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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21360, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871863

RESUMO

HIV prevalence is higher among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM), owing to their unsafe sexual behavior. Further, MSM indulge in behaviors such as consumption of alcohol/oral drugs and/or injecting during/before sex that poses the risk of unsafe behaviors, thereby increasing their vulnerability to HIV. The study aims to analyze the factors associated with HIV infection among the multi-risk MSM using any substances with those MSM who do not use substances.Community-based cross-sectional survey design using probability-based sampling between October 2014 and November 2015.For the nation-wide Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS), 23,081 MSM were recruited from 4067 hotspots in 108 districts across India. Information on demographics, sexual behaviors, substance use, sexual partners, and awareness on HIV and its management was collected from the consented respondents using computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI) by trained personnel. Blood samples were tested for HIV. Statistical analyses were done, to study the associations between substance use and its influence on high-risk sexual behaviors and HIV infection.One in 3 MSM (33.88%) in India were substance users, thus exhibiting "multi-risk" (MR) behaviors. Significantly higher HIV prevalence (3.8%, P < .05) was reported among MR-MSM, despite 97.2% of them being aware of HIV. Higher HIV prevalence among MSM exhibiting homosexual behavior for ≤1 year is of specific concern, as this accounts to recent infections and indicates the increased vulnerability of the infection among the new entrants.Substance-use resulting in high-risk sexual behavior was significantly associated with higher HIV prevalence among MR-MSM. Integrated targeted interventions focusing on safe sex and safe-IDU practices among MR-MSM are required to end the disease transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Conscientização , Estudos Transversais , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/classificação , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384717

RESUMO

Suicide-related behavior (SRB) is a mental health disparity experienced by the alternative sexuality community. We assessed mental health, relationship orientation, marginalized identities (i.e., sexual orientation minority, gender minority, racial minority, ethnic minority, and lower education), and preferences in information processing (PIP) as factors differentiating lifetime SRB groups. An online cross-sectional survey study was conducted in 2018. Members of the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom (NCSF; n = 334) took part. Bivariate analyses identified the following SRB risk factors: female and transgender/gender non-binary identity, sexual orientation minority identity, lower education, suicide attempt/death exposure, Need for Affect (NFA) Avoidance, depression, and anxiety. Monogamous relationship orientation was a protective factor. Multi-nomial regression revealed the following: (1) monogamous relationship orientation was a protective factor for suicidal ideation and attempt; (2) lower education was a risk factor for suicide attempt; (3) anxiety was a risk factor for suicide attempt; and (4) depression was a risk factor for suicidal ideation. A two-way interaction showed that elevated NFA Approach buffered the negative impacts of depression. Relationship orientation, several marginalized identities (i.e., based on gender, sexual orientation, and educational level), and PIP all contributed uniquely to SRB. Further study is necessary to understand the role of relationship orientation with suicide. Health education and suicide prevention efforts with NCSF should be tailored to account for marginalized identity, mental health, and NFA factors.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Comportamento Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Sexualidade , Ideação Suicida , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Sexualidade/etnologia , Sexualidade/psicologia , Sexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231558, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315322

RESUMO

HIV/AIDS is a public health problem that is transmitted through risky sexual behavior. The literature suggests that the perception of HIV risk is a motivator for the prevention of risky sexual behaviors. There is no culturally adapted scale to assess HIV risk perception in the Hispanic-American population. The aim of this research was to develop a scale to assess HIV risk perception in Hispanic-American young adults. A cross-sectional instrumental design was used, with a sample of students from the Chilean city with the highest HIV rates. Participants (n = 524) were between 18 and 33 years old, of whom 51% were women, 84.4% said they were heterosexual and 43.7% said they had not been tested for HIV/AIDS. The final scale has 9 items and 2 dimensions: (1) perceived risk susceptibility and (2) perceived risk severity. The results showed that the identified structure provided adequate levels of reliability (ω > .8) and presented evidence of validity, based on the internal structure of the test (i.e., using ESEM) and on the relationship with other variables (i.e., the sexual risk behaviors scale). In addition, the results showed strong invariance between the scores for men and women. It is concluded that the HIV risk perception scale has adequate psychometric properties to assess HIV risk perception in equivalent samples.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Testes Psicológicos , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Adulto , Chile , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 28(1): 1731296, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202220

