Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.443
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5704, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588440

RESUMO

In perceptual decisions, subjects infer hidden states of the environment based on noisy sensory information. Here we show that both choice and its associated confidence are explained by a Bayesian framework based on partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs). We test our model on monkeys performing a direction-discrimination task with post-decision wagering, demonstrating that the model explains objective accuracy and predicts subjective confidence. Further, we show that the model replicates well-known discrepancies of confidence and accuracy, including the hard-easy effect, opposing effects of stimulus variability on confidence and accuracy, dependence of confidence ratings on simultaneous or sequential reports of choice and confidence, apparent difference between choice and confidence sensitivity, and seemingly disproportionate influence of choice-congruent evidence on confidence. These effects may not be signatures of sub-optimal inference or discrepant computational processes for choice and confidence. Rather, they arise in Bayesian inference with incomplete knowledge of the environment.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Macaca , Cadeias de Markov , Modelos Animais , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5478, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531399

RESUMO

Natural observations suggest that in safe environments, organisms avoid competition to maximize gain, while in hazardous environments the most effective survival strategy is to congregate with competition to reduce the likelihood of predatory attack. We probed the extent to which survival decisions in humans follow these patterns, and examined the factors that determined individual-level decision-making. In a virtual foraging task containing changing levels of competition in safe and hazardous patches with virtual predators, we demonstrate that human participants inversely select competition avoidant and risk diluting strategies depending on perceived patch value (PPV), a computation dependent on reward, threat, and competition. We formulate a mathematically grounded quantification of PPV in social foraging environments and show using multivariate fMRI analyses that PPV is encoded by mid-cingulate cortex (MCC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortices (vMPFC), regions that integrate action and value signals. Together, these results suggest humans utilize and integrate multidimensional information to adaptively select patches highest in PPV, and that MCC and vMPFC play a role in adapting to both competitive and predatory threats in a virtual foraging setting.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
3.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 959, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is very necessary to implement gastric cancer screening in China to reduce the mortality of gastric cancer, but there are no national screening guidelines and programs. Understanding of individual preferences is conducive to formulating more acceptable screening strategies, and discrete choice experiments can quantify individual preferences. In addition, the first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients are at high risk for gastric cancer. Compared with those without a family history of gastric cancer, the risk of gastric cancer in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients is increased by 60%. Therefore, a discrete choice experiment was carried out to quantitatively analyse the preferences of first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients for gastric cancer screening to serve as a reference for the development of gastric cancer screening strategies. METHODS: A questionnaire was designed based on a discrete choice experiment, and 342 first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients were investigated. In STATA 15.0 software, the data were statistically analysed using a mixed logit model. RESULTS: The five attributes included in our study had a significant influence on the preferences of first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients for gastric cancer screening (P < 0.05). Participants most preferred the sensitivity of the screening program to be 95% (coefficient = 1.424, P < 0.01) with a willingness to pay 2501.902 Yuan (95% CI, 738.074-4265.729). In addition, the participants' sex and screening experiences affected their preferences. An increase in sensitivity 35 to 95% had the greatest impact on the participants' willingness to choose a gastric cancer screening program. CONCLUSION: The formulation of gastric cancer screening strategies should be rooted in people's preferences. The influence of sex differences and screening experiences on the preferences of people undergoing screening should be considered, and screening strategies should be formulated according to local conditions to help them play a greater role.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Preferência do Paciente/psicologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Gástricas/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(9): 1251-1258, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426668

RESUMO

Human same-sex sexual behaviour (SSB) is heritable, confers no immediately obvious direct reproductive or survival benefit and can divert mating effort from reproductive opportunities. This presents a Darwinian paradox: why has SSB been maintained despite apparent selection against it? We show that genetic effects associated with SSB may, in individuals who only engage in opposite-sex sexual behaviour (OSB individuals), confer a mating advantage. Using results from a recent genome-wide association study of SSB and a new genome-wide association study on number of opposite-sex sexual partners in 358,426 individuals, we show that, among OSB individuals, genetic effects associated with SSB are associated with having more opposite-sex sexual partners. Computer simulations suggest that such a mating advantage for alleles associated with SSB could help explain how it has been evolutionarily maintained. Caveats include the cultural specificity of our UK and US samples, the societal regulation of sexual behaviour in these populations, the difficulty of measuring mating success and the fact that measured variants capture a minority of the total genetic variation in the traits.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4830, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376663

