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1.
Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc ; 130: 76-87, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516170

RESUMO

Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is defined by an acute fall in the serum or plasma sodium concentration to below 135 mmol/L that occurs during or up to 24 hours after prolonged physical activity. EAH has been reported in nearly every form of endurance activity and has a common pathogenic feature of excessive water intake which is usually coupled with elevated vasopressin levels. Symptomatic EAH is uncommon but can be a cause of mortality in otherwise healthy adults and children. Rapid recognition and appropriate treatment with hypertonic saline are essential to maximizing outcomes and preventing death.


Assuntos
Arginina Vasopressina/metabolismo , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Água Potável , Exercício/fisiologia , Hiponatremia/fisiopatologia , Doenças Assintomáticas , Hidratação , Humanos , Hiponatremia/epidemiologia , Hiponatremia/metabolismo , Hiponatremia/terapia , Solução Salina Hipertônica/uso terapêutico
2.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 83(12): 2345-2354, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524073

RESUMO

The effect of Lactobacillus plantarum SNK12 (CPLP) supplementation on mRNA levels of hippocampal neurotrophic factors and gamma aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAR) was tested. In Experiment 1, stress-free, unsupplemented and CPLP (4 × 108 cells/head)-supplemented male C57BL/6J (B6) mice were the experimental animals. In Experiment 2, intruder (male, B6) mice [negative control; unsupplemented, sub-chronic mild social defeat stress (sCSDS)-induced; and CPLP-supplemented, sCSDS-induced] were exposed to aggressor mice (adult male Slc:ICR). mRNA levels of neurotrophic factors and GABAR in hippocampal samples of these mice were analyzed. In CPLP-supplemented mice of both experiments, mRNA levels of bdnf, nt-3, and GABAR were upregulated. Moreover, a tendency toward the improvement of habituation ability (Experiment 1) and behavior (Experiment 2) was observed in mice, which may be associated with upregulated neurotrophic factors and GABAR. We demonstrated that oral supplementation of CPLP to stress-free and stress-induced mice upregulated mRNA levels of hippocampal neurotrophic factors and GABAR.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Probióticos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores de GABA/genética , Estresse Psicológico , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Peso Corporal , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Comportamento Alimentar , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
3.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 80(9): 517-524, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498658

RESUMO

Nocturia may be a multifactorial condition and should be regarded as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis, with many factors contributing to the clinical presentation. The effects of sleep deprivation can have a severely detrimental impact on the quality of life and productivity of the working age population, with considerable economic implications. Patients are unlikely to seek an appointment with their GP complaining of nocturia - they are more likely to complain of the effects of the condition, such as chronic tiredness, or injuries resulting from falls. The main criterion in deciding whether a patient should undergo further investigations into suspected nocturia is the degree to which the patient finds the condition bothersome. In some patients, lifestyle modifications may be an effective way to manage nocturia before medication is considered. As the only licensed product for all adults including those over 65 years of age, low dose desmopressin (Noqdirna® (as lyophilisate) Ferring Pharmaceuticals Ltd) is highly effective in the management of idiopathic nocturnal polyuria, producing improvements in clinical symptoms, sleep parameters and quality of life. Care should be administered as a joint enterprise between the patient's GP and colleagues in secondary care. This article outlines the findings of a roundtable discussion into the optimal management of patients with nocturnal polyuria.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Noctúria/terapia , Antidiuréticos/uso terapêutico , Desamino Arginina Vasopressina/uso terapêutico , Desprescrições , Dieta Hipossódica , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Noctúria/induzido quimicamente , Noctúria/diagnóstico
4.
Med Arch ; 73(2): 104-108, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391697

