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1.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000833, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898188

RESUMO

The phonological deficit in dyslexia is associated with altered low-gamma oscillatory function in left auditory cortex, but a causal relationship between oscillatory function and phonemic processing has never been established. After confirming a deficit at 30 Hz with electroencephalography (EEG), we applied 20 minutes of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) to transiently restore this activity in adults with dyslexia. The intervention significantly improved phonological processing and reading accuracy as measured immediately after tACS. The effect occurred selectively for a 30-Hz stimulation in the dyslexia group. Importantly, we observed that the focal intervention over the left auditory cortex also decreased 30-Hz activity in the right superior temporal cortex, resulting in reinstating a left dominance for the oscillatory response. These findings establish a causal role of neural oscillations in phonological processing and offer solid neurophysiological grounds for a potential correction of low-gamma anomalies and for alleviating the phonological deficit in dyslexia.


Assuntos
Dislexia/terapia , Leitura , Percepção da Fala , Adolescente , Adulto , Córtex Auditivo/fisiopatologia , Córtex Auditivo/efeitos da radiação , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fonética , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/efeitos da radiação , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Comportamento Verbal/efeitos da radiação , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781551

RESUMO

Participation in everyday activities at home and in the community is essential for children's development and well-being. Limited information exists about participation patterns of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examines these participation patterns in both the home and community, and the extent to which environmental factors and social communication abilities are associated with participation. Fifty-four parents of preschool-aged children with ASD completed the Participation and Environment Measure for Young Children and the Autism Classification System of Functioning: Social Communication. The children had a mean age of 48.9 (8.4) months. Patterns of participation were studied using descriptive statistics, radar graphs, and Spearman correlations. Children with ASD participated in a variety of activities at home and in the community, but showed a higher participation frequency at home. Parents identified different barriers (e.g., social demands) and supports (e.g., attitudes) in both settings. There was a moderate positive association between children's social communication abilities and their levels of involvement during participation and the diversity of activities. This study highlights the importance of social communication abilities in the participation of preschool children with ASD, and the need to support parents while they work to improve their child's participation, especially within their communities.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Comunicação , Meio Social , Participação Social , Habilidades Sociais , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Comportamento Verbal
3.
Neurology ; 95(17): e2427-e2441, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the functional correlates of recurrent secondarily generalized seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using task-based fMRI as a framework to test for epilepsy-specific network rearrangements. Because the thalamus modulates propagation of temporal lobe onset seizures and promotes cortical synchronization during cognition, we hypothesized that occurrence of secondarily generalized seizures, i.e., focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures (FBTCS), would relate to thalamic dysfunction, altered connectivity, and whole-brain network centrality. METHODS: FBTCS occur in a third of patients with TLE and are a major determinant of disease severity. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed 113 patients with drug-resistant TLE (55 left/58 right), who performed a verbal fluency fMRI task that elicited robust thalamic activation. Thirty-three patients (29%) had experienced at least one FBTCS in the year preceding the investigation. We compared patients with TLE-FBTCS to those without FBTCS via a multiscale approach, entailing analysis of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 12-derived measures of activation, task-modulated thalamic functional connectivity (psychophysiologic interaction), and graph-theoretical metrics of centrality. RESULTS: Individuals with TLE-FBTCS had less task-related activation of bilateral thalamus, with left-sided emphasis, and left hippocampus than those without FBTCS. In TLE-FBTCS, we also found greater task-related thalamotemporal and thalamomotor connectivity, and higher thalamic degree and betweenness centrality. Receiver operating characteristic curves, based on a combined thalamic functional marker, accurately discriminated individuals with and without FBTCS. CONCLUSIONS: In TLE-FBTCS, impaired task-related thalamic recruitment coexists with enhanced thalamotemporal connectivity and whole-brain thalamic network embedding. Altered thalamic functional profiles are proposed as imaging biomarkers of active secondary generalization.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/psicologia , Epilepsia Tônico-Clônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia Tônico-Clônica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Curva ROC , Comportamento Verbal
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0224956, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756591

RESUMO

Research on infant vocal development has provided notable insights into vocal interaction with caregivers, elucidating growth in foundations for language through parental elicitation and reaction to vocalizations. A role for infant vocalizations produced endogenously, potentially providing raw material for interaction and a basis for growth in the vocal capacity itself, has received less attention. We report that in laboratory recordings of infants and their parents, the bulk of infant speech-like vocalizations, or "protophones", were directed toward no one and instead appeared to be generated endogenously, mostly in exploration of vocal abilities. The tendency to predominantly produce protophones without directing them to others occurred both during periods when parents were instructed to interact with their infants and during periods when parents were occupied with an interviewer, with the infants in the room. The results emphasize the infant as an agent in vocal learning, even when not interacting socially and suggest an enhanced perspective on foundations for vocal language.


