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1.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 202-209, mayo-sept. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202544

RESUMO

The main goal of this research is to study the involvement profile in cyberbullying situations according to the mediating effect of variables such as perceived emotional intelligence, gen-der and age in the adult population. To this end, measures are taken through self-reports exploring the profiles of cyberbullying and the dimensions of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI), among a sample of 848 subjects enrolled in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), ages between 21 and 62 years (M = 40.52; SD = 11.65). Measures are taken through self-reports that explore cyberbullying profiles (Victim 18.9%, Aggressor 12.3%, Victim / Aggressor 16.3% and Without profile 52.6%), and the dimensions of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (Attention, Clarity and Repair). Multivariate and binomial regression analyses are carried out, showing that the majority of participants who have difficulties in under-standing and regulating their emotional states are involved in situations of cyberbullying, and pointing to emotional intelligence skills as a clear protective factor against cyberbullying. These results show the need to pay greater attention to the phenomenon of cyberbullying in the adult population, as well as the relevance of emotional intelligence skills in the prevention of cyberbullying


Las competencias emocionales son fundamentales en la prevención de la implicación en situaciones de ciberacoso. En el presente trabajo, se plantea como principal objetivo, estudiar el perfil de implicación en situaciones de ciberacoso en función del efecto mediador de las variables inteligencia emocional percibida, género y edad en población adulta. Para ello, en una muestra de 848 sujetos matriculados en "Cursos Abiertos Masivos en Línea" MOOC, se toman medidas a través de autoinformes que exploran los perfiles de ciberacoso y las dimensiones de Inteligencia Emocional Percibida (IEP). Se llevan a cabo análisis multivariado y de regresión binomial, que muestran que la mayoría de los participantes que presentan dificultades para comprender y regular sus estados emocionales están implicados en situaciones de ciberacoso y señalan a las habilidades de inteligencia emocional como un claro factor de protección del ciberacoso. Estos resultados demuestran la necesidad de prestar mayor atención al fenómeno del ciberacoso en población adulta y la relevancia de las habilidades de inteligencia emocional en la prevención del ciberacoso


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Inteligência Emocional , Estudos Transversais , Testes de Inteligência , Autorrelato , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento Social
2.
Hawaii J Health Soc Welf ; 80(6): 124-128, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195618

RESUMO

This report describes the rapid implementation of a statewide observational surveillance program to monitor the public's wearing of face masks in public spaces during community spread of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It describes how the Hawai'i State Department of Health partnered with University of Hawai'i faculty to develop and implement the surveillance program. The surveillance program involved organizing volunteers to conduct weekly direct observations in designated locations. A smartphone application (app) was created to record real-time observational surveillance data. From September 5, 2020, to March 13, 2021, a total of 84 577 observations were conducted across the state. Eighty-three percent of those observed were correctly wearing a face mask, 7% were wearing a face mask incorrectly, and 10% were not wearing a mask. Following the 2-week pilot phase of the project, volunteers were surveyed regarding facilitators and barriers for conducting observations and motivations for volunteering. Feedback was used to refine project procedures. With few states having implemented such a surveillance program, the information reported in this article may inform communities interested in tracking mask-wearing behaviors in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Máscaras , Pandemias , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Hawaii , Humanos , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Science ; 373(6551): 181-186, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244407

RESUMO

Relatives have more similar gut microbiomes than nonrelatives, but the degree to which this similarity results from shared genotypes versus shared environments has been controversial. Here, we leveraged 16,234 gut microbiome profiles, collected over 14 years from 585 wild baboons, to reveal that host genetic effects on the gut microbiome are nearly universal. Controlling for diet, age, and socioecological variation, 97% of microbiome phenotypes were significantly heritable, including several reported as heritable in humans. Heritability was typically low (mean = 0.068) but was systematically greater in the dry season, with low diet diversity, and in older hosts. We show that longitudinal profiles and large sample sizes are crucial to quantifying microbiome heritability, and indicate scope for selection on microbiome characteristics as a host phenotype.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Meio Ambiente , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Papio/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/classificação , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Envelhecimento , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Firmicutes/classificação , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Papio/genética , Fenótipo , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Social
4.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254638, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255804

