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1.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(3): 245-253, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies with behavioural and neuropsychological tests have supported the developmental taxonomy theory of antisocial behaviour, which specifies abnormal brain development as a fundamental aspect of life-course-persistent antisocial behaviour, but no study has characterised features of brain structure associated with life-course-persistent versus adolescence-limited trajectories, as defined by prospective data. We aimed to determine whether life-course-persistent antisocial behaviour is associated with neurocognitive abnormalities by testing the hypothesis that it is also associated with brain structure abnormalities. METHODS: We used structural MRI data collected at 45 years of age from participants in the Dunedin Study, a population-representative longitudinal birth cohort of 1037 individuals born between April 1, 1972, and March 31, 1973, in Dunedin, New Zealand, who were resident in the province and who participated in the first assessment at 3 years of age. Participants underwent MRI, and mean global cortical surface area and cortical thickness were extracted for each participant. Participants had been previously subtyped as exhibiting life-course-persistent, adolescence-limited, or no history of persistent antisocial behaviour (ie, a low trajectory group) based on informant-reported and self-reported conduct problems from the ages of 7 years to 26 years. Study personnel who processed the MRI images were masked to antisocial group membership. We used linear estimated ordinary least squares regressions to compare each antisocial trajectory group (life-course persistent and adolescence limited) with the low trajectory group to examine whether antisocial behaviour was related to abnormalities in mean global surface area and mean cortical thickness. Next, we used parcel-wise linear regressions to identify antisocial trajectory group differences in surface area and cortical thickness. All results were controlled for sex and false discovery rate corrected. FINDINGS: Data from 672 participants were analysed, and 80 (12%) were classified as having life-course-persistent antisocial behaviour, 151 (23%) as having adolescence-limited antisocial behaviour, and 441 (66%) as having low antisocial behaviour. Individuals on the life-course-persistent trajectory had a smaller mean surface area (standardised ß=-0·18 [95% CI -0·24 to -0·11]; p<0·0001) and lower mean cortical thickness (standardised ß=-0·10 [95% CI -0·19 to -0·02]; p=0·020) than did those in the low group. Compared with the low group, the life-course-persistent group had reduced surface area in 282 of 360 anatomically defined parcels and thinner cortex in 11 of 360 parcels encompassing circumscribed frontal and temporal regions associated with executive function, affect regulation, and motivation. Widespread differences in brain surface morphometry were not observed for the adolescence-limited group compared with either non-antisocial behaviour or life-course-persistent groups. INTERPRETATION: These analyses provide initial evidence that differences in brain surface morphometry are associated with life-course-persistent, but not adolescence-limited, antisocial behaviour. As such, the analyses are consistent with the developmental taxonomy theory of antisocial behaviour and highlight the importance of using prospective longitudinal data to define different patterns of antisocial behaviour development. FUNDING: US National Institute on Aging, Health Research Council of New Zealand, New Zealand Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, UK Medical Research Council, Avielle Foundation, and Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Córtex Cerebral , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Tamanho do Órgão , Psicopatologia
2.
J Lesbian Stud ; 24(1): 41-55, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218934