RESUMO

Extramarital sexual relations are forbidden in Islam, and sexual health information is not readily available in Islamic communities, especially for women. This review aimed to explore sexually transmitted infection (STI) knowledge and attitudes among Muslim women worldwide. A systematic review was conducted on seven electronic databases. We included qualitative and quantitative studies of female Muslim participants of reproductive age, focusing on STI knowledge and attitudes. A narrative synthesis approach was used with thematic analysis methods. Eighteen studies conducted in 13 countries were included. Three main themes were identified: poor knowledge and misconceptions; sources of sexual health information and information needs; and cultural influences on STI knowledge and attitudes. Generally, Muslim women had poor knowledge regarding STI signs and symptoms, prevention, diagnosis and treatment, in addition to many misconceptions. Negative attitudes towards people infected with HIV/AIDS were common, and attitudes were highly influenced by misconceptions and insufficient knowledge. Infected women tended to be subjected to more blame and judgement compared to men. While the review summarises knowledge and attitudes of Muslim women worldwide, we excluded studies that did not clearly state that the study participants were Muslim women, hence many countries with Muslim populations are not represented in this review. Negative attitudes towards STIs make it harder for women to access sexual health information, STI prevention and treatment. This review highlights the need for culturally sensitive sexual health education for Muslim women. Future sex education interventions would benefit from considering the wider personal and external barriers.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Islamismo , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Cultura , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Religião , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Saúde Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etnologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 188, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partner concurrency, (having sexual partnerships overlapping in time), especially when condoms are not used, can facilitate sexually transmitted infections (STI) transmission. In Britain, STI diagnoses rates and the reporting of concurrency are higher among black Caribbeans than other ethnic groups. We explored attitudes towards, drivers, characteristics, and contexts of concurrent partnerships, and their implications for STI risk among black Caribbeans in England. METHODS: Purposive sampling, by sex and age-groups, was used to recruit participants (overall n = 59) from five sexual health clinics and community settings in London and Birmingham, England. Audio-recorded four focus group discussions (n = 28 participants), and in-depth interviews (n = 31) were conducted (June 2014-December 2015). Transcribed data were thematically analysed using Framework Analysis. RESULTS: 'Main plus' and 'non-main' concurrency were identified in this population. Main plus concurrency involves an individual having a main partner with whom s/he has a "relationship" with, and the individual and/or their partner secretly or explicitly have other non-main partners. In contrast, non-main concurrency entails having multiple, non-committed partners overlapping in time, where concurrency is usually taken as a given, making disclosure to partners irrelevant. While main partnerships were usually long-term, non-main partnerships ranged in duration from a single event through to encounters lasting several months/years. Condomless sex was common with ex/long-term/married/cohabiting partners; whereas condoms were typically used with non-main partners. However, condom use declined with partnership duration and familiarity with partners. Awareness of partners' concurrency facilitated condom use, STI-testing, and partner notification. While unresolved feelings, or sharing children with ex-partners, usually facilitated main plus concurrency; non-main concurrency was common among young, and single people. Gender norms, notions of masculinity, and sexual desires influenced concurrency. Black Caribbean popular music, social media, peer pressure, and relationship norms among black Caribbeans were also perceived to encourage concurrency, especially among men and young people. CONCLUSIONS: Concurrency among black Caribbeans is shaped by a complex interaction between emotional/psychological, interpersonal, sociocultural, and structural factors. Concurrency type, its duration, and awareness influence sexual health choices, and thus STI risk in this population. Collecting these data during clinic consultations could facilitate offering partner notification methods tailored to concurrency type. Gender- and age-specific, culturally-sensitive interventions addressing STI risks associated with concurrency are needed.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Atitude/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Arch Sex Behav ; 49(2): 517-529, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016813

