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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(48): e2206067119, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417435

RESUMO

To make a deliberate action in a volatile environment, the brain must frequently reassess the value of each action (action-value). Choice can be initially made from the experience of trial-and-errors, but once the dynamics of the environment is learned, the choice can be made from the knowledge of the environment. The action-values constructed from the experience (retrospective value) and the ones from the knowledge (prospective value) were identified in various regions of the brain. However, how and which neural circuit integrates these values and executes the chosen action remains unknown. Combining reinforcement learning and two-photon calcium imaging, we found that the preparatory activity of neurons in a part of the frontal cortex, the anterior-lateral motor (ALM) area, initially encodes retrospective value, but after extensive training, they jointly encode the retrospective and prospective value. Optogenetic inhibition of ALM preparatory activity specifically abolished the expert mice's predictive choice behavior and returned them to the novice-like state. Thus, the integrated action-value encoded in the preparatory activity of ALM plays an important role to bias the action toward the knowledge-dependent, predictive choice behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Córtex Motor , Animais , Camundongos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Reforço Psicológico
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5855, 2022 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195765

RESUMO

Prospect theory, arguably the most prominent theory of choice, is an obvious candidate for neural valuation models. How the activity of individual neurons, a possible computational unit, obeys prospect theory remains unknown. Here, we show, with theoretical accuracy equivalent to that of human neuroimaging studies, that single-neuron activity in four core reward-related cortical and subcortical regions represents the subjective valuation of risky gambles in monkeys. The activity of individual neurons in monkeys passively viewing a lottery reflects the desirability of probabilistic rewards parameterized as a multiplicative combination of utility and probability weighting functions, as in the prospect theory framework. The diverse patterns of valuation signals were not localized but distributed throughout most parts of the reward circuitry. A network model aggregating these signals reconstructed the risk preferences and subjective probability weighting revealed by the animals' choices. Thus, distributed neural coding explains the computation of subjective valuations under risk.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Assunção de Riscos , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Humanos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Recompensa
3.
Elife ; 112022 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074557

RESUMO

What role do regions like the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) play in normative behavior (e.g., generosity, healthy eating)? Some models suggest that dlPFC activation during normative choice reflects controlled inhibition or modulation of default hedonistic preferences. Here, we develop an alternative account, showing that evidence accumulation models predict trial-by-trial variation in dlPFC response across three fMRI paradigms and two self-control contexts (altruistic sacrifice and healthy eating). Using these models to simulate a variety of self-control dilemmas generated a novel prediction: although dlPFC activity might typically increase for norm-consistent choices, deliberate self-regulation focused on normative goals should decrease or even reverse this pattern (i.e., greater dlPFC response for hedonistic, self-interested choices). We confirmed these predictions in both altruistic and dietary choice contexts. Our results suggest that dlPFC response during normative choice may depend more on value-based evidence accumulation than inhibition of our baser instincts.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal Dorsolateral , Inibição Psicológica , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Autocontrole
4.
Eur J Neurosci ; 56(10): 5823-5835, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114689

RESUMO

While influences of Pavlovian associations on instrumental behaviour are well established, we still do not know how motor actions affect the formation of Pavlovian associations. To address this question, we designed a task in which participants were presented with neutral stimuli, half of which were paired with an active response, half with a passive waiting period. Stimuli had an 80% chance of predicting either a monetary gain or loss. We compared the feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to predictive stimuli and outcomes, as well as directed phase synchronization before and after outcome presentation between trials with versus without a motor response. We found a larger FRN amplitude in response to outcomes presented after a motor response (active trials). This effect was driven by a positive deflection in active reward trials, which was absent in passive reward trials. Connectivity analysis revealed that the motor action reversed the direction of the phase synchronization at the time of the feedback presentation: Top-down information flow during the outcome anticipation phase in active trials, but bottom-up information flow in passive trials. This main effect of action was mirrored in behavioural data showing that participants preferred stimuli associated with an active response. Our findings suggest an influence of neural systems that initiate motor actions on neural systems involved in reward processing. We suggest that motor actions might modulate the brain responses to feedback by affecting the dynamics of brain activity towards optimizing the processing of the resulting action outcome.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Recompensa , Humanos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia
5.
Hippocampus ; 32(11-12): 818-827, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36177887