RESUMO

The Chilean health authorities have implemented a sanitary strategy known as dynamic quarantine or strategic quarantine to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic. Under this system, lockdowns were established, lifted, or prolonged according to the weekly health authorities' assessment of municipalities' epidemiological situation. The public announcements about the confinement situation of municipalities country-wide are made typically on Tuesdays or Wednesdays before noon, have received extensive media coverage, and generated sharp stock market fluctuations. Municipalities are the smallest administrative division in Chile, with each city broken down typically into several municipalities. We analyze social media behavior in response to the confinement situation of the population at the municipal level. The dynamic quarantine scheme offers a unique opportunity for our analysis, given that municipalities display a high degree of heterogeneity, both in size and in the socioeconomic status of their population. We exploit the variability over time in municipalities' confinement situations, resulting from the dynamic quarantine strategy, and the cross-sectional variability in their socioeconomic characteristics to evaluate the impact of these characteristics on social sentiment. Using event study and panel data methods, we find that proxies for social sentiment based on Twitter queries are negatively related (more pessimistic) to increases in the number of confined people, but with a statistically significant effect concentrated on people from the wealthiest cohorts of the population. For indicators of social sentiment based on Google Trends, we found that search intensity during the periods surrounding government announcements is positively related to increases in the total number of confined people. Still, this effect does not seem to be dependent on the segments of the population affected by the quarantine. Furthermore, we show that the observed heterogeneity in sentiment mirrors heterogeneity in stock market reactions to government announcements. We provide evidence that the observed stock market behavior around quarantine announcements can be explained by the number of people from the wealthiest segments of the population entering or exiting lockdown.


Assuntos
Atitude , COVID-19/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Mídias Sociais , Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Relações Públicas , Quarentena/organização & administração , Comportamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204798

RESUMO

A growing body of research conducted in general life settings has found positive associations between happiness and prosocial behavior. Unfortunately, equivalent studies in the workplace are lacking. Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), the prosocial behaviors at work, have not been properly studied in relation to happiness, despite the positive consequences of both constructs for workers and companies. In response, our research aims to better understand this relationship from several angles. First, using a three-wave longitudinal design, we explored how OCBs and happiness are related to each other over time. Second, happiness was measured from a broad perspective, and three conceptualizations were adopted: the hedonic (e.g., positive affect and life satisfaction), the eudaimonic (e.g., relatedness and autonomy), and the flourishing (e.g., meaning and engagement) approaches. Thus, not only the prospective link between OCBs and happiness was tested, but it was also explored using the three models of happiness previously mentioned. Third, we conducted this longitudinal design in a less typical sample than previous research (i.e., Chile). We found results that supported our main hypotheses: (1) OCBs are prospective positive predictors of hedonic happiness, eudaimonic happiness, and flourishing; (2) the three models of happiness also prospectively predict OCBs. Our findings suggest that OCBs foster a broad range of happiness facets, which in turn fosters back the emergence of more OCBs, leading to a virtuous circle of prosociality and well-being in the workplace. This positive spiral benefits not only workers' quality of life, but also organizations' profitability and sustainability. Theoretical and applied implications for the field of Positive Organizational Psychology are discussed.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Qualidade de Vida , Chile , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento Social
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14448, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262075

