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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 226: 105547, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36194901

RESUMO

Emotional helping-that is, helping based on others' emotional distress-has been suggested to be a central prosocial response to others in need. Developmental theorizing proposed that emotional helping has social origins. Whereas research indeed demonstrated a link between maternal sensitivity and children's emotional helping, developmental theories stress different mediating processes. Emotion-sharing theories claim empathic concern to be the crucial link for helping, whereas internalization theories base children's helping on children's compliance. To investigate these hypotheses, the current study explored empathy and compliance as two possible mediators for the relation between maternal sensitivity and children's emotional helping at 18 months of age. Overall, maternal sensitivity was positively related to children's empathy, children's compliance, and children's emotional helping. Interestingly, children's empathy-but not children's compliance-mediated the link between maternal sensitivity and children's emotional helping. These findings deepen our understanding of the psychological processes subserving emotional helping during infancy and support theories that stress the socioemotional origins of children's prosocial behavior.


Assuntos
Emoções , Empatia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Relações Mãe-Filho , Altruísmo , Comportamento de Ajuda
2.
J Interpers Violence ; 38(1-2): NP1517-NP1539, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537192

RESUMO

The goals of this mixed-methods study were to examine self-reported behavior of bystanders who intervened in specific situations of potential sexual violence and physical dating violence, to explore their sense of preparedness to intervene, and to assess bystanders' emotional reactions to their self-reported action or inaction when witnessing potential sexual and dating violence. The participants (n = 553, 65.2% female, 76% freshmen, M age = 18.7 years), responded to a sequence of questions pertaining to witnessing and intervening in specific potentially dangerous situations, emotional reactions to their action or inaction, and preparedness. Bystander participants also provided narrative responses describing their behavior. We used joint display analyses to integrate, analyze, and interpret the qualitative and quantitative data. Of the 553 participants, 38% witnessed "a man talking to a woman and she looked uncomfortable," 27% witnessed "someone taking an intoxicated person up to their room," and 39% witnessed "someone grabbing or pushing their boyfriend or girlfriend"; of those who witnessed, the percentage of those who intervened was 42%, 25%, and 19%, respectively. Bystander behavior involved one of 5Ds: distract, direct, delegate, distance, diffuse, or a combination. Although most bystanders did not get involved, most (94.6%) reported that they felt prepared to intervene. For those who intervened, most reported feeling positive about their action; however, most who did not intervene reported feeling negative about their inaction. Implications for college bystanders and bystander education programs are discussed.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Delitos Sexuais , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Universidades , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Comportamento de Ajuda , Amigos
3.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 378(1868): 20210437, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36440558

RESUMO

Helping behaviour is thought to play a major role in the evolution of group-living animals. Yet, it is unclear to what extent human males and human females use the same strategies to secure support. Accordingly, we investigate help-seeking over a 5-year period in relation to gender using data from virtually all adults in two Tamil villages (N = 782). Simulations of network dynamics (i.e. stochastic actor-oriented models) calibrated to these data broadly indicate that women are more inclined than men to create and maintain supportive bonds via multiple mechanisms of cooperation (e.g. reciprocity, kin bias, friend bias, generalized exchange). However, gender-related differences in the simulated dynamics of help-seeking are modest, vary based on structural position (e.g. out-degree), and do not appear to translate to divergence in the observed structure of respondents' egocentric networks. Findings ultimately suggest that men and women in the two villages are similarly social but channel their sociality differently. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cooperation among women: evolutionary and cross-cultural perspectives'.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Rede Social , Masculino , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Feminino , Índia , Fatores Sexuais
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16979, 2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217015

RESUMO

In a world with rapidly increasing population that competes for the earth's limited resources, cooperation is crucial. While research showed that empathizing with another individual in need enhances prosociality, it remains unclear whether correctly inferring the other's inner, mental states on a more cognitive level (i.e., mentalizing) elicits helping behavior as well. We applied a video-based laboratory task probing empathy and a performance measure of mentalizing in adult volunteers (N = 94) and assessed to which extent they were willing to help the narrators in the videos. We replicate findings that an empathy induction leads to more prosocial decisions. Crucially, we also found that correct mentalizing increases the willingness to help. This evidence helps clarify an inconsistent picture of the relation between mentalizing and prosociality.


