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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036351

RESUMO

The new corona virus infection SARS-CoV2 which was later renamed COVID-19 is a pandemic affecting public health. The fear and the constraints imposed to control the pandemic may correspondingly influence leisure activities, such as birding, which is the practice of observing birds based on visual and acoustic cues. Birders are people who carry out birding observations around the globe and contribute to the massive data collection in citizen science projects. Contrasting to earlier COVID-19 studies, which have concentrated on clinical, pathological, and virological topics, this study focused on the behavioral changes of birders. A total of 4484 questionnaire survey responses from 97 countries were received. The questionnaire had an open-ended style. About 85% of respondents reported that COVID-19 has changed their birding behavior. The most significant change in birdwatchers' behavior was related to the geographic coverage of birding activities, which became more local. People focused mostly on yard birding. In total, 12% of respondents (n = 542 cases) reported having more time for birding, whereas 8% (n = 356 cases) reported having less time for birding. Social interactions decreased since respondents, especially older people, changed their birding behavior toward birding alone or with their spouse. Women reported more often than men that they changed to birding alone or with their spouse, and women also reported more often about canceled fieldtrips or society meetings. Respondents from higher developed countries reported that they spend currently more time for birding, especially for birding alone or with their spouse, and birding at local hotspots. Our study suggests that long lockdowns with strict regulations may severely impact on leisure activities. In addition, a temporal and spatial shift in birding due to the pandemic may influence data quality in citizen science projects. As nature-based recreation will be directed more toward nearby sites, environmental management resources and actions need to be directed to sites that are located near the users, e.g., in urban and suburban areas. The results can be applied with caution to other nature-based recreational activities.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Coronavirus , Atividades de Lazer , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1931): 20201026, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043865

RESUMO

Social complexity reflects the intricate patterns of social interactions in societies. Understanding social complexity is fundamental for studying the evolution of diverse social systems and the cognitive innovations used to cope with the demands of social life. Social complexity has been predominantly quantified by social unit size, but newer measures of social complexity reflect the diversity of relationships. However, the association between these two sets of measures remains unclear. We used 12 years of data on 13 gorilla groups to investigate how measures of social complexity relate to each other. We found that group size was a poor proxy for relationship diversity and that the social complexity individuals experienced within the same group varied greatly. Our findings demonstrate two fundamental takeaways: first, that the number of relationships and the diversity of those relationships represent separate components of social complexity, both of which should be accounted for; and second, that social complexity measured at the group level may not represent the social complexity experienced by individuals in those groups. These findings suggest that comprehensive studies of social complexity, particularly those relating to the social demands faced by individuals, may require fine-scale social data to allow accurate comparisons across populations and species.


Assuntos
Gorilla gorilla/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Meio Social
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007985

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic represents a massive global health crisis. The rapid transmission rate of the virus, as well as the lack of effective medications and vaccines, has posed serious challenges to controlling the spread of the disease. Dealing with this public health crisis has required major changes in people's behavior, including the adoption of social distancing measures such as avoiding meeting with family members and friends, crowded places, and public transportation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors associated with the adoption of these behaviors in China and Israel. We relied on the 3Cs model that has been used to predict the adoption of a specific preventive behavior (vaccinations) with the goal of testing its applicability to other preventive behaviors such as in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The model indicates that confidence in social institutions, complacency (fear of and assessments about the risk of becoming ill) and constraints (levels of self-efficacy and confidence in being able to engage in the behaviors) are predictors of adopting preventive behaviors. Data were collected in China and Israel through an online survey of the population (n = 1406). We used latent variables and structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses derived from the 3Cs model. The findings indicate that there are some differences in the types of preventive behaviors adopted in the two countries. In Israel, higher levels of confidence predicted the adoption of avoidant behaviors and more constraints predicted engaging in fewer avoidant behaviors. In China, more constraints also contributed to the adoption of fewer avoidant behaviors, but people's level of confidence fully mediated this result. The multi-group analysis indicated that the conceptualized model fits the Chinese and Israeli data reasonably well. The findings suggest that the 3Cs model can be generalized from getting vaccinated to adopting avoidant behaviors and that the model can be used across cultures and countries.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Israel , Comportamento Social , Isolamento Social
4.
Lancet ; 396(10256): 958, 2020 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010841
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1416-1418, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001871

