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1.
Biomolecules ; 11(12)2021 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944510

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO), the neuromodulator/neurotransmitter formed from l-arginine by neuronal, endothelial and inducible NO synthases, is involved in numerous functions across the body, from the control of arterial blood pressure to penile erection, and at central level from energy homeostasis regulation to memory, learning and sexual behavior. The aim of this work is to review earlier studies showing that NO plays a role in erectile function and sexual behavior in the hypothalamus and its paraventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic area, and integrate these findings with those of recent studies on this matter. This revisitation shows that NO influences erectile function and sexual behavior in males and females by acting not only in the paraventricular nucleus and medial preoptic area but also in extrahypothalamic brain areas, often with different mechanisms. Most importantly, since these areas are strictly interconnected with the paraventricular nucleus and medial preoptic area, send to and receive neural projections from the spinal cord, in which sexual communication between brain and genital apparatus takes place, this review reveals that central NO participates in concert with neurotransmitters/neuropeptides to a neural circuit controlling both the consummatory (penile erection, copulation, lordosis) and appetitive components (sexual motivation, arousal, reward) of sexual behavior.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Animais , Arginina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ereção Peniana
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258142, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614023

RESUMO

Reproductive health service is crucial for youth to reduce maternal and child mortality. However, many young women face unintended pregnancies and pregnancy-related complications due to insufficient knowledge of contraceptive methods and low contraceptive utilization. This study aims to assess the modern contraceptive prevalence rates among youth and identify factors influencing modern contraceptive utilization among youth. We used Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey (2015-2016) data. This study included 1,423 men and 3,677 women aged 15-24 years from all states and regions of Myanmar. We used multivariable binary logistic regression analysis and reported the results using adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Data analysis was done by STATA software (version 15.1). Ever-married youth used mainly injectable contraception, followed by oral contraceptive pills. Never-married male youth mainly used oral contraceptive pills; however, almost all never-married female youth did not use contraception. The modern contraceptive prevalence rates were 14.9% among total youth, 10% among males, 16.8% among females, 1.5% among never-married males, 44.7% among ever-married males, and 54% among ever-married female youth. The knowledge on modern contraceptive methods favored the utilization. Sexually active youth utilized more contraception than sexually inactive youth. We also found geographical variation and low utilization among rural youth. The desire for more children was also a significant predictor of contraceptive utilization among married youth. The utilization of modern contraception was low among Myanmar youth. Reproductive health program needs to be emphasized on the youth population especially in the area with low utilization to have equitable access to quality reproductive health services. Moreover, the revitalization of Youth Information Corner and youth-friendly reproductive health education programs should be implemented to increase reproductive health knowledge and prevent unsafe sex, unintended pregnancies, and abortions which might help in reducing maternal and child mortality. We warranted conducting mixed method studies to explore the barriers and challenges of contraceptive utilization and male involvement in the choice of contraception among youth.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Anticoncepção/normas , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Anticoncepcionais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Gravidez , População Rural , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(9): 1251-1258, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426668

RESUMO

Human same-sex sexual behaviour (SSB) is heritable, confers no immediately obvious direct reproductive or survival benefit and can divert mating effort from reproductive opportunities. This presents a Darwinian paradox: why has SSB been maintained despite apparent selection against it? We show that genetic effects associated with SSB may, in individuals who only engage in opposite-sex sexual behaviour (OSB individuals), confer a mating advantage. Using results from a recent genome-wide association study of SSB and a new genome-wide association study on number of opposite-sex sexual partners in 358,426 individuals, we show that, among OSB individuals, genetic effects associated with SSB are associated with having more opposite-sex sexual partners. Computer simulations suggest that such a mating advantage for alleles associated with SSB could help explain how it has been evolutionarily maintained. Caveats include the cultural specificity of our UK and US samples, the societal regulation of sexual behaviour in these populations, the difficulty of measuring mating success and the fact that measured variants capture a minority of the total genetic variation in the traits.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
4.
Continuum (Minneap Minn) ; 27(3): 652-664, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048397

