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2.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community attitude towards mental health problems and help-seeking behavior plays a major role in designing effective community based mental health interventions. This study aimed to assess the attitude, help-seeking behavior, and associated factors of the Jimma zone community towards mental health and mental health problems. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study design was employed. A respondent from each of the 423 systematically selected households was interviewed using a pretested, structured, and interviewer-administered questionnaire. Accordingly, a community's attitude towards mental health problems was measured by the adapted version of the "Community Attitude towards Mentally Ill questionnaire (CAMI)" and help-seeking behavior was measured by a general help-seeking questionnaire. Data were entered into Epi-data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 23.0 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to determine the independent predictors of the outcome variable. RESULTS: Among the total 420 study participants (197,46.9%) of them had an overall unfavorable attitude towards mental illness. The majority (153,36.4%) of the study participants agreed on avoidance of anyone who has mental health problems and (150,35.7%) participants described marrying a person with a mental health problem or recovered from the problem is foolishness. Moreover, regression analysis showed family monthly income (AOR = 0.24, 95%CI:0.06-0.91) and occupational status (AOR = 0.57, 95%CI:0.34-0.96) were found to be the predictors of community attitude towards mental health problems. The study finding also revealed a significant number of the respondents preferred non- medical treatment approaches. CONCLUSION: Almost half of the respondents had an unfavorable attitude towards mental health problems and the traditional and religious help-seeking intention was high. This suggests the need for designing effective community based mental health interventions to improve the general public attitude and help-seeking behavior towards mental health problems.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estigma Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240316, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proper utilization of skilled care services in neonatal illnesses is crucial to reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality. The study aimed to evaluate the level and factors associated with seeking care from skilled healthcare service providers for reported neonatal illnesses in rural Matlab, Bangladesh. METHODS: This community based cross-sectional study was based on data from a randomly selected sample comprised of 2223 women who delivered live-born babies in 2014. Data were collected from June to October 2015 through a structured questionnaire. We used a multivariable logistic regression model and presented the results by adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Of the neonates, 1361 (61.2%) suffered from at least one complication, and among these, 479 (35.2%) sought care from skilled healthcare service providers. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, the participants' husbands' educational level, number of antenatal care visits, and place of childbirth were significantly associated with seeking skilled care for reported neonatal illnesses. The care-seeking from skilled healthcare service providers for neonatal illness was more than two times higher (AOR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.51-3.39) in the group in which the participants' husband had attended school for more than 10 years as compared to the group in which they had attended school for less than six years. The AORs of seeking skilled care were 1.93 (95% CI = 1.42-2.62) and 2.26 (95% CI = 1.51-3.39) with the mothers receiving two to three and four or more antenatal care services, respectively, compared to the mothers with no or one antenatal care visit. Women who gave birth at a health facility were three times (AOR = 3.24, 95% CI = 2.50-4.19) more likely to seek skilled care for sick neonates compared to those who gave birth at home. CONCLUSION: The utilization of skilled care for neonatal sicknesses was low in this rural setting in Bangladesh. The participants' husbands' higher school attendance, increased number of ANC visits, and facility delivery were positively associated with care-seeking from skilled healthcare providers for neonatal illness. The husbands with low school attendance should be targeted for intervention, and continue efforts to increase ANC coverage and facility delivery to improve neonatal health in this country's rural area.


Assuntos
Saúde do Lactente , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Distribuição Aleatória , Saúde da População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003499

