Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.654
Filtrar
2.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(12): 941-944, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is characterised as the inability to achieve or maintain an erection to complete sexual intercourse. ED may be considered as an early complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of registered food supplement, natural polyphenolic extract from the French maritime pine bark, Pycnogenol (PYC) on erectile function and lipid profile in ED patients. METHODS: 53 patients with ED were divided into two groups (32 with DM, 21 non-DM) in randomised, blinded and placebo-controlled study. During 3-month intervention with PYC or placebo and one month after the end of the intervention patients were investigated for ED with validated questionnaire International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5); lipid profile, glycaemia was analysed in each group. RESULTS: In a randomised, blinded and placebo-controlled study, we found that natural polyphenolic extract, Pycnogenol improved erectile function in DM group by 45 % compared to the NDM group, where the improvement was also significant, but only by 22 %. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and glucose level was lowered by PYC in patients with DM. Glucose level was not affected by PYC in non-DM. Placebo showed no effect on monitored parameters in both groups. CONCLUSION: Administration of Pycnogenol leads in improvement of erectile function in patients with ED and diabetes (DM group) by 45 %, in NDM group by 22 %, in lowering of total-, LDL-cholesterol by 20 % and 21 % and glycaemia by 22 % in DM (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 19).


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Ereção Peniana/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Adulto , Complicações do Diabetes , Método Duplo-Cego , Disfunção Erétil/complicações , Humanos , Lipídeos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Pediatrics ; 144(6)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740497

RESUMO

Despite significant declines over the past 2 decades, the United States continues to experience birth rates among teenagers that are significantly higher than other high-income nations. Use of emergency contraception (EC) within 120 hours after unprotected or underprotected intercourse can reduce the risk of pregnancy. Emergency contraceptive methods include oral medications labeled and dedicated for use as EC by the US Food and Drug Administration (ulipristal and levonorgestrel), the "off-label" use of combined oral contraceptives, and insertion of a copper intrauterine device. Indications for the use of EC include intercourse without use of contraception; condom breakage or slippage; missed or late doses of contraceptives, including the oral contraceptive pill, contraceptive patch, contraceptive ring, and injectable contraception; vomiting after use of oral contraceptives; and sexual assault. Our aim in this updated policy statement is to (1) educate pediatricians and other physicians on available emergency contraceptive methods; (2) provide current data on the safety, efficacy, and use of EC in teenagers; and (3) encourage routine counseling and advance EC prescription as 1 public health strategy to reduce teenaged pregnancy.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção Pós-Coito/métodos , Papel do Médico , Relações Médico-Paciente , Sexo sem Proteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Feminino , Antagonistas de Hormônios/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pediatras/psicologia , Papel do Médico/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/fisiologia , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia
4.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(4): 227-238, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual behaviour towards another person who does not or cannot consent to it causes serious harm to its victims. Understandable tendencies towards isolating or shaming the offenders, however, may actually increase risks of recidivism and further such harms. AIM: The study aims to consider evidence for the effectiveness of interventions for sex offenders, mainly in a U.K. context, across four areas: criminal justice system programmes, medication, interventions for sex offenders with personality disorder and a community-based model for the reintegration-Circles of Support and Accountability, and identify key evidence gaps. METHODS: We searched for reviews in the following four strands of work-psychosocial programmes, medication, personality focused therapies, and Circles of Support and Accountability-and identified gaps in knowledge. FINDINGS: Randomised controlled trials in this field are rare but have been achieved. Findings from more naturalistic outcome studies of sex offender treatment programmes are disappointing, but recidivism rates among released sex offender prisoners are low, regardless. Medication relying on substantial physiological change raises substantial ethical concerns. Not all sex offenders have a mental disorder but up to half have been diagnosed with a personality disorder, which may need specific treatment. Evidence is growing that lay work such as Circles of Support and Accountability is a valuable adjunct to other interventions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: In this field, where tensions between attributions swing between "madness" and "badness," there is growing evidence for optimism that complexity of history and presentation can be met through cooperation between the many disciplines, integrative strategies, and wider community engagement. The need now is for large, prospective controlled trials of interventions, with long periods of follow-up. Perhaps, the most exciting developments have come from the wider public. More research into the qualities of these volunteers might inform public education and health strategies supporting wider safety.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Criminosos/psicologia , Libido/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Grupos de Autoajuda , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Responsabilidade Social , Apoio Social , Adulto , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Prisioneiros , Reincidência/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia
5.
AIDS Res Ther ; 16(1): 20, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434574

