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1.
Brain Nerve ; 71(10): 1091-1096, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588053

RESUMO

Various types of aberrant social behaviors may occur after brain injury. Some of these behaviors might be understood as direct consequences of brain injury; apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction are the three major domains of aberrant social behaviors after injury of the prefrontal cortex. In addition, psychosis, pseudobulbar affect, depression, and fatigue are common symptoms that affect social behavior after brain injury. To evaluate behavioral symptoms, it is important to obtain information based on the context of patient's daily life. Individualized interventions such as pharmacotherapy, disease education and environmental control would improve the patient's social function.


Assuntos
Sintomas Comportamentais/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Comportamento Problema , Comportamento Social , Apatia , Transtorno Depressivo , Função Executiva , Humanos
2.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(3): 450-456, jul.-set. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016422

RESUMO

Esta nota busca contribuir para uma melhor compreensão do atual cenário político brasileiro que, em relação à diversidade sexual e de gênero, aparece marcado pelo paroxismo, pela polarização e por visíveis contradições. Nele, os diferentes poderes da República mostram tomar direções opostas. Simultaneamente, percebe-se uma sensível dessintonia entre o mundo social, no qual o respeito a tal diversidade parece cada vez mais incorporado à vida cotidiana, e os discursos conservadores que se articulam nos púlpitos e nos palanques. Como em outros importantes temas, o mundo contemporâneo parece dilacerado.


This conjunctural note searches to contribute to a better knowledge of the current Brazilian political scene, characterized by a paroxysm, a polarization and perceptible contradictions when the subject is sexual and gender diversity. In this context, the different Republic forces show that their ways are in opposite directions. At the same time, we can observe a sensible lack of harmony between the social world, in which the respect for such diversity seems more and more incorporated into the population daily life, and the conservative discourses expressed in pulpits and joined up with those pronounced by politicians on their platforms. Like what happen to many other important themes, the contemporary world seems shattered.


Esta nota de coyuntura intenta contribuir a una mejor comprensión del escenario político brasileño actual que, al respecto a la diversidad sexual y de género, aparece marcado por el paroxismo, por la polarización y por visibles contradicciones. En este contexto, los diferentes poderes de la República muestran seguir direcciones opuestas. Al mismo tiempo, es posible percibir una sensible desarmonía entre el mundo social en el que el respecto a tal diversidad parece cada vez más incorporado a la vida diaria, y los discursos conservadores se articulan en los púlpitos y en las tribunas. De la misma forma que ocurre en otros temas importantes, el mundo contemporáneo parece lacerado.


Assuntos
Humanos , Brasil , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Ativismo Político , Identidade de Gênero , Comportamento Social , Sexismo , Discriminação Social
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180332, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508655

RESUMO

This ethnography is about a particular human-animal relationship based on primatological research on groups of wild robust capuchin monkeys living in Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho (Brazil), one of the largest preserved areas of Atlantic Tropical Forest in the world. It emphasizes the complex situations that highlight the difficulty of making this research. This space integrates administrative, scientific and local interests, producing a unique cartography. We reflect on the scientific research considering the relations among primatologist, field assistant and other animals and comparing it with the hunt. "Hunt" is a model inspired in techniques and in some aspects of recreational hunt to expand the comprehension of a complex routine defined to obtain behavior data.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Cebus/fisiologia , Florestas , Pesquisadores , Animais , Antropologia Física , Brasil , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Clima Tropical
4.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(6): 503-524, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480946

RESUMO

Differences in Conflict-Based Play Behavior, Socio-Emotional and Cognitive Development of Preterm Children Compared to Full-Term Children at Preschool Age Preterm children are at increased risk for socio-emotional and cognitive developmental difficulties at preschool age. This study investigates whether preterm children (n = 50) at the age of five years show different socio-emotional competencies in conflict situations and in the corresponding conflict resolution capacity in comparison to full-term children (n = 50). For this purpose, the MacArthur Story Stem Battery was used as the central examination method. In addition, parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to obtain information about the children's behavior; moreover, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition was applied to examine cognitive development. The parental reports did not reveal any behavioral differences between preterm and term children. However, significant group differences regarding their play behavior were detected. In their narratives, preterm children included content themes of interpersonal conflict and dysregulation more frequently compared to term born controls. Concerning empathic and moral themes and narrative coherence, no group difference could be detected. This could indicate that preterm children show no clinically manifest behavioral disorders at preschool age, but differences concerning intrapsychic experience compared to controls. In addition, preterm children had significantly lower IQ scores than term-born controls. Gestational age was a significant predictor of IQ and hyperactivity and attention problems. The results clarify the need for long term clinical follow up of preterm children and should be used to provide more specific care and support.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Cognição , Emoções , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Pré-Escolar , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Inteligência , Escalas de Wechsler
5.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(3): 525-539, jul.-set. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016683

RESUMO

Protagonistas nas lutas LGBTs, as drag queens viveram constantemente um apagamento histórico, fruto do preconceito estrutural que envolve, inclusive, a própria comunidade LGBT. No entanto, contemporaneamente, a cultura drag vive um momento de forte presença midiática suscitada pela popularização do programa estadunidense RuPaul's Drag Race. Tendo isso em vista, o presente artigo visa elaborar um entendimento sobre o percurso histórico que possibilitou a construção da cultura drag, tal qual a compreendemos contemporaneamente. Além disso, busca situar esses sujeitos como importantes na história LGBT mundial, observando sua presença, também, na cultura e mídia brasileiras.


