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1.
J Integr Neurosci ; 18(2): 95-105, 2019 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321950

RESUMO

This research investigates the chronic effect of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury on brain white matter integrity, as reflected by diffusion tensor imaging metrics, and the assessment of their correlation to neuropsychological response. Thirteen male participants with traumatic brain injury (8.4 years average post-injury time) were compared to a matched group of neurologically healthy controls. None of the traumatic brain injury subjects had received post-acute neurocognitive and/or neuropsychological rehabilitation. Between-group comparison of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity was performed for the whole brain and corpus callosum. An extensive battery of visual and verbal memory tasks was employed for the comparative assessment of neurocognitive performance. Between-group and within-group performance differences were correlated with fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity of corpus callosum. Significant changes in global fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and radial diffusivity were associated with traumatic brain injury. Visual memory capacity was reduced in traumatic brain injury, and this deficit was correlated to white matter integrity loss at the corpus callosum. Participants with traumatic brain injury underperformed controls in verbal memory as well, but no correlation with corpus callosum diffusion tensor imaging properties was established. Between-group performance difference was correlated with corpus callosum diffusion metrics in several tasks. Significant correlations were found between corpus callosum diffusion tensor imaging metrics and neuropsychological response within the traumatic brain injury group. Changes in whole brain and corpus callosum diffusion tensor metrics inflicted by moderate to severe traumatic brain injury are still evident several years post-injury and relate to neurocognitive impairment, while loss of white matter integrity seems to correlate with episodic and working memory impairment.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Memória/fisiologia , Adulto , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002852, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute illness requiring hospitalization frequently is a sentinel event leading to long-term disability in older people. Prolonged bed rest increases the risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia in acutely hospitalized older adults. Exercise protocols applied during acute hospitalization can prevent functional decline in older patients, but exercise benefits on specific cognitive domains have not been previously investigated. We aimed to assess the effects of a multicomponent exercise intervention for cognitive function in older adults during acute hospitalization. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a secondary analysis of a single-blind randomized clinical trial (RCT) conducted from February 1, 2015, to August 30, 2017 in an Acute Care of the Elderly (ACE) unit in a tertiary public hospital in Navarre (Spain). 370 hospitalized patients (aged ≥75 years) were randomly allocated to an exercise intervention (n = 185) or a control (n = 185) group (usual care). The intervention consisted of a multicomponent exercise training program performed during 5-7 consecutive days (2 sessions/day). The usual care group received habitual hospital care, which included physical rehabilitation when needed. The main outcomes were change in executive function from baseline to discharge, assessed with the dual-task (i.e., verbal and arithmetic) Gait Velocity Test (GVT) and the Trail Making Test Part A (TMT-A). Changes in the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test and verbal fluency ability were also measured after the intervention period. The physical exercise program provided significant benefits over usual care. At discharge, the exercise group showed a mean increase of 0.1 m/s (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07, 0.13; p < 0.001) in the verbal GVT and 0.1 m/s (95% CI, 0.08, 0.13; p < 0.001) in the arithmetic GVT over usual care group. There was an apparent improvement in the intervention group also in the TMT-A score (-31.1 seconds; 95% CI, -49.5, -12.7 versus -3.13 seconds; 95% CI, -16.3, 10.2 in the control group; p < 0.001) and the MMSE score (2.10 points; 95% CI, 1.75, 2.46 versus 0.27 points; 95% CI, -0.08, 0.63; p < 0.001). Significant benefits were also observed in the exercise group for the verbal fluency test (mean 2.16 words; 95% CI, 1.56, 2.74; p < 0.001) over the usual care group. The main limitations of the study were patients' difficulty in completing all the tasks at both hospital admission and discharge (e.g., 25% of older patients were unable to complete the arithmetic GVT, and 47% could not complete the TMT-A), and only old patients with relatively good functional capacity at preadmission (i.e., Barthel Index score ≥60 points) were included in the study. CONCLUSIONS: An individualized, multicomponent exercise training program may be an effective therapy for improving cognitive function (i.e., executive function and verbal fluency domains) in very old patients during acute hospitalization. These findings support the need for a shift from the traditional (bedrest-based) hospitalization to one that recognizes the important role of maintaining functional capacity and cognitive function in older adults, key components of intrinsic capacity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02300896.