RESUMO

Youth populations represent a key population for addressing mental health, yet many youths express reluctance towards help seeking. Considering the volume of time that almost all youth spend at school during the school year, it is important to assess the role of the school environment in relation to students' attitudes toward help-seeking. Data from 47,290 grade 9 to 12 students and 116 Canadian secondary schools that participated in the 2018-19 wave of the COMPASS (Cannabis, Obesity, Mental health, Physical activity, Alcohol, Smoking, Sedentary behaviour) study were analyzed using GEE models to assess the student and school characteristics associated with attitudes regarding seeking help for mental health concerns from an adult at school. Overall, 58% of students reported being reluctant to seek help for mental health concerns at school. Students who reported lower self-rated mental health (aOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.65, 1.87), emotion regulation (aOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.07, 1.09), family support (aOR = 2.31, 95% CI = 2.16, 2.47), peer support (aOR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.31), and school connectedness (aOR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.92, 0.93) scores were more likely to be reluctant towards help-seeking at school than students with more favourable scores on these variables. Students with higher flourishing scores were less likely than students who were languishing to report reluctance to help-seeking at school (aOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.96, 0.97). Students attending schools in areas with lower population densities and median household incomes between $50,000-75,000 were less likely to be reluctant to help-seeking relative to students attending schools in areas with higher density (aOR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.79, 0.93) and median household incomes (aOR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.31), respectively. The availability of school mental health services and specialists were not associated with student help-seeking reluctance. High levels of resistance towards help-seeking among youth remain a significant barrier, particularly among youth at highest risk (i.e., with lower support and poorer mental health). The student and school characteristics identified in the current study can help inform strategies to promote greater acceptance of help seeking among students in schools.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fumar
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020448

RESUMO

Mental health literacy (MHL) is recognised as a major factor in whether athletes seek help when they experience mental health difficulties. Therefore, the current study aimed to provide a systematic review of the effectiveness of MHL training programmes in improving mental health knowledge and help-seeking and reducing stigma among athletes. To identify intervention studies of MHL programmes, five electronic databases were systematically searched for articles published before May 2020. The selection procedure was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. All kinds of study designs were included. Effect sizes were calculated for mental health knowledge, stigma reduction and help-seeking attitudes, intentions and behaviours. Risk of bias was assessed for each study using the Cochrane tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. Five studies (1239 participants in total) were selected for review. Overall, either small or medium effects were found for mental health knowledge, stigma reduction, help-seeking attitudes, and intentions for post- and follow-up interventions, whereas a null effect was found in help-seeking behaviours for both post- and follow-up interventions. Furthermore, three studies had a low risk of bias, and two had a high risk of bias. MHL interventions can enhance help-seeking attitudes and intentions and mental health knowledge and reduce stigma but do not increase help-seeking behaviours for now. Further studies should evaluate interventions to enhance help-seeking behaviours. Furthermore, the methodological quality of studies, including randomized controlled trials and other designs, should be improved in future research.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Saúde Mental , Esportes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais , Estigma Social
6.
J Interprof Care ; 34(5): 672-678, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962462

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented both challenges and opportunities for those working in health and social care in the United Kingdom (UK). With much focus on secondary and acute care at this time, there has been less communication and understanding about the impact on primary care. This discussion paper is based on the experience of one of the authors working as a general practitioner/family doctor during the pandemic and rapid changes are described during this time (April 2020). Two important themes emerged from this experience focusing on the importance of supporting one another and new roles and ways of working. It can be argued that the challenges presented by COVID-19 have expedited positive and potentially sustainable change in UK primary care that has been needed for some time. The authors discuss the implications for future working and make a series of recommendations for primary care relating to the importance of supporting the workforce, remote consultations and communication, regular team meetings, and development of integrated care. It is suggested that many of the challenges highlighted can be addressed by placing a greater emphasis on the use of interprofessional education (IPE) to underpin and support effective collaborative working.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Relações Interprofissionais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Pobreza , Papel Profissional , Consulta Remota , Reino Unido
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967307

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the best combination of indicators of problematic hypersexuality (PH), in a survey (n = 58,158) targeting individuals wondering if they were sex addicted. The survey allowed for testing of criteria from three theoretical models used to conceptualize PH. Factor analyses for women and men yielded an interpretable grouping of indicators consisting of four factors. In subsequent logistic regressions, these factors were used as predictors for experiencing the need for help for PH. The factors Negative Effects and Extreme positively predicted experiencing the need for help, with Negative Effects as the most important predictor for both women and men. This factor included, among others, withdrawal symptoms and loss of pleasure. The Sexual Desire factor negatively predicted the need for help, suggesting that for the targeted population more sexual desire leads to less PH. The Coping factor did not predict experiencing the need for help. Outcomes show that a combination of indicators from different theoretical models best indicates the presence of PH. Therefore, a measurement instrument to assess existence and severity of PH should consist of such a combination. Theoretically, this study suggests that a more comprehensive model for PH is needed, surpassing existing conceptualizations of PH.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Transtornos Parafílicos , Comportamento Compulsivo , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual
8.
Seizure ; 82: 23-26, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979601