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This article provides an overview of a diverse group of primary headache disorders that are categorized in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd Edition (ICHD-3), as "other primary headache disorders." This article provides clinicians with a distilled understanding of the diagnoses and their epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Cough-induced headache requires neuroimaging to exclude posterior fossa pathology and recently has been reported as a common symptom in patients with CSF-venous fistula. Clinical overlap is observed between patients with primary exercise headache and primary headache associated with sexual activity. Patients with recurrent thunderclap headache associated with sexual activity should be presumed to have reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome until proven otherwise. De novo external-pressure headache is a common sequela among health care workers using personal protective equipment during the COVID-19 pandemic. New daily persistent headache is an important mimicker of chronic migraine or chronic tension-type headache and is distinguished by a daily-from-onset progression of persistent headache; a treatment-refractory course is often observed, and early involvement of a multidisciplinary team, including a psychotherapist, is advised. SUMMARY: Patients with primary headache disorders that are classified as "other primary headache disorders" have presentations with unique diagnostic and management considerations. The disorders are highly recognizable, and an appreciation of the diagnoses will aid clinicians in providing safe and effective care for patients presenting with headache.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Cefaleia Primários/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Cefaleia Primários/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Tosse/complicações , Tosse/epidemiologia , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Transtornos da Cefaleia Primários/etiologia , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/tendências , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11254, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045560

RESUMO

Factors which indicate lower life expectancy also induce switching to a faster life strategy, that is, a higher investment in current reproduction at the expense of future reproduction and body maintenance. We tested a hypothesis according to which impairment of individual health serves as a signal for switching to a faster life strategy using online-gathered data from 32,911 subjects. Worse health was associated with lower age at menarche and earlier initiation of sexual life in women and higher sexual desire and earlier reproduction in both sexes. Individuals with worse health also exhibited lower sexual activity, lower number of sexual partners, and lower total number of children. These results suggest that impaired health shifts individuals towards a faster life strategy but also has a negative (physiological) effect on behaviours related to sexual life. Signs of a faster life strategy were also found in Rh-negative men in good health, indicating that even just genetic predisposition to worse health could serve as a signal for switching to a faster life strategy. We suggest that improved public health in developed countries and the resulting shift to a slower life strategy could be the ultimate cause of the phenomenon of demographic transition.


Assuntos
Libido/fisiologia , Menarca/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Traços de História de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250871, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Young women in South Africa are highly affected by sexually transmitted infections (STI), like C. trachomatis (CT) and N. gonorrhoeae (NG). We aimed to estimate the incidence of CT and NG, and its determinants, among young women from the Western Cape, South Africa, participating in an HPV vaccine trial (the EVRI study). METHODS: HIV-negative women aged 16-24 years were enrolled between October 2012 and July 2013. At enrolment and month 6 participants were screened for CT and NG (Anyplex CT/NG real-time detection method). A questionnaire on demographic and sexual history characteristics was completed at enrolment and month 7. Treatment for CT and/or NG was offered to infected participants. Incidence rates (IR) of CT and NG were estimated. Determinants of incident CT and NG infections were assessed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: 365 women were tested for CT and/or NG at least twice. Prevalence of CT and NG at baseline was 33.7% and 10.4%, respectively. Prevalence of co-infection with CT and NG was 7.1%. During 113.3 person-years (py), 48 incident CT infections were diagnosed (IR = 42.4 per 100 py, 95% confidence interval (CI) 31.9-56.2). Twenty-nine incident NG were diagnosed during 139.3 py (IR = 20.8 per 100 py, 95%CI 14.5-29.9). Prevalent CT infection at baseline was associated with incident CT (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 5.8, 95%CI 3.0-11.23. More than three lifetime sex partners increased the risk for incident NG (3-4 partners aIRR = 7.3, 95%CI 2.1-26.0; ≥5 partners aIRR = 4.3, 95%CI 1.1-17.5). CONCLUSIONS: The IR of bacterial STIs among young women in the Western Cape is very high. Besides being previously infected and a higher lifetime number of sex partners, no other risk factors were found for CT and NG, suggesting that the majority of these women were at risk. This indicates the need for intensified prevention of STIs as well as screening and treatment programs to increase sexual health in this region.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/virologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/patogenicidade , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Gonorreia/virologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/patogenicidade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Life Sci ; 277: 119575, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961859