RESUMO

In Samoa, feminine natal males who possess male-typical genitalia are known locally as fa'afafine. Some Samoan men express sexual interest in fa'afafine, whereas others do not. To assess the sexual orientation of men who are sexually interested in fa'afafine, we collected sexual attraction ratings and viewing times of Samoan men's and women's faces. Study 1 (N = 130) focused on men who were insertive or versatile during anal sex with fa'afafine partners. These men were compared to each other, as well as to males (i.e., men and fa'afafine) who were exclusively sexually interested in either women or men. Study 2 (N = 180) compared men who had sex with fa'afafine and women; men who had sex with fa'afafine, women, and men; and men who had sex with fa'afafine and men. These men were compared to each other, as well as to males who were exclusively sexually interested in either women or men. These studies suggest that men who have sex with fa'afafine are a heterogeneous group. A small portion of the men who are sexually interested in fa'afafine shows a relatively bisexual pattern of sexual attraction ratings and viewing times, namely men who have sex with fa'afafine, men, and women. In contrast, a larger number of men who were sexually interested in fa'afafine responded in a manner similar to men who were exclusively sexually interested in either women or men. The present research suggests that additional insights into male sexual orientation can be garnered by focusing on how sexuality is expressed in non-Western cultural contexts.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Samoa , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228432, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027682

RESUMO

Sexual debut, or first intercourse, predicts problem behaviors such as substance use. This association could reflect a direct effect of debut itself, general developmental trends, or the fact that some youth are more predisposed to a wide array of problem behaviors (e.g., risky sex, substance use). Understanding the association between sexual debut and substance use thus requires methods that can distinguish between these various accounts. In this study the association between sexual debut and substance use was investigated in a longitudinal sample of Mexican-origin youth (N = 674) assessed annually from 5th (Mage = 10.86 years, SD = 0.51) through 12th grade (Mage = 17.69 years, SD = 0.48). The longitudinal aspect of the data allowed the direct effect of sexual debut on substance use to be tested while accounting for long-term trends in substance use, and stable individual differences in those trends based on early risk and debut timing. Substance use increased over time, and early risk and debut were consistently associated with more substance use. Sexual debut also modestly predicted an increase in substance use after accounting for these effects, however. Taken together, results provide some evidence consistent with each of the potential explanations for the association between sexual debut and substance use across adolescence.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Coito , Comportamento Problema , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Fatores Etários , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia
8.
Evol Psychol ; 18(1): 1474704919897602, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101034

RESUMO

Evolutionary medicine proposes studying alcohol use and abuse through the lens of modern evolutionary theory. This study ( https://osf.io/p48 uw/) follows this approach and uses an evolutionary framework to predict how young adults (18-35 years old) form impression of a binge drinker. We predicted that displaying sexual dysfunctions (short-term risk) in a binge drinking video would negatively influence attitudes and expectations of a target when compared to cognitive (short-term risk) or long-term deficits. In the following studies, we use a Zahavian framework to understand and influence impression formation of a male binge drinker among women (intersexual selection) and men (intrasexual competition) participants in a subsequent task. Via a randomized experimental online study in France (N = 177, M = 23.39 [4.91], 43.50% men) and a preregistered conceptual replication study in Peru (N = 176, M = 25.61 [4.76], 53.41% men), women exposed to a binge drinking video-describing sexual impotence after a binge drinking episode-tended to downgrade attractiveness evaluation of the binge drinker. However, male participants were not impacted by the different types of signals displayed in the videos. These results show that evolutionary theory could help us understand impression formation in binge drinking context and call for gender-specific health messages.