Protagonists in the LGBT struggles, drag queens have constantly lived a historical erasure, as a result of the structural prejudice that involves, even, the own LGBT community. However, at the same time, the drag culture lives a moment of strong media presence raised by the popularization of the American program RuPaul's Drag Race. Taking this into account, this article aims to elaborate an understanding of the historical path that allowed the construction of the drag culture as we understand it contemporaneously. In addition, it seeks to situate these subjects as important in LGBT world history, noting their presence, also, in Brazilian culture and media.


Protagonistas de las luchas LGBT, las drag queens experimentan un borrado histórico, como consecuencia del prejuicio estructural que implica, incluso, la propia comunidad LGBT. Sin embargo, al mismo tiempo, la cultura del arrastre vive un momento de fuerte presencia de los medios levantada por la popularización del programa norteamericano RuPaul's Drag Race. Teniendo esto en cuenta, este artículo tiene como objetivo elaborar una comprensión del recorrido histórico que permitió la construcción de la cultura drag como la entendemos contemporáneamente. Además, busca situar esos temas como importantes en la historia mundial LGBT, observando su presencia, también, en la cultura y los medios brasileños.


Assuntos
Humanos , Comportamento Social , Travestismo , Cultura , Mídia Audiovisual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Identidade de Gênero , Política Pública , Transexualismo , Violência , Estilo de Vida , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Filmes Cinematográficos
6.
Brain Nerve ; 71(9): 993-1002, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506401

RESUMO

Joint attention behaviors involve sharing attention with others to an object or event by means of eye-gazing or pointing, which form the common basis for communication. There are two types of these behaviors: responding to joint attention (RJA) and initiating joint attention (IJA). RJA is the ability to follow the gaze of others, suggesting reception of a social signal from others; IJA is the ability to voluntarily direct the attention of others, to share the experience of an object or event, suggesting transmission of a social signal to others. Infants experience these roles (as signal receiver and signal transmitter) throughout the first year of life and learn social cognitive skills. Recent neuroimaging studies indicate that joint attention is supported by widely distributed neural systems with nodes in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex and insula, the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, the superior temporal cortex, the precuneus and parietal cortex, and the amygdala and striatum.


Assuntos
Atenção , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Córtex Cerebral , Humanos , Lactente , Lobo Parietal , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Lobo Temporal
7.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(8): 743-748, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the curative effect of progressively integrated sandplay therapy on core symptoms and sleep management in preschool children with mild-to-moderate autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: A total of 50 mild-to-moderate ASD preschool children were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=25) and a control group (n=25). The control group was treated with structured teaching and auditory integration training (AIT). Based on these, the experimental group was treated with progressively integrated sandplay therapy. The Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Children Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ) and emotion recognition tools were used to evaluate the overall curative effect before treatment and 3 months after treatment. RESULTS: The experimental group had significantly lower scores of feeling, social interaction, somatic motor, language factor, total ABC and total CARS than the control group (P<0.05). The experimental group had also significantly lower scores of social cognition, social communication, social motivation, autistic behavior factor and total SRS than the control group (P<0.05). The experimental group had a significantly higher accurate rate of recognition of the upper facial expression and lower facial expression than the control group (P<0.05). The experimental group had significantly lower scores of bedtime resistance, sleep onset, sleep duration, night waking, daytime sleepiness, and total CSHQ than the control group (P<0.05). The experimental group had significantly reduced themes of wounding and significantly increased themes of healing after sandplay therapy (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Progressively integrated sandplay therapy can effectively improve the core symptoms and sleep quality of preschool children with mild-to-moderate ASD, which can be used as an early rehabilitation measure.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Pré-Escolar , Expressão Facial , Humanos , Ludoterapia , Comportamento Social
8.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e131, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407995

RESUMO

We argue that adopting a sociocultural lens to the origins of intergroup bias is important for understanding the nature of attacking and defending behavior at a group level. We specifically propose that the potential divergence in the development of in-group affiliation and out-group derogation supports De Dreu and Gross's framework but does indicate that more emphasis on early sociocultural input is required.