RESUMO

Introduction: The dietary supplements are defined as vitamins and minerals or herbal products and are typically given in the form of a capsule or tablet. The nonsmokers are more attempted to use dietary supplements than individuals who smoke. Aim: In our investigation, we examined associations between vitamin B, folic acid, multivitamin or mineral intake among the student population and their correlation with smoking prevalence and drinking coffee. Materials and methods: We used a questionnaire to examine the general characteristics of the subjects, age, sex, their lifestyle, cigarette smoking, coffee intake and their use of dietary supplements. Data were collected from participants of the University of Sarajevo and a longitudinal study of 960 men and women aged 18-24 years from 2017 to 2018 was conducted. Results: The results showed that 32% of students took vitamin B supplements and 10% folic acid. In opposite, more than half of students took multivitamins (59.5%) and minerals (60.4%) less than one year. About a quarter or less took multivitamins (23.9%) and minerals (24.3%) for years. Less than 20% of students took multivitamins and minerals within a period of one year. In student population smoking prevalence was estimated at 21.2% and coffee intake in 71.2%. The smoking and use of vitamin B supplements were independent of each other, p = 0.201. The use of folic acid did not depend on smoking p = 0.501. There were no observed correlations between multivitamin and mineral supplement consumption compared to smoking status or drinking coffee. Conclusion: Deficient dietary intake of folic acid and B vitamins from food and supplemental sources appear to be one of the atherosclerosis incidences. Further studies should examine associations between dietary supplements intake and lifestyle of students, as well as smoking status and coffee intake.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Café , Suplementos Nutricionais , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Universidades , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10471-10482, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447153

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed for the first time the use of a reticuloruminal temperature bolus and a thresholding method to detect drinking events and investigated different factors that can affect drinking behavior. First, we validated the detection of drinking events using 16 cows that received a reticuloruminal bolus. For this, we collected continuous drinking behavior data for 4 d using video recordings and ambient and water temperature for the same 4 d. After all the data were synchronized, we performed 2 threshold algorithms: a general-fixed threshold and a cow-day specific threshold algorithm. In the general-fixed threshold, a positive test was considered if the temperature of any cow fell below a fixed threshold; in the cow-day specific threshold, a positive test was considered when the temperature of specific cows fell below the threshold value deviations around the mean temperature of the cow for that day. The former was evaluated using a threshold varying between 35.7 and 39.5°C, and the latter using the formula µ-n10σ, where µ = mean of the temperature of each cow for one day, n = 1, 2, …, 20, and σ = standard deviation of the temperature of each cow on that day. The performance of the validation of detection using each of the threshold types was computed using different metrics, including overall accuracy, precision, recall (also known as sensitivity), F-score, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false discovery rate, false omission rate, and Cohen's kappa statistic. The findings of the first study showed that the cow-day specific threshold of n = 10 performed better (true positives = 466; false positives = 167; false negatives = 165; true negatives = 8,416) than using a general-fixed threshold of 38.1°C (true positives = 449; false positives = 181; false negatives = 182; true negatives = 8,402). With the information gained in this first study, we investigated the different factors associated with temperature drop characteristics per cow: number of drops, mean amplitude of the drop, and mean recovery time. For this, we used data from 54 cows collected for almost 1 yr to build a mixed-effect multilevel model that included days in milk, parity, average monthly milk production, and ambient temperature as explanatory variables. Cow characteristics and ambient temperature had significant effects on drinking events. Our results provide a platform for automated monitoring of drinking behavior, which has potential value in prediction of health and welfare in dairy cattle.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/fisiologia , Retículo/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Funções Verossimilhança , Leite , Paridade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Curva ROC , Gravação em Vídeo
6.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(12): 3497-3512, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273401

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Analysis of lick pattern for sucrose and NaCl and of the forced swimming response after dopamine antagonist administration led us to suggest that dopamine on D1-like receptors is involved in behavioural activation, and the level of activation is "reboosted" on the basis of an evaluation process involving D2-like receptors. Although some studies investigated licking microstructure for water after dopamine antagonists, the within-session time course of their effect was never investigated. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to further investigate the role of dopamine receptors in the mechanisms governing water ingestion, focussing on the within-session time course of the microstructure parameters, and to test the proposed hypothesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (0.01-0.04 mg/kg) and of the dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist raclopride (0.025-0.25 mg/kg) on licking microstructure for water were examined in 20-h water-deprived rats in 30-min sessions. RESULTS: As previously observed with sucrose and NaCl, SCH 23390 reduced licking by reducing burst number, suggesting reduced behavioural activation. Moreover, it resulted in an increased burst size. Raclopride reduced the size of licking bursts, while their number was either increased or decreased depending on the dose. CONCLUSION: The results support the suggestion that D1 receptors are involved in behavioural activation and D2 receptors are involved in a related evaluation process. Within the framework of the proposed hypothesis, the increased burst size after D1-like receptor blockade might be interpreted as a pro-hedonic effect consequent to the increased cost of the activation of the licking response.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/fisiologia , Receptores de Dopamina D1/fisiologia , Receptores de Dopamina D2/fisiologia , Privação de Água/fisiologia , Água/administração & dosagem , Animais , Benzazepinas/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Dopamina D2/farmacologia , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Masculino , Racloprida/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Dopamina D1/antagonistas & inibidores
7.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 89: 1-52, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351524