Assuntos
Bebedeira/etnologia , Comparação Transcultural , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebedeira/complicações , Evolução Biológica , Disfunção Erétil/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , França/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Peru/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cancer Nurs ; 43(1): E47-E53, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexuality is a multidimensional subject that can be negatively affected after a diagnosis of gynecological cancer. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to reveal what sexuality difficulties Muslim women with gynecological cancers experience and how they overcome them. INTERVENTIONS/METHODS: A qualitative approach was used. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews and analyzed by using a content analysis method. Eighteen Muslim women with gynecological cancers participated in the study. RESULTS: The study findings were grouped into 3 major categories: situations that make sexual life difficult, impact of cancer on sexual life, and coping. CONCLUSIONS: Women with gynecological cancers experience sexual reluctance, orgasmic incapacity, lack of enjoyment of sexual intercourse, and decreased frequency of sexual intercourse. In individuals with cancer, social support is important to facilitate coping; however, some women do not receive sufficient support. Women who consider sexuality to be a taboo topic and feel shame about asking sexuality-related questions are not likely to seek or receive relevant information from health professionals. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Health professionals should provide information to women diagnosed with gynecological cancers about changes that they are likely to experience in their bodies and possible difficulties in sexuality. These women should be encouraged to talk about their sexual problems, and religious and cultural differences should be reflected in their cancer care.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/psicologia , Islamismo/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/complicações , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/etiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Sexualidade
10.
Arch Sex Behav ; 49(6): 1903-1914, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845149

RESUMO

We sought to identify and compare correlates of condomless receptive anal intercourse with HIV-positive or unknown status partners (CRAI) for younger (< 25 years) and older (≥ 25 years) Hispanic/Latino, black/African-American, and white men who have sex with men (MSM). Baseline data from the Evaluation of Rapid HIV Self-Testing among MSM Project (eSTAMP), a randomized controlled trial with MSM (n = 2665, analytical sample size = 2421), were used. Potential correlates included participants' sociodemographic characteristics and HIV status as well as the characteristics of participants' partners. Younger Hispanic/Latino and black men were most likely to report having older sex partners (≥ 50% of partners being at least 5 years older), and having older partners was a significant correlate of CRAI among younger Hispanic/Latino and white men. Regardless of race/ethnicity, not knowing one's HIV status was a significant correlate of CRAI among younger men, whereas having a black sex partner was a significant correlate among older men. HIV prevention initiatives could address these and other correlates specific to race/ethnicity groups to target their prevention resources and messaging.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Fatores Etários , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3224, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826165

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to interpret the meanings attributed by men with prostate cancer to the experience regarding their bodies and masculinities during illness. METHOD: ethnographic research with 17 men, guided by the narrative method and theoretical framework of medical anthropology and masculinities. The information was collected through recorded interviews, direct observation and field diary records, which were analyzed by inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: men undergo body and identity transformations when they get sick with prostate cancer, transiting through multiple masculinities, resigning their actions, and occupying subordinate positions in relation to other healthy bodies, which are marginalized in their social relationships and allied with regard to establishing their affective relationships. CONCLUSION: this evidence enhances and deepens the knowledge disclosed in the literature and contributes to the strengthening of nursing care actions when dealing with the sick.


Assuntos
Masculinidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
12.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 23(3): 19-29, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782628

RESUMO

Globally, few programs consider the needs of first-time young parents (FTYPs), who face disproportionate negative health consequences during pregnancy and childbirth. Scant evidence exists on FTYPs' broader health needs. Formative research in two regions of Madagascar used a socio-ecological lens to explore, via 44 interviews and 32 focus group discussions, the influences on FTYPs at the individual, couple, family, community, and system levels. We spoke with FTYPs who had, and who had not, used sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, their parents/kin and influential adults, and community health workers and facility health providers. Data analysis, guided by a codebook, used Atlas.ti. Age, social position, and implicit power dynamics operating within and across socio-ecological levels affected FTYPs' service-seeking behaviors. The nature and extent of influence varied by health service type. Cross-cutting social factors affecting service use/non-use included gender dynamics, pressures from mothers, in-laws, and family tradition, and adolescent stigmatization for too-early pregnancy. Structural and economic factors included limited awareness of and lack of trust in available services, unfriendliness of services, and FTYPs' limited financial resources. A socio-ecological program perspective can inform tailoring of activities to address broader SRH issues, including how relationships, gender, power, and intergenerational dynamics influence service use.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pais/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Família , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Madagáscar , Masculino , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saúde Reprodutiva/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cult Med Psychiatry ; 43(4): 686-709, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729691