RESUMO

Sexual function is essential for species survival. Melanocortin, progesterone, and estrogen can improve sexual function and they are modulated by adiponectin hormone which can be increased by Turmeric. In various studies shows Turmeric ability that is easily accessible to increase serum adiponectin levels. Therefore, the researchers decided to conduct a study to determine the effect of turmeric on serum adiponectin levels, sexual behavior, and profile of steroid hormones in stressed mice. Thirty female mice, six in each group (1. control group, 2. mice that received stress, 3. stress mice received 100 mg/kg turmeric (extract daily) for 4 weeks, 4. stress mice received turmeric (extract daily) for 4 weeks and also received adiponectin antagonist, and 5. stress groups received adiponectin antagonist), were used in the current study. The mice first underwent blood sampling. Then all mice were subjected to stress testing before the intervention except one group, which considered as a control group. The intervention in this study was done as a 100 mg/kg turmeric extract that was gavaged daily for each mouse. After the intervention, all mice were tested for sexual behavior, and then blood samples were taken to check serum levels of adiponectin, estradiol, progesterone and prolactin. So, the results showed before the intervention there were no significant difference among 5 group in levels of adiponectin (p = 0.145), estradiol (p = 0.148), progesterone (p = 0.166) and prolactin (p = 0.206) but after intervention there were significant difference between 5 group in levels of adiponectin, estradiol and progesterone (p < 0.001). Also there was significant difference among 5 groups in sexual behavior (p < 0.001). Therefore, consumption of turmeric, which increases serum adiponectin in the stressed mice, can improve sexual function and estradiol hormones profiling.


Assuntos
Curcuma/metabolismo , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Animais , Estradiol/análise , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/análise , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/análise , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Progesterona/análise , Progesterona/sangue , Prolactina/análise , Prolactina/sangue , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251074, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979379