RESUMO

Preventing transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in institutes of higher education presents a unique set of challenges because of the presence of congregate living settings and difficulty limiting socialization and group gatherings. Before August 2020, minimal data were available regarding COVID-19 outbreaks in these settings. On August 3, 2020, university A in North Carolina broadly opened campus for the first time since transitioning to primarily remote learning in March. Consistent with CDC guidance at that time (1,2), steps were taken to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 on campus. During August 3-25, 670 laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 were identified; 96% were among patients aged <22 years. Eighteen clusters of five or more epidemiologically linked cases within 14 days of one another were reported; 30% of cases were linked to a cluster. Student gatherings and congregate living settings, both on and off campus, likely contributed to the rapid spread of COVID-19 within the university community. On August 19, all university A classes transitioned to online, and additional mitigation efforts were implemented. At this point, 334 university A-associated COVID-19 cases had been reported to the local health department. The rapid increase in cases within 2 weeks of opening campus suggests that robust measures are needed to reduce transmission at institutes of higher education, including efforts to increase consistent use of masks, reduce the density of on-campus housing, increase testing for SARS-CoV-2, and discourage student gatherings.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Características de Residência , Comportamento Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 18(3): 0-0, jul.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interprofessional collaboration between pharmacists and physicians in primary care has been linked to improved patient outcomes. How professionals position themselves and each other can shed light upon their relationship, and positioning theory can be used as a tool to better understand intergroup relations. OBJECTIVES: 1) To identify how community pharmacists position themselves, and how they are positioned by general practitioners. 2) To assess how well these positions correspond, how the positions align with a proactive position for the pharmacists, and discuss how the positions could potentially impact collaboration. METHODS: In this qualitative study, data were collected through six focus group interviews held between June and October 2019, three with pharmacists and three with physicians. The focus group interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using the Systematic text condensation method. Positioning theory was used as a theoretical framework to identify the positions assigned to community pharmacists by the pharmacists themselves and by the physicians. RESULTS: Twelve pharmacists and ten physicians participated. The pharmacists positioned themselves as the "last line of defense", "bridge-builders", "outsiders" - with responsibility, but with a lack of information and authority - and "practical problem solvers". The physicians positioned pharmacists as "a useful checkpoint", "non-clinicians" and "unknown". CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed both commonalities and disagreements in how community pharmacists position themselves and are positioned by general practitioners. Few of the positions assigned to pharmacists by the physicians support an active role for the pharmacists, while the pharmacists' positioning of themselves is more diverse. The physicians' positioning of pharmacists as an unknown group represents a major challenge for collaboration. Increasing the two professions' knowledge of each other may help produce new positions that are more coordinated, and thus more supportive towards collaboration


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Farmácias/organização & administração , Relações Interprofissionais , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Farmacêuticos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comportamento Social , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Papel Profissional
8.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e039711, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: High levels of organisational citizenship behaviour can enable nurses to cooperate with coworkers effectively to provide a high quality of nursing care during the outbreak of COVID-19. However, the association between autonomy, optimism, work engagement and organisational citizenship behaviour remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to test if the effect of autonomy on organisational citizenship behaviour through the mediating effects of optimism and work engagement. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. SETTING: The study was conducted in the Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital in China. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 242 nurses who came from multiple areas of China to work at the Wuhan Jinyintan hospital during the COVID-19 epidemic participated in this study. METHODS: A serial mediation model (model 6) of the PROCESS macro in SPSS was adopted to test the hypotheses, and a 95% CI for the indirect effects was constructed by using Bootstrapping. RESULTS: The autonomy-organisational citizenship behaviour relationship was mediated by optimism and work engagement, respectively. In addition, optimism and work engagement mediated this relationship serially. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study may have implications for improving organisational citizenship behaviour. The effects of optimism and work engagement suggest a potential mechanism of action for the autonomy-organisational citizenship behaviour linkage. A multifaceted intervention targeting organisational citizenship behaviour through optimism and work engagement may help improve the quality of nursing care among nurses supporting patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Otimismo/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Autonomia Profissional , Engajamento no Trabalho , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Pandemias , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 29(3): 446-449, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990602