RESUMO

A fundamental trait of depression is low motivation. Hippocampal neurogenesis has been associated with motivational deficits but detailed evidence on how it regulates human-relevant behavioral traits is still missing. We used the hGFAP-TK rat model to deplete actively dividing neural stem cells in the rat hippocampus. Use of the effort-discounting operant task allowed us to identify specific and detailed deficits in motivation behavior. In this task, rats are given a choice between small and large food rewards, where 2-20 lever presses are required to obtain the large reward (four sugar pellets) versus one press to receive the smaller reward (two sugar pellets). We found that depleting adult neurogenesis did not affect effort-based choice or general motivation to complete the task. However, lack of adult neurogenesis reduced the pressing rate and thus increased time to complete the required presses to obtain a reward. In summary, the present study finds that adult hippocampal neurogenesis specifically reduces response vigor to obtain rewards and thus deepens our understanding in how neurogenesis shapes depression.


Assuntos
Neurogênese , Recompensa , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Hipocampo , Motivação , Açúcares , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia
6.
Elife ; 112022 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35975792

RESUMO

Humans and animals make predictions about the rewards they expect to receive in different situations. In formal models of behavior, these predictions are known as value representations, and they play two very different roles. Firstly, they drive choice: the expected values of available options are compared to one another, and the best option is selected. Secondly, they support learning: expected values are compared to rewards actually received, and future expectations are updated accordingly. Whether these different functions are mediated by different neural representations remains an open question. Here, we employ a recently developed multi-step task for rats that computationally separates learning from choosing. We investigate the role of value representations in the rodent orbitofrontal cortex, a key structure for value-based cognition. Electrophysiological recordings and optogenetic perturbations indicate that these representations do not directly drive choice. Instead, they signal expected reward information to a learning process elsewhere in the brain that updates choice mechanisms.


Assuntos
Córtex Pré-Frontal , Roedores , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Ratos , Recompensa
7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(7): e1010283, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793388

RESUMO

Choices are influenced by gaze allocation during deliberation, so that fixating an alternative longer leads to increased probability of choosing it. Gaze-dependent evidence accumulation provides a parsimonious account of choices, response times and gaze-behaviour in many simple decision scenarios. Here, we test whether this framework can also predict more complex context-dependent patterns of choice in a three-alternative risky choice task, where choices and eye movements were subject to attraction and compromise effects. Choices were best described by a gaze-dependent evidence accumulation model, where subjective values of alternatives are discounted while not fixated. Finally, we performed a systematic search over a large model space, allowing us to evaluate the relative contribution of different forms of gaze-dependence and additional mechanisms previously not considered by gaze-dependent accumulation models. Gaze-dependence remained the most important mechanism, but participants with strong attraction effects employed an additional similarity-dependent inhibition mechanism found in other models of multi-alternative multi-attribute choice.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Movimentos Oculares , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Probabilidade , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Assunção de Riscos
8.
Neuron ; 110(13): 2046-2048, 2022 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797959

RESUMO

Corticostriatal circuits represent value and choice during value-guided decision making. In this issue of Neuron, Balewski et al. (2022) show that caudate nucleus and orbitofrontal cortex use distinct value signals during choice, which are consistent with two parallel valuation mechanisms, one fast, one slow.


Assuntos
Núcleo Caudado , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Recompensa
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4405, 2022 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35906242

RESUMO

Economic choices between goods entail the computation and comparison of subjective values. Previous studies examined neuronal activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of monkeys choosing between different types of juices. Three groups of neurons were identified: offer value cells encoding the value of individual offers, chosen juice cells encoding the identity of the chosen juice, and chosen value cells encoding the value of the chosen offer. The encoded variables capture both the input (offer value) and the output (chosen juice, chosen value) of the decision process, suggesting that values are compared within OFC. Recent work demonstrates that choices are causally linked to the activity of offer value cells. Conversely, the hypothesis that OFC contributes to value comparison has not been confirmed. Here we show that weak electrical stimulation of OFC specifically disrupts value comparison without altering offer values. This result implies that neuronal populations in OFC participate in value comparison.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Recompensa
10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(6): e1010096, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687550

