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1.
Insect Sci ; 27(1): 122-132, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659142

RESUMO

Although the Neotropical territorially dominant arboreal ant Azteca chartifex Forel is very aggressive towards any intruder, its populous colonies tolerate the close presence of the fierce polistine wasp Polybia rejecta (F.). In French Guiana, 83.33% of the 48 P. rejecta nests recorded were found side by side with those of A. chartifex. This nesting association results in mutual protection from predators (i.e., the wasps protected from army ants; the ants protected from birds). We conducted field studies, laboratory-based behavioral experiments and chemical analyses to elucidate the mechanisms allowing the persistence of this association. Due to differences in the cuticular profiles of the two species, we eliminated the possibility of chemical mimicry. Also, analyses of the carton nests did not reveal traces of marking on the envelopes. Because ant forager flows were not perturbed by extracts from the wasps' Dufour's and venom glands, we rejected any hypothetical action of repulsive chemicals. Nevertheless, we noted that the wasps "scraped" the surface of the upper part of their nest envelope using their mandibles, likely removing the ants' scent trails, and an experiment showed that ant foragers were perturbed by the removal of their scent trails. This leads us to use the term "erasure hypothesis." Thus, this nesting association persists thanks to a relative tolerance by the ants towards wasp presence and the behavior of the wasps that allows them to "contain" their associated ants through the elimination of their scent trails, direct attacks, "wing-buzzing" behavior and ejecting the ants.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Comportamento de Nidação , Vespas/fisiologia , Agressão , Animais , Guiana Francesa , Territorialidade , Árvores
2.
BMC Ecol ; 19(1): 52, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent decades, a decrease of passerine densities was documented in Mediterranean shrublands. At the same time, a widespread encroachment of Aleppo pines (Pinus halepensis) to Mediterranean shrubland occurred. Such changes in vegetation structure may affect passerine predator assemblage and densities, and in turn impact passerine densities. Depredation during the nesting season is an important factor to influence passerine population size. Understanding the effects of changes in vegetation structure (pine encroachment) on passerine nesting success is the main objective of this study. We do so by assessing the effects of Aleppo pine encroachment on Sardinian warbler (Sylvia melanocephala) nest depredation in Mediterranean shrublands. We examined direct and indirect predation pressures through a gradients of pine density, using four methods: (1) placing dummy nests; (2) acoustic monitoring of mobbing events; (3) direct observations on nest predation using cameras; and (4) observation of Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius) behaviour as indirect evidence of predation risk. RESULTS: We found that Aleppo pine encroachment to Mediterranean shrublands increased nest predation by Eurasian jays. Nest predation was highest in mixed shrubland and pines. These areas are suitable for warblers but had high occurrence rate of Eurasian jays. CONCLUSIONS: Encroaching pines directly increase activity of Eurasian jays in shrubland habitats, which reduced the nesting success of Sardinian warblers. These findings are supported by multiple methodologies, illustrating different predation pressures along a gradient of pine densities in natural shrublands. Management of Aleppo pine seedlings and removal of unwanted trees in natural shrubland might mitigate arrival and expansion of predators and decrease the predation pressure on passerine nests.


Assuntos
Passeriformes , Pinus , Aves Canoras , Animais , Comportamento de Nidação , Comportamento Predatório
3.
J Insect Sci ; 19(6)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758794

RESUMO

Nests are physical entities that give shelter to the inhabitants from natural adversities, predators and act as a platform for organization of tasks particularly in social insects. Social insect nests can range from simple structures consisting of a single entrance leading to a chamber to complex nests containing hundreds of connected shafts and chambers. This study characterizes nest architecture of a tropical ponerine ant Diacamma indicum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which has small colony sizes and is known to be a scavenger. We also examined if these nests vary seasonally. By examining the microhabitat in the vicinity of the nest, the nest entrance characteristics and casting 77 natural nests of D. indicum across a year, we found that this species occupies relatively simple nests consisting of a single entrance that leads to a single chamber. This chamber progressed to a secondary tunnel that terminated at a greater depth than the chamber. The nest volume was not correlated to the number of adult members in the colony. Even though the microhabitat around the nest and the entrance itself change across seasons, principle component analysis showed that the nest architecture remained similar. Only one parameter, the entrance tunnel showed significant difference and was longer during postmonsoon. Nests of colonies living in the immediate vicinity of human habitation were comparable to other nests. We conclude that D. indicum found in the Gangetic plains live in relatively simple nests that do not vary across seasons.


