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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e45752, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1117683

RESUMO

Objetivo: estimar a prevalência do uso do preservativo e os fatores associados em trabalhadores da construção civil. Método: estudo transversal, analítico, com 370 trabalhadores da grande João Pessoa, Paraíba. Considerou como variável de desfecho o uso do preservativo na última relação sexual. Utilizou-se questionário estruturado. Análise de regressão logística bivariada e múltipla foi utilizada para identificar associação entre as variáveis sociodemográficas e o uso do preservativo. Resultados: a maioria dos participantes é do sexo masculino, adultos jovens, casados e com baixa escolaridade. A prevalência estimada de uso do preservativo foi de 23,5% (IC 95%: 19,2% - 27,8%). Indivíduos com menos de 39 anos possuem 1,82 vezes mais chances de usar o preservativo e ser casado diminui (RC=0,26) as chances de uso. Conclusão: há baixa prevalência de uso do preservativo em trabalhadores da construção civil. A prevenção combinada é uma alternativa para controle das infecções transmissíveis, sendo o preservativo o principal coadjuvante.


Objective: to estimate the prevalence of condom use and the associated factors in construction workers. Method: in this crosssectional, analytical study with 370 workers from greater João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, the outcome variable was condom use at last sexual intercourse. A structured questionnaire was used. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between sociodemographic variables and condom use. Results: most participants were young, male adults, married and with little education. Estimated prevalence of condom use was 23.5% (95% CI; 19.2% - 27.8%). Individuals under 39 years old were found to be 1.82 times more likely to use condoms than individuals aged 40 years or older (OR = 1.82; 95% CI), while being married reduced the likelihood (OR = 0.26). Conclusion: prevalence of condom use is low among construction workers. Combined prevention is one option for controlling communicable diseases, with condoms as the main support.


Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia del uso de condón y los factores asociados en trabajadores de la construcción. Método: en este estudio transversal y analítico con 370 trabajadores del área metropolitana de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, la variable de resultado fue el uso de condón en la última relación sexual. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado y análisis de regresión logística bivariada y múltiple para identificar asociaciones entre las variables sociodemográficas y el uso del condón. Resultados: la mayoría de los participantes fueron jóvenes, varones adultos, casados y con poca educación. La prevalencia estimada del uso de condones fue del 23,5% (IC del 95%; 19,2% - 27,8%). Se encontró que las personas menores de 39 años tenían 1,82 veces más probabilidades de usar condones que las personas de 40 años o más (OR = 1,82; IC del 95%), mientras que estar casado redujo la probabilidad (OR = 0,26). Conclusión: la prevalencia del uso de condones es baja entre los trabajadores de la construcción. La prevención combinada es una opción para controlar las enfermedades transmisibles, con el condón como principal apoyo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Indústria da Construção , Estudos Transversais , Prevenção de Doenças , Correlação de Dados , Enfermagem do Trabalho
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 732, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual sex have been linked to higher sexual risk and STI infection in adulthood among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries. This study aimed to examine adolescent and non-consensual anal sexual debut among Chinese MSM and to evaluate factors associated with adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual anal sex. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted recently among Chinese men assigned male sex at birth, ≥18 years old, and who had ever engaged in anal sex with a man. Participants answered questions regarding socio-demographics, condomless sex, age at anal sexual debut with a man, and whether the first anal sex was consensual. Factors associated with an adolescent sexual debut (< 18 years old) and non-consensual sex at sexual debut were evaluated. We defined adolescent sexual debut as having anal sex with another man at 17 years old or younger, and the participants were asked whether their first male-to-male anal sex was non-consensual. RESULTS: Overall, 2031 eligible men completed the survey. The mean age of sexual debut was 20.7 (SD = 4.3) years old. 17.6% (358/2031) of men reported adolescent sexual debut, and 5.0% (101/2031) reported a non-consensual sexual debut. The adolescent sexual debut was associated with having more male sexual partners (adjusted OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.06-1.15) and condomless anal sex in the last three months (AOR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.34-2.18). MSM whose sexual debut was non-consensual were more likely to have condomless anal sex (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.17-2.66), and to have reported an adolescent sexual debut (AOR = 2.72, 95% CI 1.75-4.21). CONCLUSIONS: Many Chinese MSM reported adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual sex, both of which are associated with sexual risk behaviors and drive STI transmission. These findings highlight the need for designing tailored interventions for MSM who experienced adolescent sexual debut and non-consensual sex at debut.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Preservativos , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Assunção de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 349-352, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030451