Assuntos
Fonética , Fala/fisiologia , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Cuidadores , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino
5.
Neurology ; 95(8): e973-e983, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that individual differences in episodic memory and verbal fluency in cognitively normal middle-aged adults will predict progression to amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) after 6 years. METHOD: The cohort analyzed included 842 male twins who were cognitively normal at baseline (mean 56 years) and completed measures of episodic memory and verbal fluency at baseline and again 6 years later (mean 62 years). RESULTS: Poor episodic memory predicted progression to both amnestic MCI (odds ratio [OR], 4.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.44-10.60) and nonamnestic MCI (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.32-3.44). Poor semantic verbal fluency also independently predicted progression to amnestic MCI (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.12-3.52). In the full sample, a semantic-specific fluency latent variable at wave 1 (which controls for letter fluency) predicted change in episodic memory at wave 2 (ß = 0.13), but not vice versa (ß = 0.04). Associations between episodic memory and verbal fluency factors were primarily explained by genetic, rather than environmental, correlations. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals who were cognitively normal at wave 1, episodic memory moderately to strongly predicted progression to MCI at average age 62, emphasizing the fact that there is still meaningful variability even among cognitively normal individuals. Episodic memory, which is typically a primary focus for Alzheimer disease (AD) risk, declined earlier and more quickly than fluency. However, semantic fluency at average age 56 predicted 6-year change in memory as well as progression to amnestic MCI even after accounting for baseline memory performance. These findings emphasize the utility of memory and fluency measures in early identification of AD risk.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Semântica , Comportamento Verbal , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Memória Episódica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
6.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 35-42, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-189159

RESUMO

Statement Validity Assessment (SVA) proposes that baseline statements on different events can serve as a within-subject measure of a witness' individual verbal capabilities when evaluating scores from Criteria-based Content Analysis (CBCA). This assumes that CBCA scores will generally be consistent across two accounts by the same witness. We present a first pilot study on this assumption. In two sessions, we asked 29 participants to produce one experience-based and one fabricated baseline account as well as one experience-based and one fabricated target account (each on different events), resulting in a total of 116 accounts. We hypothesized at least moderate correlations between target and baseline indicating a consistency across both experience-based and fabricated CBCA scores, and that fabricated CBCA scores would be more consistent because truth-telling has to consider random event characteristics, whereas lies must be constructed completely by the individual witness. Results showed that differences in correlations between experience-based CBCA scores and between fabricated CBCA scores took the predicted direction (cexperience-based = .44 versus cfabricated =.61) but this difference was not statistically significant. As predicted, a subgroup of event-related CBCA criteria were significantly less consistent than CBCA total scores, but only in experience-based accounts. The discussion considers methodological issues regarding the usage of total CBCA scores and whether to measure consistency with correlation coefficients. It is concluded that more studies are needed with larger samples


El Statement Validity Assessment (SVA) propone que las declaraciones sobre diferentes eventos pueden servir como una línea base intrasujeto de la medida de las capacidades verbales individuales de un testigo al evaluar las puntuaciones del Criteria Based Content Analysis (CBCA). Esto implica que las puntuaciones del CBCA serán congruentes en dos relatos del mismo testigo. Presentamos un primer estudio piloto sobre este supuesto. Se pidió a 29 participantes en dos sesiones que elaboraran un relato verdadero (línea base) y otro inventado, además de un relato verdadero y otro inventado (cada uno en situaciones diferentes), arrojando un total de 116 relatos. Se planteó la hipótesis de una correlación al menos moderada entre la declaración fabricada y la verdadera, que indicaría una consistencia entre las puntuaciones en el CBCA de relatos inventados y experimentados y que las puntuaciones en el CBCA inventadas serían más consistentes porque la verdad incluye las características aleatorias de los hechos, mientras que las mentiras las construye totalmente el testigo. Los resultados mostraron que las diferencias en las correlaciones entre las puntuaciones en el CBCA de relatos experimentados y fabricados iban en la dirección predicha (cvivido = .44 frente a cinventado = .61), pero esta diferencia no fue significativa. Como se predijo, un subgrupo de criterios de CBCA relacionados con los hechos fue menos congruente que las puntuaciones totales de CBCA, pero sólo en los relatos de hechos experimentados. Se discuten las implicaciones metodológicas relacionadas con el uso de las puntuaciones totales del CBCA y si se debe medir la consistencia mediante el coeficiente de correlación. Se concluye que se necesitan otros estudios con muestras más grandes