Assuntos
Formigas , Comportamento de Nidação , Animais , Ecossistema , Índia
4.
Zoo Biol ; 38(6): 498-507, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517405

RESUMO

The use of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is common in animal-monitoring applications in the wild and in zoological and agricultural settings. RFID is used to track animals and to collect information about movements and other behaviors, as well as to automate or improve husbandry. Disney's Animal Kingdom® uses passive RFID technology to monitor nest usage by a breeding colony of northern carmine bee-eaters. We implemented RFID technologies in various equipment configurations, initially deploying low-frequency (LF) 125 kHz RFID and later changing to high-frequency (HF) 13.56 MHz RFID technology, to monitor breeding behavior in the flock. We installed antennas connected to RFID readers at the entrances of nest tunnels to detect RFID transponders attached to leg bands as birds entered and exited tunnels. Both LF-RFID and HF-RFID systems allowed the characterization of nest visitation, including the timing of nest activity, breeding pair formation, identification of egg-laying females, participation by nonresidents, and detection of nest disruptions. However, we collected a substantially larger volume of data using the increased bandwidth and polling speed inherent with HF-RFID, which permitted tag capture of multiple birds simultaneously and resulted in fewer missed nest visits in comparison to LF-RFID. Herein, we describe the evolution of the RFID setups used to monitor nest usage for more than 7 years, the types of data that can be gained using RFID at nests, and how we used these data to gain insights into carmine bee-eater breeding behavior and improve husbandry.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/veterinária , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Dispositivo de Identificação por Radiofrequência , Telemetria , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos
5.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113152, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521999

RESUMO

Anthropogenic marine debris is a recognised global issue, which can impact a wide range of organisms. This has led to a rise in research focused on plastic ingestion, but quantitative data on entanglement are still limited, especially regarding seabirds, due to challenges associated with monitoring entanglement in the marine environment. However, for seabird species that build substantial surface nests there is the opportunity to monitor nest incorporation of debris that individuals collect as nesting material. Here, we monitored nest incorporation of anthropogenic marine debris by Northern Gannets (Morus bassanus) from 29 colonies across the species' range to determine a) the frequency of occurrence of incorporated debris and b) whether the Northern Gannet is a suitable indicator species for monitoring anthropogenic debris in the marine environment within their range. Using data obtained from visual observations, digital photography and published literature, we recorded incorporated debris in 46% of 7280 Northern Gannet nests, from all but one of 29 colonies monitored. Significant spatial variation was observed in the frequency of occurrence of debris incorporated into nests among colonies, partly attributed to when the colony was established and local fishing intensity. Threadlike plastics, most likely from fishing activities, was most frequently recorded in nests, being present in 45% of 5842 nests, in colonies where debris type was identified. Comparisons with local beach debris indicate a preference for threadlike plastics by Northern Gannets. Recording debris in gannet nests provides an efficient and non-invasive method for monitoring the effectiveness of actions introduced to reduce debris pollution from fishing activities in the marine environment.


Assuntos
Aves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental , Comportamento de Nidação , Animais , Atividades Humanas , Plásticos , Resíduos/análise
6.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(9): 735-740, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475301