RESUMO

Until 2004, Dutch women seeking donor insemination through medical facilities could opt for open-identity or anonymous donors. Since then, Dutch law only permits open-identity donation. The present study compared the well-being of adolescents conceived before 2004 through known, open-identity, and anonymous donors, and born into planned lesbian parent families (i.e., the mothers identified as lesbian before the children were conceived). The sixty-seven participating adolescents (Mage = 16.04 years) completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Youth Self-Report, and answered questions about their donor. Thirty-three were conceived through known, twenty-two through open-identity, and twelve through anonymous donors. No significant associations were found between donor type and self-esteem or problem behavior. Likewise, no significant differences were found on these two variables for adolescents with known donors who did or did not play important roles in their lives. For adolescents conceived with sperm from as-yet unknown donors (open-identity or anonymous), feeling uncomfortable about not knowing the donor was associated with lower self-esteem and more externalizing problem behavior. That donor type was found to have no bearing on adolescent self-esteem or problem behavior may be useful to prospective lesbian parents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Pais , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Autoimagem , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Doadores de Tecidos , Adolescente , Bem-Estar da Criança , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Feminino , Homossexualidade Feminina , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Países Baixos , Revelação da Verdade
3.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several studies show the benefits of physical activity-based breaks programs for Pre-school and Elementary School students and their effectiveness to increase the amount of physical activity done during school hours. However, these programs are not intended for High School students. The objective of this study was to implement "¡Dame10!" program with a High School group of students and to assess the results. METHODS: "¡Dame 10!" activities were designed and enforced at first High School grade during four weeks at a private school of Preschool, Primary and Secondary Education located in San Cristóbal de la Laguna. 54 students and 9 teachers took part. Several surveys were fulfilled to determine participants' assessment about programs' benefits and opinion through the QuickTapSurvey® web application, from which the results were obtained automatically in the form of percentages. RESULTS: The number of participants' physical activity during school hours increased by 50%. 75.8% of the students felt more active, 58.5% more motivated and 51% showed a better attitude after the activities. 87.5% of teachers considered possible the daily implementation of "¡Dame 10!". CONCLUSIONS: "¡Dame 10!" was effective to increase the amount of physical activity students do during class schedule and provided additional benefits related to attitude and behaviour in the classroom. Likewise, both teachers and students considered possible its application in High School.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Exercício , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Atitude , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha
4.
Pediatrics ; 144(6)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740496

RESUMO

Adolescence is the transitional bridge between childhood and adulthood; it encompasses developmental milestones that are unique to this age group. Healthy cognitive, physical, sexual, and psychosocial development is both a right and a responsibility that must be guaranteed for all adolescents to successfully enter adulthood. There is consensus among national and international organizations that the unique needs of adolescents must be addressed and promoted to ensure the health of all adolescents. This policy statement outlines the special health challenges that adolescents face on their journey and transition to adulthood and provides recommendations for those who care for adolescents, their families, and the communities in which they live.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Política de Saúde , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde/fisiologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Política de Saúde/tendências , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/tendências , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Behav Addict ; 8(3): 508-521, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A recent call to action highlighted the need to understand the relationship between problem gambling, violence, and health/functioning. As weapon-carrying and gambling behaviors are prevalent in adolescents, this study systematically examined relationships between weapon-carrying status and measures of problem gambling severity and gambling perceptions and attitudes, as well as how weapon-carrying status moderated relationships between problem gambling severity and measures of health/functioning and gambling behavior. METHODS: Participants were 2,301 Connecticut high-school adolescents. χ2 and logistic regression models were conducted. RESULTS: Weapon-carriers reported greater problem gambling severity, more permissive gambling perceptions, greater parental approval of gambling, and more family gambling concerns, compared to non-weapon-carriers. At-risk/problem gambling was more strongly associated with family, peers, and adult gambling partners among non-weapon-carriers (vs. weapon-carriers) and with machine gambling among weapon-carriers (vs. non-weapon-carriers). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Greater problem gambling severity and more permissive gambling perceptions and perceived parental approval of gambling in weapon-carrying adolescents suggest that parent-child relationships are important to be considered in prevention efforts. The moderated relationship by weapon-carrying status between problem gambling severity and gambling partners suggests a problem gambling risk group that may be less linked to gambling with traditional social support groups, and this group may benefit from targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Atitude , Jogo de Azar/fisiopatologia , Pais , Armas , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
J Behav Addict ; 8(3): 574-585, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: For most youngsters, gaming is a fun and innocent leisure activity. However, some adolescents are prone to develop problematic gaming behavior. It is therefore important to have a comprehensive understanding of psychosocial and game-related characteristics that differentiate highly engaged gamers from problematic gamers. To that end, this study evaluated the stability and consistency of Internet gaming criteria (as suggested by the DSM-5) and psychosocial characteristics in a two-wave longitudinal study including 1928 young adolescents (mean age = 13.3 years, SD = 0.91, 57% boys). METHODS: A confirmatory factor analysis revealed good stability of the Internet gaming disorder (IGD) construct over time. Latent class analyses revealed three classes for boys (recreational, engaged, and problematic) and two classes for girls (recreational and engaged). RESULTS: Significant differences between classes emerged for problem criteria (conflict and problems in social life), gaming duration, impulsivity, social competence, and attention/hyperactivity. The absence of a problematic gaming class for girls suggests that girls are less likely to develop problematic gaming behavior. DISCUSSION: The IGD criteria as proposed by the DSM-5 are a helpful tool to identify problematic gamers, although the results of this study suggest that using a strict cut-off point might result in false positives, particularly for boys. Problem criteria appeared to be the most sensitive and specific in identifying the problematic gamer, whereas escapism criteria were the least specific and sensitive. Careful consideration of the current proposed criteria to identify problematic gaming behavior could benefit the research and clinical field.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Problema , Recreação/fisiologia , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/classificação , Comportamento Aditivo/classificação , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
7.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(7): 462-469, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403840

