Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 56.632
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e241164, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278551

RESUMO

Abstract Behavior is a useful trait for comparative studies that provide the comprehension of phylogenetic relationships among species. Here, we present a description of two spiny-rats species' behavioral repertoire, Clyomys laticeps and Trinomys setosus (Rodentia: Echimyidae). The affiliative and agonistic behavioral patterns were sampled during a three-year study of captive populations of wild animals. Observational data were collected in two phases under different arrangements of individuals in groups. We also compare the behavioral traits of T. setosus and C. laticeps with the known behavioral patterns of Trinomys yonenagae. We add categories to the previous descriptions of T. setosus and a standard ethogram for C. laticeps. Trinomys setosus showed a visual and vocal display we called foot-trembling, which was not described in this form and function for other species studied until now. We discuss the differences in their sociality levels and similarities and differences among behavior patterns and repertoires.


Resumo O comportamento é uma característica útil para estudos comparativos que fornecem a compreensão das relações filogenéticas entre as espécies. Apresentamos aqui uma descrição do repertório comportamental de duas espécies de ratos-de-espinho Clyomys laticeps and Trinomys setosus (Rodentia: Echimyidae). Os padrões comportamentais afiliativos e agonísticos foram amostrados durante um estudo de três anos em populações de animais silvestres em cativeiro. Os dados foram coletados em duas fases sob diferentes arranjos de indivíduos em grupos sociais. Comparamos as características comportamentais de T. setosus e C. laticeps com as da espécie mais conhecida, T. yonenagae. Adicionamos categorias às descrições anteriores de T. setosus, e um etograma padrão para C. laticeps. Trinomys setosus mostrou uma exibição visual e vocal que chamamos de saltitar, que não foi descrito nesta forma e função para outras espécies do gênero estudado até agora. Discutimos diferenças nos níveis de socialidade e similaridades e diferenças entre os padrões comportamentais e repertórios.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Roedores , Comportamento Social , Filogenia , Brasil , Animais Selvagens
2.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272141, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925937

RESUMO

The cholinergic system is an important modulator of brain processes. It contributes to the regulation of several cognitive functions and emotional states, hence altering behaviors. Previous works showed that cholinergic (nicotinic) receptors of the prefrontal cortex are needed for adapted social behaviors. However, these data were obtained in mutant mice that also present alterations of several neurotransmitter systems, in addition to the cholinergic system. ChAT-IRES-Cre mice, that express the Cre recombinase specifically in cholinergic neurons, are useful tools to investigate the role of the cholinergic circuits in behavior. However, their own behavioral phenotype has not yet been fully characterized, in particular social behavior. In addition, the consequences of aging on the cholinergic system of ChAT-IRES-Cre mice has never been studied, despite the fact that aging is known to compromise the cholinergic system efficiency. The aim of the current study was thus to characterize the social phenotype of ChAT-IRES-Cre mice both at young (2-3 months) and middle (10-11 months) ages. Our results reveal an alteration of the cholinergic system, evidenced by a decrease of ChAT, CHT and VAChT gene expression in the striatum of the mice, that was accompanied by mild social disturbances and a tendency towards anxiety. Aging decreased social dominance, without being amplified by the cholinergic alterations. Altogether, this study shows that ChAT-IRES-Cre mice are useful models for studying the cholinergic system's role in social behavior using appropriate modulating technics (optogenetic or DREADD).


Assuntos
Colina O-Acetiltransferase , Neurônios Colinérgicos , Animais , Colina O-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Colinérgicos , Neurônios Colinérgicos/metabolismo , Integrases , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Comportamento Social
3.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271337, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921355

RESUMO

Cattle have a complex social organization, with negative (agonistic) and positive (affiliative) interactions that affect access to environmental resources. Thus, the social behaviour has a major impact on animal production, and it is an important factor to improve the farm animal welfare. The use of data from electronic bins to determine social competition has already been validated; however, the studies used non-free software or did not make the code available. With data from electronic bins is possible to identify when one animal takes the place of another animal, i.e. a replacement occurs, at the feeders or drinkers. However, there is no package for the R environment to detect competitive replacements from electronic bins data. Our general approach consisted in creating a user-friendly R package for social behaviour analysis. The workflow of the socialh package comprises several steps that can be used sequentially or separately, allowing data input from electronic systems, or obtained from the animals' observation. We provide an overview of all functions of the socialh package and demonstrate how this package can be applied using data from electronic feed bins of beef cattle. The socialh package provides support for researchers to determine the social hierarchy of gregarious animals through the synthesis of agonistic interactions (or replacement) in a friendly, versatile, and open-access system, thus contributing to scientific research.