RESUMO

It is well established that many ant species have evolved qualitatively distinct species-specific chemical profile that are stable over large geographical distances. Within these species profiles quantitative variations in the chemical profile allows distinct colony-specific odours to arise (chemotypes) that are shared by all colony members. This help maintains social cohesion, including defence of their colonies against all intruders, including con-specifics. How these colony -level chemotypes are maintained among nest-mates has long been debated. The two main theories are; each ant is able to biochemically adjust its chemical profile to 'match' that of its nest-mates and or the queen, or all nest-mates share their individually generated chemical profile via trophollaxis resulting in an average nest-mate profile. This 'mixing' idea is better known as the Gestalt model. Unfortunately, it has been very difficult to experimentally test these two ideas in a single experimental design. However, it is now possible using the ant Formica exsecta because the compounds used in nest-mate recognition compounds are known. We demonstrate that workers adjust their profile to 'match' the dominant chemical profile within that colony, hence maintaining the colony-specific chemotype and indicates that a 'gestalt' mechanism, i.e. profile mixing, plays no or only a minor role.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Odorantes , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Formigas , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento de Nidação , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Zool Res ; 40(5): 466-470, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502427

RESUMO

Nest sanitation is a ubiquitous behavior in birds and functions to remove foreign objects that accidentally have fallen into their nests. In avian brood parasitism, the host's ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs is a specific anti-parasitic behavior. Previous studies have shown that egg recognition may have evolved from nest sanitation behavior; however, few studies have offered evidence in support of this hypothesis. In the current study, we added one real white egg and one model egg to the nests of common tailorbirds (Orthotomus sutorius), the main host of plaintive cuckoos (Cacomantis merulinus), to explore the relationship between egg recognition ability in hosts and nest sanitation behavior. Results showed that common tailorbirds rejected both non-mimetic blue model eggs and mimetic white model eggs at a similar rate of 100%, but only rejected 16.1% of mimetic real white eggs. The egg rejection behavior of common tailorbirds towards both real and model eggs was consistent. However, when both blue model eggs and real white eggs were simultaneously added to their nests, the probability of rejecting the mimetic real white egg increased to 50%. The addition of blue model eggs not only increased the occurrence of nest sanitation behavior but also increased the ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs. This suggests that nest sanitation may facilitate egg rejection in common tailorbird hosts.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Nidação , Óvulo , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino
8.
J Therm Biol ; 84: 214-220, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466756

RESUMO

Social insects depend on their nests for protection against predation and abiotic threats. Accordingly, the chemical compounds present in the material wasps use to build their nests can both facilitate communication and repel predators. It is herein hypothesized that different wasp species build their nests with different structure and substrate materials and that such materials consist of chemical compounds related to unique wasp behavior and outside temperature variation. To test this hypothesis, nests were collected from three species of social wasps, the samples of which were subjected to temperature variation under laboratory conditions. The compounds present in the substrate were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Chemical compounds identified in the nest material of the three species responded differently to temperature variation. Chemical compounds from Polybia nests were altered significantly when subjected to temperature variation, whereas the nests of Polistes versicolor did not significantly change in relation to the control. The differences found between Polistes and Polybia nests may be related to genetic factors, but also to the type of nest they construct. It is possible that divergent evolutionary strategies for maintaining colony temperature, as a function of the chemical composition of the nests, may have appeared between wasps that have open and closed nests. In relatively small colonies, nest substrate is more resistant to temperature variation because it is composed of a greater diversity of elements and thus capable of holding heavier, longer carbon chains. Our results suggest that chemical compounds in the nest material of the three wasp species analysed responded differently to fluctuating ambient temperatures and that such variation could result from the biochemical differences of unique wasp species or from thermoregulation strategies of colonies.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Comportamento de Nidação , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Temperatura Ambiente
9.
Oecologia ; 191(1): 73-81, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422472

RESUMO

Animals rely on cues informing about future predation risk when selecting habitats to breed in. Olfactory information may play a fundamental role in the assessment of predation threats, because predators produce characteristic body odours, but the role of odours in habitat selection has seldom been considered. Here, we test whether fear of predation induced by odour cues may affect the settlement pattern of a Mediterranean cavity-dependent community of rodents and non-excavator hole-nesting birds. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulated the perception of predation risk on a scale of patch by applying either odours of a carnivore predator (risky odour treatment), lemon essence (non-risky odour treatment) and a control non-odorous treatment and studied bird and rodent settlement patterns. Nest-box occupation probability differed across treatments so that species in the community settled in more numbers in control than in non-risky and than in risky odour-treated nest boxes. Concerning settlement patterns, control nest boxes were occupied more rapidly than nest boxes with odour information. Birds and rodents settled earlier in control than in risky odour-treated nest boxes, but their settlement pattern did not significantly vary between risky odour and non-risky odour-treated nest boxes. Our findings demonstrate that olfactory cues may be used to assess habitat quality by settling species in this community, but we cannot pinpoint the exact mechanism that has given rise to the pattern of preference by nest boxes.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Nidação , Roedores , Animais , Aves , Comportamento Predatório , Olfato
10.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5287-5296, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376351

