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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e45752, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1117683

RESUMO

Objetivo: estimar a prevalência do uso do preservativo e os fatores associados em trabalhadores da construção civil. Método: estudo transversal, analítico, com 370 trabalhadores da grande João Pessoa, Paraíba. Considerou como variável de desfecho o uso do preservativo na última relação sexual. Utilizou-se questionário estruturado. Análise de regressão logística bivariada e múltipla foi utilizada para identificar associação entre as variáveis sociodemográficas e o uso do preservativo. Resultados: a maioria dos participantes é do sexo masculino, adultos jovens, casados e com baixa escolaridade. A prevalência estimada de uso do preservativo foi de 23,5% (IC 95%: 19,2% - 27,8%). Indivíduos com menos de 39 anos possuem 1,82 vezes mais chances de usar o preservativo e ser casado diminui (RC=0,26) as chances de uso. Conclusão: há baixa prevalência de uso do preservativo em trabalhadores da construção civil. A prevenção combinada é uma alternativa para controle das infecções transmissíveis, sendo o preservativo o principal coadjuvante.


Objective: to estimate the prevalence of condom use and the associated factors in construction workers. Method: in this crosssectional, analytical study with 370 workers from greater João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, the outcome variable was condom use at last sexual intercourse. A structured questionnaire was used. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between sociodemographic variables and condom use. Results: most participants were young, male adults, married and with little education. Estimated prevalence of condom use was 23.5% (95% CI; 19.2% - 27.8%). Individuals under 39 years old were found to be 1.82 times more likely to use condoms than individuals aged 40 years or older (OR = 1.82; 95% CI), while being married reduced the likelihood (OR = 0.26). Conclusion: prevalence of condom use is low among construction workers. Combined prevention is one option for controlling communicable diseases, with condoms as the main support.


Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia del uso de condón y los factores asociados en trabajadores de la construcción. Método: en este estudio transversal y analítico con 370 trabajadores del área metropolitana de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, la variable de resultado fue el uso de condón en la última relación sexual. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado y análisis de regresión logística bivariada y múltiple para identificar asociaciones entre las variables sociodemográficas y el uso del condón. Resultados: la mayoría de los participantes fueron jóvenes, varones adultos, casados y con poca educación. La prevalencia estimada del uso de condones fue del 23,5% (IC del 95%; 19,2% - 27,8%). Se encontró que las personas menores de 39 años tenían 1,82 veces más probabilidades de usar condones que las personas de 40 años o más (OR = 1,82; IC del 95%), mientras que estar casado redujo la probabilidad (OR = 0,26). Conclusión: la prevalencia del uso de condones es baja entre los trabajadores de la construcción. La prevención combinada es una opción para controlar las enfermedades transmisibles, con el condón como principal apoyo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Indústria da Construção , Estudos Transversais , Prevenção de Doenças , Correlação de Dados , Enfermagem do Trabalho
3.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e185, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829742

RESUMO

During the last months and following the implementation of containment measures in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the number of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnoses radically decreased in Liege AIDS Reference Center, Belgium. The number of HIV screening tests has also dramatically dropped down to an unprecedented level. This decline of HIV diagnosis is caused by missed diagnoses of individuals infected before the establishment of such measures and to the reduction of high-risk sexual behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Bélgica , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(7): 1081-1085, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741175