RESUMO

Value-based decision-making is of central interest in cognitive neuroscience and psychology, as well as in the context of neuropsychiatric disorders characterised by decision-making impairments. Studies examining (neuro-)computational mechanisms underlying choice behaviour typically focus on participants' decisions. However, there is increasing evidence that option valuation might also be reflected in motor response vigour and eye movements, implicit measures of subjective utility. To examine motor response vigour and visual fixation correlates of option valuation in intertemporal choice, we set up a task where the participants selected an option by pressing a grip force transducer, simultaneously tracking fixation shifts between options. As outlined in our preregistration (https://osf.io/k6jct), we used hierarchical Bayesian parameter estimation to model the choices assuming hyperbolic discounting, compared variants of the softmax and drift diffusion model, and assessed the relationship between response vigour and the estimated model parameters. The behavioural data were best explained by a drift diffusion model specifying a non-linear scaling of the drift rate by the subjective value differences. Replicating previous findings, we found a magnitude effect for temporal discounting, such that higher rewards were discounted less. This magnitude effect was further reflected in motor response vigour, such that stronger forces were exerted in the high vs. the low magnitude condition. Bayesian hierarchical linear regression further revealed higher grip forces, faster response times and a lower number of fixation shifts for trials with higher subjective value differences. An exploratory analysis revealed that subjective value sums across options showed an even more pronounced association with trial-wise grip force amplitudes. Our data suggest that subjective utility or implicit valuation is reflected in motor response vigour and visual fixation patterns during intertemporal choice. Taking into account response vigour might thus provide deeper insight into decision-making, reward valuation and maladaptive changes in these processes, e.g. in the context of neuropsychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Teorema de Bayes , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Recompensa
11.
Behav Brain Res ; 431: 113951, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661751

RESUMO

Delay discounting and probability discounting decision making tasks in rodent models have high translational potential. However, it is unclear whether the discounted value of the large reward option is the main contributor to variability in animals' choices in either task, which may limit translation to humans. Male and female mice underwent sessions of delay and probability discounting in sequence to assess how choice behavior adapts over experience with each task. To control for "anchoring" (persistent choices based on the initial delay or probability), mice experienced "Worsening" schedules where the large reward was offered under initially favorable conditions that became less favorable during testing, followed by "Improving" schedules where the large reward was offered under initially unfavorable conditions that improved over a session. During delay discounting, both male and female mice showed elimination of anchoring effects over training. In probability discounting, both sexes of mice continued to show some anchoring even after months of training. One possibility is that "noisy", exploratory choices could contribute to these persistent anchoring effects, rather than constant fluctuations in value discounting. We fit choice behavior in individual animals using models that included both a value-based discounting parameter and a decision noise parameter that captured variability in choices deviating from value maximization. Changes in anchoring behavior over time were tracked by changes in both the value and decision noise parameters in delay discounting, but by the decision noise parameter in probability discounting. Exploratory decision making was also reflected in choice response times that tracked the degree of conflict caused by both uncertainty and temporal cost, but was not linked with differences in locomotor activity reflecting chamber exploration. Thus, variable discounting behavior in mice can result from changes in exploration of the decision options rather than changes in reward valuation.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Desvalorização pelo Atraso/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Probabilidade , Tempo de Reação , Recompensa , Tempo
12.
Nat Neurosci ; 25(6): 738-748, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668173

RESUMO

Reward expectations based on internal knowledge of the external environment are a core component of adaptive behavior. However, internal knowledge may be inaccurate or incomplete due to errors in sensory measurements. Some features of the environment may also be encoded inaccurately to minimize representational costs associated with their processing. In this study, we investigated how reward expectations are affected by features of internal representations by studying behavior and dopaminergic activity while mice make time-based decisions. We show that several possible representations allow a reinforcement learning agent to model animals' overall performance during the task. However, only a small subset of highly compressed representations simultaneously reproduced the co-variability in animals' choice behavior and dopaminergic activity. Strikingly, these representations predict an unusual distribution of response times that closely match animals' behavior. These results inform how constraints of representational efficiency may be expressed in encoding representations of dynamic cognitive variables used for reward-based computations.


