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1.
J Exp Biol ; 225(12)2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35587151

RESUMO

Androgens mediate the expression of many reproductive behaviors, including the elaborate displays used to navigate courtship and territorial interactions. In some vertebrates, males can produce androgen-dependent sexual behavior even when levels of testosterone are low in the bloodstream. One idea is that select tissues make their own androgens from scratch to support behavioral performance. We first studied this phenomenon in the skeletal muscles that actuate elaborate sociosexual displays in downy woodpeckers and two songbirds. We show that the woodpecker display muscle maintains elevated testosterone when the testes are regressed in the non-breeding season. Both the display muscles of woodpeckers, as well as the display muscles in the avian vocal organ (syrinx) of songbirds, express all transporters and enzymes necessary to convert cholesterol into bioactive androgens locally. In a final analysis, we broadened our study by looking for these same transporters and enzymes in mammalian muscles that operate at different speeds. Using RNA-seq data, we found that the capacity for de novo synthesis is only present in 'superfast' extraocular muscle. Together, our results suggest that skeletal muscle specialized to generate extraordinary twitch times and/or extremely rapid contractile speeds may depend on androgenic hormones produced locally within the muscle itself. Our study therefore uncovers an important dimension of androgenic regulation of behavior.


Assuntos
Androgênios , Aves Canoras , Animais , Masculino , Mamíferos , Contração Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Testosterona/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2518, 2022 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523813

RESUMO

The nervous and endocrine systems coordinate with each other to closely influence physiological and behavioural responses in animals. Here we show that WAKE (encoded by wide awake, also known as wake) modulates membrane levels of GABAA receptor Resistance to Dieldrin (Rdl), in insulin-producing cells of adult male Drosophila melanogaster. This results in changes to secretion of insulin-like peptides which is associated with changes in juvenile hormone biosynthesis in the corpus allatum, which in turn leads to a decrease in 20-hydroxyecdysone levels. A reduction in ecdysone signalling changes neural architecture and lowers the perception of the male-specific sex pheromone 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate by odorant receptor 67d olfactory neurons. These finding explain why WAKE-deficient in Drosophila elicits significant male-male courtship behaviour.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Insulinas , Acetatos , Animais , Corte , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Masculino , Percepção , Feromônios , Receptores de GABA-A , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537667

RESUMO

Sub-lethal effects, such as oxidative stress, can be linked to various breeding and thermophysiological strategies, which themselves can be linked to seasonal variability in abiotic factors. In this study, we investigated the subterranean, social living Natal mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus natalensis), which, unlike other social mole-rat species, implements heterothermy seasonally in an attempt to avoid exercise-induced hyperthermia and relies solely on behavioural reproductive suppression to maintain reproductive skew in colonies. Subsequently, we investigated how oxidative stress varied between season, sex and breeding status in Natal mole-rats. Oxidative markers included total oxidant status (TOS measure of total peroxides present), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), OSI (oxidative stress index) and malondialdehyde (MDA) to measure oxidative stress. Breeding and non-breeding mole-rats of both sexes were captured during the summer (wet season) and winter (dry season). Seasonal environmental variables (air temperature, soil temperature and soil moisture) had a significant effect on TOS, OSI and MDA, where season affected each sex differently. Unlike other social mole-rat species that use both physiological and behavioural means of reproductive suppression, no oxidative costs to reproduction were present in the Natal mole-rats. Males had significantly higher MDA than females, which was most apparent in summer (wet season). We conclude that the significant oxidative damage in males is a consequence of exercise-induced oxidative stress, exacerbated by increased burrow humidities and poorer heat dissipation abilities as a function of body mass. This study highlights the importance of both breeding and thermophysiological strategies in affecting oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Ratos-Toupeira , Reprodução , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos-Toupeira/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Solo
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1974): 20220492, 2022 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538789