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the prevalence of anal sex and related factors in low-tier female sex workers (FSWs) in the demonstration areas of comprehensive AIDS responses (DACAR) in Zhejiang province. Method: In 2013, a survey on low-tier FSWs was carried out in 21 Demonstration Areas of AIDS Responses in Zhejiang. Experience of having anal sex with clients in the last month was taken as dependent variable while independent variables would include perception and characteristics related to behavior of the FSWs. The multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the factors related to anal sex in low-tier FSWs. Results: A total of 2 645 low-tier FSWs were interviewed. Among these FSWs, 67.9% (1 796/2 645) were over 26 years old, 89.9% (2 378/2 645) were with education level of junior high school or below, 58.4% (1 546/2 645) were married, 78.2% (2 068/2 645) were from other provinces, 68.6% (1 814/2 645) had income level less than 4 000 Yuan, and rates of anal sex with client in the last month were 5.03% (133/2 645). Results from the multivariate logistic regression analysis of related factors of anal sex with client in the last month showed that among the low-tier FSWs, the venues of having commercial sex were in hair salons/massage parlors (OR=7.31, 95%CI: 2.27-23.59), roadside shops (OR=7.89, 95%CI: 2.27- 27.40) or other places (OR=4.65, 95%CI: 1.23-17.53), when compared with the street-women service. FSWs often engaged in commercial sex business in three or more counties (OR=1.68, 95%CI: 1.01-2.81), when compared with FSWs often engaged in commercial sex business just one county. FSWs had sex with only middle-aged and the elderly clients (OR=0.45, 95%CI: 0.30-0.66), when compared with FSWs had sex with young or middle-aged and the elderly clients. FSWs had risk perception for sexually transmitted disease (STD) (OR=2.00, 95%CI: 1.20-3.32), when compared with FSWs with no risk perception. FSWs had oral sex experience with their clients in the last month (OR=7.29, 95%CI: 4.78-11.12), when compared with the ones without oral sex. The above said factors were all related to the incidence of anal sex. Conclusions: Certain numbers of low-tier FSWs had anal sex experiences with their clients, especially those who had oral sex were more likely to have anal sex in DACAR in Zhejiang province. Attention should be paid to anal sex behavior when conducting behavior-related intervention programs, targeting on the low-tier FSWs.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 32(3): 260-270, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749877

RESUMO

We implemented HPTN 062, an acceptability and feasibility study of a motivational-interviewing (MI) intervention to reduce HIV transmission among individuals with acute HIV infection (AHI) in Lilongwe, Malawi. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either brief education or the MI intervention over 24 weeks; all participants received the same messages about AHI. We used mixed methods to assess participants' understanding of the association between AHI and viral load, and its connection to sexual behavior at 8 weeks. While most participants understood key aspects of AHI, MI-intervention participants gave substantially more detailed descriptions of their understanding. Nearly all participants, regardless of study arm, understood that they were highly infectious and would be very likely to transmit HIV after unprotected sex during AHI. Our findings suggest that messages about AHI delivered during the period of AHI are likely beneficial for ensuring that those with AHI understand their level of infectiousness and its association with forward transmission.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Entrevista Motivacional , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Comportamento Sexual , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexo sem Proteção , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237212, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760140