RESUMO

Asexuality is defined as a unique sexual orientation characterized by a lack of sexual attraction to others. This has been challenged, with some experts positing that it is better explained as a sexual dysfunction. Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (SIAD) is characterized by absent/reduced sexual interest/arousal paired with personal distress, with two subtypes: acquired and lifelong. Research suggests that while asexuality and acquired SIAD are distinct entities, there may be overlap between asexuality and lifelong SIAD. Findings from studies using eye-tracking and implicit association tasks suggest that these methodologies might differentiate these groups on the basis of their neural mechanisms. However, no study has compared their cognitive processing of sexual cues, and the literature on lifelong SIAD is minimal. The current study tested differences in the cognitive processing of sexual cues between asexual individuals and women with SIAD (lifelong and acquired). Forty-two asexual individuals and 25 heterosexual women with SIAD (16: acquired; 9: lifelong) completed three study components: a visual attention task, a Single Category-Implicit Association Task, and the sex semantic differential. ANOVAs examined group differences in: 1) visual attention to erotic cues, 2) implicit appraisals of sexual words, and 3) explicit appraisals of sex. Women with SIAD displayed a controlled attention preference for erotic images and areas of sexual contact, with longer dwell times to these areas relative to asexual individuals, who did not gaze preferentially at erotic cues. For implicit appraisals, all groups demonstrated negative-neutral implicit associations with sexual words. For explicit appraisals, women with acquired SIAD reported more positive evaluations of sex relative to asexual individuals and women with lifelong SIAD. This project sheds light on key differences between asexuality and low desire, and has implications for best clinical practice guidelines for the assessment of lifelong SIAD.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Heterossexualidade/fisiologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Humanos , Libido/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/psicologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/terapia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/psicologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Neuroimage ; 237: 118169, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss of control over drug intake occurring in drug addiction is believed to result from disruption of reward circuits, including reduced responsiveness to natural rewards (e.g., monetary, sex) and heightened responsiveness to drug reward. Yet few studies have assessed reward deficiency and related brain responses in abstinent heroin users with opioid use disorder, and less is known whether the brain responses can predict cue-induced craving changes following by prolonged abstinence. METHOD: 31 heroin users (age: 44.13±7.68 years, male: 18 (58%), duration of abstinence: 85.2 ± 52.5 days) were enrolled at a mandatory detoxification center. By employing a cue-reactivity paradigm including three types of cues (drug, sexual, neutral), brain regional activations and circuit-level functional coupling were extracted. Among the 31 heroin users, 15 were followed up longitudinally to assess cue induced craving changes in the ensuing 6 months. RESULTS: One way analysis of variance results showed that heroin users have differential brain activations to the three cues (neutral, drug and sexual) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), insula, orbiotofrontal cortex (OFC) and the bilateral thalamus. Drug cue induced greater activations in left DLPFC, insula and OFC compared to sexual cue. The psychophysiological interactions (PPI) analysis revealed negative couplings of the left DLPFC and the left OFC, bilateral thalamus, putamen in heroin users during drug cue exposure. In the 6-month follow-up study, both drug cue induced activation of the left DLPFC and the functional coupling of the left DLPFC-bilateral thalamus at baseline was correlated with craving reductions, which were not found for sexual cues. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary study provided novel evidence for the reward deficiency theory of opioid use disorder. Our findings also have clinical implications, as drug cue induced activation of the left DLPFC and functional coupling of left DLPFC-bilateral thalamus may be potential neuroimaging markers for craving changes during prolonged abstinence. Evidently, the findings in the current preliminary study should be confirmed by large sample size in the future.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Conectoma , Fissura/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Dependência de Heroína/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Tálamo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Dependência de Heroína/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25823, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032696

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Sexual dysfunction is a common problem after cerebral infarction; however, little is known about sexual arousal in poststroke patients. Thus, this study aimed to investigate brain activation in response to visual sexual stimuli in patients with right middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using fMRI in 20 participants (11 right MCA infarction patients and 9 age-matched healthy controls), we assessed brain activation elicited by visual sexual stimuli (erotic images) and visual nonsexual stimuli (landscape images). In right MCA infarction patients, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the left frontal subgyral area were more strongly activated by visual sexual stimuli than by nonvisual sexual stimuli. Brain areas that were more activated by visual sexual stimuli in right MCA infarction patients than in controls included the right parahippocampal gyrus and the bilateral frontal subgyral area. These fMRI results suggest that brain activation patterns in response to visual sexual stimuli might be influenced by right MCA infarction. Further research is needed to explore the association between sexual dysfunction and brain activation in poststroke patients.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/complicações , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/fisiopatologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Literatura Erótica , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 334, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some women avoid sexual intercourse during pregnancy due to the physiological changes they undergo during this period as well as their fear of causing harm to the fetus and to themselves, which can lead to problems in sexual health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a sexual health education package on the dimensions of sexual health in pregnant women. METHODS: This randomized, longitudinal, clinical trial was carried out in 2018-2019 on 154 pregnant women in early to late pregnancy who presented to comprehensive health centers in Rasht, Iran, and were divided into three groups: Group A or the training group (50 participants), Group B or the self-training group (53 participants), and Group C or the control group (51 participants). The study tools included the Pregnancy Sexual Response Inventory (PSRI), the Sexual Quality of Life-Female (SQOL-F) and the Sexual Violence Questionnaire. The dimensions of sexual health were examined before beginning each intervention in each trimester of pregnancy and then at the end of pregnancy using these questionnaires. The collected data were analyzed using statistical tests, namely the Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, Cochrane's test, and the repeated measures ANOVA at a significance level of P < 0.05. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the mean total scores of SQOL-F and PSRI in the three groups at baseline. As for the intergroup results, there was a statistically significant difference in the mean score of SQOL-F and PSRI at the end of pregnancy. The mean scores of PSRI and SQOL-F in the training group (Group A) increased from the beginning to the end of pregnancy compared to the control and self-training groups. As for the intergroup comparisons, there was no statistically significant difference in the mean total scores of sexual violence among the pregnant women in the different groups in the third trimester of pregnancy and at the end of the third trimester. Although sexual violence was not statistically significant, the number of sexually-violated women in the training group decreased during the training period compared to the self-training and control groups. CONCLUSION: The results obtained in the intervention group compared to the control group revealed the effectiveness of the sexual health education package in terms of improvement in the dimensions of sexual health. According to the results, in order to maintain and promote the sexual health of pregnant women, health care providers are recommended to offer sexual health training during pregnancy along with other health care services. TRIAL REGISTRATION: IRCT20190427043398N1 ; the trial was registered on June 2, 2019. (retrospective registration).