RESUMO

Choice-relevant brain regions in prefrontal cortex may progressively transform information about options into choices. Here, we examine responses of neurons in four regions of the medial prefrontal cortex as macaques performed two-option risky choices. All four regions encode economic variables in similar proportions and show similar putative signatures of key choice-related computations. We provide evidence to support a gradient of function that proceeds from areas 14 to 25 to 32 to 24. Specifically, we show that decodability of twelve distinct task variables increases along that path, consistent with the idea that regions that are higher in the anatomical hierarchy make choice-relevant variables more separable. We also show progressively longer intrinsic timescales in the same series. Together these results highlight the importance of the medial wall in choice, endorse a specific gradient-based organization, and argue against a modular functional neuroanatomy of choice.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Modelos Neurológicos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/citologia
6.
Elife ; 102021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328413

RESUMO

The term 'temporal discounting' describes both choice preferences and motivation for delayed rewards. Here we show that neuronal activity in the dorsal part of the primate caudate head (dCDh) signals the temporally discounted value needed to compute the motivation for delayed rewards. Macaque monkeys performed an instrumental task, in which visual cues indicated the forthcoming size and delay duration before reward. Single dCDh neurons represented the temporally discounted value without reflecting changes in the animal's physiological state. Bilateral pharmacological or chemogenetic inactivation of dCDh markedly distorted the normal task performance based on the integration of reward size and delay, but did not affect the task performance for different reward sizes without delay. These results suggest that dCDh is involved in encoding the integrated multi-dimensional information critical for motivation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Motivação , Neurônios/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Macaca mulatta , Recompensa
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4593, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321478

RESUMO

From a gym workout, to deciding whether to persevere at work, many activities require us to persist in deciding that rewards are 'worth the effort' even as we become fatigued. However, studies examining effort-based decisions typically assume that the willingness to work is static. Here, we use computational modelling on two effort-based tasks, one behavioural and one during fMRI. We show that two hidden states of fatigue fluctuate on a moment-to-moment basis on different timescales but both reduce the willingness to exert effort for reward. The value of one state increases after effort but is 'recoverable' by rests, whereas a second 'unrecoverable' state gradually increases with work. The BOLD response in separate medial and lateral frontal sub-regions covaried with these states when making effort-based decisions, while a distinct fronto-striatal system integrated fatigue with value. These results provide a computational framework for understanding the brain mechanisms of persistence and momentary fatigue.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Fadiga , Redes Neurais de Computação , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Fadiga/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Lobo Frontal , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Recompensa , Estriado Ventral , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4648, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330909

RESUMO

The goal of deliberation is to separate between options so that we can commit to one and leave the other behind. However, deliberation can, paradoxically, also form an association in memory between the chosen and unchosen options. Here, we consider this possibility and examine its consequences for how outcomes affect not only the value of the options we chose, but also, by association, the value of options we did not choose. In five experiments (total n = 612), including a preregistered experiment (n = 235), we found that the value assigned to unchosen options is inversely related to their chosen counterparts. Moreover, this inverse relationship was associated with participants' memory of the pairs they chose between. Our findings suggest that deciding between options does not end the competition between them. Deliberation binds choice options together in memory such that the learned value of one can affect the inferred value of the other.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Motivação , Projetos Piloto , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(8): 1110-1120, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083787

RESUMO

Context-based sensorimotor routing is a hallmark of executive control. Pharmacological inactivations in rats have implicated the midbrain superior colliculus (SC) in this process. But what specific role is this, and what circuit mechanisms support it? Here we report a subset of rat SC neurons that instantiate a specific link between the representations of context and motor choice. Moreover, these neurons encode animals' choice far earlier than other neurons in the SC or in the frontal cortex, suggesting that their neural dynamics lead choice computation. Optogenetic inactivations revealed that SC activity during context encoding is necessary for choice behavior, even while that choice behavior is robust to inactivations during choice formation. Searches for SC circuit models matching our experimental results identified key circuit predictions while revealing some a priori expected features as unnecessary. Our results reveal circuit mechanisms within the SC that implement response inhibition and context-based vector inversion during executive control.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Colículos Superiores/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Função Executiva , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans
10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(6): e1009070, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081705

RESUMO

Classic reinforcement learning (RL) theories cannot explain human behavior in the absence of external reward or when the environment changes. Here, we employ a deep sequential decision-making paradigm with sparse reward and abrupt environmental changes. To explain the behavior of human participants in these environments, we show that RL theories need to include surprise and novelty, each with a distinct role. While novelty drives exploration before the first encounter of a reward, surprise increases the rate of learning of a world-model as well as of model-free action-values. Even though the world-model is available for model-based RL, we find that human decisions are dominated by model-free action choices. The world-model is only marginally used for planning, but it is important to detect surprising events. Our theory predicts human action choices with high probability and allows us to dissociate surprise, novelty, and reward in EEG signals.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento Exploratório , Modelos Psicológicos , Reforço Psicológico , Algoritmos , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Biologia Computacional , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Recompensa
11.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 719, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117346