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 in a hospital setting and the need of reorganizing the Emergency Departments (EDs) to cope with infected patients have led to a reduction of ED attendances for non-infectious acute conditions and to a different management of chronic disorders. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study evaluating the frequency and features of ED attendances for seizures during the lockdown period (March 10th-April 30th 2020) in the University Hospital of Trieste, Italy. We studied the possible pandemic impact on the way patients with seizures sought for medical assistance by comparing the lockdown period to a matched period in 2019 and to a period of identical length preceding the lockdown (January 18th-March 9th 2020). RESULTS: A striking decrease in total ED attendances was observed during lockdown (4664) compared to the matched control (10424) and to the pre-lockdown (9522) periods. A similar reduction, although to a lesser extent, was detected for seizure attendances to the ED: there were 37 during lockdown and 63 and 44 respectively during the two other periods. Intriguingly, during the lockdown a higher number of patients attended the ED with first seizures (p = 0.013), and more EEGs (p = 0.008) and CT brain scans (p = 0.018) were performed; there was a trend towards more frequent transport to the ED by ambulance (p = 0.061) in the lockdown period. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the pandemic has affected the way patients with seizures access the Health Care System.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Convulsões , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ambulâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2015437, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880648

RESUMO

Importance: Evidence regarding the presenting symptoms of cancer in adolescents and young adults can support the development of early diagnosis interventions. Objective: To examine common presenting symptoms in adolescents and young adults aged 12 to 24 years who subsequently received a diagnosis of cancer and potential variation in time to help-seeking by presenting symptom. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter study is a cross-sectional analysis of the BRIGHTLIGHT cohort study, which was conducted across hospitals in England. Participants included adolescents and young adults aged 12 to 24 years with cancer. Information on 17 prespecified presenting symptoms and the interval between symptom onset and help-seeking (the patient interval) was collected through structured face-to-face interviews and was linked to national cancer registry data. Data analysis was performed from January 2018 to August 2019. Exposures: Self-reported presenting symptoms. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were frequencies of presenting symptoms and associated symptom signatures by cancer group and the proportion of patients with each presenting symptom whose patient interval was longer than 1 month. Results: The study population consisted of 803 adolescents and young adults with valid symptom information (443 male [55%]; 509 [63%] aged 19-24 years; 705 [88%] White). The number of symptoms varied by cancer group: for example, 88 patients with leukemia (86%) presented with 2 or more symptoms, whereas only 9 patients with melanoma (31%) presented with multiple symptoms. In total, 352 unique symptom combinations were reported, with the 10 most frequent combinations accounting for 304 patients (38%). Lump or swelling was reported by more than one-half the patients (419 patients [52%; 95% CI, 49%-56%]). Other common presenting symptoms across all cancers were extreme tiredness (308 patients [38%; 95% CI, 35%-42%]), unexplained pain (281 patients [35%; 95% CI, 32%-38%]), night sweats (192 patients [24%; 95% CI, 21%-27%]), lymphadenopathy (191 patients [24%; 95% CI, 21%-27%]), and weight loss (190 patients [24%; 95% CI, 21%-27%]). The relative frequencies of presenting symptoms also varied by cancer group; some symptoms (such as lump or swelling) were highly prevalent across several cancer groups (seen in >50% of patients with lymphomas, germ cell cancers, carcinomas, bone tumors, and soft-tissue sarcomas). More than 1 in 4 patients (27%) reported a patient interval longer than 1 month; this varied from 6% (1 patient) for fits and seizures to 43% (18 patients) for recurrent infections. Conclusions and Relevance: Adolescents and young adults with cancer present with a broad spectrum of symptoms, some of which are shared across cancer types. These findings point to discordant presenting symptom prevalence estimates when information is obtained from patient report vs health records and indicate the need for further symptom epidemiology research in this population.


