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1.
Behav Neurol ; 2022: 6935263, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502419

RESUMO

Semantic fluency is the ability to name items from a given category within a limited time, which relies on semantic memory, working memory, and executive function. Semantic disfluency is a common problem in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We demonstrated a graph theoretical analysis of semantic fluency in patients with PD (N = 86), patients with AD (N = 40), and healthy controls (HC, N = 88). All participants completed a standard animal fluency test. Their verbal responses were recorded, transcripted, and transformed into directed speech graphs. Patients with PD generated fewer correct words than HC and more correct words than patients with AD. Patients with PD showed higher density, shorter diameter, and shorter average shortest path length than HC, but lower density, longer diameter, and longer average shortest path length than patients with AD. It suggests that patients with PD produced relatively smaller and denser speech graphs. Moreover, in PD, the densities of speech graphs correlated with the severity of non-motor symptoms, but not the severity of motor symptoms. The graph theoretical analysis revealed new features of semantic disfluency in patients with PD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Semântica , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia
2.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 33(1): 53-64, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to obtain normative data for Verbal Fluency Test and investigate the effects of age, gender, and education on verbal fluency in native Turkish-speaking individuals. METHOD: A pilot study was conducted to determine 3 letters with differing levels of difficulty for completing the phonemic fluency task. First names and animals were chosen for the semantic fluency task, and an alternating semantic task (first name-animal) was also used. In total, 415 participants (208 male and 207 female) were recruited and stratified based on the age and education levels. RESULTS: Level of education had a main effect on all verbal fluency tasks; people with higher education performed better. Age and gender were found to have no effect on phonemic verbal fluency. Only the < name production task was affected by gender, women performed better. Younger age groups produced more words in name generation and semantic alternating fluency tasks. CONCLUSION: The effects of age, gender and education on verbal fluency are in accordance with many previous reports. Analysis of various errors were also conducted. Results for Turkish are presented and discussed in the light of literature.


Assuntos
Semântica , Comportamento Verbal , Animais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Projetos Piloto
3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265803, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) had changes in their level of performance in extra-dimensional shifting by implementing a novel analysis method, utilizing the new alternate phonemic/semantic fluency test. METHOD: We used machine learning (ML) in order to develop high accuracy classification between PD patients with high and low scores in the alternate fluency test. RESULTS: The models developed resulted to be accurate in such classification in a range between 80% and 90%. The predictor which demonstrated maximum efficiency in classifying the participants as low or high performers was the semantic fluency test. The optimal cut-off of a decision rule based on this test yielded an accuracy of 86.96%. Following the removal of the semantic fluency test from the system, the parameter which best contributed to the classification was the phonemic fluency test. The best cut-offs were identified and the decision rule yielded an overall accuracy of 80.43%. Lastly, in order to evaluate the classification accuracy based on the shifting index, the best cut-offs based on an optimal single rule yielded an overall accuracy of 83.69%. CONCLUSION: We found that ML analysis of semantic and phonemic verbal fluency may be used to identify simple rules with high accuracy and good out of sample generalization, allowing the detection of executive deficits in patients with PD.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Semântica , Comportamento Verbal
4.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262248, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is characterized by identity formation, exploration and initiation of intimate relationships. Much of this occurs at school, making schools key sites of sexual harassment. Schools often lack awareness and understanding of the issue, and UK research on the topic is scarce. We explored prevalence and perceptions of sexual harassment in a school-based mixed-methods study of 13-17 year-old Scottish adolescents. METHODS: A student survey (N = 638) assessed past 3-months school-based victimization and perpetration prevalence via 17 behavioral items based on the most commonly used school-based sexual harassment measure ('Hostile Hallways'). Eighteen focus groups (N = 119 students) explored which of 10 behaviors were perceived as harassing/unacceptable and why. RESULTS: Two-thirds reported any victimization: 64.7% 'visual/verbal' (e.g. sexual jokes) and 34.3% 'contact/personally-invasive' behaviors (e.g. sexual touching; most of whom also reported experiencing visual/verbal types) in the past 3-months. Data suggested a gateway effect, such that contact/personally-invasive behaviors are more likely to be reported by those also reporting more common visual/verbal behaviors. Some survey participants reported being unsure about whether they had experienced certain behaviors; and in focus groups, participants expressed uncertainty regarding the acceptability of most behaviors. Ambiguities centered on behavioral context and enactment including: degree of pressure, persistence and physicality; degree of familiarity between the instigator-recipient; and perception of the instigator's intent. In attempting to resolve ambiguities, students applied normative schemas underpinned by rights (to dignity, respect and equality) and 'knowingness', usually engendered by friendship. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms school-based sexual harassment is common but also finds significant nuance in the ways in which students distinguish between acceptable and harassing. School-based strategies to tackle sexual harassment must engage with this complexity.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes , Adolescente , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Violência de Gênero/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Escócia , Autorrelato , Assédio Sexual/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Verbal
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1936, 2022 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121796