RESUMO

The contributors to and consequences of disordered health are increasingly complex with sociodemographic, ecological, economic and food system change. But there are opportunities for any adversity to be mitigated by advances in the understanding of human, especially nutritional, ecobiology and in its more accessible and affordable evaluation and monitoring. Viral pandemics are on the rise with climate change and loss of ecosystems. They threaten human civilisation and planetary habitability. Human security is dependent on sustainable livelihoods of which food and water systems are a vital part. We are socioecological beings and depend for our health on biodiversity and the food diversity that ensures; and on connectedness and communication, made more difficult in pandemics. Rapid and accessible point-of-care (POC) tools are now becoming available to compliment other selfmonitoring network approaches, whether checklist or questionnaire, physical, chemical, or biological, for healthcare and nutritional health. They can provide information as several complimentary and interdependent health indices to facilitate personal, group and community action and management plans. This applies to indices of both communicable and non-communicable disease which problems separately and together are compromising health prospects. These indices include ones of physical and mental activities, dietary patterns, metabolites, blood pressure and now the presence and severity of viruses like Covid-19.Of imminent relevance and promise are optically- readable biosensor based strips for nasal, pharyngeal or salivary samples to check viral presence or finger prick blood for immunoglobulins and interleukins. These should allow less socially prohibitive measures to curb viral transmission and promote personal and societal wellbeing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Autocuidado , Comportamento Social , Betacoronavirus , Pressão Sanguínea , Mudança Climática , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Ecossistema , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Exame Físico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Telemedicina
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201424, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933446

RESUMO

Social interactions are thought to be a critical driver in the evolution of cognitive ability. Cooperative interactions, such as pair bonding, rather than competitive interactions have been largely implicated in the evolution of increased cognition. This is despite competition traditionally being a very strong driver of trait evolution. Males of many species track changes in their social environment and alter their reproductive strategies in response to anticipated levels of competition. We predict this to be cognitively challenging. Using a Drosophila melanogaster model, we are able to distinguish between the effects of a competitive environment versus generic social contact by exposing flies to same-sex same-species competition versus different species partners, shown to present non-competitive contacts. Males increase olfactory learning/memory and visual memory after exposure to conspecific males only, a pattern echoed by increased expression of synaptic genes and an increased need for sleep. For females, largely not affected by mating competition, the opposite pattern was seen. The results indicate that specific social contacts dependent on sex, not simply generic social stimulation, may be an important evolutionary driver for cognitive ability in fruit flies.


Assuntos
Cognição , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Memória , Fenótipo , Reprodução , Fatores Sexuais , Sono , Comportamento Social
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20200762, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933447

RESUMO

Despite their miniature brains, insects exhibit substantial variation in brain size. Although the functional significance of this variation is increasingly recognized, research on whether differences in insect brain sizes are mainly the result of constraints or selective pressures has hardly been performed. Here, we address this gap by combining prospective and retrospective phylogenetic-based analyses of brain size for a major insect group, bees (superfamily Apoidea). Using a brain dataset of 93 species from North America and Europe, we found that body size was the single best predictor of brain size in bees. However, the analyses also revealed that substantial variation in brain size remained even when adjusting for body size. We consequently asked whether such variation in relative brain size might be explained by adaptive hypotheses. We found that ecologically specialized species with single generations have larger brains-relative to their body size-than generalist or multi-generation species, but we did not find an effect of sociality on relative brain size. Phylogenetic reconstruction further supported the existence of different adaptive optima for relative brain size in lineages differing in feeding specialization and reproductive strategy. Our findings shed new light on the evolution of the insect brain, highlighting the importance of ecological pressures over social factors and suggesting that these pressures are different from those previously found to influence brain evolution in other taxa.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Encéfalo , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamento Social , Animais , Evolução Biológica
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20192514, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962548