Assuntos
Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Intervenção Médica Precoce , Neoplasias , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias/classificação , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Avaliação de Sintomas/psicologia , Avaliação de Sintomas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Br J Gen Pract ; 70(700): e817-e824, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the psychological health and health service utilisation of older adults with multimorbidity, who are particularly vulnerable. AIM: To describe changes in loneliness, mental health problems, and attendance to scheduled medical care before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN AND SETTING: Telephone survey on a pre-existing cohort of older adults with multimorbidity in primary care. METHOD: Mental health and health service utilisation outcomes were compared with the outcomes before the onset of the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong using paired t-tests, Wilcoxon's signed-rank test, and McNemar's test. Loneliness was measured by the De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. The secondary outcomes (anxiety, depression, and insomnia) were measured by the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder tool, and the Insomnia Severity Index. Appointments attendance data were extracted from a computerised medical record system. Sociodemographic factors associated with outcome changes were examined by linear regression and generalised estimating equations. RESULTS: Data were collected from 583 older (≥60 years) adults. There were significant increases in loneliness, anxiety, and insomnia, after the onset of the COVID-19 outbreak. Missed medical appointments over a 3-month period increased from 16.5% 1 year ago to 22.0% after the onset of the outbreak. In adjusted analysis, being female, living alone, and having >4 chronic conditions were independently associated with increased loneliness. Females were more likely to have increased anxiety and insomnia. CONCLUSION: Psychosocial health of older patients with multimorbidity markedly deteriorated and missed medical appointments substantially increased after the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Solidão/psicologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Multimorbidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Carência Psicossocial , Fatores Sexuais , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia
11.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e158, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792036

RESUMO

AIMS: Early diagnosis and treatment of depression are associated with better prognosis. We used baseline data of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (2012-2015; ages 45-85 years) to examine differences in prevalence and predictors of undiagnosed depression (UD) between immigrants and non-immigrants at baseline and persistent and/or emerging depressive symptoms (DS) 18 months later. At this second time point, we also examined if a mental health care professional (MHCP) had been consulted. METHODS: We excluded individuals with any prior mood disorder and/or current anti-depressive medication use at baseline. UD was defined as the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression 10 score ⩾10. DS at 18 months were defined as Kessler 10 score ⩾19. The associations of interest were examined in multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: Our study included 4382 immigrants and 18 620 non-immigrants. The mean age (standard deviation) in immigrants was 63 (10.3) years v. 65 (10.7) years in non-immigrants and 52.1% v. 57.1% were male. Among immigrants, 12.2% had UD at baseline of whom 34.2% had persistent DS 18 months later v. 10.6% and 31.4%, respectively, among non-immigrants. Female immigrants were more likely to have UD than female non-immigrants (odds ratio 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.25-1.80) but no difference observed for men. The risk of persistent DS and consulting an MHCP at 18 months did not differ between immigrants and non-immigrants. CONCLUSIONS: Female immigrants may particularly benefit from depression screening. Seeking mental health care in the context of DS should be encouraged.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Depressão/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 55(11): 1397-1413, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816062

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This systematic review aims to synthesise the evidence on behavioural and attitudinal patterns as well as barriers and enablers in Filipino formal help-seeking. METHODS: Using PRISMA framework, 15 studies conducted in 7 countries on Filipino help-seeking were appraised through narrative synthesis. RESULTS: Filipinos across the world have general reluctance and unfavourable attitude towards formal help-seeking despite high rates of psychological distress. They prefer seeking help from close family and friends. Barriers cited by Filipinos living in the Philippines include financial constraints and inaccessibility of services, whereas overseas Filipinos were hampered by immigration status, lack of health insurance, language difficulty, experience of discrimination and lack of acculturation to host culture. Both groups were hindered by self and social stigma attached to mental disorder, and by concern for loss of face, sense of shame, and adherence to Asian values of conformity to norms where mental illness is considered unacceptable. Filipinos are also prevented from seeking help by their sense of resilience and self-reliance, but this is explored only in qualitative studies. They utilize special mental health care only as the last resort or when problems become severe. Other prominent facilitators include perception of distress, influence of social support, financial capacity and previous positive experience in formal help. CONCLUSION: We confirmed the low utilization of mental health services among Filipinos regardless of their locations, with mental health stigma as primary barrier, while resilience and self-reliance as coping strategies were cited in qualitative studies. Social support and problem severity were cited as prominent facilitators.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Filipinas , Estigma Social
14.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(11): 898-903, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649650