RESUMO

Broodiness is an interesting topic in reproductive biology for its reduced egg production. The strong brooding trait of Muscovy duck has become a major factor restricting the development of its industry. Broody phenotype and environmental factors influencing broodiness in poultry have been extensively studied, but the molecular regulation mechanism of broodiness remains unclear. In this research, the Muscovy duck reproductive endocrine hormones and pituitary transcriptome profiles during egg-laying phases (LP) and brooding phases (BP) were studied. During BP (n = 19), prolactin (PRL) levels was higher, while progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) were lower as compared to ducks during their LP (n = 20) (P < 0.01). We then examined the pituitary transcriptome of Muscovy duck at the 2 reproductive stages. A total of 398 differentially expressed genes included 20 transcription factors were identified (fold change ≥ 1.5, P < 0.01). There were 109 upregulated and 289 downregulated genes at brooding phases (n = 6) compared with egg-laying phases (n = 6). Real-time quantitative PCR analysis was carried out to verify the transcriptome results. The present study suggested that neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway, calcium signaling pathway, and response to steroid hormones biological process are critical for controlling broodiness in the ducks. Further analysis revealed that SHH, PTGS2, RLN3, and transcription factor AP-1 may act as central signal modulators of hormonal and behavioral regulation mechanism associated with broodiness.


Assuntos
Patos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Hormônios/sangue , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/sangue , Patos/genética , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Progesterona/sangue , Prolactina/sangue
11.
Biol Lett ; 15(8): 20190314, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387470

RESUMO

In cooperatively breeding species, social conflict is typically assumed to underlie destructive behaviours like infanticide. However, an untested alternative hypothesis in birds is that infanticide in the form of egg tossing may simply be a parental response to partial nest predation representing a life-history trade-off. We examined egg tossing behaviour in the colonial and cooperatively breeding grey-capped social weaver (Pseudonigrita arnaudi), a plural breeder in which pairs nest separately, often in the same tree. Using infrared nest cameras, we found that 78% of the tossing events from 2012 to 2017 were committed by parents, suggesting that social conflict is unlikely to be the main reason underlying egg tossing in this species. Instead, reductions in clutch size due to both natural and experimentally simulated predation induced parental egg tossing. Our study suggests that destructive behaviour in cooperatively breeding birds can be shaped by a variety of mechanisms beyond social conflict and that alternative hypotheses must be considered when studying the adaptive significance of infanticide in group-living species.


Assuntos
Infanticídio , Comportamento de Nidação , Animais , Cruzamento , Tamanho da Ninhada , Comportamento Predatório
12.
Biol Lett ; 15(7): 20190351, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337293

RESUMO

Brain lateralization, or the specialization of function in the left versus right brain hemispheres, has been found in a variety of lineages in contexts ranging from foraging to social and sexual behaviours, including the recognition of conspecific social partners. Here we studied whether the recognition and rejection of avian brood parasitic eggs, another context for species recognition, may also involve lateralized visual processing. We focused on American robins (Turdus migratorius), an egg-rejecter host to occasional brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) and tested if robins preferentially used one visual hemifield over the other to inspect mimetic versus non-mimetic model eggs. At the population level, robins showed a significantly lateralized absolute eyedness index (EI) when viewing mimetic model eggs, but individuals varied in left versus right visual hemifield preference. By contrast, absolute EI was significantly lower when viewing non-mimetic eggs. We also found that robins with more lateralized eye usage rejected model eggs at higher rates. We suggest that the inspection and recognition of foreign eggs represent a specialized and lateralized context of species recognition in this and perhaps in other egg-rejecter hosts of brood parasites.