RESUMO

Beverages make important contributions to nutritional intake and their role in health has received much attention. This review focuses on the genetic determinants of common beverage consumption and how research in this field is contributing insight to what and how much we consume and why this genetic knowledge matters from a research and public health perspective. The earliest efforts in gene-beverage behavior mapping involved genetic linkage and candidate gene analysis but these approaches have been largely replaced by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). GWAS have identified biologically plausible loci underlying alcohol and coffee drinking behavior. No GWAS has identified variants specifically associated with consumption of tea, juice, soda, wine, beer, milk or any other common beverage. Thus far, GWAS highlight an important behavior-reward component (as opposed to taste) to beverage consumption which may serve as a potential barrier to dietary interventions. Loci identified have been used in Mendelian randomization and gene×beverage interaction analysis of disease but results have been mixed. This research is necessary as it informs the clinical relevance of SNP-beverage associations and thus genotype-based personalized nutrition, which is gaining interest in the commercial and public health sectors.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/genética , Estado Nutricional , Humanos
8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 108989, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228801

RESUMO

Korean pine nut protein (PNP) has a variety of biological activities, which are good for human health, but its ability to preventing diabetes has not been reported. This study evaluated the effects of water-soluble proteins of Korean pine nut obtained from a dilute alkali extract on carbohydrate metabolism of type 2 diabetic mice on a model of diabetes induced using a high fat diet combined with streptozotocin. The results showed that the hypoglycemic effect of PNP at a middle dose was the most significant, which was 38.7% lower than that of control. The extract significantly improved the oral glucose tolerance and liver indexes, increased the activity of the carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, and regulated the expression of the function of key genes for carbohydrate metabolism. It had a positive effect on both insulin resistance and glycolytic/gluconeogenesis signaling. In conclusion, PNP can regulate fasting blood glucose, improve insulin resistance, correct the glucose metabolism disorder in diabetic mice, and have a positive regulatory role. As the functional food, it has the potential to be beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus as a new hypoglycemic functional food.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Nozes/uso terapêutico , Pinus/química , Água/química , Administração Oral , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dieta , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Jejum/sangue , Comportamento Alimentar , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Nozes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Nozes/farmacologia , Solubilidade
9.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4301-4312, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250010

RESUMO

The behavior of 2 generations of broiler breeders undergoing a 25% reduced balanced protein (RP) dietary treatment was investigated in the current study. There were 2 treatments for the F0 generation: control (C) breeders fed with standard C diets and RP breeders fed with RP diets. The female progeny of each treatment was again subjected to 2 dietary treatments, resulting in 4 treatments for F1 generation: C/C, C/RP, RP/C, and RP/RP (breeder feed in F0/F1 generation). To maintain the target body weights throughout the trial, breeders on RP diet received on average 10% more feed than C diet breeders. The behavior of the breeders at 8h30 (30 min before feeding at 9h00), 12h00, and 15h30 in weeks 23 and 37 of the F0 generation and in week 6, 11, and 22 of the F1 generation was observed. Litter scratching, feather pecking, and object pecking were occasionally increased by RP diet feeding which indicated feeding frustration. Drinking behavior decreased dramatically by the RP dietary feeding and resulting in a better litter condition which could benefit dust bathing behavior. In addition, feeding the breeders RP diet in the F0 generation decreased litter scratching (week 6) and feather pecking (week 22, 15h30) but increased sitting (week 11, 15h30) and drinking (a tendency in week 6 and a significant effect in week 11) behavior of offspring breeders (F1 generation). In general, breeders fed with reduced balanced protein diets, to some extent, spent less time drinking and their offspring could have an adaptation to the maternal RP diet. The mechanism of this adaptation still needs to be further investigated. In general, positive effects were found by reducing protein level of breeder diets. However, negative side effects such as feeding frustration were also observed, which merit further study.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Comportamento Alimentar , Frustração , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino
10.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1110-1121, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160741