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Contraception can help to meet family planning goals for women living with HIV (WLHIV) as well as to support the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). However, there is little research into the contraceptive practice among sexually active WLHIV in Ethiopia. Therefore, we aimed to examine contraceptive practice among sexually active WLHIV in western Ethiopia and identify the factors that influenced such practice using the Health Belief Model (HBM). METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional survey of 360 sexually active WLHIV was conducted from 19th March to 22nd June 2018 in western Ethiopia. The eligible participants were WLHIV aged between 18 and 49 years who reported being fecund and sexually active within the previous six months but were not pregnant and not wanting to have another child within two years. Modified Poisson regression analyses were conducted to identify factors that influenced contraceptive practice among sexually active WLHIV in western Ethiopia. RESULTS: Among sexually active WLHIV (n = 360), 75% used contraception with 25% having unmet needs. Of the contraceptive users, 44.8% used injectables, 37.4% used condoms and 28.5% used implants. Among 152 recorded births in the last five years, 17.8% were reported as mistimed and 25.7% as unwanted. Compared to WLHIV having no child after HIV diagnosis, having two or more children after HIV diagnosis (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio [APR] = 1.31; 95%CI 1.09-1.58) was associated with increased risk of contraceptive practice. However, sexually active unmarried WLHIV (APR = 0.69; 95%CI 0.50-0.95) were less likely to use any contraception compared to their sexually active married counterparts. Importantly, high perceived susceptibility (APR = 1.49; 95%CI 1.20-1.86) and medium perceived susceptibility (APR = 1.55; 95%CI 1.28-1.87) towards unintended pregnancy were associated with higher risk of contraceptive use than WLHIV with low perceived susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: Although contraceptive use amongst sexually active WLHIV was found to be high, our findings highlight the need for strengthening family planning services given the high rate of unintended pregnancies, the high rate of unmet needs for contraception, as well as the lower efficacy with some of the methods. Our findings also suggest that the HBM would be a valuable framework for healthcare providers, programme planners and policymakers to develop guidelines and policies for contraceptive counselling and choices.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236552, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paying for sex has often been associated with risky sexual behavior among heterosexual men, and men who pay for sex are considered as a bridging population for sexually transmitted infections. Consistent condom use during paid sex is essential for reducing sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and predictors of consistent condom use among men who pay for sex in sub-Saharan Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We pooled data from 29 sub-Saharan African countries' Demographic and Health Surveys. A total of 3,353 men in sub-Saharan Africa who had paid for sex in the last 12 months preceding the surveys and had complete information on all the variables of interest were used in this study. The outcome variable for the study was consistent condom use for every paid sex in the last 12 months. Both bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results were presented as adjusted odds ratios with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance was declared at p< 0.05. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of consistent condom use during paid sex in sub-Saharan Africa was 83.96% (CI = 80.35-87.56), ranging from 48.70% in Benin to 98% in Burkina Faso. Men aged 35-44 [AOR, 1.39 CI = 1.04-1.49], men in the richest wealth quintile [AOR, 1.96 CI = 1.30-3.00], men with secondary level of education [AOR, 1.69 CI = 1.17-2.44], and men in Burkina Faso [AOR = 67.59, CI = 8.72-523.9] had higher odds of consistent condom use during paid sex, compared to men aged 15-19, those in the poorest wealth quintile, those with no formal education, and men in Benin respectively. Conversely, Muslim men had lower odds [AOR = 0.71, CI = 0.53-0.95] of using condom consistently during paid sex, compared to Christian men. CONCLUSION: Empirical evidence from this study suggests that consistent condom use during paid sex encompasses complex social and demographic characteristics. The study also revealed that demographic characteristics such as age, wealth quintile, education, and religion were independently related to consistent condom use for paid sex among men. With sub-Saharan Africa having the highest sexual and reproductive health burden in the world, continuous application of evidence-based interventions (e.g., educational and entrepreneurial training) that account for behavioural and social vulnerabilities are required.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexo Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho Sexual , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Lancet HIV ; 7(9): e629-e640, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic could lead to disruptions to provision of HIV services for people living with HIV and those at risk of acquiring HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, where UNAIDS estimated that more than two-thirds of the approximately 38 million people living with HIV resided in 2018. We aimed to predict the potential effects of such disruptions on HIV-related deaths and new infections in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: In this modelling study, we used five well described models of HIV epidemics (Goals, Optima HIV, HIV Synthesis, an Imperial College London model, and Epidemiological MODeling software [EMOD]) to estimate the effect of various potential disruptions to HIV prevention, testing, and treatment services on HIV-related deaths and new infections in sub-Saharan Africa lasting 6 months over 1 year from April 1, 2020. We considered scenarios in which disruptions affected 20%, 50%, and 100% of the population. FINDINGS: A 6-month interruption of supply of antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs across 50% of the population of people living with HIV who are on treatment would be expected to lead to a 1·63 times (median across models; range 1·39-1·87) increase in HIV-related deaths over a 1-year period compared with no disruption. In sub-Saharan Africa, this increase amounts to a median excess of HIV deaths, across all model estimates, of 296 000 (range 229 023-420 000) if such a high level of disruption occurred. Interruption of ART would increase mother-to-child transmission of HIV by approximately 1·6 times. Although an interruption in the supply of ART drugs would have the largest impact of any potential disruptions, effects of poorer clinical care due to overstretched health facilities, interruptions of supply of other drugs such as co-trimoxazole, and suspension of HIV testing would all have a substantial effect on population-level mortality (up to a 1·06 times increase in HIV-related deaths over a 1-year period due to disruptions affecting 50% of the population compared with no disruption). Interruption to condom supplies and peer education would make populations more susceptible to increases in HIV incidence, although physical distancing measures could lead to reductions in risky sexual behaviour (up to 1·19 times increase in new HIV infections over a 1-year period if 50% of people are affected). INTERPRETATION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the primary priority for governments, donors, suppliers, and communities should focus on maintaining uninterrupted supply of ART drugs for people with HIV to avoid additional HIV-related deaths. The provision of other HIV prevention measures is also important to prevent any increase in HIV incidence. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/provisão & distribução , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Preservativos/provisão & distribução , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Saúde Global/tendências , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
Buenos Aires; s.n; ago. 2020. 75 p. graf, tab.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1119087