RESUMO

Background: An abnormal interaction between cognition and emotion may contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Aims: In this study, we aimed to evaluate theory of mind and emotion regulation skills in adolescents diagnosed with OCD. In addition, the results were evaluated in accordance with patients' insight levels. Methods: This study was conducted with 50 patients, who were aged between 11 and 16 and who were newly diagnosed with OCD and 50 healthy individuals. The Turkish version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime was used to diagnose OCD and other comorbidities. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, the Children's Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used for clinical evaluation. The intelligence levels were assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Short Form. Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test was used in patients. The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale was also used to evaluate the skills of regulating emotions. Results: Patients with OCD had lower ability with regard to reading minds in the eyes and emotion regulation than the healthy individuals. Patients with OCD, who had a poor insight, had more difficulty in reading minds in the eyes and emotion regulation than those with good insight. Conclusions: This study supports the idea that OCD is related to deficits in theory of mind and emotion regulation skills. Thus, further studies are required to confirm the findings of this study.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade
8.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 39: 100690, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450015

RESUMO

Although there is a long history of studying the influence of pubertal hormones on brain function/structure in animals, this research in human adolescents is young but burgeoning. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of findings from neuroimaging studies investigating the relation between pubertal and functional brain development in humans. We quantified the findings from this literature in which statistics required for standard meta-analyses are often not provided (i.e., effect size in fMRI studies). To do so, we assessed convergence in findings within content domains (reward, facial emotion, social information, cognitive processing) in terms of the locus and directionality (i.e., positive/negative) of effects. Face processing is the only domain with convergence in the locus of effects in the amygdala. Social information processing is the only domain with convergence of positive effects; however, these effects are not consistently present in any brain region. There is no convergence of effects in either the reward or cognitive processing domains. This limited convergence in findings across domains is not the result of null findings or even due to the variety of experimental paradigms researchers employ. Instead, there are critical theoretical, methodological, and analytical issues that must be addressed in order to move the field forward.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Emoções/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Recompensa
9.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 39: 100681, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404858