RESUMO

Learning to predict rewards based on environmental cues is essential for survival. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) contributes to such learning by conveying reward-related information to brain areas such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Despite this, how cue-reward memory representations form in individual OFC neurons and are modified based on new information is unknown. To address this, using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging in mice, we tracked the response evolution of thousands of OFC output neurons, including those projecting to VTA, through multiple days and stages of cue-reward learning. Collectively, we show that OFC contains several functional clusters of neurons distinctly encoding cue-reward memory representations, with only select responses routed downstream to VTA. Unexpectedly, these representations were stably maintained by the same neurons even after extinction of the cue-reward pairing, and supported behavioral learning and memory. Thus, OFC neuronal activity represents a long-term cue-reward associative memory to support behavioral adaptation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Sinalização do Cálcio , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Recompensa , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/fisiologia , Extinção Psicológica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Neurônios/enzimologia , Optogenética , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Córtex Pré-Frontal/citologia , Análise de Célula Única , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD012292, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frequent consumption of excess amounts of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is a risk factor for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and dental caries. Environmental interventions, i.e. interventions that alter the physical or social environment in which individuals make beverage choices, have been advocated as a means to reduce the consumption of SSB. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of environmental interventions (excluding taxation) on the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and sugar-sweetened milk, diet-related anthropometric measures and health outcomes, and on any reported unintended consequences or adverse outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched 11 general, specialist and regional databases from inception to 24 January 2018. We also searched trial registers, reference lists and citations, scanned websites of relevant organisations, and contacted study authors. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies on interventions implemented at an environmental level, reporting effects on direct or indirect measures of SSB intake, diet-related anthropometric measures and health outcomes, or any reported adverse outcome. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) and interrupted-time-series (ITS) studies, implemented in real-world settings with a combined length of intervention and follow-up of at least 12 weeks and at least 20 individuals in each of the intervention and control groups. We excluded studies in which participants were administered SSB as part of clinical trials, and multicomponent interventions which did not report SSB-specific outcome data. We excluded studies on the taxation of SSB, as these are the subject of a separate Cochrane Review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risks of bias of included studies. We classified interventions according to the NOURISHING framework, and synthesised results narratively and conducted meta-analyses for two outcomes relating to two intervention types. We assessed our confidence in the certainty of effect estimates with the GRADE framework as very low, low, moderate or high, and presented 'Summary of findings' tables. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 14,488 unique records, and assessed 1030 in full text for eligibility. We found 58 studies meeting our inclusion criteria, including 22 RCTs, 3 NRCTs, 14 CBA studies, and 19 ITS studies, with a total of 1,180,096 participants. The median length of follow-up was 10 months. The studies included children, teenagers and adults, and were implemented in a variety of settings, including schools, retailing and food service establishments. We judged most studies to be at high or unclear risk of bias in at least one domain, and most studies used non-randomised designs. The studies examine a broad range of interventions, and we present results for these separately.Labelling interventions (8 studies): We found moderate-certainty evidence that traffic-light labelling is associated with decreasing sales of SSBs, and low-certainty evidence that nutritional rating score labelling is associated with decreasing sales of SSBs. For menu-board calorie labelling reported effects on SSB sales varied.Nutrition standards in public institutions (16 studies): We found low-certainty evidence that reduced availability of SSBs in schools is associated with decreased SSB consumption. We found very low-certainty evidence that improved availability of drinking water in schools and school fruit programmes are associated with decreased SSB consumption. Reported associations between improved availability of drinking water in schools and student body weight varied.Economic tools (7 studies): We found moderate-certainty evidence that price increases on SSBs are associated with decreasing SSB sales. For price discounts on low-calorie beverages reported effects on SSB sales varied.Whole food supply interventions (3 studies): Reported associations between voluntary industry initiatives to improve the whole food supply and SSB sales varied.Retail and food service interventions (7 studies): We found low-certainty evidence that healthier default beverages in children's menus in chain restaurants are associated with decreasing SSB sales, and moderate-certainty evidence that in-store promotion of healthier beverages in supermarkets is associated with decreasing SSB sales. We found very low-certainty evidence that urban planning restrictions on new fast-food restaurants and restrictions on the number of stores selling SSBs in remote communities are associated with decreasing SSB sales. Reported associations between promotion of healthier beverages in vending machines and SSB intake or sales varied.Intersectoral approaches (8 studies): We found moderate-certainty evidence that government food benefit programmes with restrictions on purchasing SSBs are associated with decreased SSB intake. For unrestricted food benefit programmes reported effects varied. We found moderate-certainty evidence that multicomponent community campaigns focused on SSBs are associated with decreasing SSB sales. Reported associations between trade and investment liberalisation and SSB sales varied.Home-based interventions (7 studies): We found moderate-certainty evidence that improved availability of low-calorie beverages in the home environment is associated with decreased SSB intake, and high-certainty evidence that it is associated with decreased body weight among adolescents with overweight or obesity and a high baseline consumption of SSBs.Adverse outcomes reported by studies, which may occur in some circumstances, included negative effects on revenue, compensatory SSB consumption outside school when the availability of SSBs in schools is reduced, reduced milk intake, stakeholder discontent, and increased total energy content of grocery purchases with price discounts on low-calorie beverages, among others. The certainty of evidence on adverse outcomes was low to very low for most outcomes.We analysed interventions targeting sugar-sweetened milk separately, and found low- to moderate-certainty evidence that emoticon labelling and small prizes for the selection of healthier beverages in elementary school cafeterias are associated with decreased consumption of sugar-sweetened milk. We found low-certainty evidence that improved placement of plain milk in school cafeterias is not associated with decreasing sugar-sweetened milk consumption. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence included in this review indicates that effective, scalable interventions addressing SSB consumption at a population level exist. Implementation should be accompanied by high-quality evaluations using appropriate study designs, with a particular focus on the long-term effects of approaches suitable for large-scale implementation.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Meio Ambiente , Leite , Meio Social , /efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Comércio/economia , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois/estatística & dados numéricos , Água Potável , Fast Foods/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Frutas/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/estatística & dados numéricos , Valor Nutritivo , Rotulagem de Produtos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Viés de Seleção , /provisão & distribução , Adulto Jovem
13.
Molecules ; 24(11)2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142045