RESUMO

Actualización de los avances ocurridos durante el año 2019, relacionados con las acciones de la Coordinación Salud Sexual, Sida e ITS, del Ministerio de Salud del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, destinada principalmente al equipo de salud involucrado en la política de salud sexual y reproductiva de la Ciudad. Continúa el modelo de análisis del informe 2016-2018, basado en las dimensiones: Determinantes (elementos que dan cuenta del contexto en el que se desarrolla la respuesta ), Población (indicadores que permiten caracterizar la población objetivo de la política pública), Acciones Programáticas (desarrollo institucional del Programa), y Utilización de los servicios (encuentro entre el sistema de salud y las personas usuarias). Incluye un documento anexo que presenta, a modo de Resumen Ejecutivo, una tabla que permite observar el comportamiento de algunos indicadores seleccionados para los años 2016-2019.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais/provisão & distribução , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/provisão & distribução , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Saúde Sexual e Reprodutiva , Serviços Públicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(6): 422-427, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Transgender men who have sex with men (TMSM) represent an understudied population in relation to screening for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We examined HIV and STI testing prevalence among TMSM along with the factors associated with testing in a diverse US nationwide sample of TMSM. METHODS: Data from a cross-sectional online convenience sample of 192 TMSM were analysed using multivariable binary logistic regression models to examine the association between sociodemographic and behavioural factors and lifetime testing for HIV, bacterial STIs and viral STIs, as well as past year testing for HIV. RESULTS: More than two-thirds of TMSM reported lifetime testing for HIV (71.4%), bacterial STIs (66.7%), and viral STIs (70.8%), and 60.9% had received HIV testing in the past year. Engaging in condomless anal sex with a casual partner whose HIV status is different or unknown and having fewer than two casual partners in the past 6 months were related to lower odds of lifetime HIV, bacterial STI, viral STI and past year HIV testing. Being younger in age was related to lower probability of testing for HIV, bacterial STIs and viral STIs. Furthermore, TMSM residing in the South were less likely to be tested for HIV and viral STIs in their lifetime, and for HIV in the past year. Finally, lower odds of lifetime testing for viral STIs was found among TMSM who reported no drug use in the past 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that a notable percentage of TMSM had never tested for HIV and bacterial and viral STIs, though at rates only somewhat lower than among cisgender MSM despite similar patterns of risk behaviour. Efforts to increase HIV/STI testing among TMSM, especially among those who engage in condomless anal sex, are needed.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Adulto , Bissexualidade , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 16: 1745506520940095, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine the risk factors associated with gonorrhea and syphilis infections among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic at Dilla University Referral Hospital. METHOD: A hospital-based unmatched case-control study (64 cases and 128 controls) with 1:2 ratios was conducted from 29 January 2018 to 20 June 2018, at the antenatal care clinic of the Dilla University Referral Hospital. Venous blood and vaginal swab were collected to screen for gonorrhea and syphilis. A pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather data on sociodemographic and predisposing factors. Logistic regression analysis used to identify risk factors for sexually transmitted infections among pregnant women at 95% confidence interval and p-value < 0.05. RESULT: A total of 64 cases of syphilis or gonorrhea were identified with a mean age of 26 years (±4.1 years.). Of those cases, 40 were syphilis seropositive and the remaining were gonorrhea cases. Lower educational status (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-4.9), age of first sex <18 years (adjusted odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-5.9), history of abortion (adjusted odds ratio = 3.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4-6.6), and having two or more sexual partners in the past year (adjusted odds ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-5.7) were significantly associated with gonorrhea and syphilis infection. CONCLUSION: Demographic, behavioral, and obstetric factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis or gonorrhea among pregnant women. Strengthening the existing antenatal care services, providing health education on risk factors, and prioritizing women with the risk characteristics and initiation of gonorrhea and syphilis screening during antennal care are mandatory.