RESUMO

The Down syndrome (DS) phenotype is usually characterized by relative strengths in non-verbal skills and deficits in verbal processing, but high interindividual variability has been registered in the syndrome. The goal of this study was to explore the cognitive profile, considering verbal and non-verbal intelligence, of children and adolescents with DS, also taking into account interindividual variability. We particularly aimed to investigate whether this variability means that we should envisage more than one cognitive profile in this population. The correlation between cognitive profile and medical conditions, parents' education levels and developmental milestones was also explored. Seventy-two children/adolescents with DS, aged 7-16 years, were assessed with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III. Age-equivalent scores were adopted, and Verbal and Non-Verbal indices were obtained for each individual. The cognitive profile of the group as a whole was characterized by similar scores in the verbal and non-verbal domain. Cluster analysis revealed three different profiles, however: one group, with the lowest scores, had the typical profile associated with DS (with higher non-verbal than verbal intelligence); one, with intermediate scores, had greater verbal than non-verbal intelligence; and one, with the highest scores, fared equally well in the verbal and non-verbal domain. Three cognitive profiles emerged, suggesting that educational support for children and adolescents with DS may need to be more specific.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Síndrome de Down/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Variação Biológica da População , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Educação de Pessoa com Deficiência Intelectual , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino , Comportamento Verbal , Vocabulário
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3007, 2022 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35194127

RESUMO

Risk factors for long-term non-motor symptoms and quality of life following subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) have not yet been fully identified. In the present study, we investigated the impact of motor symptom asymmetry in Parkinson's disease. Data were extracted for 52 patients with Parkinson's disease (half with predominantly left-sided motor symptoms and half with predominantly right-sided ones) who underwent bilateral STN and a matched healthy control group. Performances for cognitive tests, apathy and depression symptoms, as well as quality-of-life questionnaires at 12 months post-DBS were compared with a pre-DBS baseline. Results indicated a deterioration in cognitive performance post-DBS in patients with predominantly left-sided motor symptoms. Performances of patients with predominantly right-sided motor symptoms were maintained, except for a verbal executive task. These differential effects had an impact on patients' quality of life. The results highlight the existence of two distinct cognitive profiles of Parkinson's disease, depending on motor symptom asymmetry. This asymmetry is a potential risk factor for non-motor adverse effects following STN DBS.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/efeitos adversos , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Transtornos Motores/etiologia , Transtornos Motores/terapia , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Núcleo Subtalâmico/fisiologia , Apatia , Cognição , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Comportamento Verbal
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 476, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013361

RESUMO

Verbal fluency (VF) is a heterogeneous cognitive function that requires executive as well as language abilities. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the specificity of the resting state MEG correlates of the executive and language components. To this end, we administered a VF test, another verbal test (Vocabulary), and another executive test (Trail Making Test), and we recorded 5-min eyes-open resting-state MEG data in 28 healthy participants. We used source-reconstructed spectral power estimates to compute correlation/anticorrelation MEG clusters with the performance at each test, as well as with the advantage in performance between tests, across individuals using cluster-level statistics in the standard frequency bands. By obtaining conjunction clusters between verbal fluency scores and factor loading obtained for verbal fluency and each of the two other tests, we showed a core of slow clusters (delta to beta) localized in the right hemisphere, in adjacent parts of the premotor, pre-central and post-central cortex in the mid-lateral regions related to executive monitoring. We also found slow parietal clusters bilaterally and a cluster in the gamma 2 and 3 bands in the left inferior frontal gyrus likely associated with phonological processing involved in verbal fluency.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Idioma , Comportamento Verbal , Adulto , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Vocabulário , Adulto Jovem
8.
Psychiatry Res ; 309: 114404, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066310