RESUMO

The activation of the immune system upon infection exerts a huge energetic demand on an individual, likely decreasing available resources for other vital processes, like reproduction. The factors that determine the trade-off between defensive and reproductive traits remain poorly understood. Here, we exploit the experimental tractability of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to systematically assess the impact of immune system activation on pre-copulatory reproductive behaviour. Contrary to expectations, we found that male flies undergoing an immune activation continue to display high levels of courtship and mating success. Similarly, immune-challenged female flies remain highly sexually receptive. By combining behavioural paradigms, a diverse panel of pathogens and genetic strategies to induce the fly immune system, we show that pre-copulatory reproductive behaviours are preserved in infected flies, despite the significant metabolic cost of infection.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Comportamento Reprodutivo , Animais , Bactérias , Copulação , Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
5.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 610: 23-29, 2022 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430448

RESUMO

Motivational states are important determinants of behavior. In Drosophila melanogaster, courtship behavior is robust and crucial for species continuation. However, the motivation of courtship behavior remains unexplored. We first find the phenomenon that courtship behavior is modulated by motivational state. A male fly courts another male fly when it first courts a decapitated female fly, however, male-male courtship behavior rarely occurs under normal conditions. Therefore, in this phenomenon, the male fly's courtship motivational state is induced by its exposure to female flies. Blocking dopaminergic neurons synaptic transmission by expressing Tetanus toxin light chain (TNTe) decreases motivational state induced male-male courtship behavior without affecting male-female courtship behavior. Vision cues are another key component in sexually driven Drosophila male-male courtship behavior. Here, we identify a base theory that the inner motivational state could eventually decide Drosophila behavior.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila , Animais , Corte , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Drosophila/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Motivação , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
6.
J Evol Biol ; 35(5): 742-751, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384100

RESUMO

Sexual selection and sexual conflict are expected to affect all aspects of the phenotype, not only traits that are directly involved in reproduction. Here, we show coordinated evolution of multiple physiological and life-history traits in response to long-term experimental manipulation of the mating system in populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Development time was extended under polyandry relative to monogamy in both sexes, potentially due to higher investment in traits linked to sexual selection and sexual conflict. Individuals (especially males) evolving under polyandry had higher metabolic rates and locomotor activity than those evolving under monogamy. Polyandry individuals also invested more in metabolites associated with increased endurance capacity and efficient energy metabolism and regulation, namely lipids and glycogen. Finally, polyandry males were less desiccation- and starvation resistant than monogamy males, suggesting trade-offs between resistance and sexually selected traits. Our results provide experimental evidence that mating systems can impose selection that influences the evolution of non-sexual phenotypes such as development, activity, metabolism and nutrient homeostasis.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Seleção Sexual , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Drosophila/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6177, 2022 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418584

RESUMO

Peripheral sensory neurons are the gateway to the environment across species. In Drosophila, olfactory and gustatory senses are required to initiate courtship, as well as for the escalation of courtship patterns that lead to copulation. To be successful, copulation must last long enough to ensure the transfer of sperm and seminal fluid that ultimately leads to fertilization. The peripheral sensory information required to regulate copulation duration is unclear. Here, we employed genetic manipulations that allow driving gene expression in the male genitalia as a tool to uncover the role of these genitalia specific neurons in copulation. The fly genitalia contain sex-specific bristle hairs innervated by mechanosensory neurons. To date, the role of the sensory information collected by these peripheral neurons in male copulatory behavior is unknown. We confirmed that these MSNs are cholinergic and co-express both fru and dsx. We found that the sensory information received by the peripheral sensory neurons from the front legs (GRNs) and mechanosensory neurons (MSNs) at the male genitalia contribute to the regulation of copulation duration. Moreover, our results show that their function is required for copulation persistence, which ensures copulation is undisrupted in the presence of environmental stress before sperm transfer is complete.