Assuntos
Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e20961, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past few months, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused extensive economic and social damage. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19-related measures on partner relationships and sexual and reproductive health in China. METHODS: From May 1 to 5, 2020, 3500 young Chinese individuals were recruited through WeChat or Weibo to participate in a survey to obtain information on sexual and reproductive health (eg, sexual desire, frequency of sexual intercourse, sexual satisfaction, etc). The questionnaire also collected demographic data (eg, age, race, education, current financial status, sexual orientation, relationship status, etc). RESULTS: In total, 967 participants were included in the sexual health analysis. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and related containment measures, 22% of participants (n=212) reported a decrease in sexual desire; 41% (n=396) experienced a decrease in the sexual intercourse frequency; 30% (n=291) reported an increase in the frequency of masturbation; 20% (n=192) reported a decrease in alcohol consumption before or during sexual activities, and 31% (n=298) reported a deterioration in partner relationships during the pandemic. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the following influenced partner relationships: accommodations during the pandemic (P=.046; odds ratio [OR] 0.59; 95% CI 0.30-0.86); exclusive relationship status (yes or no) (P<.001; OR 0.44; 95 % CI 0.27-0.73); sexual desire (P=.02; OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.38-2.97); and sexual satisfaction (P<.001; OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.54-2.50). COVID-19 also caused disruptions in reproductive health services such as prenatal and postnatal care, childbirth and abortion services, contraception availability, and the management of sexually transmitted infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that many young people have wide-ranging issues affecting their sexual and reproductive health due to the COVID-19 pandemic and related containment measures. Strategies and guidelines are needed to safeguard the sexual and reproductive health of young people during this pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Assistência Perinatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/terapia , Isolamento Social , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 159, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the feasibility of using multiple technologies to recruit and conduct cognitive interviews among young people across the United States to test items measuring sexual and reproductive empowerment. We sought to understand whether these methods could achieve a diverse sample of participants. With more researchers turning to approaches that maintain social distancing in the context of COVID-19, it has become more pressing to refine these remote research methods. METHODS: We used several online sites to recruit for and conduct cognitive testing of survey items. To recruit potential participants we advertised the study on the free online bulletin board, Craigslist, and the free online social network, Reddit. Interested participants completed an online Qualtrics screening form. To maximize diversity, we purposefully selected individuals to invite for participation. We used the video meeting platform, Zoom, to conduct the cognitive interviews. The interviewer opened a document with the items to be tested, shared the screen with the participant, and gave them control of the mouse and keyboard. After the participant self-administered the survey, the interviewer asked about interpretation and comprehension. After completion of the interviews we sent participants a follow-up survey about their impressions of the research methods and technologies used. We describe the processes, the advantages and disadvantages, and offer recommendations for researchers. RESULTS: We recruited and interviewed 30 young people from a range of regions, gender identities, sexual orientations, ages, education, and experiences with sexual activity. These methods allowed us to recruit a purposefully selected diverse sample in terms of race/ethnicity and region. It also may have offered potential participants a feeling of safety and anonymity leading to greater participation from gay, lesbian, and transgender people who would not have agreed to participate in-person. Conducting the interviews using video chat may also have facilitated the inclusion of individuals who would not volunteer for in-person meetings. Disadvantages of video interviewing included participant challenges to finding a private space for the interview and problems with electronic devices. CONCLUSIONS: Online technologies can be used to achieve a diverse sample of research participants, contributing to research findings that better respond to young people's unique identities and situations.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Entrevistas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Internet , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
South Med J ; 113(6): 298-304, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483640

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of other infections, including viral hepatitis, which can complicate the treatment and progression of the disease. We sought to characterize Alabama cases of HIV co-infected with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus. METHODS: Using surveillance data, we defined co-infection as a person identified as having hepatitis C or hepatitis B and HIV during 2007-2016. We compared demographics, outcomes, and risk factors for co-infected versus monoinfected individuals with HIV. We mapped co-infected individuals' distribution. RESULTS: Of 5824 people with HIV, 259 (4.4%) were co-infected with hepatitis C (antibody or RNA positive) and 145 (2.5%) with hepatitis B (surface antigen, e antigen, or DNA positive) during 2007-2016. Individuals with HIV and hepatitis C had a greater odds of injection drug use (adjusted odds ratio 9.7; 95% confidence interval 6.0-15.5). Individuals with HIV and hepatitis B had a greater odds of male-to-male sexual contact (adjusted odds ratio 1.7; 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.6). Co-infection was greater in urban public health districts. CONCLUSIONS: We identified risk behaviors among Alabama populations associated with increased odds for HIV and viral hepatitis co-infection. Outreach, prevention, testing, and treatment resources can be targeted to these populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Alabama/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Hepatite B Crônica/etnologia , Hepatite C Crônica/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3306, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578756

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and associated factors in sugarcane cutters. METHOD: a cross-sectional, analytical study with 937 sugarcane cutters from Paraíba and Goiás, states of Brazil, respectively. An outcome variable was the positive results in some rapid tests for HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B and C. Bivariate and multiple analyses were performed to identify the association between these infections and sociodemographic and behavioral variables. RESULTS: all participants were male, most were young adults and had low schooling. Prevalence of STI was estimated at 4.1% (95% CI: 3.0-5.5). According to multiple regression analysis, the variables age over 40 years (OR 5.0; CI 95%: 1.8-14), alcohol consumption (OR 3.9; CI 95%: 1.3-11.9), and illicit drugs (OR 2.9; CI 95%: 1.3-6.3) were factors associated with the STIs investigated. On the other hand, having some religion (OR 0.4; CI 95%: 0.2-0.8), and work in the Midwest Region (OR 0.4; CI 95%: 0.2-0.9) were factors negatively associated with these infections. CONCLUSION: presence of risk behaviors for STI among sugarcane cutters. Screening for these infections in groups of rural workers is essential for early diagnosis and breaking the chain of transmission.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Saccharum , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(5): 237-246, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396475