RESUMO

Linguistic abnormalities can emerge early in the course of psychotic illness. Computational tools that quantify similarity of responses in standardized language-based tasks such as the verbal fluency test could efficiently characterize the nature and functional correlates of these disturbances. Participants with early-stage psychosis (n=20) and demographically matched controls without a psychiatric diagnosis (n=20) performed category and letter verbal fluency. Semantic similarity was measured via predicted context co-occurrence in a large text corpus using Word2Vec. Phonetic similarity was measured via edit distance using the VFClust tool. Responses were designated as clusters (related items) or switches (transitions to less related items) using similarity-based thresholds. Results revealed that participants with early-stage psychosis compared to controls had lower fluency scores, lower cluster-related semantic similarity, and fewer switches; mean cluster size and phonetic similarity did not differ by group. Lower fluency semantic similarity was correlated with greater speech disorganization (Communication Disturbances Index), although more strongly in controls, and correlated with poorer social functioning (Global Functioning: Social), primarily in the psychosis group. Findings suggest that search for semantically related words may be impaired soon after psychosis onset. Future work is warranted to investigate the impact of language disturbances on social functioning over the course of psychotic illness.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Semântica , Humanos , Idioma , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fonética , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Fala , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia
9.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 55(2): 412-429, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978335

RESUMO

Intraverbal tacts are an example of multiply controlled verbal behavior. More specifically, they are verbal responses under control of both a nonverbal (visual) stimulus (e.g., a green ball) and a verbal (auditory) stimulus (e.g., "What color?" vs. "What shape?"). Studies have shown that verbal behavior training can be arranged in a way that would lead to the emergence of other verbal operants, including multiply controlled (convergent) intraverbals. Our study sought to evaluate the relevance of a specific set of component skills on the emergence of intraverbal tacts in children with an autism spectrum disorder. Intraverbal tacts were observed only when all component skills were mastered, suggesting that this set of skills was sufficient to produce emergent verbal performance. Preliminary data were obtained on the necessity of 4 of the 6 component skills and tentatively suggest that they may be necessary to produce emergent intraverbal tacts, at least under some conditions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Criança , Humanos , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(4)2022 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35042815

RESUMO

Clicking is one of the most robust metaphors for social connection. But how do we know when two people "click"? We asked pairs of friends and strangers to talk with each other and rate their felt connection. For both friends and strangers, speed in response was a robust predictor of feeling connected. Conversations with faster response times felt more connected than conversations with slower response times, and within conversations, connected moments had faster response times than less-connected moments. This effect was determined primarily by partner responsivity: People felt more connected to the degree that their partner responded quickly to them rather than by how quickly they responded to their partner. The temporal scale of these effects (<250 ms) precludes conscious control, thus providing an honest signal of connection. Using a round-robin design in each of six closed networks, we show that faster responders evoked greater feelings of connection across partners. Finally, we demonstrate that this signal is used by third-party listeners as a heuristic of how well people are connected: Conversations with faster response times were perceived as more connected than the same conversations with slower response times. Together, these findings suggest that response times comprise a robust and sufficient signal of whether two minds "click."


Assuntos
Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Interação Social/classificação , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Comunicação , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , New Hampshire , Adulto Jovem
12.
Autism Res ; 15(4): 677-686, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35048566

RESUMO

Verbal fluency is a cognitive function reflecting executive functions and the ability to retrieve the appropriate information from memory quickly. Previous studies reported conflicting results-impaired and intact verbal fluency-in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Most studies concentrate on overall word productivity, errors, perseverations, clustering, or switching. We used a comprehensive approach to evaluate the reported discrepancy in the literature and introduced a new angle using the concept of word abstraction and imageability. Moreover, we analyzed the performance in two-time intervals (0-30 s and 31-60 s) to assess the temporal dynamics of verbal fluency and a possible activation or initiation deficit in autism. Sixteen adults with ASD and 16 neurotypical control participants, matched by gender, age, and education level, participated in our study. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find a significant difference between groups in word productivity, the number of errors, clustering, or temporal dynamics, neither in semantic nor in phonemic fluency tasks. Surprisingly, the two study groups' performance did not differ in terms of imageability or concreteness characteristics either. Our results raise the possibility that verbal fluency performance is intact in autism. We also suggest using a comprehensive approach when measuring fluency in autism. LAY SUMMARY: People with autism tend to think and communicate differently. In our study, we tested whether people with autism come up with more concrete or imageable words and whether their performance is better compared with neurotypicals in the beginning or in the later phase of a task measuring how many words they can produce in a minute. We did not detect any difference between the two groups; however, we recommend studying verbal fluency in autism from more and different angles in the future.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Adulto , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fonética , Semântica , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia
14.
Percept Mot Skills ; 129(1): 33-46, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749545