Assuntos
Repouso em Cama/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle , Cognição , Terapia por Exercício , Hospitalização , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Risco , Método Simples-Cego , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Comportamento Verbal , Velocidade de Caminhada
3.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 104, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155009

RESUMO

Reducing maternal mortality is a key focus of development strategies and one of the indicators used to measure progress towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. In the absence of medical certification of the cause of deaths that occur in the community, verbal autopsy (VA) methods are the only available means to assess levels and trends of maternal deaths that occur outside health facilities. The 2016 World Health Organization VA Instrument facilitates the identification of eight specific causes of maternal death, yet maternal deaths are often unsupervised, leading to sparse and generally poor symptom reporting to inform a reliable diagnosis using VAs. There is little research evidence to support the reliable identification of specific causes of maternal death in the context of routine VAs. We recommend that routine VAs are only used to capture the event of a maternal death and that more detailed follow-up interviews are used to identify the specific causes.


Assuntos
Autopsia/métodos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Morte Materna/etiologia , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Vigilância da População/métodos , Estatísticas Vitais , Adolescente , Adulto , Autopsia/normas , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Entrevistas como Assunto/normas , Morte Materna/prevenção & controle , Morte Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Comportamento Verbal , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 102, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Verbal autopsy is an increasingly important methodology for assigning causes to otherwise uncertified deaths, which amount to around 50% of global mortality and cause much uncertainty for health planning. The World Health Organization sets international standards for the structure of verbal autopsy interviews and for cause categories that can reasonably be derived from verbal autopsy data. In addition, computer models are needed to efficiently process large quantities of verbal autopsy interviews to assign causes of death in a standardised manner. Here, we present the InterVA-5 model, developed to align with the WHO-2016 verbal autopsy standard. This is a harmonising model that can process input data from WHO-2016, as well as earlier WHO-2012 and Tariff-2 formats, to generate standardised cause-specific mortality profiles for diverse contexts. The software development involved building on the earlier InterVA-4 model, and the expanded knowledge base required for InterVA-5 was informed by analyses from a training dataset drawn from the Population Health Metrics Research Collaboration verbal autopsy reference dataset, as well as expert input. RESULTS: The new model was evaluated against a test dataset of 6130 cases from the Population Health Metrics Research Collaboration and 4009 cases from the Afghanistan National Mortality Survey dataset. Both of these sources contained around three quarters of the input items from the WHO-2016, WHO-2012 and Tariff-2 formats. Cause-specific mortality fractions across all applicable WHO cause categories were compared between causes assigned in participating tertiary hospitals and InterVA-5 in the test dataset, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.92 for children and 0.86 for adults. The InterVA-5 model's capacity to handle different input formats was evaluated in the Afghanistan dataset, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.96 between the WHO-2016 and the WHO-2012 format for children and adults respectively, and 0.92 and 0.87 between the WHO-2016 and the Tariff-2 format respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the inherent difficulties of determining "truth" in assigning cause of death, these findings suggest that the InterVA-5 model performs well and succeeds in harmonising across a range of input formats. As more primary data collected under WHO-2016 become available, it is likely that InterVA-5 will undergo minor re-versioning in the light of practical experience. The model is an important resource for measuring and evaluating cause-specific mortality globally.


Assuntos
Autopsia/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados , Entrevistas como Assunto , Integração de Sistemas , Adulto , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Autopsia/normas , Causas de Morte , Criança , Simulação por Computador/normas , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/métodos , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Entrevistas como Assunto/normas , Masculino , Saúde da População , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Software , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Incerteza , Comportamento Verbal , Organização Mundial da Saúde
5.
Psychol Aging ; 34(6): 791-804, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204834