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The South African public health system plays an important role in the delivery of HIV testing and treatment services. The health system is also an important conduit for targeted behaviour change communication with the expectation that clients who undergo counselling from health personnel, adopt safer sexual practices. Literature remains mixed on the impact these HIV services have on risky sexual behaviour. This analysis examines the sexual behaviour of clients following the utilisation of HIV testing and treatment services in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: Data were used from two consecutive cross-sectional household surveys undertaken from June 2014 to June 2015 (2014/2015 survey) and from July 2015 to June 2016 (2015/2016 survey) in the uMgungundlovu District of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Collectively, 20,048 randomly selected individuals aged 15 to 49 years old were interviewed across the two surveys. Utilisation of HIV testing and treatment services were used as independent variables and three sexual risk behaviours were used as dependent variables. Multiple regression models assessed the impact HIV testing and treatment services had on sexual risk behaviour while controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Having tested for HIV had no association with any of the three sexual risk behaviours. However, receiving an HIV positive diagnosis reduced the likelihood of using condoms inconsistently with the respondents' most recent partner (AOR: 0.64; 95% CI 0.54-0.77). Antiretroviral use was negatively associated with inconsistent condom use (AOR: 0.45; 95% CI 0.35-0.58) and number of sexual partners in the previous year (AOR: 0.61; 95% CI 0.46-0.81). CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that HIV testing and treatment services and the assumed exposure of clients to behaviour change communication, had a limited effect in reducing risky sexual behaviour. Data suggests that the engagement between health personnel and individuals accessing HIV testing and treatment services does not necessarily translate into the adoption of safer sexual practices, with the exception of individuals testing positive for HIV and those on ARV treatment, who had adopted safer sexual practices.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Características da Família , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314740

RESUMO

Background We investigated the effects of a polyherbal formulation prepared from the extracts of Mondia whitei (Periplocaceae), Dracaena arborea (Dracaenaceae), and Bridelia ferruginea (Euphorbiaceae) (MDB) on the sexual behavior of normal rats (NR) and prediabetic rats (PR). Methods Male Wistar rats were administered with drinking fructose solution (21%) or tap water for 16 weeks. After induction of prediabetic status, NR (n = 30) and PR (n = 30) were randomly distributed into 10 groups of six animals each and orally treated with distilled water (10 mL/kg), sildenafil citrate (5 mg/kg), or MDB (50, 100, or 500 mg/kg) for 21 days. Sexual behavior parameters per series (S) of ejaculation were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, and 21. Results Drinking fructose solution (21%) induced prediabetic status in rats, characterized by a significant (p < 0.01) increase in glycemia by 43.41% compared with the control group. MDB improved sexual performances of NR and PR by increasing the mount frequency (MF) and the intromission frequency (IF) as well as the number of rats capable of ejaculating. For instance, the MF and the IF were significantly increased in animals administered with MDB for 7 (50 mg/kg, S1 and S2), 14 (100 mg/kg, S3), or 21 days (100 or 500 mg/kg, S2). This increase was more pronounced on days 7 and 14 in NR and PR treated with sildenafil citrate or MDB extracts, respectively. Conclusions The mixture of MDB improved sexual activity in NR and PR. This result may further justify the traditional use of these plants as sexual performance enhancers.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Dracaena/química , Euphorbiaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ejaculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
7.
Andrologia ; 51(9): e13371, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347717