RESUMO

Sexual abuse in childhood is associated with many adverse consequences for survival during their lifetime. Numerous research studies clearly show the link between sexual abuse of children and the spectrum of unfavorable mental, social, sexual, interpersonal and behavioral as well as physical health consequences. Current research shows the strongest link between sexual abuse of children and the presence of depression, alcohol and abuse of other psychoactive substances and nutritional disorders in surviving women and anxiety-related disorders in male survivors. There is also an increased risk of re-victimization, especially for girls. Negative effects of mental health in children with sexual abuse include posttraumatic symptoms, depression, helplessness, negative evaluation, aggressive behavior and behavioral problems. Recent research links sexual assault on children with psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia and dysfunctional disorders, as well as personality disorders. Sexual abuse of children involving penetration is specifically identified as a risk factor for the development of psychotic and schizophrenic symptoms. Many studies have shown that sexual victimization in childhood is a significant risk factor for suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviors.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 382-385, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030458

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Addiction is not solely "substance dependence". Diminished control is a core defining concept of psychoactive substance addiction. Several behaviors, besides psychoactive substance ingestion, produce short-term reward that may engender diminished control over the behavior. Growing evidence suggests that behavioral addictions resemble substance addictions in many domains, including phenomenology, tolerance, comorbidity, overlapping genetic contribution, neurobiological mechanisms, and response to treatment. This similarity has given rise to the concept of non-substance or behavioral addictions, i.e., syndromes analogous to substance addiction, but with a behavioral focus. The type of excessive behaviors identified as being addictive include gambling, use of computers, playing video games, use of the internet, exercise, and shopping. Behavioral addictions have been proposed as a new class in DSM-5, but the only category included is gambling disorder. Internet gaming disorder is included in the appendix as a condition for further study. The ICD-11 included also the definition of a new disorder, gaming disorder. To present actual knowledge about behavioral addictions in childhood and adolescence. METHODS: Analysis of data in available literature in data basis and textbooks. RESULTS: Some behavioral addictions are becoming more common in children and adolescents. Dominant are gaming and gambling addiction that are also best researched. CONCLUSIONS: Behavioral addiction becomes an epidemic in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Internet , Adolescente , Criança , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Comportamento Sexual , Jogos de Vídeo
6.
J Sex Med ; 17(10): 1827-1834, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social distancing in the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may affect the sexual behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM). In early March 2020, Israel imposed travel restrictions and limited social contacts to household members only. The effects of these restrictions on the sexual behavior and mental health of MSM are unknown. AIM: To assess sexual behaviors and mental health of Israeli MSM during social distancing and to compare sexual behaviors before and during social distancing, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data were collected through anonymous web-based questionnaires in a popular geospatial application used by MSM between March and April 2020 during the social-distancing period. OUTCOMES: The dependent variable was casual sex, in violation of social-distancing regulations. Independent variables were demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors before and during social-distancing restrictions, and mental health. RESULTS: Of the 2,562 participants, 1,012 (39.5%) continued to meet new casual sex partners during this period. Being of a younger age, single, and with higher levels of mental distress predicted engagement in casual sex during the social-distancing period. MSM reduced their sexual risk and limited sexual repertoire-in particular, kissing with their sexual partners. Participants also spent more time in dating applications than in the pre-social-distancing period and increased their use of sex phone, webcams, and porn consumption. They perceived the threat of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus to be greater than that of HIV: only 3.2% could imagine themselves having sex with a partner who is infected with SARS-CoV-2 compared with 30.1% in case of HIV, P < .01. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: MSM reduced their risk behaviors during social distancing because of the threat of COVID-19. Casual sex during social distancing was associated with negative feelings of mental distress. Future public health response in the future waves of COVID-19 morbidity should strike a balance between containment measures and the need for social distancing with its possible mental and social burdens. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: This is the first study in Israel and one of the few in the world to examine sexual behaviors among MSM during the COVID-19 social distancing period. It involved a relatively large sample, through convenience sampling, which limits causality. Findings should be interpreted cautiously, specifically because COVID-19-related behaviors and circumstances may change rapidly. CONCLUSION: The negative feelings of distress due to social distancing should be considered as a potential barrier to adherence among vulnerable populations, such as MSM. Future public health response should strike a balance between containment measures and its possible mental, social, and financial burdens. Shilo G, Mor Z. COVID-19 and the Changes in the Sexual Behavior of Men Who Have Sex With Men: Results of an Online Survey. J Sex Med 2020;17:1827-1834.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Assunção de Riscos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 210-219, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192057