RESUMO

Faces hold a substantial value for effective social interactions and sharing. Covering faces with masks, due to COVID-19 regulations, may lead to difficulties in using social signals, in particular, in individuals with neurodevelopmental conditions. Daily-life social participation of individuals who were born preterm is of immense importance for their quality of life. Here we examined face tuning in individuals (aged 12.79 ± 1.89 years) who were born preterm and exhibited signs of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), a dominant form of brain injury in preterm birth survivors. For assessing the face sensitivity in this population, we implemented a recently developed experimental tool, a set of Face-n-Food images bordering on the style of Giuseppe Arcimboldo. The key benefit of these images is that single components do not trigger face processing. Although a coarse face schema is thought to be hardwired in the brain, former preterms exhibit substantial shortages in the face tuning not only compared with typically developing controls but also with individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. The lack of correlations between the face sensitivity and other cognitive abilities indicates that these deficits are domain-specific. This underscores impact of preterm birth sequelae for social functioning at large. Comparison of the findings with data in individuals with other neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric conditions provides novel insights into the origins of deficient face processing.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Nascimento Prematuro , Cognição Social , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , COVID-19 , Criança , Cognição , Neurociência Cognitiva , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Leucomalácia Periventricular , Gravidez , Qualidade de Vida , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Social , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4266, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253718

RESUMO

Does higher socioeconomic status predict decreased prosocial behavior? Methodological issues such as the reliance of survey studies on self-reported measures of prosociality, the insufficient control of relative incentives in experiments, and the use of non-random samples, have prevented researchers from ruling out that there is a negative association between socioeconomic status (SES) and prosociality. Here, we present results from a field experiment on the willingness of unaware individuals of different SES to undertake an effortful prosocial task-returning a misdelivered letter. Specifically, using the rental or sale value of homes as indicators of SES, we randomly selected households of high and low SES and misdelivered envelopes to them. Despite controlling for numerous covariates and performing a series of ancillary tests, we fail to find any evidence that higher SES predicts decreased prosocial behavior. Instead, we find that misdelivered letters are substantially more likely to be returned from high rather than low SES households.


Assuntos
Comportamento Social , Classe Social , Características da Família , Humanos
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300402

RESUMO

In this work, we propose a Bluetooth low energy (BLE) beacon-based algorithm to enable remote measurement of the social behavior of the participants of an observational Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) clinical trial (NCT03611075). We have developed a mobile application for a smartphone and a smartwatch to collect beacon signals from BLE beacon sensors as well as to store information about the participants' household rooms. Our goal is to collect beacon information about the time the participants spent in different rooms of their household to infer sociability information. We applied the same technology and setup in an internal experiment with healthy volunteers to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed algorithm in 10 different home setups, and we observed an average accuracy of 97.2%. Moreover, we show that it is feasible for the clinical study participants/caregivers to set up the BLE beacon sensors in their homes without any technical help, with 96% of them setting up the technology on the first day of data collection. Next, we present results from one-week location data from study participants collected through the proposed technology. Finally, we provide a list of good practice guidelines for optimally applying beacon technology for indoor location monitoring. The proposed algorithm enables us to estimate time spent in different rooms of a household that can pave the development of objective sociability features and eventually support decisions regarding drug efficacy in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Aplicativos Móveis , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Smartphone , Comportamento Social
10.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 180: 65-88, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225950

RESUMO

The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) are known to mediate social cognition and behaviors in a sex-dependent manner. This chapter reviews the sex-dependent influence of OT and VP on social behaviors, focusing on (1) partner preference and sexual orientation, (2) memory modulation, (3) emotion regulation, and (4) trust-related behaviors. Most studies suggest that OT promotes familiar (opposite-sex) partner preference, strengthens memory, relieves anxiety, and increases trust. However, VP-regulated social cognition has been studied less than OT. VP facilitates familiar (opposite-sex) partner preference, enhances memory, induces anxiety, and influences happiness/anger perception. Detailed sex differences of these effects are reviewed. There is a male preponderance in the use of animal models and many study results are too complex to draw firm conclusions. Clarifying the complex interplay between the OT/VP system and sex hormones in the regulation of social behaviors is needed.