Assuntos
Comportamento Social , Criança , Humanos
9.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e118, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407997

RESUMO

Evolutionary theory makes further predictions about conflict. It predicts sex differences in the proclivity to attack and defend. It further suggests complementary biases in what we expect of the sexes. Finally, it suggests that the forms of human facial expressions of anger and happiness may have coevolved with the regularity of conflict as a means of signaling, bluffing, and defusing attack.


Assuntos
Ira , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1466-1467, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438184

RESUMO

We developed a computable phenotype for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) based on the Systemic Lupus International Collaborative Clinics clinical classification criteria set for SLE. We evaluated the phenotype over registry and EHR data for the same patient population to determine concordance of criteria detected in both datasets and to assess which types of structured data detected individual classification criteria. We identified a concordance of 68% between registry and EHR data relying solely on structured data.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Médicos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Comportamento Social
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 239-248, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468403

RESUMO

The effects of taurine have been characterized primarily in mammals, and insects are not generally used to study taurine. In this study, ants were used to examine the effect of taurine on eusociality. Ants are the principal models for studying eusociality and superorganisms. Japanese carpenter ants (Camponotus japonicus) were fed a taurine-supplemented diet and tested using ant eusocial indexes. Ant farm structures were constructed using transparent PET bottles containing autoclaved soil. Three categories of vital index were used to study the effect of taurine on group activity: creation of formicaries (residence chambers), cooperative defense efforts, and population density (or group size and composition). Control, low-, and high-taurine diets were prepared using three different levels of taurine in sucrose powder: 0, 5, and 20% (g/g), respectively. The cooperative defense efforts against exogenous queen ants were recorded daily. The high-taurine group took less time to complete their defense formation than the other groups. At least 16% more formicaries (chambers) were observed in the taurine-fed groups than in the control. There were evident differences between control and taurine-fed groups in the total numbers of ants and eggs. The taurine-fed group sustained higher total numbers of ants, excluding the queen. Taurine-fed groups showed a significant increase both in the number of workers and eggs. When fed with taurine, ants responded positively on the eusocial vitality indexes. These results show that taurine exerts a positive effect on the eusociality of ants at the level of the superorganism.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Social , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Comportamento Cooperativo
12.
Am J Disaster Med ; 14(1): 51-63, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441028

RESUMO

There have been an increasing number of studies conducted on community preparedness, particularly on changing individual health behaviors in ways that minimizes individual risk to cope with the stress of a natural disaster. A variety of behavioral change theories and models used by disaster academics scrutinize the manner in which individual behavior is sought and transformed into disaster preparedness. This reflects the lack of knowledge about how these models identify certain behaviors regarding natural disaster preparation. This article seeks to address this lack of knowledge. It presents a set of health behavioral change models that can be used by scholars to comprehend variation in the nature and extent of individual disaster preparedness. The purpose of this study is to provide a review of the existing models on the subject, and also to present a comparative analysis of the models that may contribute to ways of understanding the investigation on natural disaster preparedness behaviors.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Desastres Naturais , Comportamento Social , Desastres , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Planejamento Social
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1631-1632, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438265

RESUMO

Monitoring circadian rhythms of social activity is crucial for preserving the health and wellness of ill elderly people. In this paper, we assess the ability of phones to be used as a temporal and social daily activity sensor from a passive and unobstructive measure of phone call activity. To this end, we introduce a methodology specifically designed to automatically measure both persistence and disruptions in circadian rhythms of phone call activity with 26 adults older than 65 years.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Ritmo Circadiano , Idoso , Humanos , Comportamento Social
14.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 28(8): 709-718, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352835