RESUMO

In the context of language descriptions, the terms oral and verbal praxis refer to volitional movements for performing oral gestures and movements for speech. These movements involve programming articulators and rapid sequences of muscle firings that are required for speech sound productions. A growing body of research has highlighted the links between oral motor kinematics and language production skills in both typically developing (TD) children and children with developmental language disorders, including Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Yet, there have been limited attempts to assess the link between non-linguistic and linguistic development. In the present study, we investigated oral and verbal praxis behaviors in children with SLI. Fifteen children with SLI formed a clinical group and 15 children with typical development who were matched to the clinical group for chronological age, gender, and socio-economic status formed the TD group. We assessed participants in both groups for their language abilities with age-appropriate standardized language tests. To investigate oral and verbal praxis behaviors, we administered the Assessment Protocol for Oral Motor, Oral Praxis and Verbal Praxis Skills to the two groups. We used the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test to compare the two groups with respect to oral and verbal praxis measures; and we found a significant difference between isolated and sequential movements in the oral praxis section in two age subgroups of these groups (p ≤ .05). Spearman's correlations revealed a strong correlation between core language scores and sequential movements in the younger children with SLI and in TD children. These results showed co-morbidity between SLI and poor oral motor skills, suggesting that SLI is not just a language disorder, but a group of co-morbid conditions that include oral motor and verbal praxis difficulties.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aptidão , Criança , Gestos , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Fala , Comportamento Verbal
15.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 166(1): 171-178, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use an automated speech-processing technology to identify patterns in sound environments and language output for deaf or hard-of-hearing infants and toddlers. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study based on a convenience sample. SETTING: Home observation conducted by tertiary children's hospital. METHODS: The system analyzed 115 naturalistic recordings of 28 children <3.5 years old. Hearing ability was stratified into groups by access to sound. Outcomes were compared across hearing groups, and multivariable linear regression was used to test associations. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in age-adjusted child vocalizations (P = .042), conversational turns (P = .022), and language development scores (P = .05) between hearing groups but no significant difference in adult words (P = .11). Conversational turns were positively associated with each language development measure, while adult words were not. For each hour of electronic media, there were significant reductions in child vocalizations (ß = -0.47; 95% CI, -0.71 to -0.19), conversational turns (ß = -0.45; 95% CI, -0.65 to -0.22), and language development (ß = -0.37; 95% CI, -0.61 to -0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Conversational turn scores differ among hearing groups and are positively associated with language development outcomes. Electronic media is associated with reduced discernible adult speech, child vocalizations, conversational turns, and language development scores. This effect was larger in children who are deaf or hard of hearing as compared with other reports in typically hearing populations. These findings underscore the need to optimize early language environments and limit electronic noise exposure in children who are deaf or hard of hearing.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Medida da Produção da Fala , Televisão
17.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 37(1): 199-209, 2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Native speakers frequently outperform non-native speakers on classic semantic verbal fluency tasks that target concrete non-emotional word retrieval. Much less is known about performance differences in retrieval of emotional words, which are abstract and crucial to social-emotional competence. This study compared native and non-native speakers' verbal productivity on emotional and non-emotional verbal fluency tasks. METHOD: Forty-seven native and 37 non-native speakers of English participated in the study. Participants completed seven semantic verbal fluency tasks in English including classic semantic (e.g., "animals"), action (e.g., "things people do"), and emotional variants (e.g., "things that make people happy"). Subjective and objective measures of English proficiency, information about language usage, and cognitive measures (working memory) were obtained for each participant. RESULTS: Verbal productivity for classic semantic, action, and emotional verbal fluency was lower for non-native speakers. Smaller language-specific vocabulary in non-native speakers did not moderate positivity biases in emotional verbal fluency. Subjective and objective language proficiency measures were less predictive of performance on the emotional than the non-emotional verbal fluency tasks. CONCLUSION: Non-native speakers perform more poorly than native speakers on semantic verbal fluency in English for both emotional and non-emotional variants. Positivity biases are not moderated by language proficiency and are reliable features of emotional verbal fluency. Proficiency measures may be less effective in predicting generation of emotional than neutral words.