Assuntos
Ocitocina , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Arginina Vasopressina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Vasopressinas
11.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 179: 403-418, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225978

RESUMO

The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a medial basal forebrain structure that modulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The heterogeneous subnuclei of the BNST integrate inputs from mood and reward-related areas and send direct inhibitory projections to the hypothalamus. The connections between the BNST and hypothalamus are conserved across species, promote activation of the HPA axis, and can increase avoidance of aversive environments, which is historically associated with anxiety behaviors. However, BNST-hypothalamus circuitry is also implicated in motivated behaviors, drug seeking, feeding, and sexual behavior. These complex and diverse roles, as well its sexual dimorphism, indicate that the BNST-hypothalamus circuitry is an essential component of the neural circuitry that may underlie various psychiatric diseases, ranging from anorexia to anxiety to addiction. The following review is a cross-species exploration of BNST-hypothalamus circuitry. First, we describe the BNST subnuclei, microcircuitry and complex reciprocal connections with the hypothalamus. We will then discuss the behavioral functions of BNST-hypothalamus circuitry, including valence surveillance, addiction, feeding, and social behavior. Finally, we will address sex differences in morphology and function of the BNST and hypothalamus.


Assuntos
Núcleos Septais , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Hipotálamo , Masculino , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Comportamento Social
12.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e241164, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231655

RESUMO

Behavior is a useful trait for comparative studies that provide the comprehension of phylogenetic relationships among species. Here, we present a description of two spiny-rats species' behavioral repertoire, Clyomys laticeps and Trinomys setosus (Rodentia: Echimyidae). The affiliative and agonistic behavioral patterns were sampled during a three-year study of captive populations of wild animals. Observational data were collected in two phases under different arrangements of individuals in groups. We also compare the behavioral traits of T. setosus and C. laticeps with the known behavioral patterns of Trinomys yonenagae. We add categories to the previous descriptions of T. setosus and a standard ethogram for C. laticeps. Trinomys setosus showed a visual and vocal display we called foot-trembling, which was not described in this form and function for other species studied until now. We discuss the differences in their sociality levels and similarities and differences among behavior patterns and repertoires.


Assuntos
Roedores , Comportamento Social , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Brasil , Filogenia , Ratos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299069

RESUMO

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a crucial modulatory system in which interest has been increasing, particularly regarding the regulation of behavior and neuroplasticity. The adolescent-young adulthood phase of development comprises a critical period in the maturation of the nervous system and the ECS. Neurogenesis occurs in discrete regions of the adult brain, and this process is linked to the modulation of some behaviors. Since marijuana (cannabis) is the most consumed illegal drug globally and the highest consumption rate is observed during adolescence, it is of particular importance to understand the effects of ECS modulation in these early stages of adulthood. Thus, in this article, we sought to summarize recent evidence demonstrating the role of the ECS and exogenous cannabinoid consumption in the adolescent-young adulthood period; elucidate the effects of exogenous cannabinoid consumption on adult neurogenesis; and describe some essential and adaptive behaviors, such as stress, anxiety, learning, and memory. The data summarized in this work highlight the relevance of maintaining balance in the endocannabinoid modulatory system in the early and adult stages of life. Any ECS disturbance may induce significant modifications in the genesis of new neurons and may consequently modify behavioral outcomes.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Neurogênese , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/induzido quimicamente , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2116543, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287634