RESUMO

Contemporary research on aging has provided mixed evidence for whether older adults are less effective than younger adults at designing and delivering spoken utterances. However, most of these studies have focused on only specific aspects of this process. In addition, they tend to vary significantly in terms of the degree of complexity in their chosen stimuli or task. The present study compares younger and older adults' performance using a referential production paradigm involving simple everyday objects. We varied referential context such that a target object was either unique in its category (e.g., one shirt), or was accompanied by a same-category object (e.g., two shirts). We evaluated whether speakers' descriptions provided listeners with sufficient information for identification, and whether speakers spontaneously adapt their speech for different addressee types (younger adult, older adult, automated dialogue system). A variety of measures were included to provide a comprehensive perspective on adults' performance. Interestingly, the results revealed few or no age differences in measures related to production performance (speech onset latency, speech rate, and fluency). In contrast, consistent differences were observed for measures related to descriptive content, both in terms of informativity and variability in lexical selection: Older adults not only provided more information than necessary for referential success (e.g., superfluous modifiers), but also exhibited greater variability in their selection of modifiers. The results show that, although certain aspects of the production process are well-preserved across the adult lifespan, meaningful age-related differences can still be found in simple referential tasks with everyday objects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Comunicação , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Fala , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Adolescente , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychiatry Res ; 273: 767-769, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207864

RESUMO

Evaluating patients' verbal fluency by counting the number of unique words (e.g., animals) produced in a short-period (e.g., 1-3 min) is one of the most widely employed cognitive tests in psychiatric research. We introduce new methods to analyze fluency output that leverage modern computational language technology. This enables moving beyond simple word counts to charting the temporal dynamics of speech and objectively quantifying the semantic relationship of the utterances. These metrics can greatly expand the current psychiatric research toolkit and can help refine clinical theories regarding the nature of putative language differences in patients.


Assuntos
Testes de Linguagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Psiquiatria/métodos , Fala/fisiologia , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Psiquiatria/tendências , Semântica
7.
Res Dev Disabil ; 90: 92-100, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The deficit on segmental phonology in developmental dyslexia is well established and according to recent studies this deficit extends to suprasegmental phonology or prosody. However, these studies have focused on word-level prosody. Further research is needed concerning prosodic deficit in dyslexia, especially with a Spanish-speaking population. AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of linguistic (word and phrase-level) and non-linguistic prosodic skills in Spanish children with developmental dyslexia. METHOD AND PROCEDURE: 48 Spanish children (8-9 years of age) from ten primary education schools were selected (24 children with developmental dyslexia and 24 chronological age-control children). Non-linguistic rhythm, word and phrase-level prosody, phonological awareness, nonverbal intelligence and reading aloud were assessed. RESULTS: The results obtained show that children with developmental dyslexia scored lower than typically developing readers on non-linguistic rhythm and word and phrase-level prosody tasks. The differences remained statistically significant at the phrase level after controlling for word-level processing (phonological or prosodic), phonological awareness, non-linguistic rhythm and reading skills. CONCLUSIONS: Children with developmental dyslexia in Spanish exhibit a core deficit in suprasegmental phonology, at linguistic and non-linguistic levels. The implications of suprasegmental phonology skills for reading acquisition disabilities are discussed.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Fonética , Comportamento Verbal , Criança , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Dislexia/epidemiologia , Dislexia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Espanha/epidemiologia , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/métodos
8.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216362, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116745

RESUMO

This paper studies differences in the effect of temperature on cognitive performance by gender in a large controlled lab experiment (N = 543). We study performance in math, verbal and cognitive reflection tasks and find that the effects of temperature vary significantly across men and women. At higher temperatures, women perform better on a math and verbal task while the reverse effect is observed for men. The increase in female performance in response to higher temperature is significantly larger and more precisely estimated than the corresponding decrease in male performance. In contrast to math and verbal tasks, temperature has no impact on a measure of cognitive reflection for either gender. Our findings suggest that gender mixed workplaces may be able to increase productivity by setting the thermostat higher than current standards.