RESUMO

Communication plays a vital role in the social lives of many species and varies greatly in complexity. One possible way to increase communicative complexity is by combining signals into longer sequences, which has been proposed as a mechanism allowing species with a limited repertoire to increase their communicative output. In mammals, most studies on combinatoriality have focused on vocal communication in non-human primates. Here, we investigated a potential combination of alarm calls in the dwarf mongoose (Helogale parvula), a non-primate mammal. Acoustic analyses and playback experiments with a wild population suggest: (i) that dwarf mongooses produce a complex call type (T3) which, at least at the surface level, seems to comprise units that are not functionally different to two meaningful alarm calls (aerial and terrestrial); and (ii) that this T3 call functions as a general alarm, produced in response to a wide range of threats. Using a novel approach, we further explored multiple interpretations of the T3 call based on the information content of the apparent comprising calls and how they are combined. We also considered an alternative, non-combinatorial interpretation that frames T3 as the origin, rather than the product, of the individual alarm calls. This study complements previous knowledge of vocal combinatoriality in non-primate mammals and introduces an approach that could facilitate comparisons between different animal and human communication systems.


Assuntos
Herpestidae , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Comportamento Social
13.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201752, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993472

RESUMO

Group living is a common strategy used by fishes to improve their fitness. While sociality is associated with many benefits in natural environments, including predator avoidance, this behaviour may be maladaptive in the Anthropocene. Humans have become the dominant predator in many marine systems, with modern fishing gear developed to specifically target groups of schooling species. Therefore, ironically, behavioural strategies which evolved to avoid non-human predators may now actually make certain fish more vulnerable to predation by humans. Here, we use an individual-based model to explore the evolution of fish schooling behaviour in a range of environments, including natural and human-dominated predation conditions. In our model, individual fish may leave or join groups depending on their group-size preferences, but their experienced group size is also a function of the preferences of others in the population. Our model predicts that industrial fishing selects against individual-level behaviours that produce large groups. However, the relationship between fishing pressure and sociality is nonlinear, and we observe discontinuities and hysteresis as fishing pressure is increased or decreased. Our results suggest that industrial fishing practices could be altering fishes' tendency to school, and that social behaviour should be added to the list of traits subject to fishery-induced evolution.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Peixes/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Seleção Genética
14.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008163, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898146

RESUMO

Learning to avoid harmful consequences can be a costly trial-and-error process. In such situations, social information can be leveraged to improve individual learning outcomes. Here, we investigated how participants used their own experiences and others' social cues to avoid harm. Participants made repeated choices between harmful and safe options, each with different probabilities of generating shocks, while also seeing the image of a social partner. Some partners made predictive gaze cues towards the harmful choice option while others cued an option at random, and did so using neutral or fearful facial expressions. We tested how learned social information about partner reliability transferred across contexts by letting participants encounter the same partner in multiple trial blocks while facing novel choice options. Participants' decisions were best explained by a reinforcement learning model that independently learned the probabilities of options being safe and of partners being reliable and combined these combined these estimates to generate choices. Advice from partners making a fearful facial expression influenced participants' decisions more than advice from partners with neutral expressions. Our results showed that participants made better decisions when facing predictive partners and that they cached and transferred partner reliability estimates into new blocks. Using simulations we show that participants' transfer of social information into novel contexts is better adapted to variable social environments where social partners may change their cuing strategy or become untrustworthy. Finally, we found no relation between autism questionnaire scores and performance in our task, but do find autism trait related differences in learning rate parameters.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Comunicação , Biologia Computacional , Sinais (Psicologia) , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos
15.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000584, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956387

RESUMO

The insular cortex (IC) participates in diverse complex brain functions, including social function, yet their cellular bases remain to be fully understood. Using microendoscopic calcium imaging of the agranular insular cortex (AI) in mice interacting with freely moving and restrained social targets, we identified 2 subsets of AI neurons-a larger fraction of "Social-ON" cells and a smaller fraction of "Social-OFF" cells-that change their activity in opposite directions during social exploration. Social-ON cells included those that represented social investigation independent of location and consisted of multiple subsets, each of which was preferentially active during exploration under a particular behavioral state or with a particular target of physical contact. These results uncover a previously unknown function of AI neurons that may act to monitor the ongoing status of social exploration while an animal interacts with unfamiliar conspecifics.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Animais , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos
16.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(708): 1807-1810, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997451