RESUMO

In comparison to other antidepressant drugs, erectile dysfunction (ED) is more pronounced in paroxetine use. On the other hand, orange (Citrus sinensis) peels commonly consumed in various forms are used in folkloric medicine for ED management. Thus, this study evaluated the effect of orange peels infusion on sexual behaviour, nitric oxide (NO) level and some enzymes (arginase, phosphodiesterase-5 [PDE-5], acetylcholinesterase [AChE] and adenosine deaminase [ADA]) in paroxetine-treated rats. Erectile dysfunction was induced with paroxetine (10 mg/kg body weight). The animals were grouped into five (n = 6): normal rats; paroxetine-induced rats; paroxetine-induced rats treated with sildenafil citrate (5 mg/kg); paroxetine-induced rats treated with orange peels infusion (50 mg/kg); Paroxetine induced rats treated with orange peel infusions (100 mg/kg). The results revealed a significant decrease in sexual behaviour, NO level and the activities of antioxidant enzymes, while there was a significant increase in arginase, PDE-5, AChE and ADA activities in paroxetine-induced rats. However, orange peel infusions ameliorated erectile dysfunction in paroxetine-treated rats. This study showed some possible biochemical basis underlying the use of orange peels infusion in erectile dysfunction management.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Citrus sinensis/química , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Paroxetina/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Arginase/metabolismo , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disfunção Erétil/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Erétil/patologia , Feminino , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ereção Peniana/efeitos dos fármacos , Pênis/efeitos dos fármacos , Pênis/patologia , Ratos , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrato de Sildenafila/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Psychiatry Res ; 276: 142-150, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) decreases the risk of substance use relapses and criminal and risky sexual behavior, a major disadvantage is its negative impact on sexual function. In the present study we tested whether, compared to placebo, ginseng extract ameliorates methadone-related sexual dysfunction among female and male patients with OUD and receiving MMT. METHOD: A total of 74 patients (26 females: mean age: M = 39.0 years; 48 males; mean age: 40.64 years) took part in a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled study. Female and male patients were separately randomly assigned either to the ginseng or to a placebo condition. At the beginning of the study and four weeks later, patients completed questionnaires on sexual function. RESULTS: Irrespective of gender, sexual function improved over time, but more so in the ginseng condition than in the placebo condition. CONCLUSIONS: Ginseng appears to counteract the sexual dysfunction resulting from methadone use in both female and male patients with OUD and undergoing MMT.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Panax , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/induzido quimicamente
10.
Int J Impot Res ; 31(2): 71-73, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837720

RESUMO

Sildenafil has had a dramatic influence on the field of sexual medicine over the past 20 years. Not only have phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors improved the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED), they have indirectly contributed to the treatment of male factor infertility. A review of the literature between 1998 - 2018 was performed using PubMed with regards to sildenafil and male infertility. Numerous studies have demonstrated sildenafil's safety and efficacy for treating ED. Sildenafil does not alter semen parameters, and, in fact, may positively affect semen parameters. Sildenafil is helpful for treating ED caused by the psychological stress of infertility treatments. Sildenafil has improved the treatment of ED and may have a benefit on semen parameters. This has aided in the management of male factor infertility, and has contributed to hundreds of thousands of pregnancies that would have been more difficult, as it was before its advent.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Erétil/psicologia , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Citrato de Sildenafila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Curr Protein Pept Sci ; 20(12): 1135-1150, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854957

RESUMO

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) refer to a variety of clinical syndromes and infections caused by pathogens that can be acquired and transmitted through sexual activity. Among STDs widely reported in the literature, viral sexual diseases have been increasing in a number of cases globally. This emphasizes the need for prevention and treatment. Among the methods widely used in drug planning are Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) studies and molecular docking which have the objective of investigating molecular interactions between two molecules to better understand the three -dimensional structural characteristics of the compounds. This review will discuss molecular docking studies applied to viral STDs, such as Ebola virus, Herpes virus and HIV, and reveal promising new drug candidates with high levels of specificity to their respective targets.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , Proteínas/química , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Desenho de Fármacos , Ebolavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Simplexvirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 111: 1029-1035, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841416

RESUMO

Sexual dysfunction is a side effect of the antidepressant drug paroxetine. Anogeissus leiocarpus is a medicinal plant with a wide range of biological activities which include antioxidant and antiulcer properties. With these in mind, we investigated the effect of Anogeissus leiocarpus stem bark extract on paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction in male Wistar rats. Forty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven experimental groups: normal control, PAR (10 mg/kg), PAR + sildenafil (5 mg/kg), ALE (50 and 100 mg/kg) and PAR + ALE (50 and 100 mg/kg). The experiment lasted for 21 days, after which the rats were subjected to sexual behavioral test. Various biochemical assays (phosphodiesterase-5, arginase, acetylcholinesterase, nitric oxide and MDA) were carried out on the penile tissue homogenate. From our findings, paroxetine significantly altered sexual behavior in male rats and increased phosphodiesterase-5, arginase and acetylcholinesterase activities with a concomitant decrease in nitric oxide level. Furthermore, paroxetine altered antioxidant status which revealed by increased MDA level and reduced thiol level. However, treatment with Anogeissus leiocarpus stem bark extract reversed the altered sexual behavior in male rats and boosted antioxidant status. In addition, administration of Anogeissus leiocarpus stem bark extract resulted in a significant attenuation of phosphodiesterase-5, arginase and acetylcholinesterase activities in paroxetine-induced rats. In view of the aforementioned findings, Anogeissus leiocarpus could be considered a promising natural agent in erectile dysfunction management.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Paroxetina/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Arginase/metabolismo , Combretaceae/química , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5/metabolismo , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Erétil/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Pênis/efeitos dos fármacos , Pênis/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/metabolismo , Citrato de Sildenafila/farmacologia
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3726957, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834263