Assuntos
Cognição , Fatores Sexuais , Temperatura Ambiente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Comportamento Verbal , Adulto Jovem
9.
Res Dev Disabil ; 90: 59-71, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is associated with various risks, including delayed or atypical language development. The prenatal start of prosodic tuning may affect the processing of word stress, an important suprasegmental feature of spoken utterances. AIM: Our study focused on the expected contribution of intra-uterine experience to word stress processing. We aimed to demonstrate the hypothesized effect of intra-uterine sound exposition on stress sensitivity. METHOD: We recorded ERP responses of 34 preterm infants elicited by bisyllabic pseudo-words in two oddball conditions by switching the stress pattern (legal vs. illegal) and role (standard vs. deviant). RESULTS: The mismatch responses found were synchronized to each syllable of the illegally stressed stimuli with no difference between pre- and full-term infants. However, the clear role of the preterm status was demonstrated by the exaggerated processing of the native stress information. The impact of intra-uterine exposure to prosody was confirmed by our finding that moderate-late preterm infants outperformed the very preterm ones. CONCLUSION: Intra-uterine exposition to prosodic features appears to contribute to the emergence of stable long-term stress representation. When this tuning is missing it is considered a risk for the language acquisition process.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro/psicologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Psicolinguística/métodos , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Percepção da Fala , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Comportamento Verbal
10.
Res Dev Disabil ; 89: 94-104, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: High quality student-teacher relationships (STR) are important for children's academic and social development. We explore how individual child language domains (semantics, syntax, pragmatics), teacher years of experience, and classroom placement (general or special education) relate to STR quality for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across the school year. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: 191 children with ASD (Mage = 5.6 years) completed a standardized language assessment and their teachers reported on STR quality twice during the school year. OUTCOME AND RESULTS: Pragmatics, but not semantics or syntax, had a direct effect on student-teacher closeness. The association between semantics and closeness was moderated by classroom type; for students with low semantics, teacher-reported closeness was lower in general versus special education. Teachers in special versus general education classrooms reported closer relationships. More experienced teachers reported closer and less conflictual relationships. None of the three language domains were associated with student-teacher conflict. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Pragmatic and semantic language skills were associated with closer relationships. Language-focused therapies may be effective in carrying over to impact STR quality. Given the stability in relationship quality, targeted interventions should be delivered to teachers at the beginning of the school year to support positive relationship development.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Linguagem Infantil , Educação Especial/métodos , Relações Interpessoais , Linguagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Professores Escolares/normas , Habilidades Sociais , Comportamento Verbal
11.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 122: 99-104, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991208

RESUMO

AIM: The study assessed the outcome of a low-intensity parent training program for improving parent's language input to children with language delay. METHOD: Nine parents and their children aged between 12 months to 24 months, exhibiting delay in language development, participated in a brief training program over three sessions. Training comprised of inputs on speech-language development, play development and speech-language stimulation strategies, supported by a manual. Effect of the training program on parent's language behaviour was evaluated through observations of parent-child interaction recorded before training and six-weeks and 10-weeks post training. Measures including, different functions served by verbalizations of parents and their nonverbal affective behaviours, were analysed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Parents' verbalizations increased significantly from baseline to the two follow-up sessions. Proportion of comments, suggestions and reflections on the child's productions increased with a concurrent decrease in the use of direct commands and questions, from baseline to post training at 10-weeks. Parents reported regular use of the manual during and after the training sessions. Post training, they identified play-based activities and provided opportunities for interactions in daily routines. Changes in the child's communication skills were also reported. CONCLUSION: A low-intensity training program for parents, supported by a manual focusing on developmentally appropriate play and speech-language stimulation, resulted in increased verbal interaction and changes in language input to children.


Assuntos
Educação não Profissionalizante/métodos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Pais/educação , Comportamento Verbal , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Fala
12.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0213522, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995242

RESUMO

People interpret verbal expressions of probabilities (e.g. 'very likely') in different ways, yet words are commonly preferred to numbers when communicating uncertainty. Simply providing numerical translations alongside reports or text containing verbal probabilities should encourage consistency, but these guidelines are often ignored. In an online experiment with 924 participants, we compared four different formats for presenting verbal probabilities with the numerical guidelines used in the US Intelligence Community Directive (ICD) 203 to see whether any could improve the correspondence between the intended meaning and participants' interpretation ('in-context'). This extends previous work in the domain of climate science. The four experimental conditions we tested were: 1. numerical guidelines bracketed in text, e.g. X is very unlikely (05-20%), 2. click to see the full guidelines table in a new window, 3. numerical guidelines appear in a mouse over tool tip, and 4. no guidelines provided (control). Results indicate that correspondence with the ICD 203 standard is substantially improved only when numerical guidelines are bracketed in text. For this condition, average correspondence was 66%, compared with 32% in the control. We also elicited 'context-free' numerical judgements from participants for each of the seven verbal probability expressions contained in ICD 203 (i.e., we asked participants what range of numbers they, personally, would assign to those expressions), and constructed 'evidence-based lexicons' based on two methods from similar research, 'membership functions' and 'peak values', that reflect our large sample's intuitive translations of the terms. Better aligning the intended and assumed meaning of fuzzy words like 'unlikely' can reduce communication problems between the reporter and receiver of probabilistic information. In turn, this can improve decision making under uncertainty.