Assuntos
Empatia , Mentalização , Adulto , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36294121

RESUMO

Within the context of emergency situations, the terms witness or bystander are used to refer to individuals involved in oppressive incidents who are neither the victim nor the perpetrator. Among the different types of emergency situations, our study focuses on violence against women (VAW). In keeping with current efforts in the scientific literature on bystander intervention and the evidence currently available, the main focus of this study is to analyze some personal factors that reflect the characteristics or experiences of bystanders and that could have a bearing on their predisposition to help victims of VAW (i.e., empathy, a just world belief system, and expectations of self-efficacy) and later analyze the possible relationship between these personal characteristics and gender or previous experience as a VAW bystander. An opportunity sample of 546 Spanish participants (73.4% women and 26.6% men) between 18 and 56 years of age took part in this study and fill out a sociodemographic data sheet, a questionnaire to evaluate the experience as violence witness designed ad hoc, and the Characteristics of People who Help Questionnaire scale (CPHQ). The results obtained indicate that CPHQ could constitute an adequate measure for the three dimensions analyzed. Female participants are significantly more empathetic than males, but in the case of a just world belief and expectations of self-efficacy the results showed no gender-related differences. Additionally, only a just world belief was clearly influenced by having been a bystander to some form of VAW. In conclusion, this study contributes a proposal for an evaluating instrument featuring three relevant personal characteristics in the development of helping behaviors, presenting some results of interest regarding empathy, a just world belief, and expectations of self-efficacy and their relationship with gender or previous experiences as VAW bystanders. These results obtained suggest an initial path toward future research in the development of interventions with bystander participation in our environment.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Violência , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Empatia , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Biol Lett ; 18(10): 20220170, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36196551

RESUMO

Mechanisms selecting for the evolution of cooperative breeding are hotly debated. While kin selection theory has been the central paradigm to explain the seemingly altruistic behaviour of non-reproducing helpers, it is increasingly recognized that direct fitness benefits may be highly relevant. The group augmentation hypothesis proposes that alloparental care may evolve to enhance group size when larger groups yield increased survival and/or reproductive success. However, there is a lack of empirical tests. Here we use the cooperatively breeding cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher, in which group size predicts survival and group stability, to test this hypothesis experimentally by prompting two cooperative tasks: defence against an egg predator and digging out sand from the breeding shelter. We controlled for alternative mechanisms such as kin selection, load lightening and coercion. As predicted by the group augmentation hypothesis, helpers increased defence against an egg predator in small compared with large groups. This difference was only evident in large helpers owing to size-specific task specialization. Furthermore, helpers showed more digging effort in the breeding chamber compared with alternative personal shelters, indicating that digging is an altruistic service to the dominant breeders.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Comportamento de Ajuda , Altruísmo , Animais , Comportamento Cooperativo , Reprodução , Areia
7.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274822, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126081

RESUMO

Recent decades have seen a growing acknowledgement of violence against women (VAW) as a serious social and public health problem of epidemic proportions. The prevention of VAW and intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) has become a priority within this context, and includes various prevention strategies such as social participation and helping behaviors. In different countries, conducting research on help-seeking behavior and bystander intervention in cases of VAW is a common practice, but addressing these issues is much less common in Spain. In this context, the objective of this study is to provide a preliminary estimation of the volume of bystanders in cases of IPVAW in Spain between 2005 and 2020 (since the entry into force of Organic Law 1/2004), their willingness to intervene and, in the case of intervention, the type of helping behavior (real or hypothetical) preferred, using the sources (secondary data) available (specifically, survey data, as the surveys of social perception of gender violence and the 2014 and 2019 macro-surveys, and also administrative data, as the database of reports filed). The data analyzed allow us to determine that, in fact, in the cases of IPVAW there are usually persons within the victim's inner circle who are firsthand witnesses or have been informed by the victim of the existence of this type of violence, but, although the bystanders generally claim they would engage in an active and supportive response, this is in fact not always the case. These results underscore the need to develop intervention programs aimed at IPVAW bystanders to improve their reaction and contribute to the development of helpful and efficient active responses.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Feminino , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Percepção Social , Espanha/epidemiologia , Violência
8.
Psychol Sci ; 33(11): 1867-1881, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36173691