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicologia Experimental/métodos , Detecção de Mentiras/psicologia , Revelação da Verdade , Coleta de Dados/classificação , Entrevistas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Processos Mentais/classificação , Comportamento Verbal/classificação , Testes de Hipótese
7.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 40: 1-17, jan.-maio 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1100392

RESUMO

No escopo da investigação de sob quais condições ocorre a aprendizagem e a emergência de operantes verbais, diferentes condições de ensino têm sido planejadas. Considerando que a população com Transtorno do Espectro Autista (TEA) apresenta frequentemente um repertório de operantes verbais ausente ou fracamente estabelecido, é necessário o estudo do planejamento de intervenções sistemáticas desses repertórios com condições de favorecer não só a aquisição de vocabulário, mas também o seu potencial gerativo de novas funções verbais. O Multiple Exemplar Instruction (MEI) é uma estrutura de ensino que tem demonstrado resultados promissores pela sua capacidade de estabelecer relações entre comportamentos de ouvinte e de falante e gerar novas respostas verbais. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os efeitos do MEI sobre o estabelecimento e integração entre os repertórios de ouvinte e de falante (ecoico, tato e mando). Participaram duas crianças com TEA, com idades de 7 e 8 anos e cuja comunicação era muito restrita e baseada em trocas de figuras. O ensino adotou três conjuntos com três estímulos cada. O ensino com cada conjunto foi realizado separadamente. Ora o ensino consistia no treino de ouvinte baseado em seleção, ora tentativas de ouvinte, ecoico, tato e mando, eram apresentadas de forma rotativa. Sondas múltiplas intercalaram os ensinos e verificaram os efeitos destes sobre o repertório de falante com os demais conjuntos. Os resultados demonstraram um aumento na emissão de respostas de ouvir e falar após o ensino por MEI para os dois participantes, ambos com repertório verbal restrito, mas o procedimento foi mais efetivo para uma das crianças...(AU)


In the scope of research about under what conditions the learning and emergency of verbal operants occurs, different teaching conditions have been planned. Considering that the population with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often has a repertoire of verbal operants absent or poorly established, it is necessary to study the planning of systematic interventions in these repertoires with conditions to favor not only vocabulary acquisition, but also their generative potential of new verbal functions. The Multiple Exemplar Instruction (MEI) is a teaching structure that has shown promising results for its ability to establish relationships between listening and speaker behaviors and to generate new verbal responses. The objective of this study was to verify the effects of the MEI on the establishment and integration between the listener repertoires and the speaker (echoic, tact and mand). Two children with ASD, aged between 7 and 8 years old, participated in the study, whose communication was very restricted and based on exchanges of figures. The teaching adopted three sets with three stimuli each. Teaching with each set was carried out separately. The teaching consisted of the training of listener based on selection, sometimes attempts of listener, echoic, tact and mand, were presented in a rotating way. Multiple probes intercalated the teachings and verified the effects of these on the repertoire of speaker with the other sets. The results showed an increase in the emission of listening and speaking responses after MEI teaching for the two participants, both with restricted verbal repertoire, but the procedure was more effective for one of the children...(AU)


El el ámbito de la investigación de en qué condiciones se produce el aprendizaje y la aparición de operantes verbales, se han planificado diferentes condiciones de enseñanza. Teniendo en cuenta que la población con Trastorno del Espectro Autista (TEA) con frecuencia presenta un repertorio de operantes verbales ausentes o débilmente establecidos, es necesario estudiar la planificación de intervenciones sistemáticas en estos repertorios con condiciones para favorecer no solo la adquisición de vocabulario, sino también su potencial generativo de nuevas funciones verbales. La Instrucción Ejemplar Múltiple (MEI) es una estructura de enseñanza que ha mostrado resultados prometedores por su capacidad para establecer relaciones entre los comportamientos del oyente y el hablante y generar nuevas respuestas verbales. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar los efectos del MEI en el establecimiento e integración entre los repertorios de oyentes y hablantes (eco, tacto y comando). Participaron dos niños con TEA, de 7 y 8 años, cuya comunicación era muy restringida y basada en intercambios de figuras. La enseñanza adoptó tres conjuntos con tres estímulos cada uno. La enseñanza con cada conjunto se llevó a cabo por separado. Algunas veces la enseñanza consistía en entrenar al oyente en base a la selección, a veces los intentos de escuchar, eco, tacto y comando, se presentaban de manera rotativa. Múltiples sondas intercalan las enseñanzas y verifican sus efectos en el repertorio de los hablantes con los otros grupos. Los resultados mostraron un aumento en la emisión de respuestas para escuchar y hablar después de la enseñanza de MEI para ambos participantes, ambos con repertorio verbal restringido, pero el procedimiento fue más efectivo para uno de los niños...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Transtorno Autístico , Ensino , Comportamento Verbal , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Aprendizagem , População , Vocabulário , Comportamento , Comunicação , Tutoria , Métodos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233349, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have noted the presence of a dysexecutive component of the ALS-FTD. The most widely replicated result refers to the significantly reduced verbal fluency of ALS patients when compared to healthy people. As ALS patients have motor alterations that interfere with production, qualitative studies have the advantage of being independent of the degree of motor disability and revealing patients' cognitive state. This study examined the production differences between 42 ALS patients who presented with different degrees of dementia and motor impairment and 42 healthy people. Production processes were studied by extending the administration time of a letter fluency task to 2 minutes for the phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) and semantic verbal fluency (SVF) categories. This ensured that the qualitative aspects of verbal fluency were addressed, paying special attention to the new perseverations and intrusions, as well as any clinical correlates that may exist. RESULTS: The ALS patients produced a significantly lower number of responses in PVF (p = .017) and SVF (p = .008). The rest of the indicators for frontal lobe alteration also suggested the existence of a dysfunction. The most remarkable results were the number of intrusions on the PVF task, which was much higher in the ALS group (p = .002). However, the number of perseverations did not differ significantly. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the value of intrusions in addressing cognitive deterioration in ALS patients. This deterioration seems to be independent of the degree of motor impairment and of behavioural alterations. Therefore, the value of the intromissions on the verbal fluency task was highlighted as an indicator of a new cognitive alteration, which can be easily evaluated, even retrospectively.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Transtornos Motores/epidemiologia , Semântica , Comportamento Verbal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(7): 104887, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the domain-specific trends of cognitive function up to 12 months after mild acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Enrolment of consecutive cohort of patients with mild acute ischemic stroke with recorded clinical characteristics and extensive neuropsychological assessments, including five cognitive domains. The Montreal cognitive assessment of the Beijing version (MoCA-Bj) was used to assess overall cognition. All patients completed all domain-specific examinations were categorised into three groups according to the time between the stroke onset and neuropsychological profiling, the time duration including less than one month (n = 174), one month to six months (n = 65) and over six months (n = 39). RESULTS: The final cohort consisted of 278 patients. The executive (χ2 = 6.95, P<0.05) and memory dysfunctions (χ2 = 9.6, P<0.01) showed strong improvement, especially in executive function, which prevalence was 48.85% at <1- month group and 25.64% at >6 months group. The prevalence of attention and information processing also had a declining trend, the differences, however, were not statistically significant (χ2 = 0.23 and 2.25, respectively, P>0.05). There was no significant change in language function (χ2 = 0.46, P>0.05) and the MoCA (χ2 = 0.59, P>0.05) at 3-time point groups. In 195 first-ever stroke patients, the results of memory (χ2 = 6.94 P<0.05) and executive dysfunctions (χ2 = 6.25 P<0.05) also showed significant improvement. CONCLUSION: There is varying degree of improvement tendency in executive and memory dysfunctions after mild acute ischemic stroke. Early cognitive assessments after mild acute ischemic stroke do not reflect the cognitive level of stable period.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Cognição , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Teste de Stroop , Fatores de Tempo , Teste de Sequência Alfanumérica , Comportamento Verbal , Escalas de Wechsler
11.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(2): 149-153, mar.-abr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194485

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Pecha Kucha (P-K) es una nueva técnica de presentación innovadora que enfatiza la entrega rápida de imágenes visuales. Fue utilizada por primera vez en el diseño de arquitectura, y desde hace poco tiempo también se está empleando en la educación superior. Con el fin de conocer más esta última aplicación nos planteamos estudiar la experiencia de la presentación P-K en la docencia de estudiantes del grado en medicina. MÉTODOS: Se realizaron 2 eventos P-K de 15 presentaciones. Cada presentación fue preparada por 4 alumnos y versaban sobre «pruebas y exploraciones complementarias y técnicas especiales en medicina clínica». El evento estaba integrado en la asignatura «Talleres integrados II» del grado en medicina de la Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche. RESULTADOS: Las presentaciones en formato P-K fueron grabadas, editadas y cargadas en el canal Universidad Miguel Hernández de YouTube. Con respecto a la fidelidad al formato P-K, solo 2 presentaciones (6,7%) usaron imágenes en más del 75% del espacio de las diapositivas, 6 presentaciones usaron imágenes en el 50-75% de las diapositivas y 8 presentaciones (26,7%) tenían menos del 25% de la diapositiva con imágenes. En una encuesta de satisfacción el 62,3% encontraron que la organización del seminario de P-K merecía una puntuación de 6 o 7 en una escala de Likert de 7 puntos (donde 0 es «perjudicial» y 7 es «sobresaliente»); el 42,7% de los estudiantes calificó su satisfacción general como «muy buena» o «sobresaliente». CONCLUSIÓN: Esta experiencia P-K podría aplicarse a otros grados en ciencias de la salud, pudiendo ser presentadas por los alumnos


INTRODUCTION: Pecha Kucha is an innovative presentation technique emphasising the rapid delivery of visual images. First used in architecture design, today it is making new inroads in higher education. The aim of this article is to determine the acceptability of this approach among medical students. METHODS: Two events were held with 15 Pecha Kucha presentations each, for a total of 30 total topics related to complementary tests, examinations, and special techniques in clinical medicine. Four students contributed to preparing each presentation. The event was part of the third-year module, "Integrated Workshops", at the Miguel Hernández University (UMH) Medical School (Elche, Spain). RESULTS: Pecha Kucha presentations were recorded, edited, and uploaded onto the UMH YouTube channel. As regards the fidelity of the Pecha Kucha format, only 2 presentations (6.7%) used images for more than 75% of the space on the slides, 6 presentations used images in 50% to 75% of the slides, and 8 presentations (26.7%) had less than 25% of the slides with images. In a student satisfaction survey, 62.3% of respondents considered the organisation of the Pecha Kucha seminar to merit a score of 6 or 7 on a 7-point Likert scale (where 0 is 'detrimental' and 7 is "outstanding"), and 42.7% of the students scored their overall satisfaction as a "very good" or "outstanding". Conclusion: It is believed that this experience is valuable and can be applied in other disciplines of medical education, as well as other science degree programs


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Médica/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Comportamento Verbal , Faculdades de Medicina , Comunicação , Habilidades Sociais
12.
Neurology ; 94(14): e1548-e1556, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether black or Hispanic patients with newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis (MS) are more likely to have cognitive impairment than white patients when compared to controls matched on age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Whether black or Hispanic patients have a more aggressive MS disease course than white patients remains unclear. No prior studies have examined differences in early cognitive impairment. The oral Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) is sensitive to early cognitive impairment in MS but normative data in nonwhite patients are limited. METHODS: We studied 1,174 adults who enrolled in the MS Sunshine Study. SDMT and verbal fluency were measured in 554 incident cases of MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and 620 matched controls. Multivariable regression was used to examine correlates of abnormal SDMT in the entire cohort. RESULTS: The strongest independent predictors of lower oral SDMT scores in rank order were having MS/CIS, lower educational attainment, and being black or Hispanic. Black and Hispanic patients and controls had lower SDMT scores than white participants even after controlling for age, sex, and education. However, no interaction between race/ethnicity and MS case status on SDMT scores was detected. Easy-to-use reference scores stratified by age and educational attainment for black and Hispanic patients are provided. CONCLUSION: Persons with newly diagnosed MS/CIS are more likely to have subtly impaired cognitive function than controls regardless of race/ethnicity. Lower absolute SDMT scores among black and Hispanic patients compared to white patients highlight underlying US population differences rather than differences in MS disease severity.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Fatores Etários , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Progressão da Doença , Escolaridade , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Comportamento Verbal , Adulto Jovem
13.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(2): 97-101, 2020.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191215