RESUMO

Importance: Detailed analysis of infection rates paired with behavioral and employee-reported risk factors is vital to understanding how transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection may be exacerbated or mitigated in the workplace. Institutions of higher education are heterogeneous work units that supported continued in-person employment during the COVID-19 pandemic, providing a test site for occupational health evaluation. Objective: To evaluate the association between self-reported protective behaviors and prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among essential in-person employees during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was conducted from July 13 to September 2, 2020, at an institution of higher education in Fort Collins, Colorado. Employees 18 years or older without symptoms of COVID-19 who identified as essential in-person workers during the first 6 months of the pandemic were included. Participants completed a survey, and blood and nasal swab samples were collected to assess active SARS-CoV-2 infection via quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and past infection by serologic testing. Exposure: Self-reported practice of protective behaviors against COVID-19 according to public health guidelines provided to employees. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of current SARS-CoV-2 infection detected by qRT-PCR or previous SARS-CoV-2 infection detected by an IgG SARS-CoV-2 testing platform. The frequency of protective behavior practices and essential workers' concerns regarding contracting COVID-19 and exposing others were measured based on survey responses. Results: Among 508 participants (305 [60.0%] women, 451 [88.8%] non-Hispanic White individuals; mean [SD] age, 41.1 [12.5] years), there were no qRT-PCR positive test results, and only 2 participants (0.4%) had seroreactive IgG antibodies. Handwashing and mask wearing were reported frequently both at work (480 [94.7%] and 496 [97.8%] participants, respectively) and outside work (465 [91.5%] and 481 [94.7%] participants, respectively). Social distancing was reported less frequently at work (403 [79.5%]) than outside work (465 [91.5%]) (P < .001). Participants were more highly motivated to avoid exposures because of concern about spreading the infection to others (419 [83.0%]) than for personal protection (319 [63.2%]) (P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of essential workers at an institution of higher education, when employees reported compliance with public health practices both at and outside work, they were able to operate safely in their work environment during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Social , Universidades , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Colorado , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , SARS-CoV-2/crescimento & desenvolvimento , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Autorrelato
15.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209002

RESUMO

Chronotype (CT) has been associated with predisposition to chronic noncommunicable diseases (CNCDs), such as diabetes mellitus and obesity. However, the effects of CT on individuals assisted by public health systems (PHSs) in middle-up economies are still poorly explored. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between CT and clinical, sociobehavioral and nutritional aspects in adults assisted by a PHS in Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 380 individuals, selected through probabilistic sampling by clusters, in all health units in a city of approximately 100 thousand inhabitants. Data collection was performed during home visits, by means of general and nutritional interviews, anthropometric measurements and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ). Statistical analysis comprised chi-square test and principal component analysis (CPA) followed by Fisher's discriminant analysis to determine aspects associated with each CT (morning, evening or intermediate). With the aim of explaining the variation in the CT scores, the consumption of micronutrients (corrected to the total energy intake) and other individual and sociodemographic variables were used as explanatory factors in the adjustment of a linear regression model. The morning group was characterized by older men, with less than eight years of schooling, with low body mass index (BMI) and with low intake of omega-6, omega-3, sodium, zinc, thiamine, pyridoxine and niacin. The evening group, on the other hand, was composed of younger individuals, with a high consumption of these same nutrients, with high BMI and a higher frequency of heart diseases (p < 0.05). It was concluded that most morning CT individuals were elderly thin males with lower consumption of omega-6 and -3, sodium, zinc, thiamine, pyridoxine and niacin, whereas evening individuals were younger, had higher BMI and had higher consumption of the studied micronutrients. The identification of circadian and behavioral risk groups can help to provide preventive and multidisciplinary health promotion measures.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Saúde Pública , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/análise , Análise de Componente Principal
16.
Handb Clin Neurol ; 182: 121-140, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266588

RESUMO

Oxytocin and vasopressin systems have been studied separately in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we provide evidence from an evolutionary and neuroscience perspective about the shared mechanisms and the common roles in regulating social behaviors. We first discuss findings on the evolutionary history of oxytocin and vasopressin ligands and receptors that highlight their common origin and clarify the evolutionary background of the crosstalk between them. Second, we conducted a comprehensive review of the increasing evidence for the role of both neuropeptides in regulating social behaviors. Third, we reviewed the growing evidence on the associations between the oxytocin/vasopressin systems and ASD, which includes oxytocin and vasopressin dysfunction in animal models of autism and in human patients, and the impact of treatments targeting the oxytocin or the vasopressin systems in children and in adults. Here, we highlight the potential of targeting the oxytocin/vasopressin systems to improve social deficits observed in ASD and the need for further investigations on how to transfer these research innovations into clinical applications.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Animais , Humanos , Ocitocina , Comportamento Social , Vasopressinas
17.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 68: 181-189, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091136

