948121, 2024 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857400

RESUMO

For over a century, the evolution of animal play has sparked scientific curiosity. The prevalence of social play in juvenile mammals suggests that play is a beneficial behavior, potentially contributing to individual fitness. Yet evidence from wild animals supporting the long-hypothesized link between juvenile social play, adult behavior, and fitness remains limited. In Western Australia, adult male bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) form multilevel alliances that are crucial for their reproductive success. A key adult mating behavior involves allied males using joint action to herd individual females. Juveniles of both sexes invest significant time in play that resembles adult herding-taking turns in mature male (actor) and female (receiver) roles. Using a 32-y dataset of individual-level association patterns, paternity success, and behavioral observations, we show that juvenile males with stronger social bonds are significantly more likely to engage in joint action when play-herding in actor roles. Juvenile males also monopolized the actor role and produced an adult male herding vocalization ("pops") when playing with females. Notably, males who spent more time playing in the actor role as juveniles achieved more paternities as adults. These findings not only reveal that play behavior provides male dolphins with mating skill practice years before they sexually mature but also demonstrate in a wild animal population that juvenile social play predicts adult reproductive success.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Comportamento Social , Animais , Masculino , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/fisiologia , Feminino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Austrália Ocidental , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Jogos e Brinquedos
17.
J Neural Eng ; 21(3)2024 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861996

RESUMO

Objective.Distributed hypothalamic-midbrain neural circuits help orchestrate complex behavioral responses during social interactions. Given rapid advances in optical imaging, it is a fundamental question how population-averaged neural activity measured by multi-fiber photometry (MFP) for calcium fluorescence signals correlates with social behaviors is a fundamental question. This paper aims to investigate the correspondence between MFP data and social behaviors.Approach:We propose a state-space analysis framework to characterize mouse MFP data based on dynamic latent variable models, which include a continuous-state linear dynamical system and a discrete-state hidden semi-Markov model. We validate these models on extensive MFP recordings during aggressive and mating behaviors in male-male and male-female interactions, respectively.Main results:Our results show that these models are capable of capturing both temporal behavioral structure and associated neural states, and produce interpretable latent states. Our approach is also validated in computer simulations in the presence of known ground truth.Significance:Overall, these analysis approaches provide a state-space framework to examine neural dynamics underlying social behaviors and reveals mechanistic insights into the relevant networks.


Assuntos
Fotometria , Comportamento Social , Animais , Camundongos , Fotometria/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Agressão/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos
18.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 86, 2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38937685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male courtship investment may evolve in response to the male's expectation of future mating opportunities or the degree of female control during mating interactions. We used a comparative approach to test this hypotheses by assessing the courtship and mating behaviors of five widow spider species (genus Latrodectus) under common laboratory conditions. We predicted male investment in courtship would be higher in species where males mate only once because of high cannibalism rates (monogyny, L. geometricus, L. hasselti, L. mirabilis), compared to species with rare cannibalism (L. mactans, L. hesperus) in which males should reserve energy for future mating opportunities. Increased male investment, measured as courtship duration, might also evolve with increased female control over mating outcomes if females prefer longer courtships. We tested this by assessing the frequency of copulations, timing of sexual cannibalism, and the degree of female-biased size dimorphism, which is expected to be negatively correlated with the energetic cost of rebuffing male mating attempts. RESULTS: Copulation frequency was consistently lower in species with extreme female-skewed size dimorphism, and where sexual cannibalism was more prevalent, suggesting the importance of female control for mating outcomes. We confirmed significant interspecific variation in average courtship duration, but contrary to predictions, it was not predicted by male mating system, and there was no consistent link between courtship duration and sexual size dimorphism. CONCLUSION: We show that the degree of sexual dimorphism is not only correlated with sexual cannibalism, but also with mating success since restriction of male copulation frequency by female Latrodectus affects paternity. However, predictions about male mating system or female control affecting courtship duration were not supported. We propose that the form of female control over mating and cannibalism, and male responses, might be more informative for understanding the evolution of courtship duration. For example, male tactics to avoid female aggression may drive lower courtship duration in species like L. mirabilis. Nonetheless, our results differ from inferences based on published studies of each species in isolation, illuminating the need for standardized data collection for behavioural comparative studies.


Assuntos
Canibalismo , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Aranhas , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Aranhas/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Corte , Caracteres Sexuais
20.
Nature ; 630(8018): 926-934, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38898273

RESUMO

Krause corpuscles, which were discovered in the 1850s, are specialized sensory structures found within the genitalia and other mucocutaneous tissues1-4. The physiological properties and functions of Krause corpuscles have remained unclear since their discovery. Here we report the anatomical and physiological properties of Krause corpuscles of the mouse clitoris and penis and their roles in sexual behaviour. We observed a high density of Krause corpuscles in the clitoris compared with the penis. Using mouse genetic tools, we identified two distinct somatosensory neuron subtypes that innervate Krause corpuscles of both the clitoris and penis and project to a unique sensory terminal region of the spinal cord. In vivo electrophysiology and calcium imaging experiments showed that both Krause corpuscle afferent types are A-fibre rapid-adapting low-threshold mechanoreceptors, optimally tuned to dynamic, light-touch and mechanical vibrations (40-80 Hz) applied to the clitoris or penis. Functionally, selective optogenetic activation of Krause corpuscle afferent terminals evoked penile erection in male mice and vaginal contraction in female mice, while genetic ablation of Krause corpuscles impaired intromission and ejaculation of males and reduced sexual receptivity of females. Thus, Krause corpuscles of the clitoris and penis are highly sensitive mechanical vibration detectors that mediate sexually dimorphic mating behaviours.


Assuntos
Clitóris , Mecanorreceptores , Pênis , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Tato , Vibração , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Clitóris/inervação , Clitóris/fisiologia , Ejaculação/fisiologia , Mecanorreceptores/metabolismo , Mecanorreceptores/fisiologia , Optogenética , Ereção Peniana/fisiologia , Pênis/inervação , Pênis/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Medula Espinal/fisiologia , Medula Espinal/citologia , Tato/fisiologia , Vagina/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia
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