RESUMO

According to Dual Systems models (Casey et al., 2008; Luna and Wright, 2016; Steinberg, 2008), a rapidly-developing socioemotional system and gradually-developing cognitive control system characterize adolescent brain development. The imbalance hypothesis forwarded by Dual Systems models posits that the magnitude of the imbalance between these two developing systems should predict the propensity for engaging in a variety of risk behaviors. The current integrative review argues that the excitement generated by the imbalance hypothesis and its implications for explaining adolescent risk behaviors has not been meet with equal efforts to rigorously test this hypothesis. The goal of the current review is to help guide the field to consider appropriate and rigorous methods of testing the imbalance hypothesis. First, we review the analytic approaches that have been used to test the imbalance hypothesis and outline statistical and conceptual limitations of these approaches. Next, we discuss the utility of two longitudinal analytic approaches (Latent Difference Scores and Growth Mixture Modeling) for testing the imbalance hypothesis. We utilize data from a large community adolescent sample to illustrate each approach and argue that Latent Difference Scores and Growth Mixture Modeling approaches enhance the specificity and precision with which the imbalance hypothesis is evaluated.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Assunção de Riscos , Autocontrole/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(11): 2087-2098, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325078

RESUMO

Growing economic inequality across the family and school contexts that adolescents inhabit may have significant consequences for their psychological well-being. Yet little research has assessed the mental health repercussions of economic inequities or whether such repercussions have shifted with rising inequality. This study assessed annual Monitoring the Future surveys with 8th (n = 124,468; age 13; 59 percent White, 41 percent students of color), 10th (n = 164,916; age 15; 65 percent white, 35 percent students of color), and 12th (n = 60,664; age 17; 66 percent white, 34 percent students of color) grade students from 1989-2017. Analyses tracked secular trends in adolescent depressive symptoms and assessed whether family and school socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in depressive symptoms have shifted over time. Depressive symptoms showed significant elevations in 2014-2017 among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders over 2010-2013 levels. Pervasive small SES gaps were found in adolescent depressive symptoms, with youth from lower SES families and lower SES schools reporting higher depressive symptoms than their more advantaged peers across all grades. Family SES gaps remained stable over recent decades, whereas school SES gaps rose significantly in recent years across all grades and genders, suggesting that the recent rise in depressive symptoms is driven by adolescents in low SES schools. The results suggest that repercussions of growing economic inequality may extend to psychological outcomes, and identify the need for greater preventive and intervention services targeting adolescent mental health.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Instituições Acadêmicas , Classe Social
11.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 24(4): 821-830, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315465

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the function and progression of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and its relationship with suicide attempts. METHOD: Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 adolescents psychiatrically hospitalized following a suicide attempt who reported NSSI. Applied thematic analysis was used to identify and examine themes from the interview data. RESULTS: Thematic analysis revealed that the primary function of NSSI was relief from emotional pain, though the function often changed over time. NSSI was often not directly related to patients' suicide attempts, yet risk of suicidal behavior seemed to increase once NSSI lost its effectiveness, and suicide became the only option. CONCLUSION: Clinicians need to understand and monitor the functions of NSSI, and its relationship with suicidality, to prevent suicide attempts among adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Progressão da Doença , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia
12.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 38: 100665, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176282

RESUMO

Detecting errors and adjusting behaviour appropriately are fundamental cognitive abilities that are known to improve through adolescence. The cognitive and neural processes underlying this development, however, are still poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we performed a thorough investigation of error processing in a Flanker task in a cross-sectional sample of participants 8 to 19 years of age (n = 98). We examined age-related differences in event-related potentials known to be associated with error processing, namely the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe), as well as their relationships with task performance, post-error adjustments and regional cingulate cortex thickness and surface area. We found that ERN amplitude increased with age, while Pe amplitude remained constant. A more negative ERN was associated with higher task accuracy and faster reaction times, while a more positive Pe was associated with higher accuracy, independently of age. When estimating post-error adjustments from trials following both incongruent and congruent trials, post-error slowing and post-error improvement in accuracy both increased with age, but this was only found for post-error slowing when analysing trials following incongruent trials. There were no age-independent associations between either ERN or Pe amplitude and cingulate cortex thickness or area measures.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Compr Child Adolesc Nurs ; 42(sup1): 108-114, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192723