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Gestantes , Qualidade de Vida , Educação Sexual , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Gestantes/educação , Gestantes/psicologia , Educação Sexual/métodos , Educação Sexual/normas , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Ensino
12.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(7): 1867-1883, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738536

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The co-occurrence of alcohol consumption and sexual activity is associated with increased risk for sexual assault, sexually transmitted disease, and unplanned pregnancy among young adult women with alcohol use disorder (AUD). There is considerable previous work demonstrating neural reactivity to alcohol cues in AUD. Because alcohol consumption and sexual behavior are both rewarding and tend to co-occur, sexual cues may produce similar neural reactivity in women with AUD, possibly indicating a shared mechanism underlying reactivity to both types of cues. Alternatively, reactivity to alcohol versus sexual cues may be distinct, suggesting domain-specific mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether the decision vulnerabilities in AUD women regarding sexual activity were related to differences in brain activation compared to control women. METHODS: Women with (n = 15) and without (n = 16) AUD completed a hypothetical decision-making task during fMRI that presented low- or high-risk scenarios involving visual sexual, appetitive, and neutral cues. RESULTS: Results showed that sexual cues were more often endorsed by women with AUD compared to controls and elicited differential brain activation patterns in frontal, visual, and reward regions. During high-risk decisions, women with AUD failed to downregulate activation, causing hyperactivation compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Visual sexual cues produced reactivity like that previously demonstrated for alcohol cues, suggesting a shared or domain-general mechanism for alcohol and sexual cue reactivity in women with AUD. Riskier sexual decisions in women with AUD may be a consequence of repeatedly pairing alcohol use and sexual activity, a characteristic behavior of this population.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomada de Decisões , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Psicológico/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Recompensa , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248368, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690629