Assuntos
Confusão , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Incerteza , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(7): 1855-1862, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931821

RESUMO

In a single experiment, we investigate the Ranschburg effect for tactile stimuli. Employing an immediate serial recall (ISR) procedure, participants recalled sequences of six rapidly presented finger stimulations by lifting their fingers in the order of original stimulation. Within-sequence repetition of an item separated by two intervening items resulted in impaired recall for the repeated item (the Ranschburg effect), thus replicating the findings of Roe et al. Importantly, this impairment persisted with concurrent articulation, suggesting that the Ranschburg effect is not reliant upon verbal recoding. These data illustrate that the Ranschburg effect is evident beyond verbal memory and further suggest commonality in process for both tactile and verbal order memory.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Percepção do Tato , Tato , Comportamento Verbal , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Estimulação Física , Priming de Repetição
14.
Res Dev Disabil ; 89: 59-68, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In spite of the large literature on Late Talkers (LTs) it's still unclear which factors predict outcome in children younger than 3 years old. AIMS: To identify the early language characteristics of LTs whose outcome was either a transient delay or a Developmental Language Disorder (DLD). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: 50 LTs were assessed both by indirect and direct measures of expressive and receptive language at three time points between 2 and 4 years of age. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: At the first evaluation, all LTs had an expressive language delay; 61% also had delayed early syntactic comprehension. Three different linguistic outcomes emerged: children who caught up with their peers ("Late Bloomers") at age 3; children with slow language recovery ("Slow Learners") at age 4 and children at risk of DLD. The linguistic measures that differentiated the groups changed with age. By 28 months, impaired syntactic comprehension differentiated children at risk of DLD at 4 years of age, from the other two groups. By 36 months, the discrepancy between vocabulary size and age was larger in children with persistent language difficulties compared to both "Late Bloomers" and "Slow Learners". Expressive grammar differentiated the groups significantly by age 3 with difficulties in this domain still persisting in children with DLD at age 4. CONCLUSIONS: An early syntactic comprehension delay was a predictive index of DLD in LTs, suggesting the importance of evaluating this language component when assessing LT toddlers. IMPLICATIONS: LTs with receptive-expressive language delay around 24-30 months could benefit from an early language intervention.


Assuntos
Compreensão , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Fala , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Linguística , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Comportamento Verbal
15.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0200883, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017893

RESUMO

Information sharing can be regarded as a form of cooperative behavior protected by the work of a reputation system. Yet, deception in communication is common. The research examined the possibility that speakers use epistemic markers to preempt being seen as uncooperative even though they in fact are. Epistemic markers convey the speakers' certainty and involvement in the acquisition of the information. When speakers present a lie as indirectly acquired or uncertain, they gain if the lie is believed and likely do not suffer if it is discovered. In our study, speakers of English and Italian (where epistemic markers were presented lexically) and of Estonian and Turkish (where they were presented grammatically through evidentials) had to imagine being a speaker in a conversation and choose a response to a question. The response options varied 1) the truth of the part of the response addressing the question at issue and 2) whether the epistemic marker indicated that the speaker had acquired the information directly or indirectly. Across languages, if participants chose to tell a lie, they were likely to present it with an indirect epistemic marker, thus providing evidence for preemptive action accompanying uncooperative behavior. For English and Italian participants, this preemptive action depended respectively on resource availability and relationship with the addressee, suggesting cultural variability in the circumstances that trigger it.