RESUMO

To obtain usnic acid potassium salt (PS-UA), the usnic acid (UA) was extracted and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata, and modified to produce PS-UA. The structure was determined by 1H-NMR, IR and elemental analysis, ratified through computational models, as well as identification the site of K+ insertion in the molecule. Antinociceptive activity was detected through contortions in mice induced by acetic acid and formalin (phases I and II) after treatments with 10 and 20 mg/kg of PS-UA, indicating interference in both non-inflammatory and inflammatory pain. After oral administration at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, no deaths of mice with treatments below 2000 mg/kg were observed. Except for body weight gain, food and water consumption decreased with treatments of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg, and the number of segmented leukocytes was higher for both treatments. Regarding serum levels, cholesterol and triglycerides decreased, however, there was an increase in hepatic transaminases with both treatments. Liver and kidney histological changes were detected in treatments of 2000 mg/kg, while the spleen was preserved. The PS-UA demonstrated antinociceptive activity while the acute toxicity at the concentration of 2000 mg/kg was the only dose that presented morphological changes in the liver and kidney.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzofuranos/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Especificidade de Órgãos/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 116: 109014, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146108

RESUMO

The experimental design aiming at evaluating the performance of drugs nanoencapsulated involves inclusion of a formulation without drug (unloaded). This formulation has sometimes presented per se effect. In this sense, we sought to evaluate the toxicity of unloaded polymeric nanocapsules (NCs) with different surfaces (cationic and anionic) in male Wistar rats in male Wistar rats. The physicochemical characterization of NCs with different surfaces: polysorbate 80 (P80), polyethylene glycol (PEG), eudragit ®RS 100 (EUD) and chitosan (CS) was performed. Rats were treated with unloaded NCs (P80, PEG, EUD and CS surfaces) daily for 14 days per oral route. 24 h of last treatment, animals were euthanized and organs were removed and weighted. After, biochemical determinations were performed. In general, NCs-surfaces did not cause alterations in body weight, weight of organs and histopathological analysis. PEG-surface NCs did not generate hepatotoxicity. In investigation of lipid profile, the surface with P80 changed TC and HDL-C levels. Besides that, all NCs did not alter oxidative stress markers in organs studied (TBARS and Reactive Species) and CS-surface presented antioxidant activity in kidney. This study demonstrated that NCs-surfaces depending on their physicochemical characteristics had low or no toxicity.