Assuntos
Copulação , Proteínas de Drosophila , Animais , Copulação/fisiologia , Corte , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Mol Ecol ; 31(12): 3374-3388, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437824

RESUMO

Post copulatory interactions between the sexes in internally fertilizing species elicits both sexual conflict and sexual selection. Macroevolutionary and comparative studies have linked these processes to rapid transcriptomic evolution in sex-specific tissues and substantial transcriptomic post mating responses in females, patterns of which are altered when mating between reproductively isolated species. Here, we tested multiple predictions arising from sexual selection and conflict theory about the evolution of sex-specific and tissue-specific gene expression and the post mating response at the microevolutionary level. Following over 150 generations of experimental evolution under either reduced (enforced monogamy) or elevated (polyandry) sexual selection in Drosophila pseudoobscura, we found a substantial effect of sexual selection treatment on transcriptomic divergence in virgin male and female reproductive tissues (testes, male accessory glands, the female reproductive tract and ovaries). Sexual selection treatment also had a dominant effect on the post mating response, particularly in the female reproductive tract - the main arena for sexual conflict - compared to ovaries. This effect was asymmetric with monandry females typically showing more post mating responses than polyandry females, with enriched gene functions varying across treatments. The evolutionary history of the male partner had a larger effect on the post mating response of monandry females, but females from both sexual selection treatments showed unique patterns of gene expression and gene function when mating with males from the alternate treatment. Our microevolutionary results mostly confirm comparative macroevolutionary predictions on the role of sexual selection on transcriptomic divergence and altered gene regulation arising from divergent coevolutionary trajectories between sexual selection treatments.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual Animal , Seleção Sexual , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Drosophila/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução/genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/genética
9.
Curr Biol ; 32(8): 1703-1714.e3, 2022 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245457

RESUMO

Sexually dimorphic courtship behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster develop from the activity of the sexual differentiation genes, doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru), functioning with other regulatory factors that have received little attention. The dissatisfaction (dsf) gene encodes an orphan nuclear receptor homologous to vertebrate Tlx and Drosophila tailless that is critical for the development of several aspects of female- and male-specific sexual behaviors. Here, we report the pattern of dsf expression in the central nervous system and show that the activity of sexually dimorphic abdominal interneurons that co-express dsf and dsx is necessary and sufficient for vaginal plate opening in virgin females, ovipositor extrusion in mated females, and abdominal curling in males during courtship. We find that dsf activity results in different neuroanatomical outcomes in females and males, promoting and suppressing, respectively, female development and function of these neurons depending upon the sexual state of dsx expression. We posit that dsf and dsx interact to specify sex differences in the neural circuitry for dimorphic abdominal behaviors.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila , Animais , Corte , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Drosophila/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares , Caracteres Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
J Insect Physiol ; 139: 104382, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35318041

RESUMO

Upon mating, females alter a multitude of physiological and morphological traits to accommodate the demands of reproduction. Changes not only include reproductive tissues but also non-reproductive tissues. For example, in Drosophila melanogaster the gut increases in circumference after mating, likely to facilitate a higher absorption and provision of macronutrients to maturing eggs. A male ejaculatory protein, the sex peptide, is instrumental to mediating several post-mating changes and receipt increases nutrient uptake as well as shifts taste preferences in mated females. We here tested whether sex peptide receipt also alters the protein: carbohydrate ratio at which females maximize their fitness. To test this, we mated females to males lacking sex peptide or control males and fed them with known volumes and concentrations of sugar and yeast. This enabled us to determine how the sugar to yeast ratio affects lifetime egg output as well as lifespan of females mated to the two male types. Sex peptide did not shift the optimal ratio. Instead, sex peptide receipt aided females in increasing their egg output at low macronutrient concentrations, but this advantage disappeared at higher macronutrient intake rates. Assuming that nutrient limitation might be common, then receipt of SP is beneficial under poor conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster , Animais , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Nutrientes , Óvulo/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Açúcares/metabolismo
11.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(3): 188, 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35286508