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the level and influencing factors of help-seeking behavior of returning to work in healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: A total of 861 HCWs were surveyed. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to examine the influencing factors of help-seeking behavior. RESULTS: HCWs sought help with respect to COVID-19-diagnosized problem most. Help-seeking intention, problems encountered after return, test for return, work condition during COVID-19, relatives or friends diagnosed or suspected as COVID-19, and socio-demographic characteristics such as occupation, education, title, and marriage status are predictors of help-seeking behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Education and intervention should lay particular stress on HCWs featured rest at home before return, doctor, lower education and lower title to ensure the safety, accuracy, and quality of work after they return to work for a better occupational environment.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Retorno ao Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 648, 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immigrants are more likely than the majority population to have unmet needs for public mental health services. This study aims to understand potential ethnic differences in preferred help-seeking sources for depression in Norway, and how such preferences relate to acculturation orientation. METHODS: A convenience sample of immigrants from Russia (n = 164), Poland (n = 127), Pakistan (n = 128), and Somalia (n = 114), and Norwegian students (n = 250) completed a survey. The sample was recruited from social media platforms, emails, and direct contact. The survey consisted of a vignette describing a moderately depressed person. Respondents were asked to provide advice to the person by completing a modified version of the General Help-Seeking Questionnaire. The immigrant sample also responded to questions about acculturation orientation using the Vancouver Index of Acculturation Scale. RESULTS: Significant differences were found in the endorsement of traditional (e.g., religious leader), informal (e.g., family), and semiformal (e.g., internet forum) help-sources between immigrant groups, and between immigrant groups and the Norwegian respondent group. Immigrants from Pakistan and Somalia endorsed traditional help sources to a greater extent than immigrants from Russia and Poland, and the Norwegian student sample. There were no ethnic differences in endorsement of formal mental help sources (e.g., a medical doctor). Maintenance of the culture of origin as the acculturation orientation was associated with preferences for traditional and informal help sources, while the adoption of mainstream culture was associated with semiformal and formal help-seeking sources. CONCLUSION: Ethnic differences in help-seeking sources need to be considered when designing and implementing mental health services.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/terapia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Noruega/etnologia , Paquistão/etnologia , Polônia/etnologia , Federação Russa/etnologia , Somália/etnologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236777, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706835

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the COVID-19 respiratory illness, emerged in December of 2019 and has since spread globally. The dramatic lifestyle changes and stressors associated with this pandemic pose a threat to mental health and have the potential to exacerbate risk factors for suicide. We used autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models to assess Google Trends data representing searches in the United States for 18 terms related to suicide and known suicide risk factors following the emergence of COVID-19. Although the relative proportion of Google searches for suicide-related queries was lower than predicted during the early pandemic period, searches for the following queries representative of financial difficulty were dramatically elevated: "I lost my job" (226%; 95%CI, 120%-333%), "laid off" (1164%; 95%CI, 395%-1932%), "unemployment" (1238%; 95%CI, 560%-1915%), and "furlough" (5717%; 95%CI, 2769%-8665%). Searches for the Disaster Distress Helpline, which was promoted as a source of help for those impacted by COVID-19, were also remarkably elevated (3021%; 95%CI, 873%-5169%). Google searches for other queries representative of help-seeking and general mental health concerns were moderately elevated. It appears that some indices of suicidality have fallen in the United States in this early stage of the pandemic, but that COVID-19 may have caused an increase in suicide risk factors that could yield long-term increases in suicidality and suicide rates.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Ferramenta de Busca/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Linhas Diretas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida , Desemprego/psicologia , Estados Unidos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660145