RESUMO

Emotional stability-Neuroticism is a complex construct influenced by genetics and environmental factors. Women tend to exhibit higher neuroticism scores than men, which may be associated with an increased risk of suffering from some common mental conditions. Some authors have pointed out the influence of sex hormones, since they induce sexual differentiation of the brain that can lead to sex-specific behaviors. 2D:4D digit ratio is commonly used as a marker of prenatal sex hormones. In this study we analyzed whether there was an association between 2D:4D and personality measured through the BFQ in a homogeneous sample of 101 young women college students. We found a positive association between 2D:4D and emotional stability, as well as with its subdimensions emotion control and impulse control. This association could be quadratic and nonlinear. However, no association was found with the other four dimensions. We also measured anxiety, depression and global life satisfaction, variables related to neuroticism. We observed that emotional stability is positively associated to social desirability and global life satisfaction, and negatively related to anxiety and depression. On the other hand, we did not find any association between 2D:4D and anxiety, depression, and global life satisfaction. These results can be linked to other aspects such as subjective well-being and psychopathological symptoms. This study may help to better understand how these constructs are related and could lead to future projects to elucidated how these variables influence personality.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Neuroticismo/fisiologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Personalidade/genética , Personalidade/fisiologia , Gravidez , Caracteres Sexuais , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Diferenciação Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Desejabilidade Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 56, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the growing number of older endometrial cancer (EC) and ovarian cancer (OC) survivors, data on long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) became an important issue in the management of older patients. So, the aim of this study was to describe and compare according to age long-term HRQoL, sexual function, and social deprivation of adults with either EC or OC. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was set up using data from the Côte d'Or gynecological cancer registry. A series of questionnaires assessing HRQoL (SF-12), sexual function (FSFI), anxiety/depression (HADS), social support (SSQ6) and deprivation (EPICES) were offered to women with EC or OC diagnosed between 2006 and 2013. HRQoL, sexual function, anxiety/depression, social support and deprivation scores were generated and compared according to age (< 70 years and ≥ 70 years). RESULTS: A total of 145 women with EC (N = 103) and OC (N = 42) participated in this study. Fifty-six percent and 38% of EC and OC survivors respectively were aged 70 and over. Treatment did not differ according to age either in OC or EC. The deprivation level did not differ between older and younger survivors with OC while older survivors with EC were more precarious. The physical HRQoL was more altered in older EC survivors. This deterioration concerned only physical functioning (MD = 24, p = 0.012) for OC survivors while it concerned physical functioning (MD = 30, p < 0.0001), role physical (MD = 22, p = 0.001) and bodily pain (MD = 21, p = 0.001) for EC survivors. Global health (MD = 11, p = 0.011) and role emotional (MD = 12, p = 0.018) were also deteriorated in elderly EC survivors. Sexual function was deteriorated regardless of age and cancer location with a more pronounced deterioration in elderly EC survivors for desire (p = 0.005), arousal (p = 0.015) and orgasm (p = 0.007). Social support, anxiety and depression were not affected by age regardless of location. CONCLUSION: An average 6 years after diagnosis, the impact of cancer on HRQoL is greatest in elderly survivors with either EC or OC.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Neoplasias do Endométrio/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orgasmo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Registros , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 905, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441596

RESUMO

Human voice pitch is highly sexually dimorphic and eminently quantifiable, making it an ideal phenotype for studying the influence of sexual selection. In both traditional and industrial populations, lower pitch in men predicts mating success, reproductive success, and social status and shapes social perceptions, especially those related to physical formidability. Due to practical and ethical constraints however, scant evidence tests the central question of whether male voice pitch and other acoustic measures indicate actual fighting ability in humans. To address this, we examined pitch, pitch variability, and formant position of 475 mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters from an elite fighting league, with each fighter's acoustic measures assessed from multiple voice recordings extracted from audio or video interviews available online (YouTube, Google Video, podcasts), totaling 1312 voice recording samples. In four regression models each predicting a separate measure of fighting ability (win percentages, number of fights, Elo ratings, and retirement status), no acoustic measure significantly predicted fighting ability above and beyond covariates. However, after fight statistics, fight history, height, weight, and age were used to extract underlying dimensions of fighting ability via factor analysis, pitch and formant position negatively predicted "Fighting Experience" and "Size" factor scores in a multivariate regression model, explaining 3-8% of the variance. Our findings suggest that lower male pitch and formants may be valid cues of some components of fighting ability in men.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Acústica , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Antropometria , Atletas/psicologia , Biomarcadores , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Masculino , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Discriminação da Altura Tonal/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Percepção Social/psicologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 388, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432074