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate the impact on metabolism, bleeding, and sexual function of Nexplanon, a subdermal implant. Study Design: We recruited women (n=101) receiving the Nexplanon implant at two university centers in Italy between 2011 and 2016 into this prospective, observational, multicenter research trial. Participants completed the Interview for Ratings of Sexual Function (IRSF) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires before and 3 and 6 months after the implant was inserted. In addition, all blood parameters were assessed at these visits. All women were given a menstrual diary card and a pictorial blood assessment chart to record daily any vaginal bleeding. Results: The studied metabolic parameters remained in the normal range, showing no alarming modifications: minimal statistical reductions (in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and activated partial thromboplastin time) and increases (in glucose and prothrombin activity) were observed. Changes in IRSF score over 6 months showed a significant increase in pleasure, personal initiative, orgasm, intensity of orgasm, and satisfaction, and a significant decrease in anxiety and discomfort. Mean Body Mass Index decreased, and the weekly frequency of sexual intercourse increased. Conclusions: Nexplanon showed not only a lower metabolic and bleeding impact, but also important positive effects on sexual function. It expands the range of possibilities for women, 38 and couples, in the modern concepts of sexual and reproductive wellbeing.


Assuntos
Desogestrel/administração & dosagem , Orgasmo/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemorragia Uterina/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Coito , Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Menstruação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tempo de Tromboplastina Parcial , Satisfação Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Hemorragia Uterina/sangue , Hemorragia Uterina/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Infect Dis ; 220(3): 476-483, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is common among clinic-attending women, but little is known about clearance and health implications of rectal CT. METHODS: At the municipal sexually transmitted disease clinic in Seattle, Washington, in 2017-2018, we enrolled women at high risk for urogenital CT into an 8-week prospective study. Women received standard CT treatment at enrollment. Women self-collected daily rectal and vaginal specimens for nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and completed weekly sexual exposure diaries. We performed CT culture on the enrollment rectal specimen. RESULTS: We enrolled 50 women; 13 (26%) tested positive for vaginal (n = 11) and/or rectal (n = 11) CT. Sixty percent of women with rectal CT per NAAT were also culture positive. Median time to CT clearance after azithromycin treatment was 8.0 days for vaginal CT and 7.0 days for rectal CT. Eight women with rectal CT at enrollment had at least 1 rectal CT-positive NAAT after clearance of the initial infection; none reported anal sex. CONCLUSIONS: Most NAAT-positive rectal infections were culture positive, suggesting active infection. Time to NAAT clearance of rectal and genital tract CT was similar, and intermittent rectal CT positivity was common in the absence of anal sexual exposure. The cause of recurrent/intermittent rectal CT and the clinical implications of these infections require further study.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Reto/microbiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Adulto , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Chlamydia trachomatis/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Washington , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pediatrics ; 143(2)2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30647089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timely contraceptive initiation is increasingly common, yet population trends by method and among subgroups with increased risk of unintended pregnancy are not well described. The impact of timing and type of contraceptive initiation on risk of unwanted pregnancy is unknown. METHODS: We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from 4 cycles of the National Survey of Family Growth, 2002-2015. We calculated outcomes from self-reported dates of sexual debut, contraceptive initiation, and unwanted pregnancy. We compared trends in timely contraceptive initiation (within 1 month of sexual debut) by method and by race and/or ethnicity and income. Using multivariable regression, we identified predictors of delayed contraceptive initiation. We compared the risk of unwanted pregnancy for delayed versus timely contraceptive initiation. RESULTS: We analyzed responses from 26 359 women with sexual debuts in 1970-2014. One in 5 overall and 1 in 4 African American, Hispanic, or low-income respondents reported delayed contraceptive initiation, which was associated with unwanted pregnancy within 3 months of sexual debut (adjusted risk ratio 3.7 versus timely contraceptive initiation; 99.9% confidence interval: 2.3-5.9; P < .001). Timely contraceptive initiation with less effective versus effective methods was not associated with unwanted pregnancy within 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed contraceptive initiation is more common among African American, Hispanic, and low-income women and is strongly associated with short-term risk of unwanted pregnancy. Pediatricians play a key role in making timely contraception available to adolescents at or before sexual debut. More research is needed to understand the importance of early contraceptive methods on pregnancy risk.