RESUMO

Sexting is a recent phenomenon in which people send and receive photos, videos and/or text messages of sexual nature via smartphones or similar devices. Similar to other developed countries, it is becoming an increasingly popular practice among teenagers in Spain. Provided it has appeared very recently, scarce research has focused on examining in-depth factors involved in its initiation and maintenance. Therefore, the two main aims of this study were to determine its prevalence and to analyse the explanatory variables of the sexting behaviours. The sample consisted of 784 Spanish adolescents (52% boys and 48% girls) between 12 and 18 years of age (M = 14.44; SD = 1.61). The results showed that 24.4% have practised sexting at some time, with an average of 2.32 people (SD = 2.70). The regression analysis revealed that positive attitudes towards sexting, level of impulsivity, age, being male and having a partner are variables that predict engagement in sexting. These results are very important for designing and implementing preventive strategies that emphasise the responsible use of ICTs and social networks


El sexting es un fenómeno que consiste en el envío y la recepción de fotos, videos y/o mensajes de texto de naturaleza sexual a través de smartphones. Como en todos los demás países desarrollados, se está convirtiendo en una práctica cada vez más popular entre los adolescentes de España. Al tratarse de un fenómeno muy reciente todavía no existen muchos trabajos que hayan estudiado con profundidad su entidad y sus factores implicados. Por tanto, los dos objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar la prevalencia y analizar las variables explicativas del inicio y del mantenimiento de las conductas de sexting. La muestra estuvo formada por 784 adolescentes españoles (52% chicos y 48% chicas) con edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 18 años (M = 14.44; DT = 1.61). Los resultados indican que el 24.4% ha practicado sexting en alguna ocasión, realizando esta conducta con una media de 2.32 personas (DT = 2.70). El análisis de regresión reveló que las actitudes positivas hacia el sexting, el nivel de impulsividad, la edad, ser hombre y el mantener una relación de pareja son variables que predicen la práctica del sexting. Estos resultados son muy importantes en la elaboración e implementación de estrategias preventivas que enfaticen el uso responsable de las TICS y las redes sociales


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Parceiros Sexuais , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Atitude , Motivação , Psicometria/instrumentação , Análise de Regressão , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
10.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003297, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The psychological health of female sex workers (FSWs) has emerged as a major public health concern in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Key risk factors include poverty, low education, violence, alcohol and drug use, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and stigma and discrimination. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to quantify the prevalence of mental health problems among FSWs in LMICs, and to examine associations with common risk factors. METHOD AND FINDINGS: The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016049179. We searched 6 electronic databases for peer-reviewed, quantitative studies from inception to 26 April 2020. Study quality was assessed with the Centre for Evidence-Based Management (CEBM) Critical Appraisal Tool. Pooled prevalence estimates were calculated for depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal behaviour. Meta-analyses examined associations between these disorders and violence, alcohol/drug use, condom use, and HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI). A total of 1,046 studies were identified, and 68 papers reporting on 56 unique studies were eligible for inclusion. These were geographically diverse (26 countries), representing all LMIC regions, and included 24,940 participants. All studies were cross-sectional and used a range of measurement tools; none reported a mental health intervention. Of the 56 studies, 14 scored as strong quality, 34 scored as moderate, and 8 scored as weak. The average age of participants was 28.9 years (age range: 11-64 years), with just under half (46%) having up to primary education or less. The pooled prevalence rates for mental disorders among FSWs in LMICs were as follows: depression 41.8% (95% CI 35.8%-48.0%), anxiety 21.0% (95% CI: 4.8%-58.4%), PTSD 19.7% (95% CI 3.2%-64.6%), psychological distress 40.8% (95% CI 20.7%-64.4%), recent suicide ideation 22.8% (95% CI 13.2%-36.5%), and recent suicide attempt 6.3% (95% CI 3.4%-11.4%). Meta-analyses found significant associations between violence experience and depression, violence experience and recent suicidal behaviour, alcohol use and recent suicidal behaviour, illicit drug use and depression, depression and inconsistent condom use with clients, and depression and HIV infection. Key study limitations include a paucity of longitudinal studies (necessary to assess causality), non-random sampling of participants by many studies, and the use of different measurement tools and cut-off scores to measure mental health problems and other common risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that mental health problems are highly prevalent among FSWs in LMICs and are strongly associated with common risk factors. Study findings support the concept of overlapping vulnerabilities and highlight the urgent need for interventions designed to improve the mental health and well-being of FSWs.