RESUMO

Painkiller administration lowers pain empathy, but whether this also reduces prosocial behavior is unknown. In this preregistered study, we investigated whether inducing analgesia through a placebo painkiller reduced effortful helping. When given the opportunity to reduce the pain of another person, individuals experiencing placebo analgesia (n = 45 adults from Austria; 21 male, 24 female) made fewer prosocial choices at the lowest helping level and exerted less physical effort when helping, compared with controls whose pain sensitivity was unaltered (n = 45; 21 male, 24 female). Self-reported empathic unpleasantness positively correlated with prosocial choices across the whole sample. While not replicating group differences in empathy, a mediation analysis revealed that the level of unpleasantness to other people's pain fully mediated the effect of placebo analgesia on prosocial choices. Given the importance of prosociality for social cohesion, these findings have broad potential implications both for individuals under the influence of painkillers and for society at large.


Assuntos
Agnosia , Analgesia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Comportamento Social , Empatia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Altruísmo , Comportamento de Ajuda
9.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272340, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913942

RESUMO

Previous studies suggest a link between future thinking and prosocial behaviors. However, this association is not fully understood at state and trait level. The present study tested whether a brief future thinking induction promoted helping behavior in an unrelated task. In addition, the relation between mental time travel and prosocial behaviors in daily life was tested with questionnaire data. Forty-eight participants filled in questionnaires and were asked to think about the future for one minute or to name animals for one minute (control condition) before playing the Zurich Prosocial Game (a measure of helping behavior). Results revealed that participants in the future thinking condition helped significantly more than participants in the control condition. Moreover, questionnaire data showed that dispositional and positive orientation toward the future and the past was significantly associated with self-reported prosocial behaviors. The present findings suggest that thinking about the future in general has positive transfer effects on subsequent prosocial behavior and that people who think more about the past or future in a positive way engage more in prosocial behavior.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Comportamento Social , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos , Personalidade
11.
J Youth Adolesc ; 51(10): 1873-1885, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35789320

RESUMO

Reflection on prosocial experiences may be helpful for adolescents highly attentive to their internal states (i.e., high private self-consciousness) to gain prosocial self-knowledge, yet adolescents with low private self-consciousness may not benefit from it. The current study proposed and examined that engaging in helping behavior would be beneficial for those with low private self-consciousness in self-understanding. Two experimental studies using immersive virtual environment technology were conducted to simulate helping situations. A total of 140 middle school students (n = 59, 47.5% female, Mage = 13.98, SD = 0.89, in Study 1; n = 81, 44.4% female, Mage = 15.31, SD = 1.18, in Study 2) completed the experiments. In both studies, adolescents engaging in helping behaviors identified themselves as more prosocial than those who did not engage in helping behaviors. In Study 2, adolescents' positive prosocial self-concept would increase more through engaging in prosocial behavior than by reflecting on past prosocial experiences. Furthermore, adolescents with high private self-consciousness can gain self-understanding both from self-reflection and engaging in prosocial behavior, whereas adolescents with low private self-consciousness benefit only from engaging in prosocial behavior. The findings suggest the need to consider individual differences and adopt appropriate ways of self-understanding when assisting adolescents' prosocial self-formation.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Realidade Virtual , Adolescente , Feminino , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos , Masculino , Resolução de Problemas , Autoimagem , Comportamento Social
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 863327, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35812503

RESUMO

Ecological systems theory suggests that for individuals, the three domains of community, family, and work are connected and transfer resources among each other. In the community, residents receive and give helping behavior from and to their neighbors. Neighboring behavior underlies interactions among residents in the community, thereby influencing the work and family domains. Building on ecological systems theory, the authors propose that the compatibility of receiving and giving helping behavior among working residents is related to their mental health. Additionally, the authors propose that this congruence effect functions through work-family interference and meaning in life. Using a two-stage field questionnaire survey, this study collected data from 220 full-time Chinese working residents. Using polynomial regression and response surface analysis, receiving-giving neighboring behavior fit was found to be positively associated with mental health. Furthermore, receiving-giving neighboring behavior fit enhances mental health by decreasing work-family interference and promoting meaning in life. When giving and receiving neighboring behavior are imbalanced, working residents have higher levels of mental health when they received more neighboring behavior than they gave, in comparison to the condition when they gave more neighboring behavior than they received. Work-family interference represents inter-role conflict in which pressures from the family and work domains are mutually incompatible. Including both work to family interference and family to work interference, work-family interferences reflect the stress that working residents experience in their family and work domains. By exploring the mediating role of work-family interference, this study shows how the spillover of the benefits of neighboring behavior into the family and work domains enhances working residents' mental health. This study highlights the importance of balancing receiving and giving neighboring behavior for maintaining mental health, thus contributing both theoretically and practically to ecological systems theory.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Saúde Mental , Emprego , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Cogn Sci ; 46(6): e13160, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665955