Assuntos
Preservativos/tendências , Anticoncepção/tendências , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepção/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Autorrelato , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Urol ; 19(1): 7, 2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overactive bladder (OAB) can frequently exert a negative effect on female sexual function. Mirabegron, a ß3 receptor agonist, improves OAB symptoms, but there are very few information about its role on female sexual dysfunction (FSD). Aim of the study was to assess the impact of Mirabegron on FSD in women affected by OAB. METHODS: Fifty sexually active women suffering from idiopathic OAB were included in the study. Patients were assessed by means of a urogynecologic physical examination and were asked to complete the 3-day voiding diary, the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire- Short Form (ICIQ-SF), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire and VAS, before and 12 weeks after treatment with Mirabegron. In addition, at the same time points, patients underwent uroflowmetry with the measurement of post- void residual volume (PVR). RESULTS: At baseline all patients were affected by OAB symptoms, with 49/50 patients (98%) presenting with FSD. At 12- weeks follow- up, OAB symptoms improved significantly in all patients, with 59.5% of subjects achieving a complete urinary continence. FSFI Total Score significantly improved in 42/50 patients (84%) from 18.9 ± 4.3 to 21.8 ± 4.5 (p < 0.0001). Sixteen cases (32%) presented with no FSD. Also mean ± SD scores of ICIQ-SF and VAS significantly improved (from 17.1 ± 5 to 7.9 ± 4.8 and from 3.9 ± 1.2 to 6.9 ± 1.2 respectively, p < 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: Mirabegron not only is able to control urinary symptoms in women with OAB, but also induces a significant improvement in their sexual life.


Assuntos
Acetanilidas/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/tratamento farmacológico , Acetanilidas/farmacologia , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 3/farmacologia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/diagnóstico , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/diagnóstico , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/epidemiologia
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 231: 453-463, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545804

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Piper auritum Kunth is employed as an aphrodisiac in the traditional medicine, but corroborative evidence for such effect is scarce. AIM OF THE STUDY: The pro-sexual effect of an aqueous extract of P. auritum and its possible mechanisms were analyzed in two paradigms of male sexual function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Effects of an aqueous extract of P. auritum (PA, single administration) were investigated in the fictive ejaculation, and copulatory behavior paradigms in sexually sluggish male rats. WAY 100635 (antagonist of 5-HT1A receptors), atosiban (antagonist of oxytocinergic receptors), L-NAME (inhibitor of the nitric oxide synthase) and baclofen (antagonist of GABAB receptors) were used as pre-treatments in order to investigate the role of different neurotransmitter systems in PA actions. Chemical profile of PA was determined by Gases Chromatography and Ultra Performance Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Masses Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS). RESULTS: In males with retarded ejaculation, PA stimulated ejaculatory behavior and recovered electromyographic activity of pelvic musculature participating in seminal emission and ejaculation. All pre-treatments blocked stimulating effects of PA on the fictive ejaculation; additionally WAY 100635 interfered with PA actions on ejaculatory behavior. Safrol, apigenin dimethylether, myristicin, vaccihein A, sakuranin and sakuranetin flavonoids, were main constituents of PA, with possible participation in its pro-sexual effects. CONCLUSIONS: Pro-sexual effects of P. auritum elicited at level of ejaculation were mediated by several neurotransmitter systems, among which serotonin and its 5-HT1A receptors play an important role. Present findings support P. auritum reputation as an aphrodisiac, with potential use in delayed ejaculation disorder.