RESUMO

Some heterosexual men express sexual interest in feminine trans individuals with penises. It is possible that this interest arises from a tendency for heterosexual men to be sexually responsive to gender in addition to sex. We compared the self-reported sexual attraction and visual attention patterns of Canadian undergraduate heterosexual men (N = 51) and gay men (N = 20) to nude images of feminine trans individuals with penises, cisgender men, and cisgender women. Heterosexual men were most attracted to cisgender women and fixated on them the longest. However, they were more attracted to feminine trans individuals with penises than to cisgender men. They also biased their attention to feminine trans individuals with penises over cisgender men. This pattern was unique to heterosexual men. Gay men were most attracted to cisgender men and allocated the most visual attention to them. They responded to feminine trans individuals and cisgender women in a relatively similar manner. As such, heterosexual men appear to be responsive to sex and gender, which may account for sexual interest in feminine trans individuals among some heterosexual men.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual , Estudantes/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Canadá , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Distribuição Aleatória , Autorrelato , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transexualidade/psicologia , Universidades
17.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 41(2): 290-297, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432869

RESUMO

The aim of current study was to estimate the impact of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) on sexual function in a clinical population of Italian postmenopausal women. Women aged 45-75 years with at least one VVA symptom completed three questionnaires: Day-to-Day Impact of Vaginal Aging (DIVA), Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and Female Sexual Distress Scale revised (FSDS-R). A gynaecological examination was performed for VVA confirmation. Among the 1,066 evaluable patients, VVA was confirmed in around 90% of the sample. Sexual function impairment was significantly higher in patients with confirmed VVA as observed by significant differences in the sexual function component of the DIVA questionnaire (p = .014), the FSDS-R (p < .0005), and the FSFI (p < .0005), as well as for all the FSFI subdomains: desire (p < .0005), arousal (p < .0005), lubrication (p < .0005), orgasm (p < .0005), satisfaction (p < .0005) and pain (p < .0005). Significant impairment of sexual function was demonstrated in Italian postmenopausal women who were clinically confirmed with signs of VVA through gynaecological examination.IMPACT STATEMENTWhat is already known on this subject: At least half of postmenopausal women report VVA associated symptoms with significant impact on sexual function and ultimately on sexual activity.What the results of this study add: As compared with patients without confirmed VVA, the negative impact on sexual function was significantly higher in patients with confirmed VVA. This difference was observed for the sexual function component (DIVA-C) of the DIVA questionnaire, for the overall FSDS-R result, and for the overall FSFI score, as well as for all the FSFI subdomains (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain).What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: An impairment of sexual function is significantly associated with VVA diagnosis in Italian post-menopausal women, especially when diagnosis was objectively confirmed by clinical signs of VVA visible in the gynaecological examination. In addition, this study demonstrates that inquiring about VVA using a structured questionnaire may increase the diagnosis of VVA related changes in sexual function.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Pós-Menopausa , Qualidade de Vida , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas , Vagina/patologia , Vulva/patologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Atrofia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Exame Ginecológico/métodos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Pós-Menopausa/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/diagnóstico , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/epidemiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Doenças Vaginais/diagnóstico , Doenças Vaginais/psicologia , Doenças da Vulva/diagnóstico , Doenças da Vulva/psicologia
18.
Neuroimage ; 229: 117733, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484852