RESUMO

Empathy is an essential function for humans as social animals. Emotional contagion, the basic form of afffective empathy, comprises the cognitive process of perceiving and sharing the affective state of others. The observational fear assay, an animal model of emotional contagion, has enabled researchers to undertake molecular, cellular, and circuit mechanism of this behavior. Such studies have revealed that observational fear is mediated through neural circuits involved in processing the affective dimension of direct pain experiences. A mouse can also respond to milder social stimuli induced by either positive or negative emotional changes in another mouse, which seems not dependent on the affective pain circuits. Further studies should explore how different neural circuits contribute to integrating different dimensions of affective empathy.


Assuntos
Empatia , Roedores , Altruísmo , Animais , Emoções , Medo , Camundongos , Comportamento Social
18.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 68: iii-v, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183145
19.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 399, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pair bonding with a reproductive partner is rare among mammals but is an important feature of human social behavior. Decades of research on monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), along with comparative studies using the related non-bonding meadow vole (M. pennsylvanicus), have revealed many of the neural and molecular mechanisms necessary for pair-bond formation in that species. However, these studies have largely focused on just a few neuromodulatory systems. To test the hypothesis that neural gene expression differences underlie differential capacities to bond, we performed RNA-sequencing on tissue from three brain regions important for bonding and other social behaviors across bond-forming prairie voles and non-bonding meadow voles. We examined gene expression in the amygdala, hypothalamus, and combined ventral pallidum/nucleus accumbens in virgins and at three time points after mating to understand species differences in gene expression at baseline, in response to mating, and during bond formation. RESULTS: We first identified species and brain region as the factors most strongly associated with gene expression in our samples. Next, we found gene categories related to cell structure, translation, and metabolism that differed in expression across species in virgins, as well as categories associated with cell structure, synaptic and neuroendocrine signaling, and transcription and translation that varied among the focal regions in our study. Additionally, we identified genes that were differentially expressed across species after mating in each of our regions of interest. These include genes involved in regulating transcription, neuron structure, and synaptic plasticity. Finally, we identified modules of co-regulated genes that were strongly correlated with brain region in both species, and modules that were correlated with post-mating time points in prairie voles but not meadow voles. CONCLUSIONS: These results reinforce the importance of pre-mating differences that confer the ability to form pair bonds in prairie voles but not promiscuous species such as meadow voles. Gene ontology analysis supports the hypothesis that pair-bond formation involves transcriptional regulation, and changes in neuronal structure. Together, our results expand knowledge of the genes involved in the pair bonding process and open new avenues of research in the molecular mechanisms of bond formation.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae , Ligação do Par , Animais , Arvicolinae/genética , Encéfalo , Humanos , Comportamento Social , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072276

RESUMO

Participation in enjoyable activities is essential for the health and development of young children with and without disabilities. For preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is limited knowledge regarding their participation in play, learning, recreation, and social activities. This was a preliminary study that compares the participation between children 2-6 years of age with ASD (n = 25) and age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) (n = 25) children. The Chinese version of the Assessment of Preschool Children's Participation (APCP-C) measures participation in play, skill development, active physical recreation, and social activities. Parents of the children in this study completed the APCP-C by structured interview. The results showed that children with ASD had lower participation diversity and intensity than TD children in play activities. A lower percentage of children participating in individual activity was found for children with ASD than TD children in most APCP-C activities. Professionals that serve young children with special needs are encouraged to partner with parents to provide playful and socially enhancing activities for preschool children with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Recreação , Comportamento Social , Taiwan/epidemiologia
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