Assuntos
Afrodisíacos/farmacologia , Piper , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Afrodisíacos/química , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ejaculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Piper/química , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Piridinas/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/fisiologia , Antagonistas do Receptor 5-HT1 de Serotonina/farmacologia
18.
AIDS Behav ; 23(1): 161-174, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30088199

RESUMO

Alcohol use is a key risk factor for HIV infection among MSM, in part because intoxication may interfere with the use of prevention methods like condoms. However, few studies have examined whether this is due to alcohol's pharmacological or expectancy effects or explored the specific aspects of sexual decision-making that may be affected. In this study, high-risk, heavy drinking MSM (N = 121) were randomly assigned to receive either (1) alcohol beverages, (2) placebo beverages, or (3) control beverages, before navigating a video-based sexual risk scenario that assessed several aspects of sexual decision-making. Results showed that condom use intentions and negotiation behaviors were lower among alcohol and placebo participants compared with controls, but that few significant differences emerged between the alcohol and placebo groups. These findings contrast with similar past studies, and suggest that alcohol's expectancy effects may play a role in sexual decision-making.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Preservativos , Etanol/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Intenção , Negociação , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Causalidade , Tomada de Decisões , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Sexo Seguro , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção , Adulto Jovem
19.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 99(1): 12-17, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206635

RESUMO

Treatment of male androgenetic alopecia with 5α-reductase inhibitors is efficacious. However, the risk of adverse sexual effects remains controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the risk of adverse sexual effects due to treatment of androgenetic alopecia in male patients with finasteride, 1 mg/day, or dutasteride, 0.5 mg/day. Fifteen randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trials (4,495 subjects) were meta-analysed. Use of 5α-reductase inhibitors carried a 1.57-fold risk of sexual dysfunction (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.19-2.08). The relative risk was 1.66 (95% CI 1.20-2.30) for finasteride and 1.37 (95% CI 0.81-2.32) for dutasteride. Both drugs were associated with an increased risk, although the increase was not statistically significant for dutasteride. As studies into dutasteride were limited, further trials are required. It is important that physicians are aware of, and assess, the possibility of sexual dysfunction in patients treated with 5α-reductase inhibitors.


Assuntos
Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/efeitos adversos , Alopecia/tratamento farmacológico , Dutasterida/efeitos adversos , Finasterida/efeitos adversos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores de 5-alfa Redutase/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Dutasterida/administração & dosagem , Ejaculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Erétil/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Erétil/fisiopatologia , Finasterida/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Libido/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/diagnóstico , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/fisiopatologia
20.
Low Urin Tract Symptoms ; 11(2): O11-O15, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29057583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effectiveness and safety of a medical device containing purified bovine colostrum (Monurelle Biogel; Zambon, Bresso, Italy) in improving vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA), sexual function, urinary symptoms, and quality of life (QoL) in postmenopausal women. METHODS: In all, 172 postmenopausal women with VVA were included in the study. All women were treated with vaginal Monurelle Biogel daily for 12 weeks. Patients underwent clinical examinations, completed a 3-day voiding diary, and had VVA graded using the Vaginal Health Index (VHI) at baseline and 12 weeks. Patients also completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), overactive bladder questionnaire (OAB-Q), and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6), among others. RESULTS: After 12 weeks, there were significant increases in mean (± SD) VHI (12.53 ± 3.67 vs. 19.31 ± 3.49; P < .0001), the number of patients engaging in regular sexual activity 102 (59.3%) vs. 144 (83.7%), and in the total FSFI score (21.64 ± 2.99 vs. 28.16 ± 1.93; P < .0001) compared with baseline. In addition, there were significant reductions in the mean number of 24-hour voids (9.57 ± 2.12 vs. 7.13 ± 1.22; P < .0001), urgent micturition episodes per 24 hours (1.75 ± 0.76 vs. 1.14 ± 0.87; P = .001), nocturia episodes (1.58 ± 0.85 vs. 0.97 ± 1.18; P = .0002), and urinary incontinence episodes per 24 hours (0.74 ± 0.59 vs. 0.28 ± 0.52; P = .003). Finally, after 12 weeks treatment, there were significant differences in UDI-6 (7.85 ± 0.81 vs. 5.56 ± 1.40), OAB-Q symptom (53.60 ± 12.57 vs. 22.08 ± 9.63), and OAB-Q health-related QoL (21.75 ± 8.51 vs. 69.34 ± 14.59) scores compared with baseline (P < .0001 for all). The Patient Impression of Global Improvement scale revealed global improvement in 143 women (83.14%). CONCLUSIONS: Monurelle Biogel is an effective treatment for VVA in postmenopausal women, improving sexual life, urinary symptoms, and QoL.


Assuntos
Colostro , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/prevenção & controle , Vagina/patologia , Vulva/patologia , Administração Intravaginal , Animais , Atrofia , Bovinos , Feminino , Géis , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vagina/efeitos dos fármacos , Vulva/efeitos dos fármacos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA