Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.312
Filtrar
2.
Exp Psychol ; 68(2): 107-112, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405691

RESUMO

The bystander effect reveals that people are less likely to help a person in need when others are present. We examined the impact of priming the concept of responsibility on the bystander effect in a field study. Lone pedestrians (N = 259) were randomly assigned to a two (Bystanders: none and three nonresponsive bystanders) by two (Shirt: blank shirt and shirt with "Be Responsible" written on the front) design. A researcher dropped eight pens approximately 15 ft from a lone pedestrian, while wearing one of the two shirts in the presence/absence of bystanders (confederates). The bystander effect was found: Pedestrians helped pick up pens more frequently in the no bystanders condition (59.05% helped) compared to the nonresponsive bystanders condition (41.67% helped). The responsibility prime tended to boost helping rates, but it did not significantly increase helping rates either as a main effect or as part of an interaction term. The bystander effect was replicated in a field setting, but priming the concept of responsibility did not appear to reduce it.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Responsabilidade Social , Humanos
3.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(10): 1982-1994, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387816

RESUMO

Programs to prevent peer sexual violence that encourage positive bystander intervention are proliferating. Yet, little is known about how these prosocial behaviors unfold over time across middle to later adolescence. The current study examined helpful bystander actions over three years among students in grades 7-10 (mean age 13.7, range 12-18) at baseline (N = 2539, 53.2% girls). Surveys assessed bystander behavior, social norms, and use of alcohol. Multilevel logistic regression examined patterns of change over time, as well as how changes in attitudes and binge drinking predicted changes in taking bystander action to prevent peer violence. Positive bystander behaviors overall decreased over time, consistent with previous work on bullying. Higher positive social norms and lower denial of sexual violence as a problem were associated with more positive helping behaviors across different waves of data. These findings suggest that the effectiveness of bystander intervention training for peer sexual violence prevention may be enhanced by developing strategies to work against the observed developmental decline in helping, perhaps by social marketing campaigns that can bolster positive social norms.


Assuntos
Bullying , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Altruísmo , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Universidades
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444354

RESUMO

Exposure to self-directed violence (SDV) is a public health issue. Prevention trains third parties to identify SDV risk and provide help. However, we know little about the range of help provided to those who engage in SDV. The current study used a cross-sectional online survey of 1031 adolescents and emerging adults to learn about their SDV exposure, intent and attempts to help, and barriers to helping. Most participants reported SDV exposure, commonly by a peer, and provided help. Regression analyses showed that intent to help was predicted by social norms and having knowledge of resources, and such knowledge (but not social norms) was also related to actual helping behaviors. Qualitative analysis of short open-ended questions on the survey documented a range of barriers to helping. Findings support but also encourage revision of theoretical models of helping upon which prevention programs are based.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Intenção , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/prevenção & controle
5.
Infant Behav Dev ; 64: 101603, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214921

RESUMO

What drives toddlers' helping behavior? And do toddlers' helping motivations change across time? In line with Dahl and Paulus (2019), we propose that initially, toddlers start helping in ongoing chores driven by their interest in social interactions, and, later on, their helping becomes more concern based, or based on a sense of responsibility. To test this assumption, we used a longitudinal approach to examine the role that social interaction plays in toddlers' motivation to help as they grow older. As such, we investigated whether a disruption to an experimenter during a shared chore task affected toddlers' motivations to continue helping at the ages of 18, 21 and 24 months. Results showed that toddlers at 18 months were less likely to continue helping when the experimenter was disrupted from the shared task, in comparison to toddlers at 21 and at 24 months. These findings support the idea that toddlers develop from socially based participators into more prosocially based contributors.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Motivação , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Interação Social
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4440, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290236

RESUMO

Reinforcement learning is a fundamental mechanism displayed by many species. However, adaptive behaviour depends not only on learning about actions and outcomes that affect ourselves, but also those that affect others. Using computational reinforcement learning models, we tested whether young (age 18-36) and older (age 60-80, total n = 152) adults learn to gain rewards for themselves, another person (prosocial), or neither individual (control). Detailed model comparison showed that a model with separate learning rates for each recipient best explained behaviour. Young adults learned faster when their actions benefitted themselves, compared to others. Compared to young adults, older adults showed reduced self-relevant learning rates but preserved prosocial learning. Moreover, levels of subclinical self-reported psychopathic traits (including lack of concern for others) were lower in older adults and the core affective-interpersonal component of this measure negatively correlated with prosocial learning. These findings suggest learning to benefit others is preserved across the lifespan with implications for reinforcement learning and theories of healthy ageing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Comportamento de Ajuda , Reforço Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Neurosci ; 41(15): 3545-3561, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674417

RESUMO

Although altruistic behaviors, e.g., sacrificing one's own interests to alleviate others' suffering, are widely observed in human society, altruism varies greatly across individuals. Such individual differences in altruistic preference have been hypothesized to arise from both individuals' dispositional empathic concern for others' welfare and context-specific cost-benefit integration processes. However, how cost-benefit integration is implemented in the brain and how it is linked to empathy remain unclear. Here, we combine a novel paradigm with the model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) approach to examine the neurocomputational basis of altruistic behaviors. Thirty-seven adults (16 females) were tested. Modeling analyses suggest that individuals are likely to integrate their own monetary costs with nonlinearly transformed recipients' benefits. Neuroimaging results demonstrate the involvement of an extended common currency system during decision-making by showing that selfish and other-regarding motives were processed in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right inferior parietal lobe in a domain-general manner. Importantly, a functional dissociation of adjacent but different subregions within anterior insular cortex (aINS) was observed for different subprocesses underlying altruistic behaviors. While dorsal aINS (daINS) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were involved in valuation of benefactors' costs, ventral aINS and middle INS (vaINS/mINS), as empathy-related regions, reflected individual variations in valuating recipients' benefits. Multivariate analyses further suggest that both vaINS/mINS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) reflect individual variations in general altruistic preferences which account for both dispositional empathy and context-specific other-regarding tendency. Together, these findings provide valuable insights into our understanding of psychological and neurobiological basis of altruistic behaviors.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Altruistic behaviors play a crucial role in facilitating solidarity and development of human society, but the mechanisms of the cost-benefit integration underlying these behaviors are still unclear. Using model-based neuroimaging approaches, we clarify that people integrate personal costs and non-linearly transformed other's benefits during altruistic decision-making and the implementations of the integration processes are supported by an extended common currency neural network. Importantly, multivariate analyses reveal that both empathy-related and cognitive control-related brain regions are involved in modulating individual variations of altruistic preference, which implicate complex psychological and computational processes. Our results provide a neurocomputational account of how people weigh between different attributes to make altruistic decisions and why altruistic preference varies to a great extent across individuals.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Comportamento de Ajuda , Modelos Neurológicos , Conectoma , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669766

RESUMO

Drawing from social exchange theory, we developed a dual-path model of employees' reactions to episodic help received from colleagues. Through a diary study, using data collected from 127 full-time employees working in a large Chinese bank, we tested this model, revealing that receiving episodic help from colleagues is positively related to the help receivers' gratitude and ego depletion. Through these two ambivalent psychological states, help receivers were found to simultaneously engage in more organizational citizenship behaviors and deviance behaviors on a daily basis. These empirical findings contribute to research that adopts a target-centric perspective in examining the consequences of helping behavior in the workplace.


Assuntos
Emprego , Local de Trabalho , Afeto , Emoções , Comportamento de Ajuda
10.
SMAD, Rev. eletrônica saúde mental alcool drog ; 17(1): 84-91, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1280644

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: identificar os problemas acarretados pelo consumo excessivo do álcool, bem como as consequências que ele traz à família. MÉTODO: o instrumento utilizado foi uma entrevista semiestruturada, com roteiro composto por 12 questões elaboradas pelos próprios pesquisadores, para responder às temáticas propostas. Para a análise das entrevistas, utilizou-se a Análise do Conteúdo e, como ferramenta de análise, empregou-se o software NVivo11, destinado ao tratamento de dados em investigação qualitativa. RESULTADOS: durante o tratamento das entrevistas, elaboraram-se uma árvore categorial, que apresenta o álcool como núcleo, e quatro nós categoriais como aspectos principais da entrevista, sendo eles: início do uso; consequências para a família; problemas pelo consumo excessivo e ajuda. CONCLUSÃO: podem-se depreender as consequências negativas que o uso excessivo do álcool gera para as relações familiares, sendo este o eixo da vida de um alcoolista mais devastado. Além disso, é importante salientar que o mesmo eixo familiar destruído é base para a retomada de uma mudança como respaldo para a procura de auxílio de entidades competentes, como os Alcóolicos Anônimos.


OBJETIVO: conocer la realidad del alcohólico e identificar los problemas causados por el consumo excesivo de alcohol, así como las consecuencias que trae a la familia. MÉTODO: el instrumento utilizado fue una entrevista semiestructurada con un guión compuesto por 12 preguntas, preparadas por los propios investigadores, para responder a los temas propuestos. Para el análisis de las entrevistas, se utilizó el Análisis de contenido y, como herramienta de análisis, el software NVivo11 para el procesamiento de datos en la investigación cualitativa. RESULTADOS: durante el tratamiento de las entrevistas fue posible elaborar un árbol categórico que presenta el alcohol como núcleo y cuatro nodos categóricos como los aspectos principales de la entrevista, a saber: comienzo del uso; consecuencias para la familia; problemas de consumo excesivo y ayuda. CONCLUSIÓN: uno puede entender las consecuencias negativas que el uso excesivo de alcoholico genera para las relaciones familiares, siendo este eje de la vida de un alcohólico el más devastado. Además, es importante tener en cuenta que el mismo eje familiar destruido es la base para la reanudación de un cambio, como apoyo para la búsqueda de ayuda de entidades competentes, como Alcohólicos Anónimos (AA).


OBJECTIVE: identify the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption, as well as the consequences it brings to the family. METHOD: the instrument used was a semi-structured interview, with a script composed of 12 questions prepared by the researchers themselves, to answer the proposed themes. For the analysis of the interviews, Content Analysis was used and, as an analysis tool, the NVivo11 software was used, aimed at processing data in qualitative research. RESULTS: during the treatment of the interviews, a categorical tree was elaborated, which presents alcohol as the nucleus, and four categorical knots as main aspects of the interview, being them: beginning of the use; consequences for the family; problems by excessive consumption and help. CONCLUSION: the negative consequences that the excessive use of alcohol generates for family relationships can be inferred, and this is the axis of the life of a more devastated alcoholic. In addition, it is important to point out that the same destroyed family axis is the basis for the resumption of a change as a support for the search for help from competent entities, such as the Alcoholics Anonymous.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Alcoólicos Anônimos , Alcoolismo , Relações Familiares , Alcoólicos , Comportamento de Ajuda
11.
Br J Gen Pract ; 71(705): 151-152, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619048
12.
Pediatrics ; 147(3)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597286

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Children with incurable cancer may participate in research studies at the end of life (EOL). These studies create knowledge that can improve the care of future patients. OBJECTIVE: To describe stakeholder perspectives regarding research studies involving children with cancer at the EOL by conduct of a systematic review. DATA SOURCES: We used the following data sources: Ovid Medline, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and ProQuest (inception until August 2020). STUDY SELECTION: We selected 24 articles published in English that examined perceptions or experiences of research participation for children with cancer at the EOL from the perspectives of children, parents, and health professionals (HPs). DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently extracted data, assessed study quality, and performed thematic analysis and synthesis. RESULTS: Eight themes were identified: (1) seeking control; (2) faith, hope, and uncertainty; (3) being a good parent; (4) helping others; (5) barriers and facilitators; (6) information and understanding; (7) the role of HPs in consent and beyond; and (8) involvement of the child in decision-making. LIMITATIONS: Study designs were heterogeneous. Only one study discussed palliative care research. CONCLUSIONS: Some families participate in EOL research seeking to gain control and sustain hope, despite uncertainty. Other families choose against research, prioritizing quality of life. Parents may perceive research participation as the role of a "good parent" and hope to help others. HPs have positive views of EOL research but fear that parents lack understanding of the purpose of studies and the likelihood of benefit. We identified barriers to research participation and informed consent.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Pesquisa , Assistência Terminal , Adolescente , Altruísmo , Criança , Comunicação , Compreensão , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento de Ajuda , Esperança , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos , Poder Familiar , Participação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Espiritualidade , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245483, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To combat social distancing and stay-at-home restrictions due to COVID-19, Canadian communities began a Facebook social media movement, #Caremongering, to support vulnerable individuals in their communities. Little research has examined the spread and use of #Caremongering to address community health and social needs. OBJECTIVES: We examined the rate at which #Caremongering grew across Canada, the main ways the groups were used, and differences in use by membership size and activity. METHODS: We searched Facebook Groups using the term "Caremongering" combined with the names of the largest population centres in every province and territory in Canada. We extracted available Facebook analytics on all the groups found, restricted to public groups that operated in English. We further conducted a content analysis of themes from postings in 30 groups using purposive sampling. Posted content was qualitatively analyzed to determine consistent themes across the groups and between those with smaller and larger member numbers. RESULTS: The search of Facebook groups across 185 cities yielded 130 unique groups, including groups from all 13 provinces and territories in Canada. Total membership across all groups as of May 4, 2020 was 194,879. The vast majority were formed within days of the global pandemic announcement, two months prior. There were four major themes identified: personal protective equipment, offer, need, and information. Few differences were found between how large and small groups were being used. CONCLUSIONS: The #Caremongering Facebook groups spread across the entire nation in a matter of days, engaging hundreds of thousands of Canadians. Social media appears to be a useful tool for spreading community-led solutions to address health and social needs.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Comportamento de Ajuda , Saúde Pública/métodos , Mídias Sociais , COVID-19/patologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internet , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Interação Social
14.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 68: 52-56, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498010

RESUMO

Helping involves other-oriented actions that have the potential to benefit another. The last ten years has seen the introduction of several experimental paradigms to study helping in rats. In the best characterized of these, a free rat opens a door to release a rat trapped in an acrylic tube or pool of water. Helping is proffered independent of the opportunity to socially interact. Both an absence and an excess of affective arousal or anxiety antagonize helping whereas mild levels of distress facilitate helping. Helping is socially selective and highly sensitive to the social environment with non-helpers antagonizing and additional helpers facilitating another rat's propensity to help.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Comportamento de Ajuda , Animais , Ratos , Comportamento Social
15.
Learn Behav ; 49(1): 5-6, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885387

RESUMO

A new study by Havlik et al. (Science Advances, 6(28), eabb4205, 2020) reveals that rats are less likely to help a conspecific in need in the presence of passive bystanders, but that they are more likely to help when there are active bystanders that engage in helping. This study highlights the social skills of rats and the role of bystanders on cooperation, raising a range of interesting questions that should be explored both theoretically and empirically.


Assuntos
Efeito Espectador , Comportamento de Ajuda , Animais , Ratos
16.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 201: 104973, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002651

RESUMO

Although there is considerable evidence that at least some helping behavior is motivated by genuine concern for others' well-being, sometimes we also help solely out of a sense of obligation to the persons in need. Our sense of obligation to help may be particularly strong when there is common knowledge between the helper and the helpee that the helpee needs help. To test whether children's helping behavior is affected by having common knowledge with the recipient about the recipient's need, 6-year-olds faced a dilemma: They could either collect stickers or help an experimenter. Children were more likely to help when they and the experimenter had common knowledge about the experimenter's plight (because they heard it together) than when they each had private knowledge about it (because they heard it individually). These results suggest that already in young children common knowledge can heighten the sense of obligation to help others in need.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Conhecimento , Motivação , Criança , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243808, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306708

RESUMO

Impression of helpers can vary as a function of the magnitude of helping (amount of help) and of situational and motivational aspects (type of help). Over three studies conducted in Sweden and the US, we manipulated both the amount and the type of help in ten diverse vignettes and measured participants' impressions of the described helpers. Impressions were almost unaffected when increasing the amount of help by 500%, but clearly affected by several type of help-manipulations. Particularly, helpers were less positively evaluated if they had mixed motives for helping, did not experience intense emotions or empathy, or if helping involved no personal sacrifice. In line with the person-centered theory of moral judgment, people seem to form impressions of helpers primarily based on the presumed underlying processes and motives of prosociality rather than its consequences.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Adulto , Emoções , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Motivação
19.
Science ; 370(6517)2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033154

RESUMO

Each year, millions of Americans fail to appear in court for low-level offenses, and warrants are then issued for their arrest. In two field studies in New York City, we make critical information salient by redesigning the summons form and providing text message reminders. These interventions reduce failures to appear by 13 to 21% and lead to 30,000 fewer arrest warrants over a 3-year period. In laboratory experiments, we find that whereas criminal justice professionals see failures to appear as relatively unintentional, laypeople believe they are more intentional. These lay beliefs reduce support for policies that make court information salient and increase support for punishment. Our findings suggest that criminal justice policies can be made more effective and humane by anticipating human error in unintentional offenses.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Aplicação da Lei , Responsabilidade Legal , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872679

RESUMO

Public helping reactions are essential to reduce a victim's secondary victimization in intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) cases. Because gender-related characteristics have been linked widely to IPVAW prevalence, the study aimed to examine individual attitudes and perceptions toward different forms of violence against women, as well as gender-related macrosocial ideological and structural factors, in explaining helping reactions to IPVAW across 28 European countries. We performed multilevel logistic regression analysis, taking measures from the Eurobarometer 2016 (N = 7115) and the European Institute for Gender Equality datasets. Our study revealed a greater individual perceived IPVAW prevalence, positive perception about the appropriateness of a legal response to psychological and sexual violence against women partners, and less VAW-supportive attitudes predicted helping reactions (i.e., formal, informal), but not negative reactions to IPVAW. Moreover, individuals from European countries with a greater perceived IPVAW prevalence and gender equality preferred formal reactions to IPVAW. Otherwise, in the European countries with lesser perceived IPVAW prevalence and negative perceptions about the appropriate legal response to psychological and sexual violence, people were more likely to provide informal reactions to IPVAW. Our results showed the role of gender-related characteristics influenced real reactions toward known victim of IPVAW.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Apoio Social , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/legislação & jurisprudência , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...