Assuntos
Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sexo Seguro , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio , Violência
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1393, 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seine-Saint-Denis is a deprived departement (French administrative unit) in the North-East of Paris, France, hosting the majority of South Asian migrants in France. In recent years, the number of migrants from Pakistan, which has a high prevalence of hepatitis C globally, increased. As a corollary, this study addressed the high proportion of Pakistani patients in the infectious diseases clinic of a local hospital, diagnosed with hepatitis C, but also hepatitis B and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It explored genealogies and beliefs about hepatitis and HIV transmission, including community, sexual and blood risk behaviours. The aim was to understand the ways these risk factors reduce or intensify both en route and once in France, in order to devise specific forms of community health intervention. METHODS: The study took place at Avicenne University-Hospital in Seine-Saint-Denis, and its environs, between July and September 2018. The design of the study was qualitative, combining semi-structured interviews, a focus group discussion, and ethnographic observations. The sample of Pakistani participants was selected from those followed-up for chronic hepatitis C, B, and/or HIV at Avicenne, and who had arrived after 2010 in Seine-Saint-Denis. RESULTS: Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted, until saturation was reached. All participants were men from rural Punjab province. Most took the Eastern Mediterranean human smuggling route. Findings suggest that vulnerabilities to hepatitis and HIV transmission, originating in Pakistan, are intensified along the migration route and perpetuated in France. Taboo towards sexuality, promiscuity in cohabitation conditions, lack of knowledge about transmission were amongst the factors increasing vulnerabilities. Participants suggested a number of culturally-acceptable health promotion interventions in the community, such as outreach awareness and testing campaigns in workplaces, health promotion and education in mosques, as well as web-based sexual health promotion tools to preserve anonymity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the need to look at specific groups at risk, related to their countries of origin. In-depth understandings of such groups, using interdisciplinary approaches such as were employed here, can allow for culturally adapted, tailored interventions. However, French colour-blind policies do not easily permit such kinds of targeted approach and this limitation requires further debate.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Assunção de Riscos , Migrantes , Adulto , Cultura , Grupos Étnicos , França , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepacivirus , Hepatite B Crônica/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C Crônica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual , População Suburbana , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Mens Health ; 14(5): 1557988320957545, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938298

RESUMO

While there is evidence of variations in the risk perceptions of COVID-19 and that they are linked to both engagement in health-protective behaviors and poor mental health outcomes, there has been a lack of attention to how individuals perceive the risk of COVID-19 relative to other infectious diseases. This paper examines the relative perceptions of the severity of COVID-19 and HIV among a sample of U.S. gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSMs). The "Love and Sex in the Time of COVID-19" survey was conducted online from April 2020 to May 2020. GBMSMs were recruited through paid banner advertisements featured on social networking platforms, resulting in a sample size of 696. The analysis considers differences in responses to two scales: the Perceived Severity of HIV Infection and the Perceived Severity of COVID-19 Infection. Participants perceived greater seriousness for HIV infection (mean 46.67, range 17-65) than for COVID-19 infection (mean 38.81, range 13-62). Some items reflecting more proximal impacts of infection (anxiety, loss of sleep, and impact on employment) were similar for HIV and COVID-19. Those aged over 25 and those who perceived higher prevalence of COVID-19 in the United States or their state were more likely to report COVID-19 as more severe than HIV. There is a need to develop nuanced public health messages for GBMSMs that convey the ongoing simultaneous health threats of both HIV and COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bissexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Comportamento Sexual , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(4): 411-417, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the effect of HIV prevention information transmission model in the prevention of high-risk sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: To establish the HIV "expert-key informant-MSM" preventive information transmission model and to intervene the MSM high-risk sexual behavior. Before and 3 months after the intervention, MSM was measured by general information questionnaire, AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior questionnaire, MSM Health Belief Scale for HIV Prevention, and Safe Sexual Self-efficacy Scale. RESULTS: AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior scores in MSM after the intervention were significantly higher than those before the intervention (Z=-13.047, P<0.001); the scores of health belief before and after the intervention were significantly higher (Z=-3.272, P=0.001); condom use in MSM after the intervention was more common than that before the intervention (P<0.05), except for commercial sex. CONCLUSIONS: The application of HIV prevention information transmission model can effectively improve AIDS-related knowledge, HIV prevention health beliefs, condom use rate of MSM population, and in turn promote the transformation of their high-risk sexual behavior.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Preservativos , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Trabalho Sexual , Comportamento Sexual
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21360, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871863