Assuntos
Hierarquia Social , Comportamento Social , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Eletrônica , Fazendas
4.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1860): 20210306, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934958

RESUMO

Communicative complexity relates to social complexity, as individuals in more complex social systems either use more signals or more complex signals than individuals living in less complex ones. Taking the individual group member's perspective, here we examine communicative complexity in relation to social complexity, which arises from two components of social systems: social structure and social organization. We review the concepts of social relationships and social complexity and evaluate their implications for communicative and cognitive complexity using examples from primate species. We focus on spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi), as their social organization is characterized by flexibility in grouping dynamics and they use a variety of communicative signals. We conclude that no simple relationship exists among social complexity, communicative complexity and cognitive complexity, with social complexity not necessarily implying cognitive complexity, and communicative and cognitive complexity being independently linked to social complexity. To better understand the commonly implied link between social complexity and cognitive complexity it is crucial to recognize the complementary role of communicative complexity. A more elaborated communicative toolkit provides the needed flexibility to deal with dynamic and multifaceted social relationships and high variation in fission-fusion dynamics. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cognition, communication and social bonds in primates'.


Assuntos
Atelinae , Comportamento Social , Animais , Comunicação , Relações Interpessoais , Primatas/psicologia , Estrutura Social
5.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1860): 20210305, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934959

RESUMO

Examining the links between intentional communication and social relationships provides insights into the cognitive skills needed to manage a differentiated set of social bonds. Great apes gesture intentionally, but how this intentionality relates to sociality is still unclear. Stress in the form of dominant audience members inhibits understanding of intentions, downgrading cognition to understanding of behaviour, but intentional communication may enable social bonding in stressful conditions. We examined the associations between gestural communication, sociality, stress and the outcome of interactions in wild chimpanzees. Social network size was positively associated with intentional but not non-intentional communication. When a dominant bystander was present with whom the recipient was weakly bonded, and gesturing was non-intentional, recipients produced avoidance response toward signallers to whom they were weakly bonded, indicating understanding of behaviour. Signallers used intentional gestures more frequently to recipients who were stressed, and intentional gestures evoked approach behaviour by the recipients, indicating understanding of intentionality. These results suggest that the presence of dominant bystanders is stressful, inhibiting understanding of intentionality. However, intentional gestures facilitate social bonding by allowing understanding of intentions. The cognitive skills underpinning intentional gestures may therefore play a key role in enabling primates to meet the demands of sociality. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cognition, communication and social bonds in primates'.


Assuntos
Gestos , Hominidae , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Primatas , Comportamento Social
6.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1860): 20210302, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934961

RESUMO

Understanding the affective lives of animals has been a long-standing challenge in science. Recent technological progress in infrared thermal imaging has enabled researchers to monitor animals' physiological states in real-time when exposed to ecologically relevant situations, such as feeding in the company of others. During social feeding, an individual's physiological states are likely to vary with the nature of the resource and perceptions of competition. Previous findings in chimpanzees have indicated that events perceived as competitive cause decreases in nasal temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed for cooperative interactions. Here, we tested how food resources and audience structure impacted on how social feeding events were perceived by wild chimpanzees. Overall, we found that nasal temperatures were lower when meat was consumed as compared to figs, consistent with the idea that social feeding on more contested resources is perceived as more dangerous and stressful. Nasal temperatures were significant affected by interactions between food type and audience composition, in particular the number of males, their dominance status, and their social bond status relative to the subject, while no effects for the presence of females were observed. Our findings suggest that male chimpanzees closely monitor and assess their social environment during competitive situations, and that infrared imaging provides an important complement to access psychological processes beyond observable social behaviours. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cognition, communication and social bonds in primates'.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Pan troglodytes , Animais , Cognição , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Comportamento Social
7.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1860): 20220115, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934965

RESUMO

Primates live in stable social groups in which they form differentiated relationships with group members and use a range of communication including facial expressions, vocalizations and gestures. However, how these different types of communication are used to regulate social interactions, and what cognitive skills underpin this communication, is still unclear. The aim of this special issue is to examine the types of cognitive skills underpinning the flexible and complex communication that is used to maintain the bonded social relationships found in primates and humans. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cognition, communication and social bonds in primates'.