RESUMO

Decision making is a cognitive process that mediates behaviors critical for survival. Choosing spatial targets is an experimentally-tractable form of decision making that depends on the midbrain superior colliculus (SC). While physiological and computational studies have uncovered the functional topographic organization of the SC, the role of specific SC cell types in spatial choice is unknown. Here, we leveraged behavior, optogenetics, neural recordings and modeling to directly examine the contribution of GABAergic SC neurons to the selection of opposing spatial targets. Although GABAergic SC neurons comprise a heterogeneous population with local and long-range projections, our results demonstrate that GABAergic SC neurons do not locally suppress premotor output, suggesting that functional long-range inhibition instead plays a dominant role in spatial choice. An attractor model requiring only intrinsic SC circuitry was sufficient to account for our experimental observations. Overall, our study elucidates the role of GABAergic SC neurons in spatial choice.


Assuntos
Neurônios GABAérgicos/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Colículos Superiores/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Optogenética , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Colículos Superiores/citologia
12.
Neuron ; 109(14): 2339-2352.e5, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118190

RESUMO

Humans and animals can be strongly motivated to seek information to resolve uncertainty about rewards and punishments. In particular, despite its clinical and societal relevance, very little is known about information seeking about punishments. We show that attitudes toward information about punishments and rewards are distinct and separable at both behavioral and neuronal levels. We demonstrate the existence of prefrontal neuronal populations that anticipate opportunities to gain information in a relatively valence-specific manner, separately anticipating information about either punishments or rewards. These neurons are located in anatomically interconnected subregions of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) in area 12o/47. Unlike ACC, vlPFC also contains a population of neurons that integrate attitudes toward both reward and punishment information, to encode the overall preference for information in a bivalent manner. This cortical network is well suited to mediate information seeking by integrating the desire to resolve uncertainty about multiple, distinct motivational outcomes.


Assuntos
Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Punição , Recompensa , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Macaca mulatta , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Incerteza
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3410, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099726

RESUMO

Value-based decision making involves choosing from multiple options with different values. Despite extensive studies on value representation in various brain regions, the neural mechanism for how multiple value options are converted to motor actions remains unclear. To study this, we developed a multi-value foraging task with varying menu of items in non-human primates using eye movements that dissociates value and choice, and conducted electrophysiological recording in the midbrain superior colliculus (SC). SC neurons encoded "absolute" value, independent of available options, during late fixation. In addition, SC neurons also represent value threshold, modulated by available options, different from conventional motor threshold. Electrical stimulation of SC neurons biased choices in a manner predicted by the difference between the value representation and the value threshold. These results reveal a neural mechanism directly transforming absolute values to categorical choices within SC, supporting highly efficient value-based decision making critical for real-world economic behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Recompensa , Colículos Superiores/fisiologia , Animais , Estimulação Elétrica/instrumentação , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Microeletrodos , Modelos Animais , Neurônios/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única , Colículos Superiores/citologia
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e26209, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no published meta-analysis comparing the effects of dialysis modality choice on cognitive functions in patients with end-stage renal disease . Therefore, we perform a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate cognitive function in peritoneal dialysis versus hemodialysis patients. METHODS: This protocol is conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocol (PRISMA-P) statement guidelines. Related articles were identified by searching Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, Wanfang Data, Medline, Science Direct, and Cochrane Library. The risk of bias assessment of the included articles was performed by two authors independently using the tool recommended in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. All calculations were carried out with Stata 11.0 (The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, United Kingdom). RESULTS: The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: We hypothesized that patients on peritoneal dialysis demonstrated a lower odd of cognitive dysfunction compared to those on hemodialysis. OPEN SCIENCE FRAMEWORK REGISTRATION NUMBER: 10.17605/OSF.IO/NWCZK.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/psicologia , Diálise Peritoneal/psicologia , Diálise Renal/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Diálise Peritoneal/métodos , Diálise Peritoneal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Diálise Renal/métodos , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 515, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941829

RESUMO

Choosing the right mating partner is one of the most critical decisions in the life of a sexually reproducing organism and is the basis of sexual selection. This choice is usually assumed to be made by one or both of the sexual partners. Here, we describe a system in which a third party - the siblings - promote outbreeding by their sisters: workers of the tiny ant Cardiocondyla elegans carry female sexuals from their natal nest over several meters and drop them in the nest of another, unrelated colony to promote outbreeding with wingless, stationary males. Workers appear to choose particular recipient colonies into which they transfer numerous female sexuals. Assisted outbreeding and indirect female choice in the ant C. elegans are comparable to human matchmaking and suggest a hitherto unknown aspect of natural history - third party sexual selection. Our study highlights that research at the intersection between social evolution and reproductive biology might reveal surprising facets of animal behavior.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Predomínio Social , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
16.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(7): 975-986, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986549