RESUMO

Drawing on a historical ethnography conducted in Southern Brazil, this article explores how public health programs for adolescent reproductive and mental health have emerged in Brazil and begun to intersect with the growing field of "global mental health" (GMH). The story I recount begins not in the 2010s with the rapid rise of expert interest in adolescent health within GMH, but in the 1990s, the decade when young teens in Brazil were first coming into contact with practices and approaches in research, schools and clinics that have both underpinned and critiqued the production of an adolescent mental and reproductive health sub-field. In parsing what young women's encounters with the then newly-emerging questionnaires, measurement tools, school-based programs and clinical practices came to mean to them, I use a genealogical approach to consider how histories of education reform, population control, psychoanalysis, social medicine, the transition to democracy, feminism and grass-roots politics all entered the fold, shaping the way adolescent sex-and-psyche materialized as a contested object of expertise. I end by exploring what this case can teach global mental health advocates and social theorists about practices of critique.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Saúde Global , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Mental , Educação Sexual , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Adolescente , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1306, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment has been linked to lower health, education, and income later in life, and is associated with increased engagement in delinquent or criminal behaviors. This paper explores trajectories of these behaviors from adolescence into early adulthood and tests maltreatment as a predictor, and whether observed patterns are consistent across different demographic groups. METHODS: Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents (in grades 7-12 in the 1994-95 school year), we ran linear mixed effects models to estimate growth curves of two dependent variables: violent and nonviolent offending behavior. We tested if maltreatment altered the intercept or slope of the curves and how the curves of these behaviors and the associations between them and maltreatment varied by sex, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. RESULTS: The sample (n = 10,613) had equal proportions males and females, approximately one third identified as a race/ethnicity other than white, and over 10% were non-heterosexual. Experiences of maltreatment were highest for Native Americans and lowest for whites. Models indicated that males were more likely than females to engage in both violent and nonviolent offending and respondents who identified as non-heterosexual were more likely than their heterosexual peers to engage in nonviolent offending behavior. When maltreatment was included in models as a predictor, adolescents who experienced maltreatment had a more rapid increase in their non-violent offending behavior. For violent offending behavior, adolescents who experienced maltreatment had higher levels of offending and the levels progressively increased as maltreatment frequency did. Sex was a moderator; the relationship between maltreatment and predicted nonviolent offending was stronger for males than it was for females. Race/ethnicity and sexual orientation did not moderate the associations between maltreatment and offending behavior. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights from a nationally representative sample into the pattern of both delinquent and criminal behaviors in adolescence and young adulthood, describing not only how the pattern varies over time, but also by sociodemographics and offending type. Additionally, it highlights how the association between maltreatment and these behaviors varies by both offending type and sex.