Assuntos
Passeriformes , Aves Canoras , Animais , Ovos , Humanos , Comportamento de Nidação , Óvulo
13.
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 748-759, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302540

RESUMO

Many species of birds gradually adapt to urbanization and colonize cities successfully. However, their nest site selection and competitive relationship in an urban community remain little known. Understanding the impact of urbanization on birds and the competitive relationship has important implications for the conservation and management of wildlife in urban ecosystems. Here, we undertook a systematic study to quantify nests in all species of birds in an urbanizing area of Nanchang, China. A total of 363 nests were detected in surveys including 340 nests of 16 bird species and 23 unidentified species nests. We mainly analyzed 5 dominant breeding birds with a sample size of >10 during the two breeding seasons (From April to July in 2016 and 2017), which included the light-vented bulbul, Chinese blackbird, scaly-breasted munia, spotted dove and grey-capped greenfinch. Most birds (93.66%) nested in the tree of artificial green belts, which seems to be the best breeding habitat for urban birds. Our results suggested that birds' breeding success relies on the trade-off between the benefit and the expense of specific stresses from habitats. The nest site selection of birds is also affected by the life habit of urban predators. Furthermore, competition among species can influence their distributions and utilization of environmental resources when birds nest in cities. We confirmed that the niche differentiation of five bird species in an urban environment makes them coexist successfully by utilizing various resources.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Comportamento de Nidação , Urbanização , Animais , Cruzamento , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental
16.
Ecol Appl ; 29(6): e01942, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267602

RESUMO

Population monitoring must be accurate and reliable to correctly classify population status. For sea turtles, nesting beach surveys are often the only population-level surveys that are accessible. However, process and observation errors, compounded by delayed maturity, obscure the relationship between trends on the nesting beach and the population. We present a simulation-based tool, monitoring strategy evaluation (MoSE), to test the relationships between monitoring data and assessment accuracy, using green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a case study. To explore this first application of MoSE, we apply different treatments of population impacts to virtual true populations, and sample the nests or nesters, with observation error, to test if the observation data can be used to diagnose population status accurately. Based on the observed data, we examine population trend and compare it to the known values from the operating model. We ran a series of scenarios including harvest impacts, cyclical breeding probability, and sampling biases, to see how these factors impact accuracy in estimating population trend. We explored the necessary duration of monitoring for accurate trend estimation and the probability of a false trend diagnosis. Our results suggest that disturbance type and severity can have important and persistent effects on the accuracy of population assessments drawn from monitoring nesting beaches. The underlying population phase, age classes disturbed, and impact severity influenced the accuracy of estimating population trend. At least 10 yr of monitoring data is necessary to estimate population trend accurately, and >20 yr if juvenile age classes were disturbed and the population is recovering. In general, there is a greater probability of making a false positive trend diagnosis than a false negative, but this depends on impact type and severity, population phase, and sampling duration. Improving detection rates to 90% does little to lower probability of a false trend diagnosis with shorter monitoring spans. Altogether, monitoring strategies for specific populations may be tailored based on the impact history, population phase, and environmental drivers. The MoSE is an important framework for analysis through simulation that can comprehensively test population assessments for accuracy and inform policy recommendations regarding the best monitoring strategies.


Assuntos
Tartarugas , Animais , Cruzamento , Comportamento de Nidação
17.
Behav Processes ; 166: 103902, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283976