RESUMO

The short literature overview is organized around the idea that during our life course there is a classic competition between accumulated experience and the increased metacognitive reflection possibilities as the positive side, and the rusting of fast mental processes, mental slowdown with age as a negative side. This is non trivially crossed by the issue that in language, grammar corresponds to the early stabilizing procedural system, while vocabulary is a system that remains open during all our life regarding its acquisition, but shows signs of access problems due to the age sensitivity of the declarative memory system. Language and speech in this regard as well are subject to multiple determination: different age parameters characterize its acquisition and usage. I show some summaries of age related changes in grammar, vocabulary, and articulation. The review specifically discusses the possible role of age related in memory and executive functions during physiological ageing. In this domain as well, the new IT system brought in new environmental and research method challenges.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Memória , Fala , Comportamento Verbal , Vocabulário , Função Executiva , Humanos
14.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(2): 160-162, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129753

RESUMO

Human oro-pharyngeal feeding is old as mammals's (150 millions years). This fonction is performed and coordinated by the central and peripheric nervous system. Thus, eating and speaking use the same anatomic ducts and ways. To that purpose, the Broca praxic language area is close to the praxic area of the motor mastication and swallowing control in brain cortex. This area, a new innovation of human evolution, is connected directly with the old motor ways of preexisting oral feeding. The brain connectome and Foxp2 gene have contributed with efficiency to this linking when the language came.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Mapeamento Encefálico , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia
15.
Codas ; 32(2): e20180141, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049096

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Describe the self-referred personal behavior profiles of university professors and verify the association of these profiles with the self-assessment of communicative aspects and vocal symptoms. METHODS: Study conducted with 334 professors at a public university who responded to an online questionnaire regarding voice use in teaching practice. Personal behavior profile classification was the response variable, which was divided into four types: pragmatic, analytical, expressive and affable. Explanatory variables were vocal self-perception, vocal resources, and communicative aspects. Descriptive data analysis was performed with application of the Pearson's Chi-squared and Fisher's Exact tests. RESULTS: University professors identified themselves more with the affable and expressive personal behavior profiles. Overall, professors presented good self-perception about vocal and communicative aspects, in addition to having reported few vocal symptoms. Profiles differed for some of the assessed variables, namely, pragmatic professors reported high speech velocity and sporadic eye contact; expressive professors demonstrated self-perception about their voice and strong voice intensity; those in the analytical profile self-reported negative perception about vocal quality, weak voice intensity, poor articulation and rapid speaking rate; the other professors mostly reported voice tiredness symptoms and difficulty projecting the voice. CONCLUSION: University professors identify themselves mostly with the affable and expressive profiles. Self-perception analysis of the personal behavior profile in university professors showed the influence of self-reported personality characteristics on communicative skills in the classroom.


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Autoavaliação , Medida da Produção da Fala/psicologia , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Docentes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acústica da Fala , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Distúrbios da Voz/classificação , Distúrbios da Voz/diagnóstico , Distúrbios da Voz/psicologia
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 705, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019940

RESUMO

A challenge for neuroscience is to understand the conscious and unconscious processes underlying construction of willed actions. We investigated the neural substrate of human motor awareness during awake brain surgery. In a first experiment, awake patients performed a voluntary hand motor task and verbally monitored their real-time performance, while different brain areas were transiently impaired by direct electrical stimulation (DES). In a second experiment, awake patients retrospectively reported their motor performance after DES. Based on anatomo-clinical evidence from motor awareness disorders following brain damage, the premotor cortex (PMC) was selected as a target area and the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) as a control area. In both experiments, DES on both PMC and S1 interrupted movement execution, but only DES on PMC dramatically altered the patients' motor awareness, making them unconscious of the motor arrest. These findings endorse PMC as a crucial hub in the anatomo-functional network of human motor awareness.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Adulto , Conscientização , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Mãos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Córtex Motor/química , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Comportamento Verbal
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079273