RESUMO

Men are less likely to seek help for mental health difficulties and this process is often used to help explain the disproportionally higher suicide rates compared to women. Furthermore, university students are often regarded as a vulnerable population group with a lower propensity to seek help. Thus, male students are a very high-risk group that is even more reluctant to seek help for mental health difficulties, placing them at high risk of suicide. Often, student mental health problems are highlighted in the media, but very few evidence-based solutions specifically designed for male students exist. The current paper seeks to provide a comprehensive framework about how to better design mental health interventions that seek to improve male students' willingness to access psychological support. The Medical Research Council's (MRC's) framework for developing a complex intervention was used to develop an intervention relevant to male students. In this paper, previous help-seeking interventions and their evaluation methods are first described, secondly, a theoretical framework outlining the important factors male students face when accessing support, and thirdly, how these factors can be mapped onto a model of behaviour change to inform the development of an evidence-based intervention are discussed. Finally, an example intervention with specific functions and behaviour change techniques is provided to demonstrate how this framework can be implemented and evaluated. It is hoped that this framework can be used to help reduce the disparity between male and female students seeking mental health support.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Mental , Suicídio , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudantes , Universidades
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236013, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection, particularly in the first 5 years of life, is a major cause of childhood deaths globally, many deaths from infections such as pneumonia and meningococcal disease are avoidable, if treated in time. Some factors that contribute to morbidity and mortality can be modified. These include organisational and environmental factors as well as those related to the child, family or professional. OBJECTIVE: Examine what organizational and environmental factors and individual child, family and professional factors affect timing of admission to hospital for children with a serious infectious illness. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Key search terms were identified and used to search CINAHL Plus, Medline, ASSIA, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute Database of Systematic Review. STUDY APPRAISAL METHODS: Primary research (e.g. quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods studies) and literature reviews (e.g., systematic, scoping and narrative) were included if participants included or were restricted to children under 5 years of age with serious infectious illnesses, included parents and/or first contact health care professionals in primary care, urgent and emergency care and where the research had been conducted in OECD high income countries. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool was used to review the methodological quality of the studies. MAIN FINDINGS: Thirty-six papers were selected for full text review; 12 studies fitted the inclusion criteria. Factors influencing the timing of admission to hospital included the variability in children's illness trajectories and pathways to hospital, parental recognition of symptoms and clinicians non-recognition of illness severity, parental help-seeking behaviour and clinician responses, access to services, use and non-use of 'gut feeling' by clinicians, and sub-optimal management within primary, secondary and tertiary services. CONCLUSIONS: The pathways taken by children with a serious infectious illness to hospital are complex and influenced by a variety of potentially modifiable individual, organisational, environmental and contextual factors. Supportive, accessible, respectful services that provide continuity, clear communication, advice and safety-netting are important as is improved training for clinicians and a mandate to attend to 'gut feeling'. IMPLICATIONS: Relatively simple interventions such as improved communication have the potential to improve the quality of care and reduce morbidity and mortality in children with a serious infectious illness.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/patologia , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(5): 334-343, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493893

RESUMO

Objective The purpose of this study is to redefine "Gojo" (mutual help) among residents and explore measures to develop it Gojo in the integrated community care system. In 2000, long-term care insurance accelerated Japan's movement toward an aging society, thus increasing the importance of Gojo. This study aims to clarify the conceptual definition it has come to acquire in recent years and explore ways it can be developed in comprehensive community systems.Methodology Rodger's evolutionary concept analysis was utilized in the study. A keyword research was done using the term "Gojo" in the Japan Medical Abstracts Society (Ichushi Web) and CiNii Articles databases. The search period was from 2000 to 2016 (search date: August 30, 2016) and the database search formula was set to "Gojo/TA". Thirty documents were selected through random sampling and a total of 32 documents were selected for analysis, including landmark documents. A qualitative analysis was conducted on three frameworks: attributes (i.e., characteristics of Gojo), antecedents (i.e., factors affecting Gojo), and consequences (i.e., expected results for Gojo). These three frameworks represent how Gojo is used, the events occurring before it, and the events resulting from it, respectively.Results The characteristics of Gojo were found to include "experiences of empathy toward residents' daily need for support," "awareness about the residents' efforts to support each other," and "interaction among residents who support other's daily needs." The factors affecting Gojo were identified to be "the need for daily life support beyond what self-help, social solidarity care, and governmental care can provide"; "interchange among residents"; "sharing needs for daily life support among residents"; and "a resident-led public system that promotes mutual support." Gojo's expected results were "a solution for residents' needs of daily support"; "promotion of self-help awareness"; "providing them with a role to enhance their purpose in life"; and "encouraging exchanges and relations between them."Conclusion Gojo was defined as "the interaction between local residents who support their daily needs, have an empathic experience of the need for daily life support, and have the desire to support each other." In addition, the following points were suggested as measures necessary to expand Gojo. The residents must have sympathy for other residents who need daily life support, understand the benefits of supporting each other, and have a public support system, even if Gojo is led by the residents.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Assistência Integral à Saúde , Empatia , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Apoio Social , Atividades Cotidianas , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Seguro de Assistência de Longo Prazo , Japão
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