RESUMO

A considerable body of research has documented the emergence of what appears to be instrumental helping behavior in early childhood. The current study tested the hypothesis that one basic psychological mechanism motivating this behavior is a preference for completing unfinished actions. To test this, a paradigm was implemented in which 2-year-olds (n = 34, 16 females/18 males, mostly White middle-class children) could continue an adult's action when the adult no longer wanted to complete the action. The results showed that children continued the adult's actions more often when the goal had been abandoned than when it had been reached (OR = 2.37). This supports the hypothesis that apparent helping behavior in 2-year-olds is motivated by a preference for completing unfinished actions.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Motivação , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Neuropsychologia ; 173: 108291, 2022 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690115

RESUMO

Prosocial helping behavior is a highly valued social practice across societies, but the willingness to help others varies among persons. In our opinion, that willingness should be associated with the sensitivity to helping outcome at the individual level - that is, increasing as a function of positive outcome sensitivity but decreasing as a function of negative outcome sensitivity. To examine this possibility, we asked participants to make helping decisions in a series of hypothetical scenarios, which provided outcome feedback (positive/negative) of those decisions. Event-related potential (ERP) response to helping outcome was recorded, such that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 were supposed to reflect the sensitivity to negative outcome and positive outcome, respectively. After the formal task, participants were asked if they would like to donate money to a charity. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that compared to those who were not willing to donate, the participants who donated money (22 of 41 individuals) showed a smaller FRN but a larger P300. Among these participants, the amount of donation was negatively correlated with FRN response to negative outcome, but positively correlated with P300 response to positive outcome. These findings support the importance of helping outcome sensitivity to prosocial behavior.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Eletroencefalografia , Altruísmo , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos
16.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 78, 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of problem gambling are wide-ranging, affecting many aspects of health and negatively impacting the person who gambles, their family and friends, and their community. People experiencing problem gambling have low rates of help-seeking and perceive many barriers to treatment, although evidence suggests that encouragement and support from friends and family can increase rates of help-seeking. Mental Health First Aid Australia's Conversations About Gambling course aims to teach members of the public evidence-based strategies for recognising and responding to signs of problem gambling in a person they know. METHODS: This research evaluated the effects of the Conversations About Gambling course on participants' knowledge, confidence, stigmatising attitudes, intended helping behaviour and actual helping behaviour towards a person experiencing problem gambling. Participants from Australia completed surveys before the course, immediately after the course and six months later. Changes over time (pre-course to post-course, and pre-course to 6-month follow-up) were assessed with linear mixed models. Descriptive statistics and content analyses of open-ended questions pertaining to participants' satisfaction with the course were also produced. RESULTS: Between 2018 and 2020, 166 participants were recruited into this study. At 6-month follow-up 87 participants (52.4%) provided data. Participants' knowledge about gambling and gambling problems, confidence, desire for social distance and intentions to help a person experiencing problem gambling significantly improved from pre-course to post-course, and from pre-course to 6-month follow-up. The quality of some actions taken to support a person they knew who was experiencing problem gambling also improved from pre-course to 6-month follow-up, in line with the teachings of the course. Participants perceived the course to be highly acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this initial evaluation of Mental Health First Aid Australia's Conversations About Gambling course suggest that it is an effective and acceptable educational intervention for those who wish to support a person experiencing problem gambling.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Saúde Mental , Atitude , Primeiros Socorros , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/terapia , Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3315, 2022 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228625

RESUMO

Empathy, the understanding of the emotional state of others, can be examined across species using the Perception Action Model, where shared affect promotes an action by "Observers" to aid a distressed "Target". The anterior insula (AI) has garnered interest in empathic behavior due to its role integrating sensory and emotional information of self and other. In the following studies, the AI was inhibited pharmacologically and chemogenetically during targeted helping. We demonstrate the insula is active during, and is necessary for the maintenance of, targeted helping. Analysis of ultrasonic vocalizations revealed distress calls from Targets increased when Observers' helping was attenuated due to insula inhibition. Targets' elevated distress was directly correlated to Observers' diminished helping behavior, suggesting emotional transfer between Observer and Target is blunted following Observer AI inhibition. Finally, the AI may selectively blunt targeted helping, as social exploration did not change in a social reward place conditioning task. These studies help further establish the anterior insula as a critical node in the empathic brain during targeted helping, even in the absence of direct social contact.