RESUMO

Introduction: Pharmacologic interventions in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have historically focused on symptom-based approaches. However, a treatment for the core social deficits has remained unidentified. While a definitive theory for the cause of ASD is not yet known, recent advances in our understanding of ASD pathophysiology have opened the door for research on new pharmaceutical methods to target core symptomology. Areas covered: Herein, we review the novel pharmacologic therapies undergoing early-stage clinical trials for the treatment of the social symptoms associated with ASD. Specifically, these strategies center on altering neurologic excitatory and inhibitory imbalance, neuropeptide abnormalities, immunologic dysfunction, and biochemical deficiencies in ASD. Expert opinion: Utilizing the growing field of knowledge regarding the pathological mechanisms and altered neurobiology of individuals with ASD has led to the development of many innovative pharmaceutical interventions. Clinical trials for neurobiologic and immunologic targets show promise in impacting the social behavior and processing deficits in ASD but need evaluation in larger clinical trials and continued biomarker development to more effectively and consistently assess pharmacologic effects. Additionally, evaluating patient-specific drug responsivity and integrating behavioral intervention in conjunction with pharmacologic treatment is crucial to developing a successful approach to ASD treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/tratamento farmacológico , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Drogas em Investigação/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Drogas em Investigação/farmacologia , Humanos , Comportamento Social
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 860, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are arguments for and against the wellbeing effects of internet use, with evidence shifting from negative to positive over time, although the effects are partly dependent upon the population sub-group concerned. There are good grounds for anticipating that the internet could be beneficial to people living in deprived communities, but this group has rarely been studied. METHODS: Data are from a cross-sectional, face-to-face survey of adult householders (n = 3804) in 15 deprived communities in Glasgow, UK. Respondents were asked whether they used the internet and, if so, how they usually accessed it: at home, via a mobile phone, in a public venue, or other means. Data were also collected on social contact and support, use of amenities, sense of community, wellbeing, loneliness, and physical activity. RESULTS: There were inequalities in internet access within deprived communities, with use of the internet lowest among older people, those with a long-standing illness, and those with no educational qualifications. Some social benefits were associated with internet access, such as frequency of contact with neighbours, available financial social support, and greater use of social amenities and shops. Internet users were also less likely to report feeling lonely and had higher mental wellbeing scores. Respondents who used the internet were also more physically active. However, community cohesion and empowerment variables were very similar among internet users and non-users. Several of the positive associations with internet access were more marked for those who accessed the internet at home and for older people. These are new findings in respect of deprived communities. CONCLUSIONS: Extending internet access for people in deprived communities is worthy of further consideration in the context of government objectives for tackling social isolation and increasing wellbeing. The results also suggest that greater digitisation of public services may not result in greater cohesion and empowerment in deprived communities, as is often assumed, but rather has the potential to reinforce social inequalities.


Assuntos
Exercício , Acesso à Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Áreas de Pobreza , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isolamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
17.
Anim Cogn ; 22(4): 453-459, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278622

RESUMO

This paper is an introduction to the special issue entitled Evolving the study of gesture: evaluating and unifying theories of gesture acquisition in great apes. The gestures of great apes have been recorded in scientific literature for over 100 years, but the ways in which apes acquire their gestures remains a highly debated topic. Through this historical framework, we summarize and contextualize contemporary research on the development of ape gesture. We describe the papers presented in this special issue, grouping them into three themes: assessing theories, methodological innovation, and new empirical approaches. Each of the papers is a significant contribution to the literature on ape gesture, but the collection of work together represents a unique collaboration across labs, theories, and studied species. By considering the papers side-by-side, we hope that readers will see the authors as engaging in a true dialogue, one which will help the field of primate gesture research make significant advances in the years to come.


Assuntos
Gestos , Primatas , Comportamento Social , Animais , Hominidae , Humanos
18.
Behav Sci Law ; 37(4): 452-467, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355480

RESUMO

Mental health courts (MHCs) use a collaborative justice approach to provide a therapeutic alternative to the traditional justice process for defendants with mental illnesses directly relevant to their alleged criminal offenses. MHCs have proliferated in recent years, in light of early research reports documenting their successes. The aim of this paper is to provide further evaluation of the effects of MHCs by evaluating the impact of the Sacramento County MHC in California. We analyzed quantitative data and conducted interviews with stakeholders and MHC participants to understand how the MHC influenced individual participants' recidivism rates, mental health, and quality of life. Results from the quantitative data analysis indicate that defendants had a lower rate of recidivism after the MHC program than before it. Moreover, graduates were less likely to be rearrested and rehospitalized than non-graduates. Qualitative analyses revealed several core themes regarding participants' views on facilitators and barriers related to the MHC's success. These findings provide further insights into the effectiveness of MHCs.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Mental , Reincidência , California , Criminosos/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Social , Justiça Social
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2422, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160605

RESUMO

Domestication is hypothesized to drive correlated responses in animal morphology, physiology and behaviour, a phenomenon known as the domestication syndrome. However, we currently lack quantitative confirmation that suites of behaviours are correlated during domestication. Here we evaluate the strength and direction of behavioural correlations among key prosocial (sociability, playfulness) and reactive (fearfulness, aggression) behaviours implicated in the domestication syndrome in 76,158 dogs representing 78 registered breeds. Consistent with the domestication syndrome hypothesis, behavioural correlations within prosocial and reactive categories demonstrated the expected direction-specificity across dogs. However, correlational strength varied between dog breeds representing early (ancient) and late (modern) stages of domestication, with ancient breeds exhibiting exaggerated correlations compared to modern breeds across prosocial and reactive behaviours. Our results suggest that suites of correlated behaviours have been temporally decoupled during dog domestication and that recent shifts in selection pressures in modern dog breeds affect the expression of domestication-related behaviours independently.


Assuntos
Agressão , Comportamento Animal , Cruzamento , Domesticação , Medo , Comportamento Social , Animais , Cães , Animais de Estimação , Jogos e Brinquedos , Síndrome , Fatores de Tempo
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