Assuntos
Decepção , Fala , Comportamento Verbal , Adulto , Estônia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Turquia
16.
Psychol Rev ; 126(3): 345-373, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907620

RESUMO

In psycholinguistics, there has been relatively little work investigating conceptualization-how speakers decide which concepts to express. This contrasts with work in natural language generation (NLG), a subfield of artificial intelligence, where much research has explored content determination during the generation of referring expressions. Existing NLG algorithms for conceptualization during reference production do not fully explain previous psycholinguistic results, so we developed new models that we tested in three language production experiments. In our experiments, participants described target objects to another participant. In Experiment 1, either size, color, or both distinguished the target from all distractor objects; in Experiment 2, either color, type, or both color and type distinguished it from all distractors; In Experiment 3, color, size, or the border around the object distinguished the target. We tested how well the different models fit the distribution of description types (e.g., "small candle," "gray candle," "small gray candle") that participants produced. Across these experiments, the probabilistic referential overspecification model (PRO) provided the best fit. In this model, speakers first choose a property that rules out all distractors. If there is more than one such property, then they probabilistically choose one on the basis of a preference for that property. Next, they sometimes add another property, with the probability again determined by its preference and speakers' eagerness to overspecify. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicolinguística , Comportamento Verbal , Adulto , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Infant Behav Dev ; 55: 46-57, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921544

RESUMO

Infants use behavioral and verbal cues to infer another person's action intention. However, it is still unclear how infants integrate these often co-occurring cues depending on the cues' coherence (i.e., the degree to which the cues provide coherent information about another's intention). This study investigated how 18- and 24-month-olds' (N = 88 per age group) action selection was influenced by varying the coherence of a model's verbal and behavioral cues. Using a between-subjects design, infants received six trials with different stimulus objects. In the conditions Congruent, Incongruent, and Failed-attempt, the model uttered a telic verb particle that was followed by a matching or contradicting goal-directed action demonstration, or by a non goal-directed slipping motion, respectively. In the condition Pseudo-word, a nonsense word was combined with a goal-directed action demonstration. Infants' action selection indicated an adherence to the verbal cue in Congruent, Incongruent, and Failed-attempt, and this was stronger in 24- than 18-month-olds. Additionally, in Incongruent and Failed-attempt, patterns of cue integration across the six trials varied in the two age groups. Regarding the behavioral cue, infants in Congruent and Pseudo-word preferentially followed this cue in both age groups, which also suggested a rather unspecific effect of the verbal cue in Congruent. Relatively longer first action-latencies in Incongruent and Failed-attempt implied that these types of coherence elicited higher cognitive demands than in Congruent and Pseudo-word. Results are discussed in light of infants' flexibility in using social cues, depending on the cue's coherence and on age-related social-cognitive differences.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Intenção , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Distribuição Aleatória , Comportamento Social
18.
Res Dev Disabil ; 88: 16-21, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder. Infants with PWS show a neurodevelopmental dysfunction which entails a delayed motor and language development, but studies on their spontaneous movements (i.e. general movements) or pre-linguistic speech-language development before 6 months of age are missing so far. AIM: To describe early motor and pre-linguistic verbal development in an infant with PWS. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Prospective case report; in addition to the assessment of general movements and the concurrent movement repertoire, we report on early verbal forms, applying the Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development-Revised. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: General movements were abnormal on days 8 and 15. No fidgety movements were observed at 11 weeks; they only emerged at 17 weeks and lasted until at least 27 weeks post-term. The movement character was monotonous, and early motor milestones were only achieved with a delay. At 27 weeks the infant produced age-adequate types of vocalisations. However, none of the canonical-syllable vocalisations that typically emerge at that age were observed. Early vocalisations appeared monotonous and with a peculiarly harmonic structure. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Early motor and pre-linguistic verbal behaviours were monotonous in an infant with PWS throughout his first 6 months of life. This suggests that early signs of neurodevelopmental dysfunction (i.e. abnormal general movements) might already be diagnosed in infants with PWS during their first weeks of life, potentially enabling us to diagnose and intervene at an early stage.