RESUMO

HIV prevalence is higher among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM), owing to their unsafe sexual behavior. Further, MSM indulge in behaviors such as consumption of alcohol/oral drugs and/or injecting during/before sex that poses the risk of unsafe behaviors, thereby increasing their vulnerability to HIV. The study aims to analyze the factors associated with HIV infection among the multi-risk MSM using any substances with those MSM who do not use substances.Community-based cross-sectional survey design using probability-based sampling between October 2014 and November 2015.For the nation-wide Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS), 23,081 MSM were recruited from 4067 hotspots in 108 districts across India. Information on demographics, sexual behaviors, substance use, sexual partners, and awareness on HIV and its management was collected from the consented respondents using computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI) by trained personnel. Blood samples were tested for HIV. Statistical analyses were done, to study the associations between substance use and its influence on high-risk sexual behaviors and HIV infection.One in 3 MSM (33.88%) in India were substance users, thus exhibiting "multi-risk" (MR) behaviors. Significantly higher HIV prevalence (3.8%, P < .05) was reported among MR-MSM, despite 97.2% of them being aware of HIV. Higher HIV prevalence among MSM exhibiting homosexual behavior for ≤1 year is of specific concern, as this accounts to recent infections and indicates the increased vulnerability of the infection among the new entrants.Substance-use resulting in high-risk sexual behavior was significantly associated with higher HIV prevalence among MR-MSM. Integrated targeted interventions focusing on safe sex and safe-IDU practices among MR-MSM are required to end the disease transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Conscientização , Estudos Transversais , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/classificação , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866153

RESUMO

The decision to allocate time and energy to find multiple sexual partners or raise children is a fundamental reproductive trade-off. The Strategic Pluralism Hypothesis argues that human reproductive strategies are facultatively calibrated towards either investing in mating or parenting (or a mixture), according to the expression of features dependent on the individual's condition. This study seeks to test predictions derived from this hypothesis in a sample of 242 young men (M ± SD = 22.12 ± 3.08) from Chile's 5th Region (33Ö¯ south latitude). Specifically, two predictions were considered that raise questions about the relationship between traits related to physical and psychological attractiveness (fluctuating facial asymmetry and self-perception of attractiveness) and competitive skills (baseline testosterone and self-perception of fighting ability) with short-term reproductive strategies. Our results indicate that psychological features related to the self-perception of physical attractiveness are related to short-term reproductive strategies. However, no evidence was found that fluctuating facial asymmetry, basal levels of testosterone and self-perception of fighting ability were related to short-term reproductive strategies. These results support the existing evidence of the importance of physical attractiveness in calibrating men's reproductive strategies but cast doubts about the role of fluctuating facial asymmetry. They also suggest that traits related to physical attractiveness, in comparison to competitive capabilities, play a more important role in calibrating men's short-term reproductive strategies.


Assuntos
Beleza , Comportamento de Escolha , Reprodução/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Chile , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Humanos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943535