RESUMO

Female chemical signals underlie the advertising of sexual receptivity and fertility. Whether the body odor of a pregnant woman also has a signaling function with respect to male behavior is yet to be conclusively established. This study examines how the body odors of ovulating and pregnant women differentially affect the behavior of heterosexual men. Body odor samples were collected from 5 pregnant women and 5 matched controls during ovulation. In a double-blind functional magnetic resonance imaging design, 18 heterosexual men were exposed to female body odors during ovulation (OV) and pregnancy (PRG) while being required to indicate the attractiveness of concurrently presented female portrait images. The participants were also required to indicate whether they assumed a depicted woman was pregnant. While neither OV nor PRG altered the perceived attractiveness of a presented face, the men tended to identify the women as pregnant while exposed to a PRG body odor. On the neural level, OV activated a network of the frontotemporal and limbic regions, while PRG activated the superior medial frontal gyrus. The results suggest that the detection of sexual availability activates the male brain regions associated with face processing and reward/motivation, whereas sensing pregnancy activates a region responsible for empathy and prosocial behavior. Thus, the female body odor during pregnancy likely helps foster circumstances conducive to the future care of offspring while the body odor advertising sexual availability promotes mating behavior. The brains of heterosexual men may be capable of unconsciously discriminating between these two types of olfactory stimuli.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Ovulação/fisiologia , Feromônios Humano/fisiologia , Gestantes , Olfato/fisiologia , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Odorantes , Ovulação/psicologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Gravidez , Gestantes/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(3): 620-629, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous motor responses of approach and avoidance toward stimuli are important in characterizing psychopathological conditions, including alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, divergent results have been reported, possibly due to confounded parameters (e.g., using a symbolic vs. a sensorimotor task, implementation of approach-avoidance as a measure vs. a manipulation). METHODS: We studied whole-body/posturometric changes by using a sensorimotor measure relying on embodied cognition principles to assess forward (approach) and backward (avoidance) spontaneous leaning movements. Over a 12-second period, 51 male patients with AUD and 29 male control participants were instructed to stand still in response to both alcohol and sexual visual content. Patients with AUD were then divided into "abstainers" and "relapsers," depending on their continuous abstinence at 2 weeks postdischarge (obtained via a telephone follow-up interview). The effects of the group, the stimulus type, the experimental period, and their interactions on the posturometric changes were tested using mixed Analyses of variance (ANOVAs), with a significance threshold set at 0.05. RESULTS: Contrary to our expectations, patients and controls did not show significant difference in their forward/backward micromovements while passively viewing alcohol or sexual content (p > 0.1). However, in line with our hypothesis, patients who relapsed several weeks following discharge from the rehabilitation program were significantly more reactive and more likely to lean back during the first seconds of viewing alcohol cues (p = 0.002). Further, "relapsers" were more likely to lean forward during exposure to sexual content than participants who remained abstinent (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with AUD, there are distinct pattern of spontaneous movements that differentiate "abstainers" and "relapsers," findings that can be understood in light of existing data and theories on action tendencies.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto , Abstinência de Álcool/psicologia , Abstinência de Álcool/tendências , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento/fisiologia , Recidiva , Autorrelato
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2148, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495513

RESUMO

Behavioural interventions tailored to psychological characteristics of an individual can effectively achieve risk-reducing behaviour. The impact of tailored interventions on population-level chlamydia prevalence is unknown. We aimed to assess the impact on overall chlamydia prevalence five years after the introduction of an intervention aimed at increasing self-efficacy, social norms, attitudes and intentions towards condom use (i.e., condom intervention), and an intervention aimed at increasing health goals and decreasing impulsiveness (i.e., impulsiveness intervention). A pair model, informed by longitudinal psychological and behavioural data of young heterosexuals visiting sexual health centers, with susceptible-infected-susceptible structure was developed. The intervention effect was defined as an increased proportion of each subgroup moving to the desired subgroup (i.e., lower risk subgroup). Interventions tailored to subgroup-specific characteristics, assuming differential intervention effects in each subgroup, more effectively reduced overall chlamydia prevalence compared to non-tailored interventions. The most effective intervention was the tailored condom intervention, which was assumed to result in a relative reduction in chlamydia prevalence of 18% versus 12% in the non-tailored scenario. Thus, it is important to assess multiple psychological and behavioural characteristics of individuals. Tailored interventions may be more successful in achieving risk-reducing behaviour, and consequently, reduce chlamydia prevalence more effectively.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/transmissão , Chlamydia/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
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