Assuntos
Gestos , Comportamento Social , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Cognição , Humanos , Primatas
8.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1860): 20210310, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934966

RESUMO

Compared to other animals, humans supposedly excel at voluntarily controlling and strategically displaying emotional signals. Yet, new data shows that nonhuman great apes' emotion expressions may also be subject to voluntary control. A key context to further explore this is during post-conflict (PC) periods, where signalling by distressed victims may influence bystander responses, including the offering of consolation. To address this, our study investigates the signalling behaviour of sanctuary-living bonobo victims following aggression and its relation to audience composition and PC interactions. Results show that the production of paedomorphic signals by victims (regardless of age) increased their chances of receiving consolation. In adults, the production of such signals additionally reduced the risk of renewed aggression from opponents. Signal production also increased with audience size, yet strategies differed by age: while immatures reduced signalling in proximity of close-social partners, adults did so especially after receiving consolation. These results suggest that bonobos can flexibly adjust their emotion signalling to influence the outcome of PC events, and that this tendency has a developmental trajectory. Overall, these findings highlight the potential role that flexible emotion communication played in the sociality of our last common ancestor with Pan. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cognition, communication and social bonds in primates'.


Assuntos
Empatia , Pan paniscus , Agressão/psicologia , Animais , Emoções , Humanos , Pan paniscus/psicologia , Comportamento Social
9.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1860): 20210296, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934968

RESUMO

Characterizing non-human primate social complexity and its cognitive bases has proved challenging. Using principal component analyses, we show that primate social, ecological and reproductive behaviours condense into two components: socioecological complexity (including most social and ecological variables) and reproductive cooperation (comprising mainly a suite of behaviours associated with pairbonded monogamy). We contextualize these results using a meta-analysis of 44 published analyses of primate brain evolution. These studies yield two main consistent results: cognition, sociality and cooperative behaviours are associated with absolute brain volume, neocortex size and neocortex ratio, whereas diet composition and life history are consistently associated with relative brain size. We use a path analysis to evaluate the causal relationships among these variables, demonstrating that social group size is predicted by the neocortex, whereas ecological traits are predicted by the volume of brain structures other than the neocortex. That a range of social and technical behaviours covary, and are correlated with social group size and brain size, suggests that primate cognition has evolved along a continuum resulting in an increasingly flexible, domain-general capacity to solve a range of socioecological challenges culminating in a capacity for, and reliance on, innovation and social information use in the great apes and humans. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cognition, communication and social bonds in primates'.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Neocórtex , Animais , Encéfalo , Cognição , Primatas/psicologia , Comportamento Social
10.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1860): 20210295, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934969

RESUMO

Primate social bonds are described as being especially complex in their nature, and primates have unusually large brains for their body size compared to other mammals. Communication in primates has attracted considerable attention because of the important role it plays in social bonding. It has been proposed that differentiated social relationships are cognitively complex because primates need to continuously update their knowledge about different types of social bonds. Therefore, primates infer whether an opportunity for social interaction is rewarding (valuable to individual goals) based on their knowledge of the social relationships of the interactants. However, exposure to distraction and stress has detrimental effects on the dopaminergic system, suggesting that understanding social relationships as rewarding is affected in these conditions. This paper proposes that complex communication evolved to augment the capacity to form social relationships during stress through flexibly modifying intentionality in communication (audience checking, response waiting and elaboration). Intentional communication may upregulate dopamine dynamics to allow recognition that an interaction is rewarding during stress. By examining these associations between complexity of communication and stress, we provide new insights into the cognitive skills involved in forming social bonds in primates and the evolution of communication systems in both primates and humans. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cognition, communication and social bonds in primates'.