RESUMO

Some of the more protective and favorable factors for the development and health in children and teenagers are family and sport, so family involvement in the children's sports activities is vital in their sports process. The purpose of this study was to analyze the verbal behavior (positive, negative, and neutral comments) of family spectators of school-age athletes regarding sociodemographic and sporting variables. The sample consisted of 190 family spectators of 215 male and female (Mage = 11.66; SD = 1.60) football, basketball, and volleyball players. The Parents' Observation Instrument at Sport Events (POISE) was used for the observation and LINCE was used to codify the verbal comments made. After registering 38,829 comments, the results showed statistically significant differences in relation to the comments made and the gender of athletes, geographical area, kind of sport, and the sporting category. The findings highlight that in a competitive environment, the comments made by spectators related to athletes do not seem to be initiators of potentially violent situations but rather are dependent on the atmosphere in question. Further research is required in this area to foster positive conduct relating to grassroots sports.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Futebol , Voleibol , Adolescente , Atletas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Verbal
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 523, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949237

RESUMO

There is ongoing debate regarding the role that sensorimotor regions play in conceptual processing, with embodied theories supporting their direct involvement in processing verbs describing body part movements. Patient lesion studies examining a causal role for sensorimotor activation in conceptual task performance have suffered the caveat of lesions being largely diffuse and extensive beyond sensorimotor cortices. The current study addresses this limitation in reporting on 20 pre-operative neurosurgical patients with focal lesion to the pre- and post-central area corresponding to somatotopic representations. Patients were presented with a battery of neuropsychological tests and experimental tasks tapping into motor imagery and verbal conceptual verb processing in addition to neurophysiological measures including DTI, fMRI, and MEP being measured. Results indicated that left tumor patients who presented with a lesion at or near somatotopic hand representations performed significantly worse on the mental rotation hand task and that performance correlated with MEP amplitudes in the upper limb motor region. Furthermore, performance on tasks of verbal processing was within the normal range. Taken together, while our results evidence the involvement of the motor system in motor imagery processes, they do not support the embodied view that sensorimotor regions are necessary to tasks of action verb processing.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioma/patologia , Córtex Sensório-Motor/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Potencial Evocado Motor , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Período Pré-Operatório , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação , Córtex Sensório-Motor/patologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Med ; 133(4): 424-428.e2, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935351

RESUMO

Health care providers are frequently faced with the challenge of caring for patients who have limited English proficiency. These patients experience challenges accessing health care and are at higher risk of receiving suboptimal health care than native English speakers. Health care interpreters are crucial partners to help break down communication barriers and prevent these patients from facing health care disparities. Many providers lack the skill set and knowledge that are vital to successful collaboration with an interpreter. The objective of this article is to address a number of questions surrounding the use of health care interpreters and to provide concrete suggestions that will enable providers to best serve their patients.


Assuntos
Barreiras de Comunicação , Idioma , Humanos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Traduções , Comportamento Verbal
20.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 25: 120-126, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964551

RESUMO

Neurocognitive deficits are frequently described in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), but it is unknown how these progress over time. Our aim was to longitudinally assess verbal span capacity and information processing speed in DMD and to explore a genotype-phenotype relation. Verbal span and processing speed scores were available of 28 males with DMD on two time-points, with a mean time interval of 28.34 months (SD = 16.09). The cohort contained of six patients missing only dystrophin isoform Dp427, sixteen missing Dp427 and Dp140, and six were undeterminable. A lower verbal span capacity was found at the first and second assessment, whereas processing speed was normal at both time-points. Post-hoc analyses suggested lower scores on verbal span and processing speed for patients missing Dp427 and Dp140. In DMD, a developmental stagnation in verbal span capacity, irrespective of normal processing speed, is detected through longitudinal follow-up. This appears more pronounced in patients missing Dp427 and Dp140.


Assuntos
Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Comportamento Verbal , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Distrofina/genética , Seguimentos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/genética
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