RESUMO

Neuropeptides are the most diverse messenger molecules in metazoans and are involved in regulation of daily physiology and a wide array of behaviors. Some neuropeptides and their cognate receptors are structurally and functionally well conserved over evolution in bilaterian animals. Among these are peptides related to gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK). In mammals, CCK is produced by intestinal endocrine cells and brain neurons, and regulates gall bladder contractions, pancreatic enzyme secretion, gut functions, satiety and food intake. Additionally, CCK plays important roles in neuromodulation in several brain circuits that regulate reward, anxiety, aggression and sexual behavior. In invertebrates, CCK-type peptides (sulfakinins, SKs) are, with a few exceptions, produced by brain neurons only. Common among invertebrates is that SKs mediate satiety and regulate food ingestion by a variety of mechanisms. Also regulation of secretion of digestive enzymes has been reported. Studies of the genetically tractable fly Drosophila have advanced our understanding of SK signaling mechanisms in regulation of satiety and feeding, but also in gustatory sensitivity, locomotor activity, aggression and reproductive behavior. A set of eight SK-expressing brain neurons plays important roles in regulation of these competing behaviors. In males, they integrate internal state and external stimuli to diminish sex drive and increase aggression. The same neurons also diminish sugar gustation, induce satiety and reduce feeding. Although several functional roles of CCK/SK signaling appear conserved between Drosophila and mammals, available data suggest that the underlying mechanisms differ.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Colecistocinina/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Drosophila/fisiologia , Humanos , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Mamíferos , Neuropeptídeos/química , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/química , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Paladar
12.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 135: 104595, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231490

RESUMO

Sexual incentive stimuli activate sexual motivation and heighten the level of general arousal. The sexual motive may induce the individual to approach the incentive, and eventually to initiate sexual acts. Both approach and the ensuing copulatory interaction further enhance general arousal. We present data from rodents and humans in support of these assertions. We then suggest that orgasm is experienced when the combined level of excitation surpasses a threshold. In order to analyze the neurobiological bases of sexual motivation, we employ the concept of a central motive state. We then discuss the mechanisms involved in the long- and short-term control of that state as well as those mediating the momentaneous actions of sexual incentive stimuli. This leads to an analysis of the neurobiology behind the interindividual differences in responsivity of the sexual central motive state. Knowledge is still fragmentary, and many contradictory observations have been made. Nevertheless, we conclude that the basic mechanisms of sexual motivation and the role of general arousal are similar in rodents and humans.


Assuntos
Motivação , Comportamento Sexual , Animais , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Humanos , Neurobiologia , Ratos , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
13.
Sci Adv ; 8(10): eabl6121, 2022 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263128

RESUMO

Food and reproduction are the fundamental needs for all animals. However, the neural mechanisms that orchestrate nutrient intake and sexual behaviors are not well understood. Here, we find that sugar feeding immediately suppresses sexual drive of male Drosophila, a regulation mediated by insulin that acts on insulin receptors on the courtship-promoting P1 neurons. The same pathway was co-opted by anaphrodisiac pheromones to suppress sexual hyperactivity to suboptimal mates. Activated by repulsive pheromones, male-specific PPK23 neurons on the leg tarsus release crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) that acts on CCAP receptor on the insulin-producing cells in the brain to trigger insulin release, which then inhibits P1 neurons. Our results reveal how male flies avoid promiscuity by balancing the weight between aphrodisiac and anaphrodisiac inputs from multiple peripheral sensory pathways and nutritional states. Such a regulation enables male animals to make an appropriate mating decision under fluctuating feeding conditions.