Assuntos
Nanocápsulas/toxicidade , Polímeros/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Ânions , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cátions , Colesterol/metabolismo , Creatinina/metabolismo , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Nanocápsulas/química , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Ureia/metabolismo
15.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 176(3): 679-686, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098780

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The effect of tea consumption on breast cancer survival remained to be explored. Meanwhile, green tea favorably facilitates lipid metabolisms in breast cancer survivors. This study aimed to examine the effect of tea consumption and the interactions with lipids on breast cancer survival. METHODS: A total of 1551 breast cancer patients were recruited between April 2008 and March 2012 and followed up until 31 December 2017 in Guangzhou. The endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate Cox proportional to estimate the associations. RESULTS: PFS was better among women who regularly drank all teas (mainly green tea) except oolong after cancer diagnosis compared with non-tea drinkers (HR 0.52; 95% CI 0.29 ~ 0.91). This association was more evident among women with normal (HR 0.38; 95% CI 0.18 ~ 0.82) than higher (HR 1.22; 95% CI 0.13 ~ 11.82) total cholesterol, though the interaction was not significant. Moreover, the more they drank (≥ 7 times/week), the better prognosis was (HR 0.30; 95% CI 0.11 ~ 0.84). In contrast, oolong tea was observed to have a potential impaired effect on PFS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that regularly drinking all teas (mainly green tea) except oolong after diagnosis was beneficial to breast cancer survival, particularly for women with normal lipids, while oolong tea may have an impaired effect.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Chá , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 16: E62, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095919

RESUMO

Consumption of sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages (including soda) has declined nationally, but trends by state are unknown. We used data from the California Health Interview Survey to assess overall changes in soda consumption among adults aged 18 or older from 2011 through 2016 and identified differences by education and income level. Frequency of soda consumption (times per week) declined from 2011 through 2014 by 16.5% but returned to 2011 levels in 2015 and 2016; trends did not differ by education or income. The proportion of the population that consumed soda did not change among adults with less than a high school diploma or equivalent, but declined significantly among those with at least a high school diploma. Our findings suggest that soda consumption remains a pressing public health problem in California.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , California , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Molecules ; 24(10)2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096548

RESUMO

Tea is one of the most-widely consumed beverages in the world with a number of different beneficial health effects, mainly ascribed to the polyphenolic content of the tea catechins. The aim of this study was to examine the consumption of green, black, or no tea, in relation to the previously validated successful ageing index (SAI; higher values "healthier" ageing) in a combined analysis of adults aged >50 years old from the ATTICA (n = 1128 adults from Athens, Greece metropolitan area) and the MEDiterranean Islands Study (MEDIS) (n = 2221 adults from various Greek island and Mani) studies. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and coffee consumption, green tea was positively associated with SAI (b ± SE: 0.225 ± 0.055, p < 0.001), while black tea was negatively associated with SAI (unstandardized b coefficient ± Standard error: -0.807 ± 0.054, p < 0.001). Green tea (vs black tea) consumption, had higher odds of a SAI of over 3.58 out of 10 (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.38-2.28). Green tea consumption was also associated with higher levels of physical activity (p < 0.001) and reduced likelihood of hypertension (p = 0.006) compared with black tea. Two possible mechanisms are that green tea possesses high levels of catechins such as (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate and l-theanine compared with black tea. Therefore, the present analysis supports both the role of green tea constituents in successful ageing, as well as its role as an important component of an overall healthy diet in adults aged 50 years and over from these two epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Chá , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Ilhas do Mediterrâneo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estrutura Molecular , Razão de Chances , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Chá/química
18.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(6): 416-422, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013534