Assuntos
Cognição , Comportamento Social , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comunicação , Dopamina , Humanos , Mamíferos , Primatas/psicologia
11.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1860): 20210309, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934970

RESUMO

The 'social complexity hypothesis' posits that complex social systems (which entail high uncertainty) require complex communicative systems (with high vocal flexibility). In species with fission-fusion dynamics, where the fluid composition of temporary subgroups increases the uncertainty with which group members must manage their social relationships, vocal communication must be particularly flexible. This study assessed whether contact call rates vary with caller and audience characteristics in free-living spider monkeys, as well as with fission and fusion events. Adult females and immature individuals called more when in small audience settings, while audience size did not influence adult males. Adults called more when in the presence of the opposite sex, whereas immatures vocalized more in subgroups composed only by females. Females also called more when with their mature sons. We found higher call rates in periods during which fission and fusion events took place than in periods with more stable compositions and when the composition after a fission or fusion event changed from one sex to two sexes. A flexible use of contact calls allows individuals to identify themselves when they join others, particularly if they are members of the opposite sex. This socio-spatial cohesion function reduces the uncertainty about subgroup composition. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cognition, communication and social bonds in primates'.


Assuntos
Atelinae , Comportamento Social , Animais , Cognição , Feminino , Masculino , Incerteza , Vocalização Animal
12.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272615, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944038

RESUMO

Early adolescents frequently use mobile messaging apps to communicate with peers. The popularity of such messaging apps has a critical drawback because it increases conformity to cyber aggression. Cyber aggression includes aggressive peer behaviors such as nasty comments, nonconsensual image sharing, and social exclusion, to which adolescents subsequently conform. Recent empirical research points to peer group norms and reduced accountability as two essential determinants of conformity to cyber aggression. Therefore, the current study aimed to counteract these two determinants in a 2 (peer group norms counteracted: yes, no) x 2 (reduced accountability counteracted: yes, no) design. We created four intervention conditions that addressed adolescents' deficits in information, motivation, and behavioral skills. Depending on the condition (peer group norms, reduced accountability, combination, or control), we first informed participants about the influence of the relevant determinant (e.g., peer group norms). Subsequently, participants performed a self-persuasion task and formulated implementation-intentions to increase their motivation and behavioral skills not to conform to cyber aggression. Effectiveness was tested with a messaging app paradigm and self-report among a sample of 377 adolescents (Mage = 12.99, SDage = 0.84; 53.6% boys). Factorial ANCOVAs revealed that none of the intervention conditions reduced conformity to cyber aggression. Moreover, individual differences in susceptibility to peer pressure or inhibitory control among adolescents did not moderate the expected relations. Therefore, there is no evidence that our intervention effectively reduces conformity to cyber aggression. The findings from this first intervention effort point to the complex relationship between theory and practice. Our findings warrant future research to develop potential intervention tools that could effectively reduce conformity to cyber aggression.


Assuntos
Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Adolescente , Agressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Social
14.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272340, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913942

RESUMO

Previous studies suggest a link between future thinking and prosocial behaviors. However, this association is not fully understood at state and trait level. The present study tested whether a brief future thinking induction promoted helping behavior in an unrelated task. In addition, the relation between mental time travel and prosocial behaviors in daily life was tested with questionnaire data. Forty-eight participants filled in questionnaires and were asked to think about the future for one minute or to name animals for one minute (control condition) before playing the Zurich Prosocial Game (a measure of helping behavior). Results revealed that participants in the future thinking condition helped significantly more than participants in the control condition. Moreover, questionnaire data showed that dispositional and positive orientation toward the future and the past was significantly associated with self-reported prosocial behaviors. The present findings suggest that thinking about the future in general has positive transfer effects on subsequent prosocial behavior and that people who think more about the past or future in a positive way engage more in prosocial behavior.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Comportamento Social , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos , Personalidade
15.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1980): 20221001, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946158

RESUMO

Culture is an outcome of both the acquisition of knowledge about behaviour through social transmission, and its subsequent production by individuals. Acquisition and production are often discussed or modelled interchangeably, yet to date no study has explored the consequences of their interaction for cultural diffusions. We present a generative model that integrates the two, and ask how variation in production rules might influence diffusion dynamics. Agents make behavioural choices that change as they learn from their productions. Their repertoires may also change, and the acquisition of behaviour is conditioned on its frequency. We analyse the diffusion of a novel behaviour through social networks, yielding generalizable predictions of how individual-level behavioural production rules influence population-level diffusion dynamics. We then investigate how linking acquisition and production might affect the performance of two commonly used inferential models for social learning; network-based diffusion analysis, and experience-weighted attraction models. We find that the influence that production rules have on diffusion dynamics has consequences for how inferential methods are applied to empirical data. Our model illuminates the differences between social learning and social influence, demonstrates the overlooked role of reinforcement learning in cultural diffusions, and allows for clearer discussions about social learning strategies.