Assuntos
Corte , Proteínas de Drosophila , Animais , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Insulina , Masculino , Nutrientes , Feromônios , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
14.
Neuron ; 110(5): 737-739, 2022 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240060

RESUMO

In this issue of Neuron, Liu et al. (2022) molecularly identify subsets of estrogen receptor-1-positive neurons within the female ventrolateral subdivision of the ventromedial hypothalamus activated during sexual receptivity versus agonistic behaviors in distinct reproductive states and demonstrate that these subsets control state-dependent changes in social behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual Animal , Ursidae , Animais , Feminino , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Social
15.
Horm Behav ; 141: 105149, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248868

RESUMO

Repeated formation and subsequent dissolution of romantic relationships is common in humans across a lifetime. The socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is used to study mechanisms of these bonds. At least in the laboratory, male prairie voles form bonds with a new female partner after loss of a previous partner. Initial bond formation depends on activation of dopamine D2-like receptors in the nucleus accumbens. Blocking activity of this receptor subtype disrupts formation of an animal's first pair bond. It is not known if these same D2-like receptors facilitate pair bonding with a subsequent partner after previous partner loss. This study examined the effects of D2-like receptor blockade on repeated pair bonding in male prairie voles. Males were paired with an initial female and allowed to mate before being separated. After a 5-day separation, males were then treated with either saline or eticlopride, a selective D2-receptor antagonist, prior to being paired with a second female and being allowed to mate. After a second separation, males were tested to determine if they developed a preference for spending time with their first or second mate. Eticlopride-treated males spent more time in a cage containing one of their previous partners compared to time in an empty cage but did not form a selective preference for either partner. Saline-treated males preferred their second, more recent partner. D2 receptor antagonism, then, disrupts bond formation in a second pairing but does not help to maintain a bond with the initial partner.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Ligação do Par , Animais , Arvicolinae/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/farmacologia , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Social
16.
J Exp Biol ; 225(4)2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35112704

RESUMO

The transfer of male accessory gland secretions is a well-investigated reproductive strategy for winning in sexual selection. An example of such a strategy is the conspicuous mating behaviour of simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails, the so-called shooting of love darts, whereby a snail drives a love dart(s) into the body of its mating partner. In the land snail Euhadra quaesita, it has been shown that a specific mucus which coats the love dart is transferred into the partner's haemolymph and that it suppresses subsequent matings in the darted individual. However, how the mucus of the love dart suppresses rematings remains unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that by injection of the dart mucus, love-dart shooters manipulate the physiology of a dart recipient and make the individual sexually inactive. In an experiment in which snails were provided with opportunities to encounter a potential mating partner, we found that the latency period to achieve sexual arousal was longer in snails injected with the dart mucus than in snails of the control treatments. This finding indicates that the dart mucus delays sexual arousal in injected snails. This delay in arousal is a novel example of the effects of the mucus in simultaneously hermaphroditic land snails. The remating suppression effect of the dart mucus is likely to occur through sexual inactivation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Masculino , Muco , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Seleção Sexual , Caramujos/fisiologia
17.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1968): 20212213, 2022 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35105240

RESUMO

Reproductive traits that influence female remating and competitive fertilization rapidly evolve in response to sexual selection and sexual conflict. One such trait, observed across diverse animal taxa, is the formation of a structural plug inside the female reproductive tract (FRT), either during or shortly after mating. In Drosophila melanogaster, male seminal fluid forms a mating plug inside the female bursa, which has been demonstrated to influence sperm entry into storage and latency of female remating. Processing of the plug, including its eventual ejection from the female's reproductive tract, influences the competitive fertilization success of her mates and is mediated by female × male genotypic interactions. However, female contributions to plug formation and processing have received limited attention. Using developmental mutants that lack glandular FRT tissues, we reveal that these tissues are essential for mating plug ejection. We further use proteomics to demonstrate that female glandular proteins, and especially proteolytic enzymes, contribute to mating plug composition and have a widespread impact on plug formation and composition. Together, these phenotypic and molecular data identify female contributions to intersexual interactions that are a potential mechanism of post-copulatory sexual selection.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Drosophila melanogaster , Animais , Drosophila , Proteínas de Drosophila/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
18.
Curr Biol ; 32(6): 1211-1231.e7, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139360