Assuntos
Dopamina , Recompensa , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Cognição , Dopamina/fisiologia , Camundongos , Reforço Psicológico
13.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 29(5): 1986-1996, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35618941

RESUMO

The context-dependent nature of choice is well illustrated by decoy effects, in which adding an alternative to a choice set can change the preference relations among the other alternatives. The current within-subjects study tested whether manipulating cognitive load affects the magnitude of attraction and compromise decoy effects. Participants (n = 96) made simulated online grocery shopping choices from three options described by price and quality for each grocery item they encountered. On half the 96 trials, they had to memorize a telephone number prior to encountering the choice set, after which they recalled the number. The choice task was rated significantly more difficult under load, providing some face validity for the load manipulation. Across decoy types, context effects were large and unaffected by the load manipulation. Bayesian analysis provided substantial evidence in favor of this null effect, with the study powered at better than .95 to detect a moderate effect. Across individuals, the magnitude of decoy effects was positively correlated with perception of the greater difficulty of the task under load, with this relationship fully mediated by increases in response times. These results are consistent with the idea that compromise and attraction decoy effects can operate relatively automatically and require minimal effortful processing.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Cognição , Teorema de Bayes , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267249, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446901

RESUMO

Every day, we make many value-based decisions where we weigh the value of options with other properties, e.g. their time of delivery. In the laboratory, such value-based decision-making is usually studied on a trial by trial basis and each decision is assumed to represent an isolated choice process. Real-life decisions however are usually embedded in a rich context of previous choices at different time scales. A fundamental question is therefore how the dynamics of value-based decision processes unfold on a time scale across several decisions. Indeed, findings from perceptual decision making suggest that sequential decisions patterns might also be present for vale-based decision making. Here, we use a neural-inspired attractor model as an instance of dynamic models from perceptual decision making, as such models incorporate inherent activation dynamics across decisions. We use the model to predict sequential patterns, namely oscillatory switching, perseveration and dependence of perseveration on the delay between decisions. Furthermore, we predict RT effects for specific sequences of trials. We validate the predictions in two new studies and a reanalysis of existing data from a novel decision game in which participants have to perform delay discounting decisions. Applying the validated reasoning to a well-established choice questionnaire, we illustrate and discuss that taking sequential choice patterns into account may be necessary to accurately analyse and model value-based decision processes, especially when considering differences between individuals.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Tomada de Decisões , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Humanos
15.
Neuron ; 110(11): 1869-1879.e5, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35390278

RESUMO

Flexible decision-making requires animals to forego immediate rewards (exploitation) and try novel choice options (exploration) to discover if they are preferable to familiar alternatives. Using the same task and a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) model to quantify the value of choices, we first determined that the computational basis for managing explore-exploit tradeoffs is conserved across monkeys and humans. We then used fMRI to identify where in the human brain the immediate value of exploitative choices and relative uncertainty about the value of exploratory choices were encoded. Consistent with prior neurophysiological evidence in monkeys, we observed divergent encoding of reward value and uncertainty in prefrontal and parietal regions, including frontopolar cortex, and parallel encoding of these computations in motivational regions including the amygdala, ventral striatum, and orbitofrontal cortex. These results clarify the interplay between prefrontal and motivational circuits that supports adaptive explore-exploit decisions in humans and nonhuman primates.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Estriado Ventral , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Recompensa , Estriado Ventral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estriado Ventral/fisiologia
16.
Elife ; 112022 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416775

RESUMO

Economic choices are characterized by a variety of biases. Understanding their origins is a long-term goal for neuroeconomics, but progress on this front has been limited. Here, we examined choice biases observed when two goods are offered sequentially. In the experiments, rhesus monkeys chose between different juices offered simultaneously or in sequence. Choices under sequential offers were less accurate (higher variability). They were also biased in favor of the second offer (order bias) and in favor of the preferred juice (preference bias). Analysis of neuronal activity recorded in the orbitofrontal cortex revealed that these phenomena emerged at different computational stages. Lower choice accuracy reflected weaker offer value signals (valuation stage), the order bias emerged during value comparison (decision stage), and the preference bias emerged late in the trial (post-comparison). By neuronal measures, each phenomenon reduced the value obtained on average in each trial and was thus costly to the monkey.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Neurônios , Animais , Viés , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
17.
Nat Rev Neurosci ; 23(7): 428-438, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468999