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Agressão , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/etnologia , Comportamento Criminoso/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1429, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The feminization and ethnic diversification of HIV infection, has resulted in a call for gender- and culture-specific prevention strategies for at-risk groups including Latinos in the United States. The steadily changing demographic profile of the AIDS epidemic challenges prevention strategies to remain relevant and up-to-date, particularly in populations of women midlife and older where an understanding of risk remains under explored. As the CDC requests country-specific HIV risk profiles for Latino communities in the US, understanding the socio-economic, behavioral and personal risk reasons of HIV risk for older Dominican women is critical for prevention. METHODS: We conducted focus group discussions informed by the Theory of Gender and Power (TGP). The three constructs of the TGP: 1) Affective influences/social norms; 2) Gender-specific norms and. 3) Power and Authority guided the thematic analysis and identified themes that described the socio-cultural and contextual reasons that that contribute to perceptions of HIV risk. RESULTS: Sixty Dominican American women ages 57-73 participated in our focus group discussions. Sexual Division of Labour: 1) Economic Dependence; 2) Financial Need and 3) Education and Empowerment. Sexual Division of Power: 4) HIV Risk and 5) Relationship Dynamics. Cathexis: Affective Influences/Social Norms: 6) HIV/AIDS Knowledge and 7) Prevention and Testing. Importantly, participants were concerned about partner fidelity when visiting the Dominican Republic, as the country accounts for the second highest HIV rates in the Caribbean. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm previous findings about perceptions of HIV risk and provide additional insight into aging-related aspects of HIV risk for Latino women midlife and older.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Idoso , República Dominicana/etnologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estados Unidos
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 668, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In England, people of Black Caribbean (BC) ethnicity are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STI). We examined whether differences in sexual healthcare behaviours contribute to these inequalities. METHODS: We purposively selected 16 sexual health clinics across England with high proportions of attendees of BC ethnicity. During May-September 2016, attendees at these clinics (of all ethnicities) completed an online survey that collected data on health service use and sexual behaviour. We individually linked these data to routinely-collected surveillance data. We then used multivariable logistic regression to compare reported behaviours among BC and White British/Irish (WBI) attendees (n = 627, n = 1411 respectively) separately for women and men, and to make comparisons by gender within these ethnic groups. RESULTS: BC women's sexual health clinic attendances were more commonly related to recent bacterial STI diagnoses, compared to WBI women's attendances (adjusted odds ratio, AOR 3.54, 95% CI 1.45-8.64, p = 0.009; no gender difference among BC attendees), while BC men were more likely than WBI men (and BC women) to report attending because of a partner's symptoms or diagnosis (AOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.14-2.90; AOR BC men compared with BC women: 4.36, 95% CI 1.42-13.34, p = 0.014). Among symptomatic attendees, BC women were less likely than WBI women to report care-seeking elsewhere before attending the sexual health clinic (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.97, p = 0.039). No ethnic differences, or gender differences among BC attendees, were observed in symptom duration, or reporting sex whilst symptomatic. Among those reporting previous diagnoses with or treatment for bacterial STI, no differences were observed in partner notification. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in STI diagnosis rates observed between BC and WBI ethnic groups were not explained by the few ethnic differences which we identified in sexual healthcare-seeking and use. As changes take place in service delivery, prompt clinic access must be maintained - and indeed facilitated - for those at greatest risk of STI, regardless of ethnicity.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Idoso , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Arch Sex Behav ; 48(8): 2519-2535, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520178