Assuntos
Movimento , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Verbal , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 30: 265-276, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent evidence is available about the possibility that cognitive reserve (CR) moderates the impact of disease progression, evaluated by MRI biomarkers (lesion load, white matter or gray matter volumes) or clinical proxies of physical disability (i.e. the Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS) on cognition in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A meta-analytic study with a meta-regression approach was performed to investigate the possible role of CR as moderator of the impact of brain damage and physical disability on cognition. METHODS: Two literature searches were performed to retrieve all studies that investigated the relationship between MRI biomarkers and cognition, or the relationship between physical disability and cognition. Data about CR proxies (education, vocabulary knowledge, CR questionnaires) were also collected. We performed several meta-analyses with random effect models (Hedges' g), and a moderator analysis with a meta-regression approach (with CR entered as a numerical moderator). A p value of < 0.05 was set for statistical significance. RESULTS: We found a significant impact of lesion load and gray matter abnormalities on most cognitive domains. Meta-regression showed that CR significantly moderated the relationship between brain damage and verbal fluency. Moreover, we found a significant impact of physical disability on cognitive functioning, but CR did not mitigate the relationship between EDSS and cognitive performance. CONCLUSION: The present findings limit the protective role of CR against the impact of the brain damage to selected aspects of cognition (those related to lexical access and cognitive flexibility) in MS. These findings reinforce the need for longitudinal studies exploring the moderator effect of CR over the course of MS.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Reserva Cognitiva/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia
20.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 13(1): 53-71, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-989678

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Conversational discourse (CD) is among the most complex tasks in everyday life and relies on multiple cognitive domains (communicative and executive abilities). Alterations in discourse comprehension and production are often present in pathological aging. However, there is still a need to identify changes in healthy aging. Objective: This study aimed to compare young and older adults for the frequency of impaired communicative behaviors on a CD task. Performance was scored according to the Complementary Procedure of Conversational Discourse Analysis (CPCDA), developed based on the CD task from the Montreal Communication Evaluation Battery. Methods: A total of 95 participants (54 young-adults and 41 older adults) were evaluated. The frequency of communicative behaviors was compared between groups using MANCOVA and Chi-square tests. Results: Young adults showed fewer impairments in expression, pragmatics, cohesion, coherence, comprehension and emotional prosody. Older adults showed higher levels of verbal initiative and had fewer word finding difficulties. Communicative behaviors associated with planning and self-monitoring (e.g. repetition of information and syllabic false starts) appear to be common in the speech of healthy individuals in general. Conclusion: Studies which evaluate both discursive and cognitive skills are required to identify age-related changes. This would allow for the development of screening tools for CD assessment and preventive programs.


RESUMO: O discurso conversacional (DC) está entre as tarefas diárias mais complexas e dependentes de múltiplos domínios cognitivos (habilidades comunicativas e executivas). Alterações na compreensão e produção do discurso são relatadas classicamente durante o envelhecimento patológico. No entanto, ainda é necessário esclarecer mudanças no envelhecimento saudável. Objetivo: Este estudo tem como objetivo comparar jovens adultos e idosos quanto à frequência de comportamento comunicativo desviante em uma tarefa de DC utilizando o Procedimento Complementar de Análise do Discurso Conversacional (PCADC), inspirado na tarefa de DC da Bateria Montreal de Avaliação da Comunicação. Métodos: Um total de 95 indivíduos (54 adultos jovens e 41 idosos) foram avaliados. A frequência dos comportamentos comunicativos desviantes foi comparadas entre os grupos usando análise MANCOVA e Qui-quadrado. Resultados: Adultos jovens apresentaram melhor desempenho nas habilidades comunicativas referentes à: expressão, pragmática, coesão, coerência, compreensão e linguística prosódica e emocional. O grupo de idosos obteve melhor desempenho nas variáveis: "falta de iniciativa verbal" e "procura ou troca palavra" do que os jovens. Itens associados ao planejamento da fala e auto-monitoramento (ex: "repete informações" e "realiza false start"), parecem estar associados a um comportamento comum na fala de indivíduos saudáveis em geral. Conclusão: Estudos que avaliem habilidades discursivas e cognitivas são necessários para identificar mudanças ​​influenciadas pela idade. Dessa forma, seria possível propor uma ferramenta de triagem para avaliação discursiva, bem como programas de intervenção preventiva.


Assuntos
Humanos , Envelhecimento Saudável , Comportamento Verbal , Idoso , Transtornos da Comunicação/prevenção & controle
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