Assuntos
Empatia , Comportamento de Ajuda , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Emoções/fisiologia , Masculino , Ratos
18.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 151(10): 2466-2480, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35286114

RESUMO

How do zero-sum beliefs-the beliefs that one person's success is inevitably balanced by others' failure -affect people's willingness to help their peers and colleagues? In nine studies (and 2 supplementary studies, N = 2,324), we find consistent evidence for the relationship between the belief that success is zero-sum and help giving preferences. Across various hypothetical scenarios and actual help giving decisions, and even when the effort required for helping was minimal, zero-sum beliefs negatively predicted participants' willingness to help their colleagues learn how to succeed on their own (i.e., autonomy-oriented help). In contrast, the belief that success can only be achieved at others' expense did not affect participants' willingness to offer the kind of help that would completely solve their colleagues' problems for them (i.e., dependency-oriented help). Moreover, we find that the effect of zero-sum beliefs on the reluctance to give autonomy-oriented help is mediated by concerns about losing one's status to the recipient, and that removing these concerns about status loss mitigates the negative effect of zero-sum beliefs on help giving. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this robust yet nuanced link between the belief that success is zero-sum and prosocial helping behaviors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Humanos
19.
J Interpers Violence ; 37(23-24): NP23262-NP23280, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331029

RESUMO

Sexual assault is a significant problem within the United States military. Bystander intervention skills training is recognized as a promising strategy for sexual assault prevention within both civilian and military populations. Sexual assault prevention programs which include training in bystander intervention teach individuals to notice situations that may pose a risk for harm and safely act to positively influence the outcome. This study examines correlates of bystander intervention attitudes and intentions among young adult active duty male soldiers (N = 282) between the ages of 18 and 24. Positive bystander intervention attitudes and intentions were associated with lower levels of rape myth acceptance, greater discomfort with sexism, lower likelihood of continuing an unwanted sexual advance after verbal resistance from a partner, greater likelihood of gaining verbal consent from a partner, and greater perceived peer approval for bystander intervention. In a multiple regression, perceived peer approval for bystander intervention and self-reported lower likelihood of continuing a sexual advance after verbal resistance from a partner emerged as significant predictors of positive bystander intervention attitudes and intentions (R2 = .41). Given that perceptions of peer norms are modifiable, these findings highlight the importance of addressing peer norms in bystander intervention training programs for military personnel.


Assuntos
Militares , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Adulto Jovem , Masculino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Adolescente , Adulto , Intenção , Comportamento de Ajuda , Estupro/prevenção & controle , Delitos Sexuais/prevenção & controle , Atitude , Universidades
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3843, 2022 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264652

RESUMO

Virtual reality (VR) affords the study of the behaviour of people in social situations that would be logistically difficult or ethically problematic in reality. The laboratory-controlled setup makes it straightforward to collect multi-modal data and compare the responses across different experimental conditions. However, the scenario is typically fixed and the resulting data are usually analysed only once the VR experience has ended. Here we describe a method that allows adaptation of the environment to the behaviours of participants and where data is collected and processed during the experience. The goal was to examine the extent to which helping behaviour of participants towards the victim of a violent aggression might be encouraged, with the use of reinforcement learning (RL). In the scenario, a virtual human character represented as a supporter of the Arsenal Football Club, was attacked by another with the aggression escalating over time. (In some countries football is referred to as 'soccer', but we will use 'football' throughout). Each participant, a bystander in the scene, might intervene to help the victim or do nothing. By varying the extent to which some actions of the virtual characters during the scenario were determined by the RL we were able to examine whether the RL resulted in a greater number of helping interventions. Forty five participants took part in the study divided into three groups: with no RL, a medium level of RL, or full operation of the RL. The results show that the greater extent to which the RL operated the greater the number of interventions. We suggest that this methodology could be an alternative to full multi-factorial experimental designs, and more importantly as a way to produce adaptive VR scenarios that encourage participants towards a particular line of action.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Realidade Virtual , Agressão , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Reforço Psicológico
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