RESUMO

Chinese women in Western nations frequently report less engagement with sexuality, such as lower sexual response and behaviors, and more restrictive sexual attitudes, than their Euro-Caucasian peers. This difference is likely related to sexual conservatism within traditional Chinese culture, though the mechanisms underlying how culture influences sexual responding are not well understood. The current study investigated if these differences were consistent with the dual control model, a well-established model for understanding regulation of sexual response. Chinese and Euro-Caucasian women (N = 471; age M = 20.7 years, SD = 3.3) residing in Canada from a university sample completed self-report questionnaires on sexual excitation and inhibition, sexual attitudes, and various sexual response and behavior measures. Sexual excitation was significantly lower in Chinese than Euro-Caucasian women and was significantly associated with sexual response in both groups. Structural equation modeling showed that sexual response variables were associated with a latent sexual excitation factor and that sexual attitudes partially mediated the relationship between this latent factor and ethnicity. The findings showed that sexual excitation and sexual attitudes contribute to cross-cultural differences in women's sexual responding. Theoretical and clinical considerations are discussed.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Canadá , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 23(2): 65-75, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433595

RESUMO

Accelerating downwards the fertility rate remains a priority issue for developmental planning of any country. Fertility transition for most African countries has been slow since attaining their independence. In a period of almost four decades Eswatini experienced high fertility above replacement level fertility of 2.1; total fertility rate has declined from 6 to 4 children per woman from 1968 to 2007. This paper examines the impact of each proximate factor (contraception, postpartum infecundability, abortion and sexual activity) on fertility. Using the cross-sectional data from the 2006-7 Eswatini Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), the revised Bongaarts proximate determinants model of fertility was applied at national level and the analysis was extended to observe educational variation among women aged 15-49. The analysis showed that contraception had the greatest impact of fertility reduction, then sexual activity, postpartum infecundability and induced abortion. Women's educational level had huge negative influence on fertility and positive implication on reproductive choice of using contraception, delaying sexual activity/marriage and childbearing. The results guide on selection of potential social variables amenable to policy aimed at improving women's reproductive behaviour in Eswatini through better educational attainment.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Coeficiente de Natalidade/tendências , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fertilidade , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Coeficiente de Natalidade/etnologia , Aleitamento Materno , Comportamento Contraceptivo/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Essuatíni , Feminino , Humanos , Casamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dinâmica Populacional , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 23(2): 101-109, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433598

RESUMO

Attention to the sexual reproductive health needs of persons with disabilities is important to ensure the protection and promotion of their human rights, to move forward the international development agenda, and to build a truly inclusive society. The objective of this study was to assess modern contraceptive use and associated factors among women with disabilities in Gondar city, Ethiopia. A community-based cross- sectional study was employed, from 25 June to 05 August 2013. All 280 reproductive age women with disabilities who were found in the town during study period were included. Data were coded, entered and cleaned using EPI INFO statistical software version 3.5.2, and analysed by Software Statistical Packages for Social Sciences version 16. About 18% of participants had ever used modern contraceptive and the contraceptive prevalence rate among study participants and currently married women were 13.1% and 20.2% respectively. One fourth of respondents believed that existing family planning service delivery points were not accessible. The proportion of modern contraceptive use among participants was low. Age, marital status, education, income, and type of disability were significant predictors of modern contraceptive use. Therefore, social behavioural change communication interventions should be designed to improve the awareness of people living with disabilities on modern contraceptives based on the needs and type of disabilities.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/uso terapêutico , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Saúde Reprodutiva , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Br J Sociol ; 70(5): 1904-1925, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402452

RESUMO

The sociology of homosexuality lacks engagement with queer theory and postcolonialism and focuses primarily on the global metropoles, thus failing to provide a plausible account of non-Western non-normative sexual identities. This research adopts the author's newly proposed transnational queer sociology to address these deficiencies. First, it critiques the Western model of sexual identity predominantly employed to elucidate non-Western, non-normative sexualities. It does so by examining not only the queer flows between West and non-West but also those among and within non-Western contexts to produce translocally shared and mutually referenced experiences. Second, the proposed approach combines sociology with queer theory by emphasizing the significant role of material, as well as discursive, analyses in shaping queer identities, desires and practices. This article employs the approach to examine young gay male identities, as revealed in 90 in-depth interviews conducted in Hong Kong (n = 30), Taiwan (Taipei, n = 30) and mainland China (Shanghai, n = 30) between 2017 and 2019. More specifically, it highlights the interplay between the state and identity by investigating the intersection and intertwining effects of these young men's sexual and cultural/national identities, revealing three different forms of civic-political activism. The article both demonstrates the way in which sexuality and the state are mutually constituted and provides nuanced analysis of the heterogeneity of contemporary homosexualities in Hong Kong, Taiwan and mainland China. In applying a new sociological approach to understanding sexuality, this research joins the growing body of scholarship within sociology that is decentring the Western formation of universal knowledge.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Ativismo Político , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , China , Comparação Transcultural , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Hong Kong , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/história , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/legislação & jurisprudência , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Taiwan
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