RESUMO

One of the most effective defenses against avian brood parasitism is the rejection of the foreign egg from the host's nest. Until recently, most studies have tested whether hosts discriminate between own and foreign eggs based on the absolute differences in avian-perceivable eggshell coloration and maculation. However, recent studies suggest that hosts may instead contrast egg appearances across a directional eggshell color gradient. We assessed which discrimination rule best explained egg rejection by great reed warblers Acrocephalus arundinaceus, a frequent host to an egg-mimetic race of common cuckoos Cuculus canorus. We deployed 3D-printed model eggs varying in blue-green to brown coloration and in the presence of maculation. Using visual modeling, we calculated the absolute chromatic and achromatic just-noticeable differences (JNDs), as well as directional JNDs across a blue-green to brown egg color gradient, between host and model eggs. While most model eggs were rejected by great reed warblers, browner eggs were rejected with higher probability than more blue-green eggs, and the rejection probability did not depend on maculation. Directional egg color discrimination shown here and in a suite of recent studies on other host species may shape the cognitive decision rules that hosts use to recognize foreign eggs and affect the course of evolution in parasitic egg mimicry.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Cor , Casca de Ovo , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Animais , Passeriformes
18.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 562, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The production of foam nests is one of the strategies that has evolved to allow some anuran species to protect their eggs and larvae. Despite considerable knowledge of the biochemical components of and construction behavior leading to anuran foam nests, little is known about the molecular basis of foam nest construction. Rhacophorus omeimontis presents an arboreal foam-nesting strategy during the breeding season. To better understand the molecular mechanism of foam nest production, transcriptome sequencing was performed using the oviduct of female R. omeimontis during the period when foam nest production began and the period when foam nest production was finished. RESULTS: The transcriptomes of six oviduct samples of R. omeimontis were obtained using Illumina sequencing. A total of 84,917 unigenes were obtained, and 433 genes (270 upregulated and 163 downregulated) were differentially expressed between the two periods. These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly enriched in extracellular space and extracellular region based on Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and in the pathways of two-component system, cell adhesion molecules, steroid hormone biosynthesis and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis. Specifically, genes encoding lectins, surfactant proteins and immunity components were highly expressed when the foam nest construction began, indicating that the constituents of foam nests in R. omeimontis were likely a mixture of surfactant, lectins and immune defense proteins. During the period when foam nest production was finished, genes related to lipid metabolism, steroid hormone and immune defense were highly expressed, indicating their important roles in regulating the process of foam nesting. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides a rich list of potential genes involved in the production of foam nests in R. omeimontis. These results provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of foam nest construction and will facilitate further studies of R. omeimontis.


Assuntos
Anuros/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Comportamento de Nidação , Oviductos/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Análise de Sequência
19.
Neuron ; 103(4): 627-641.e7, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255487

RESUMO

Analysis of human pathology led Braak to postulate that α-synuclein (α-syn) pathology could spread from the gut to brain via the vagus nerve. Here, we test this postulate by assessing α-synucleinopathy in the brain in a novel gut-to-brain α-syn transmission mouse model, where pathological α-syn preformed fibrils were injected into the duodenal and pyloric muscularis layer. Spread of pathologic α-syn in brain, as assessed by phosphorylation of serine 129 of α-syn, was observed first in the dorsal motor nucleus, then in caudal portions of the hindbrain, including the locus coeruleus, and much later in basolateral amygdala, dorsal raphe nucleus, and the substantia nigra pars compacta. Moreover, loss of dopaminergic neurons and motor and non-motor symptoms were observed in a similar temporal manner. Truncal vagotomy and α-syn deficiency prevented the gut-to-brain spread of α-synucleinopathy and associated neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits. This study supports the Braak hypothesis in the etiology of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD).


Assuntos
Transporte Axonal , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/etiologia , Agregados Proteicos , Nervo Vago/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/farmacocinética , Animais , Química Encefálica , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Duodeno/inervação , Duodeno/metabolismo , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Corpos de Lewy/metabolismo , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Neurológicos , Músculo Liso/inervação , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/metabolismo , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/psicologia , Fosforilação , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Piloro/inervação , Piloro/metabolismo , Teste de Desempenho do Rota-Rod , Vagotomia , alfa-Sinucleína/administração & dosagem , alfa-Sinucleína/deficiência , alfa-Sinucleína/toxicidade
20.
Science ; 364(6445)2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196987

RESUMO

Bulla et al dispute our main conclusion that the global pattern of nest predation is disrupted in shorebirds. We disagree with Bulla et al's conclusions and contest the robustness of their outcomes. We reaffirm our results that provide clear evidence that nest predation has increased significantly in shorebirds, especially in the Arctic.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Comportamento de Nidação , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Comportamento Predatório
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