RESUMO

This study measured sweat losses, voluntary fluid intake, sodium balance, and carbohydrate intake of female ice hockey players during on-ice practices at the Olympic, varsity, and recreational levels. Testing was conducted on 25 Canadian Olympic players, 21 varsity, and 21 recreational players. The average sweat rate for the Olympic players (0.99±0.08 L/h) was significantly greater than both the varsity (0.67±0.05 L/h, p=0.001) and the recreational players (0.42±0.03 L/h, p<0.001), and the varsity players also had a significantly greater sweat rate than the recreational athletes (p=0.016). Total fluid intake was significantly greater for both the Olympic (p=0.001) and varsity players (p=0.007) compared to the recreational group. Only 3 of 25 Olympic players lost>1.5% BM and 4 others lost>1% BM, with no players in both the varsity and recreational teams losing>1% BM. Half of the Olympic players consumed some carbohydrate during practice, but most of the varsity and recreational players did not. In conclusion, sweat rates in female ice hockey players during practices were proportional to competitive level. Fluid intake was similar between groups and resulted in only a few athletes at the Olympic level being at risk of excess body mass loss.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Hóquei/fisiologia , Sudorese , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Canadá , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Água Potável , Bebidas Energéticas , Feminino , Hidratação , Humanos , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pain ; 160(5): 1059-1069, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008815

RESUMO

The taste of sucrose is commonly used to provide pain relief in newborn humans and is innately analgesic to neonatal rodents. In adulthood, sucrose remains a strong motivator to feed, even in potentially hazardous circumstances (ie, threat of tissue damage). However, the neurobiological mechanisms of this endogenous reward-pain interaction are unclear. We have developed a simple model of sucrose drinking-induced analgesia in Sprague-Dawley rats (6-10 weeks old) and have undertaken a behavioral and pharmacological characterization using the Hargreaves' test of hind-paw thermal sensitivity. Our results reveal an acute, potent, and robust inhibitory effect of sucrose drinking on thermal nociceptive behaviour that unlike the phenomenon in neonates is independent of endogenous opioid signalling and does not seem to operate through classical descending inhibition of the spinal cord circuitry. Experience of sucrose drinking had a conditioning effect whereby the apparent expectancy of sucrose enabled water alone (in euvolemic animals) to elicit a short-lasting placebo-like analgesia. Sweet taste alone, however, was insufficient to elicit analgesia in adult rats intraorally perfused with sucrose. Instead, the sucrose analgesia phenomenon only appeared after conditioning by oral perfusion in chronically cannulated animals. This sucrose analgesia was completely prevented by systemic dosing of the endocannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant. These results indicate the presence of an endogenous supraspinal analgesic circuit that is recruited by the context of rewarding drinking and is dependent on endocannabinoid signalling. We propose that this hedonic sucrose-drinking model may be useful for further investigation of the supraspinal control of pain by appetite and reward.


Assuntos
Hiperalgesia/terapia , Limiar da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/fisiologia , Sacarose/uso terapêutico , Edulcorantes/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antagonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/efeitos dos fármacos , Adjuvante de Freund/toxicidade , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Injeções Espinhais/métodos , Masculino , Naloxona/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Rimonabanto/farmacologia , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Privação de Água/fisiologia
20.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 98(6): E58-E63, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018688

RESUMO

The present study aimed to identify the association between sociodemographic and lifestyle-related factors with the response time from the appearance of symptoms potentially related to head and neck cancer (HNC) and gain an insight regarding the main source of health information about this specific area. Specific perceptions about human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the head and neck area were also explored. An Internet-based survey was conducted between June 30, 2016, and July 31, 2016, using a structured questionnaire. The study sample comprised 1058 adults. A direct association was found between the response time period from the potential appearance of a mouth ulcer/soreness (P < .001), earache (P = .014), hoarseness (P < .001), or painless lump in the neck (P = .003) and alcohol consumption, as well as between smoking (P = .012) and soft-drink consumption (P < .001) and the appearance of hoarseness. Inverse association was found between age and the appearance of a mouth ulcer/soreness (P = .017) and between a person's educational level (P < .001) and yearly income (P = .006) and the appearance of an earache. A total of 79.1% of study participants seemed aware that oral sex represents the main mode of HPV transmission; this understanding was directly associated with a person's educational level (P < .001) and yearly income (P = .001) and inversely associated with alcohol consumption (P = .037). Health policy makers and health professionals need to devise strategies to increase the awareness of HNC risk associated with sexual behavior especially in young adults. The repressing effect of alcohol on timely patient response should be demonstrated in targeted campaigns, and the understanding of the "iceberg phenomenon," frequently associating even common head and neck symptoms with HNC, acknowledged in undergraduate and postgraduate physician training.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Dor de Orelha , Escolaridade , Feminino , Rouquidão , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Úlceras Orais , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Comportamento Sexual , Fumar , Fatores de Tempo
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