RESUMO

Many animals detect other individuals effortlessly. In Drosophila, previous studies have examined sensory processing during social interactions using simple blobs as visual stimulation; however, whether and how flies extract higher-order features from conspecifics to guide behavior remains elusive. Arguing that this should be reflected in sensorimotor relations, we developed unbiased machine learning tools for natural behavior quantification and applied these tools, which may prove broadly useful, to study interacting pairs. By transforming motor patterns with female-centered reference frames, we established circling, where heading and traveling directions intersect, as a unique pattern of social interaction during courtship. We found circling to be highly visual, with males exhibiting view-tuned motor patterns. Interestingly, males select specific wing and leg actions based on the positions and motions of the females' heads and tails. Using system identification, we derived visuomotor transformation functions indicating history-dependent action selection, with distance predicting action initiation and angular position predicting wing choices and locomotion directions. Integration of vision with somatosensation further boosts these sensorimotor relations. Essentially comprised of orchestrated wing and leg maneuvers that are more variable in the light, circling induces mutually synchronized conspecific responses stronger than wing extension alone. Finally, we found that actions depend on integrating spatiotemporally structured features with goals. Altogether, we identified a series of sensorimotor relations during circling, implying that during courtship, flies detect complex spatiotemporally structured features of conspecifics, laying the foundation for a mechanistic understanding of conspecific recognition in Drosophila.


Assuntos
Corte , Drosophila , Animais , Drosophila/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Visão Ocular , Asas de Animais
19.
PLoS Genet ; 18(2): e1010063, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35157717

RESUMO

Sexual reproduction is a complex process that contributes to differences between the sexes and divergence between species. From a male's perspective, sexual selection can optimize reproductive success by acting on the variance in mating success (pre-insemination selection) as well as the variance in fertilization success (post-insemination selection). The balance between pre- and post-insemination selection has not yet been investigated using a strong hypothesis-testing framework that directly quantifies the effects of post-insemination selection on the evolution of reproductive success. Here we use experimental evolution of a uniquely engineered genetic system that allows sperm production to be turned off and on in obligate male-female populations of Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that enhanced post-insemination competition increases the efficacy of selection and surpasses pre-insemination sexual selection in driving a polygenic response in male reproductive success. We find that after 10 selective events occurring over 30 generations post-insemination selection increased male reproductive success by an average of 5- to 7-fold. Contrary to expectation, enhanced pre-insemination competition hindered selection and slowed the rate of evolution. Furthermore, we found that post-insemination selection resulted in a strong polygenic response at the whole-genome level. Our results demonstrate that post-insemination sexual selection plays a critical role in the rapid optimization of male reproductive fitness. Therefore, explicit consideration should be given to post-insemination dynamics when considering the population effects of sexual selection.


Assuntos
Inseminação , Espermatozoides , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Reprodução/genética , Seleção Genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(8)2022 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165176

RESUMO

Extravagant ornaments are thought to signal male quality to females choosing mates, but the evidence linking ornament size to male quality is controversial, particularly in cases in which females prefer different ornaments in different populations. Here, we use whole-genome sequencing and transcriptomics to determine the genetic basis of ornament size in two populations of a widespread warbler, the common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas). Within a single subspecies, females in a Wisconsin population prefer males with larger black masks as mates, while females in a New York population prefer males with larger yellow bibs. Despite being produced by different pigments in different patches on the body, the size of the ornament preferred by females in each population was linked to numerous genes that function in many of the same core aspects of male quality (e.g., immunity and oxidative balance). These relationships confirm recent hypotheses linking the signaling function of ornaments to male quality. Furthermore, the parallelism in signaling function provides the flexibility for different types of ornaments to be used as signals of similar aspects of male quality. This could facilitate switches in female preference for different ornaments, a potentially important step in the early stages of divergence among populations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Aves Canoras/genética , Aves Canoras/metabolismo , Animais , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Melaninas/metabolismo , Passeriformes , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais
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