RESUMO

Potential long-lasting adverse effects of child maltreatment have been widely reported, although little is known about the distinctive long-term impact of differing types of maltreatment. Our objective for this special article is to integrate findings from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a longitudinal prenatal cohort study spanning 2 decades. We compare and contrast the associations of specific types of maltreatment with long-term cognitive, psychological, addiction, sexual health, and physical health outcomes assessed in up to 5200 offspring at 14 and/or 21 years of age. Overall, psychological maltreatment (emotional abuse and/or neglect) was associated with the greatest number of adverse outcomes in almost all areas of assessment. Sexual abuse was associated with early sexual debut and youth pregnancy, attention problems, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and depression, although associations were not specific for sexual abuse. Physical abuse was associated with externalizing behavior problems, delinquency, and drug abuse. Neglect, but not emotional abuse, was associated with having multiple sexual partners, cannabis abuse and/or dependence, and experiencing visual hallucinations. Emotional abuse, but not neglect, revealed increased odds for psychosis, injecting-drug use, experiencing harassment later in life, pregnancy miscarriage, and reporting asthma symptoms. Significant cognitive delays and educational failure were seen for both abuse and neglect during adolescence and adulthood. In conclusion, child maltreatment, particularly emotional abuse and neglect, is associated with a wide range of long-term adverse health and developmental outcomes. A renewed focus on prevention and early intervention strategies, especially related to psychological maltreatment, will be required to address these challenges in the future.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Asma/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estatura , Criança , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sexual , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Buenos Aires; s.n; ago. 2020. 75 p. graf, tab.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1119087

RESUMO

Actualización de los avances ocurridos durante el año 2019, relacionados con las acciones de la Coordinación Salud Sexual, Sida e ITS, del Ministerio de Salud del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, destinada principalmente al equipo de salud involucrado en la política de salud sexual y reproductiva de la Ciudad. Continúa el modelo de análisis del informe 2016-2018, basado en las dimensiones: Determinantes (elementos que dan cuenta del contexto en el que se desarrolla la respuesta ), Población (indicadores que permiten caracterizar la población objetivo de la política pública), Acciones Programáticas (desarrollo institucional del Programa), y Utilización de los servicios (encuentro entre el sistema de salud y las personas usuarias). Incluye un documento anexo que presenta, a modo de Resumen Ejecutivo, una tabla que permite observar el comportamiento de algunos indicadores seleccionados para los años 2016-2019.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais/provisão & distribução , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/provisão & distribução , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Saúde Sexual e Reprodutiva , Serviços Públicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 1081-1085, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741175

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the prevalence of anal sex and related factors in low-tier female sex workers (FSWs) in the demonstration areas of comprehensive AIDS responses (DACAR) in Zhejiang province. Method: In 2013, a survey on low-tier FSWs was carried out in 21 Demonstration Areas of AIDS Responses in Zhejiang. Experience of having anal sex with clients in the last month was taken as dependent variable while independent variables would include perception and characteristics related to behavior of the FSWs. The multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the factors related to anal sex in low-tier FSWs. Results: A total of 2 645 low-tier FSWs were interviewed. Among these FSWs, 67.9% (1 796/2 645) were over 26 years old, 89.9% (2 378/2 645) were with education level of junior high school or below, 58.4% (1 546/2 645) were married, 78.2% (2 068/2 645) were from other provinces, 68.6% (1 814/2 645) had income level less than 4 000 Yuan, and rates of anal sex with client in the last month were 5.03% (133/2 645). Results from the multivariate logistic regression analysis of related factors of anal sex with client in the last month showed that among the low-tier FSWs, the venues of having commercial sex were in hair salons/massage parlors (OR=7.31, 95%CI: 2.27-23.59), roadside shops (OR=7.89, 95%CI: 2.27- 27.40) or other places (OR=4.65, 95%CI: 1.23-17.53), when compared with the street-women service. FSWs often engaged in commercial sex business in three or more counties (OR=1.68, 95%CI: 1.01-2.81), when compared with FSWs often engaged in commercial sex business just one county. FSWs had sex with only middle-aged and the elderly clients (OR=0.45, 95%CI: 0.30-0.66), when compared with FSWs had sex with young or middle-aged and the elderly clients. FSWs had risk perception for sexually transmitted disease (STD) (OR=2.00, 95%CI: 1.20-3.32), when compared with FSWs with no risk perception. FSWs had oral sex experience with their clients in the last month (OR=7.29, 95%CI: 4.78-11.12), when compared with the ones without oral sex. The above said factors were all related to the incidence of anal sex. Conclusions: Certain numbers of low-tier FSWs had anal sex experiences with their clients, especially those who had oral sex were more likely to have anal sex in DACAR in Zhejiang province. Attention should be paid to anal sex behavior when conducting behavior-related intervention programs, targeting on the low-tier FSWs.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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