RESUMO

Noise correlations (that is, trial-to-trial covariations in neural activity for a given stimulus) limit the stimulus information encoded by neural populations, leading to the widely held prediction that they impair perceptual discrimination behaviors. However, this prediction neglects the effects of correlations on information readout. We studied how correlations affect both encoding and readout of sensory information. We analyzed calcium imaging data from mouse posterior parietal cortex during two perceptual discrimination tasks. Correlations reduced the encoded stimulus information, but, seemingly paradoxically, were higher when mice made correct rather than incorrect choices. Single-trial behavioral choices depended not only on the stimulus information encoded by the whole population, but unexpectedly also on the consistency of information across neurons and time. Because correlations increased information consistency, they enhanced the conversion of sensory information into behavioral choices, overcoming their detrimental information-limiting effects. Thus, correlations in association cortex can benefit task performance even if they decrease sensory information.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Animais , Camundongos , Modelos Neurológicos
18.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(8): 2047-2057, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839902

RESUMO

RATIONALE: A growing body of research suggests that substance use disorder (SUD) may be characterized as disorders of decision making. However, drug choice studies assessing drug-associated decision making often lack more complex and dynamic conditions that better approximate contexts outside the laboratory and may lead to incomplete conclusions regarding the nature of drug-associated value. OBJECTIVES: The current study assessed isomorphic (choice between identical food options) and allomorphic (choice between remifentanil [REMI] and food) choice across dynamically changing reward probabilities, magnitudes, and differentially reward-predictive stimuli in male rats to better understand determinants of drug value. Choice data were analyzed at aggregate and choice-by-choice levels using quantitative matching and reinforcement learning (RL) models, respectively. RESULTS: Reductions in reward probability or magnitude independently reduced preferences for food and REMI commodities. Inclusion of reward-predictive cues significantly increased preference for food and REMI rewards. Model comparisons revealed that reward-predictive stimuli significantly altered the economic substitutability of food and REMI rewards at both levels of analysis. Furthermore, model comparisons supported the reformulation of reward value updating in RL models from independent terms to a shared, relative term, more akin to matching models. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that value-based quantitative choice models can accurately capture choice determinants within complex decision-making contexts and corroborate drug choice as a multidimensional valuation process. Collectively, the present study indicates commonalities in decision-making for drug and non-drug rewards, validates the use of economic-based SUD therapies (e.g., contingency management), and implicates the neurobehavioral processes underlying drug-associated decision-making as a potential avenue for future SUD treatment.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Recompensa , Animais , Comportamento de Escolha/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Tomada de Decisões/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reforço Psicológico , Remifentanil/administração & dosagem
19.
Neuroimage ; 233: 117929, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675996

RESUMO

Mate choice copying refers to an agent copying the choice for a potential sexual/romantic partner made by a relevant model and has been observed across many species. This study investigated the neural profiles of two copying strategies in humans - acceptance and rejection copying - using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Female participants observed female models accepting, rejecting, or being undecided about (control), males as potential romantic partners before and after rating their own willingness to choose the same males. We found that observing acceptance shifted participants' own choices towards acceptance, while observing rejection shifted participants' choices towards rejection. A network of motivation-, conflict- and reinforcement learning related brain regions was activated for observing the models' decisions. The rostral anterior cingulate gyrus (rACCg) and the caudate in particular were activated more strongly when observing acceptance. Activation in the inferior parietal lobe directly scaled with the magnitude of changes in choices after observing acceptance, while activation in the ACCg also scaled with changes after observing rejection. These findings point to partly dissociable neural profiles for copying strategies that might be linked to different contributions of incentive-driven and vicarious motivation, potentially reflecting the presence or absence of internalised reward experiences.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Distância Psicológica , Rejeição em Psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Recompensa , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247755, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661946

RESUMO

This pilot study aims to investigate the relationships between consumers' weight status, energy density of food and visual attention towards food during unplanned purchase behavior in a real-world environment. After more than a decade of intensive experimental eye tracking research on food perception, this pilot study attempts to link experimental and field research in this area. Shopping trips of participants with different weight status were recorded with mobile eye tracking devices and their unplanned purchase behavior was identified and analyzed. Different eye movement measurements for initial orientation and maintained attention were analyzed. Differences in visual attention caused by energy density of food were found. There was a tendency across all participants to look at low energy density food longer and more often.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares/psicologia , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular/normas , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...