RESUMO

It is estimated that about 1 712 000 people are suffering from disability in Switzerland, and that 1 to 3% of them present a severe form of disability associated with intellectual deficiency. Management of such patients is complex and faces various challenges. Communication and collaboration with the patients and among all stakeholders are key. In this review, we highlight the value of creating a network supporting people with disabilities. We also present the network available for in- and outpatients in Geneva, which offers consultations and training courses for healthcare workers, and encourages coordination between institutions and network collaboration.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Deficiência Intelectual , Adulto , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Comportamento Social , Suíça
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e21319, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spain has been one of the countries most impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Since the first confirmed case was reported on January 31, 2020, there have been over 405,000 cases and 28,000 deaths in Spain. The economic and social impact is without precedent. Thus, it is important to quickly assess the situation and perception of the population. Large-scale online surveys have been shown to be an effective tool for this purpose. OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the situation and perception of the Spanish population in four key areas related to the COVID-19 pandemic: social contact behavior during confinement, personal economic impact, labor situation, and health status. METHODS: We obtained a large sample using an online survey with 24 questions related to COVID-19 in the week of March 28-April 2, 2020, during the peak of the first wave of COVID-19 in Spain. The self-selection online survey method of nonprobability sampling was used to recruit 156,614 participants via social media posts that targeted the general adult population (age >18 years). Given such a large sample, the 95% CI was ±0.843 for all reported proportions. RESULTS: Regarding social behavior during confinement, participants mainly left their homes to satisfy basic needs. We found several statistically significant differences in social behavior across genders and age groups. The population's willingness to comply with the confinement measures is evident. From the survey answers, we identified a significant adverse economic impact of the pandemic on those working in small businesses and a negative correlation between economic damage and willingness to stay in confinement. The survey revealed that close contacts play an important role in the transmission of the disease, and 28% of the participants lacked the necessary resources to properly isolate themselves. We also identified a significant lack of testing, with only 1% of the population tested and 6% of respondents unable to be tested despite their doctor's recommendation. We developed a generalized linear model to identify the variables that were correlated with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result. Using this model, we estimated an average of 5% for SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in the Spanish population during the time of the study. A seroprevalence study carried out later by the Spanish Ministry of Health reported a similar level of disease prevalence (5%). CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale online population surveys, distributed via social media and online messaging platforms, can be an effective, cheap, and fast tool to assess the impact and prevalence of an infectious disease in the context of a pandemic, particularly when there is a scarcity of official data and limited testing capacity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Comportamento Social , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0235595, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936791

RESUMO

The question of whether infants prefer prosocial agents over antisocial agents is contentious. Therefore, the first goal of the present study was to replicate previous findings regarding infants' preference. The second goal was to assess whether infants are more likely to imitate a prosocial agent than an antisocial agent. We tested 9-month-old, 14-month-old, and 4-year-old children. The study used the "opening a box to get a toy" paradigm in which an animal puppet is trying unsuccessfully to open a box and is either helped by a prosocial puppet or hindered by an antisocial puppet. We presented these social events via video, and subsequently administered an imitation task. As an additional control, adults were asked to describe the videos showing the prosocial and antisocial agent. Although most adults were able to identify both agents, the three age groups of children did not prefer the prosocial agent over the antisocial agent, and were not more likely to imitate the prosocial agent. The lack of differences might be explained by methodological issues or by a lack of robustness of the effect.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Comportamento Imitativo , Comportamento do Lactente , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/etiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4484, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901027

RESUMO

Chronic stress is a key risk factor for mood disorders like depression, but the stress-induced changes in brain circuit function and gene expression underlying depression symptoms are not completely understood, hindering development of novel treatments. Because of its projections to brain regions regulating reward and anxiety, the ventral hippocampus is uniquely poised to translate the experience of stress into altered brain function and pathological mood, though the cellular and molecular mechanisms of this process are not fully understood. Here, we use a novel method of circuit-specific gene editing to show that the transcription factor ΔFosB drives projection-specific activity of ventral hippocampus glutamatergic neurons causing behaviorally diverse responses to stress. We establish molecular, cellular, and circuit-level mechanisms for depression- and anxiety-like behavior in response to stress and use circuit-specific gene expression profiling to uncover novel downstream targets as potential sites of therapeutic intervention in depression.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/fisiologia , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Hipocampo/anatomia & histologia , Hipocampo/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/deficiência , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Comportamento Social , Estresse Psicológico
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