Assuntos
Idioma , Semântica , Emoções , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Comportamento Verbal , Vocabulário
18.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 37(2): 365-375, 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Phonological and semantic verbal fluency (VF) tasks are frequently used to assess language and executive functions in both clinical and research settings. F, A, and S are the most commonly used letters in phonological tasks across languages and cultures. Unfortunately, the lack of norms for the native Spanish population for these letters, and for certain semantic categories such as "proper names," may lead to misinterpretation of scores due to demographic differences. The aim of the present study was to provide normative data for F, A, and S and for "proper names," "animals," and "fruits and vegetables" for the native Spanish population. METHOD: 257 healthy subjects took part in the study (ages: 17-100 years, 3-20 years of education). Correlation, multiple regression, and t-tests were used to select the most appropriate variables for stratification. RESULTS: Education was the best predictor of performance in all tasks, followed by age. Given that t-test results showed no differences related to gender, with the only exception of the semantic category "animals," this variable was not considered for stratification. Consequently, the data were stratified in two education levels (<13, ≥13 years of education) and in two age levels (<60, ≥60) within the low-educational level group. Mean, standard deviation, and percentile scores for each group are provided. CONCLUSIONS: The present norms provide a reference for clinicians assessing VF. This data may also facilitate comparisons with other normative studies in cross-cultural and cross-linguistic research.


Assuntos
Idioma , Semântica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Escolaridade , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Comportamento Verbal , Adulto Jovem
19.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 30(2): 172-179, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291991

RESUMO

Verbal reports of drug effects are often used in behavioral pharmacology. Two reports related to reinforcement are drug use (Harford, 1978; Liu et al., 2018) frequency and drug preference. Anecdotally, some individuals may specify a favorite/preferred drug (e.g., psilocybin) despite using another drug more frequently (e.g., tobacco). Research comparing these two measures has led to contradictory findings and included ratings from participants who may not have experience with the rated drugs. No comparisons have been made between use frequency and preference across multiple drugs in polysubstance users. To compare use frequency and preference for drug classes, and examine relations across drug classes, individuals reporting polysubstance use (N = 428) provided frequency and preference ratings for nine drug classes. Mean ratings showed smoked tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis were the most frequently used and most preferred drugs. Mean ratings showed 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and classic hallucinogens were the least frequently used and least preferred drugs. However, more divergence between use frequency and preference was observed when these metrics were examined among individuals. Correlation coefficients between use frequency and preference were lower than previously published literature. The majority of polydrug comparisons were nonsignificant, and correlations between different drug classes differed depending on whether use frequency or preference was examined. Verbal reports about use frequency are likely not strongly predictive of verbal reports about the same drug preference. Clinicians and researchers should recognize that different verbal reports related to drug reinforcement might be proxies for distinct aspects of reinforcement and should consider these implications for assessment and research findings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cannabis , Alucinógenos , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Comportamento Verbal
20.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 37(2): 352-364, 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Semantic verbal fluency constitutes a good candidate for identifying cognitive impairment. This paper offers normative data of different semantic verbal fluency tests for middle-aged and older adults natives from Spain considering sociodemographic factors, and different measures for each specific category (number of words produced, errors, and words evoked every 15 s). METHOD: Two thousand and eighty-eight cognitively unimpaired subjects aged between 50 and 89 years old, community dwelling, participated in the study. The statistical procedure includes the conversion of percentile ranges into scalar scores. Secondly, the effects of age, education and gender were verified. Linear regressions are used to calculate the scalar adjusted scores. RESULTS: Scalar scores and percentiles corresponding to all semantic verbal fluency tests across different measures are shown. Additional tables, which show the points that must be added or subtracted from direct scores, are provided for Education regarding the total number of "animals" and "clothes" evoked by participants, as well as for Age and Education in case of the total number of "clothes". Gender affects the number of "clothes" produced by participants in the first two 15-second segments. CONCLUSIONS: The current norms should provide clinically useful data for evaluating Spanish-speaking natives from Spain aged from 50 to 89 years.


Assuntos
Semântica , Comportamento Verbal , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Animais , Escolaridade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia
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