RESUMO

People with damage to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) have specific problems making decisions, whereas their other cognitive functions are spared. Neurophysiological studies have shown that OFC neurons fire in proportion to the value of anticipated outcomes. Thus, a central role of the OFC is to guide optimal decision-making by signalling values associated with different choices. Until recently, this view of OFC function dominated the field. New data, however, suggest that the OFC may have a much broader role in cognition by representing cognitive maps that can be used to guide behaviour and that value is just one of many variables that are important for behavioural control. In this Review, we critically evaluate these two alternative accounts of OFC function and examine how they might be reconciled.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Humanos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Recompensa
18.
J Exp Anal Behav ; 118(1): 3-23, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35485644

RESUMO

In delay discounting, preference reversals refer to shifts in preference from a larger-later reward to a smaller-sooner reward. Steep hyperbolic discounting predicts a preference reversal when a smaller-sooner and larger-later reward both become temporally proximal; prior research is consistent with this prediction. Hyperbolic discounting does not predict a preference reversal, however, after an individual chooses a larger-later reward over a smaller-immediate reward; prior research is inconsistent with this prediction. We sought to replicate and extend these findings using a delay of gratification task in rats. The task included a defection response which allowed rats to reverse their preference after choosing a larger-later sucrose reinforcer to instead obtain a smaller-immediate sucrose reinforcer. In Experiment 1, we found that rats would defect on their choice of the larger-later reinforcer, systematically replicating prior research. We also found that experience on the delay of gratification task led to decreases in defection responses. In Experiment 2, we found that prior experience on an intertemporal choice task, with no opportunity to defect, also led to few defection responses on the delay of gratification task. We discuss our findings in the context of whether inhibitory control or temporal learning could be involved in delay of gratification.


Assuntos
Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Comportamento Impulsivo , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Desvalorização pelo Atraso/fisiologia , Prazer , Ratos , Recompensa , Sacarose
19.
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci ; 22(5): 1108-1129, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35359274

RESUMO

This study examined whether pupil size and response time would distinguish directed exploration from random exploration and exploitation. Eighty-nine participants performed the two-choice probabilistic learning task while their pupil size and response time were continuously recorded. Using LMM analysis, we estimated differences in the pupil size and response time between the advantageous and disadvantageous choices as a function of learning success, i.e., whether or not a participant has learned the probabilistic contingency between choices and their outcomes. We proposed that before a true value of each choice became known to a decision-maker, both advantageous and disadvantageous choices represented a random exploration of the two options with an equally uncertain outcome, whereas the same choices after learning manifested exploitation and direct exploration strategies, respectively. We found that disadvantageous choices were associated with increases both in response time and pupil size, but only after the participants had learned the choice-reward contingencies. For the pupil size, this effect was strongly amplified for those disadvantageous choices that immediately followed gains as compared to losses in the preceding choice. Pupil size modulations were evident during the behavioral choice rather than during the pretrial baseline. These findings suggest that occasional disadvantageous choices, which violate the acquired internal utility model, represent directed exploration. This exploratory strategy shifts choice priorities in favor of information seeking and its autonomic and behavioral concomitants are mainly driven by the conflict between the behavioral plan of the intended exploratory choice and its strong alternative, which has already proven to be more rewarding.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Pupila , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Recompensa , Incerteza
20.
Neuron ; 110(10): 1615-1630, 2022 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35334232

RESUMO

Logistic regressions were developed in economics to model individual choice behavior. In recent years, they have become an important tool in decision neuroscience. Here, I describe and discuss different logistic models, emphasizing the underlying assumptions and possible interpretations. Logistic models may be used to quantify a variety of behavioral traits, including the relative subjective value of different goods, the choice accuracy, risk attitudes, and choice biases. More complex logistic models can be used for choices between good bundles, in cases of nonlinear value functions, and for choices between multiple options. Finally, logistic models can quantify the explanatory power of neuronal activity on choices, thus providing a valid alternative to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Neurociências , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia
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