Assuntos
Evolução Cultural , Aprendizado Social , Humanos , Comportamento Social
16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 324, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945212

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that exhibits neurobehavioral deficits characterized by abnormalities in social interactions, deficits in communication as well as restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors. The basal ganglia is one of the brain regions implicated as dysfunctional in ASD. In particular, the defects in corticostriatal function have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of ASD. Surface deformation of the striatum in the brains of patients with ASD and their correlation with behavioral symptoms was reported in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. We demonstrated that prenatal valproic acid (VPA) exposure induced synaptic and molecular changes and decreased neuronal activity in the striatum. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), we analyzed transcriptome alterations in striatal tissues from 10-week-old prenatally VPA-exposed BALB/c male mice. Among the upregulated genes, Nurr1 was significantly upregulated in striatal tissues from prenatally VPA-exposed mice. Viral knockdown of Nurr1 by shRNA significantly rescued the reduction in dendritic spine density and the number of mature dendritic spines in the striatum and markedly improved social deficits in prenatally VPA-exposed mice. In addition, treatment with amodiaquine, which is a known ligand for Nurr1, mimicked the social deficits and synaptic abnormalities in saline-exposed mice as observed in prenatally VPA-exposed mice. Furthermore, PatDp+/- mice, a commonly used ASD genetic mouse model, also showed increased levels of Nurr1 in the striatum. Taken together, these results suggest that the increase in Nurr1 expression in the striatum is a mechanism related to the changes in synaptic deficits and behavioral phenotypes of the VPA-induced ASD mouse model.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Comportamento Social , Transcriptoma , Ácido Valproico/efeitos adversos
17.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(790): 1395-1397, 2022 Jul 13.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35822749

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, solidarity has been referred to many occasions to justify the measures imposed on individuals by public authorities. If solidarity benefits from a kind of common understanding, it is no less complex to define it in a consensual way. In addition, recent years have been marked by a strengthening of individual responsibility which contributes to the erosion of the principle of solidarity in our society. The purpose of this contribution is to demonstrate the omnipresence of this principle in the field of public health by means of concrete examples.


Au cours de la pandémie de Covid-19, la solidarité a été évoquée à de multiples reprises pour justifier les mesures imposées aux individus par les autorités publiques. Si elle bénéficie d'une sorte de compréhension commune, il n'en demeure pas moins complexe de la définir de manière consensuelle. En outre, ces dernières années ont été marquées par un renforcement de la responsabilité individuelle qui contribue à l'érosion du principe de solidarité dans notre société. La présente contribution a pour vocation de démontrer l'omniprésence de ce principe dans le domaine de la santé publique au moyen d'exemples concrets.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Pública , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Social
18.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e118, 2022 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796353

RESUMO

Group representations based on recursive utilities can be used to derive the same predictions as Pietraszewski in conflict situations. Additionally, these representations generalize to non-conflict situations, asymmetric relationships, and represent the stakes in a conflict. However, both proposals fail to represent asymmetries of power and responsibility and to account for generalizations from specific observed individuals to collections of non-observed individuals.


Assuntos
Comportamento Social , Humanos
19.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e104, 2022 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796360

RESUMO

Pietraszewski's model allows understanding group dynamics through the lens of evolved coalitionary psychology. This framework is particularly relevant to understanding group dynamics on social media platforms, where coalitions based on salience of group identity are prominent and generate unique frictions. We offer testable hypotheses derived from the model that may help to shed light on social media behavior.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Comportamento Social
20.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e108, 2022 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796363

RESUMO

Pietraszewski contends that group representations that rely on a "containment metaphor" fail to adequately capture phenomena of group dynamics such as shifts in allegiances. We argue, in contrast, that social categories allow for computationally efficient, richly structured, and flexible group representations that explain some of the most intriguing aspects of social group behaviour.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Comportamento Social , Humanos , Metáfora
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...