RESUMO

The sexual partnerships of transmasculine adults-who were assigned female at birth and identify on the masculine gender continuum-remain understudied. This includes characteristics of transmasculine adults' sexual partnerships associated with engaging in HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) sexual risk behavior. This study examined individual- and partnership-level factors of transmasculine adults' sexual partnerships associated with using a protective barrier during sexual activity. Data came from cross-sectional surveys administered to 141 transmasculine adults. Participants provided demographic and sexual health information for up to three sexual partners from the past 12 months (n = 259 partnerships). Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to investigate individual- and partnership-level factors associated with any use of a protective barrier during five sexual behaviors. Transmasculine participants engaged in an array of sexual behaviors with diverse sexual partners. Individual- and partnership-level factors of transmasculine adults' sexual partnerships were associated with their protective barrier use; however, these associations varied in statistical significance across the five sexual behaviors. At the individual level, younger participants had lower odds of protective barrier use during fingering or fisting. At the partnership level, protective barrier use was associated with a sexual partnership's configuration and the gender identity of a sexual partner. Relative to participants with cisgender female partners, those with cisgender male partners generally had lower odds of using a protective barrier. Study findings highlight the importance of studying factors associated with HIV/STI risk behavior located beyond the individual. These findings may have implications for improving measurements of HIV/STI-related risk for transmasculine adults.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Arch Sex Behav ; 49(5): 1477-1488, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383047

RESUMO

The manner in which individuals report their sexual attraction, self-label their sexual identity, or behave in sexual situations can vary over time, and particularly, adolescents may change their reported sexual attraction or sexual orientation identity over the course of their development. It is important to better understand the social factors that may influence these changes, such as one's religiosity. The present study thus aimed to assess the fluidity of adolescent romantic and sexual attraction over time and to explore the role of religiosity in this dynamic using two independent panel samples of Croatian high school students (N = 849 and N = 995). Response items for sexual and romantic attraction were categorized based on the Kinsey scale, and religiosity was assessed with a standard one-item indicator. Results demonstrated that changes in attraction were substantially more prevalent among non-exclusively heterosexual participants compared to exclusively heterosexual participants in both panels. Although more female than male adolescents reported non-heterosexual attraction, gender differences in attraction fluidity were inconsistent. Religiosity was associated with initial sexual attraction (more religious individuals were more likely to report exclusively heterosexual attraction), but not with changes in romantic and sexual attraction over time. Given that the understanding of adolescent sexual development can play an important role in reducing their vulnerability to sexual risk taking, stigmatization, and abuse, this study's findings have relevance for teachers, parents, and counselors working with adolescents, and in particular for sexual minority youth.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Religião , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Croácia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
20.
Arch Sex Behav ; 49(5): 1463-1475, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394111

RESUMO

Scientific evidence regarding sexual minority populations has generally come from studies based on two types of samples: community-derived samples and probability samples. Probability samples are lauded as the gold standard of population research for their ability to represent the population of interest. However, while studies using community samples lack generalizability, they are often better able to assess population-specific concerns (e.g., minority stress) and are collected more rapidly, allowing them to be more responsive to changing population dynamics. Given these advantages, many sexual minority population studies rely on community samples. To identify how probability and community samples of sexual minorities are similar and different, we compared participant characteristics from two companion samples from the Generations Study, each designed with the same demographic profile of U.S. sexual minority adults in mind. The first sample was recruited for a national probability survey, whereas the second was recruited for a multicommunity sample from four U.S. cities. We examined sociodemographic differences between the samples. Although there were several statistical differences between samples, the effect sizes were small for sociodemographic characteristics that defined the sample inclusion criteria: sex assigned at birth, race/ethnicity, and age cohort. The samples differed across other characteristics: bisexual respondents, respondents with less education, and those living in non-urban areas were underrepresented in the community sample. Our findings offer insights for recruiting community samples of sexual minority populations and for measuring sexual identity on probability surveys. They also bolster confidence in well-designed community samples as sources for data on sexual minority populations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amostragem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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