RESUMO

Emotional response toward menarche is a psychological problem for female adolescents. In addition menarche is considered taboo and embarrassing by female adolescents. Many female adolescents have a negative feeling and do not prepare for menarche. The purpose of this paper is to identify female adolescents' preparation and emotional response toward menarche. This study used a qualitative method including focus group discussion (FGD) and in-depth interview. FGD was carried out with five female adolescents in a school setting about female adolescents' preparations and emotional response toward menarche. The participants were female adolescent students who had not entered menarche yet. Some teachers were also interviewed as key persons. The results of this study indicate that female adolesents do not prepare for menarche. The participants did not have adequate knowledge and felt ashamed and worried about menarche. This study recommended the use of reproductive health education related to menarcheal preparations in school and community settings to prepare female adolescents to confidently face menarche.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Menarca/psicologia , Adolescente , Emoções , Feminino , Grupos Focais/métodos , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , Saúde Reprodutiva/normas , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Span J Psychol ; 22: E30, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148532

RESUMO

This paper presents the translation, adaptation and validation of a broadly used scale to measure emotion regulation strategies (i.e. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire Children and Adolescents -ERQ-CA; Gullone & Taffe, 2012) in a sample of early adolescents. The 10-item scale was applied to a sample of 248 adolescents (128 boys) aged 13 to 14 years. Semi-confirmatory factor analysis supported the original two-factor structure: Cognitive Reappraisal and Expressive Suppression (SRMR = .05; RMSEA = .06; CFI = .96). These two factors demonstrate adequate internal consistency and evidence for convergent validity with other scales that refer to emotional intelligence, affect, and behavior. Thus, Cognitive Reappraisal scores were associated with higher self-perceived emotional abilities, positive affect and personal adjustment (ps < .05). Conversely, Expressive Suppression scores were associated with lower self-perceived emotional abilities, positive affect, and personal adjustment (ps < .01), with higher scores on negative affect, school and clinical maladjustment (ps < .01), as well as stress and depression symptoms (ps < .001). Overall, these findings suggest that the questionnaire may be a useful and reliable instrument for the assessment of emotion regulation strategies in early adolescents for future research in Spanish speaking countries.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Inteligência Emocional , Psicometria/normas , Ajustamento Social , Adolescente , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 38: 100664, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158801

RESUMO

Inhibitory control (IC) plays a critical role in cognitive and socio-emotional development. Short-term IC training improves IC abilities in children and adults. Surprisingly, few studies have investigated the IC training effect during adolescence, a developmental period characterized by high neuroplasticity and the protracted development of IC abilities. We investigated behavioural and functional brain changes induced by a 5-week computerized and adaptive IC training in adolescents. We focused on the IC training effects on the local properties of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) signal fluctuations at rest (i.e., Regional Homogeneity [ReHo] and fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations [fALFF]). Sixty adolescents were randomly assigned to either an IC or an active control training group. In the pre- and post-training sessions, cognitive ('Cool') and emotional ('Hot') IC abilities were assessed using the Colour-Word and Emotional Stroop tasks. We found that ReHo and fALFF signals in IC areas (IFG, ACC, Striatum) were associated with IC efficiency at baseline. This association was different for Cool and Hot IC. Analyses also revealed that ReHo and fALFF signals were sensitive markers to detect and monitor changes after IC training, while behavioural data did not, suggesting that brain functional changes at rest precede behavioural changes following training.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Teste de Stroop , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Criança , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Descanso/psicologia , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 289: 1-9, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102892

RESUMO

Understanding the neural correlates of social interaction among depressed adolescents with suicidal tendencies might help personalize treatment. We tested whether brain function during social interaction is disrupted for depressed adolescents with (1) high suicide ideation and (2) recent attempts. Depressed adolescents with high suicide ideation, including attempters (n = 45;HS) or low suicide ideation (n = 42;LS), and healthy adolescents (n = 39;HC), completed a version of the Cyberball peer interaction task during an fMRI scan. Groups were compared on brain activity during peer exclusion and inclusion versus a non-social condition. During peer exclusion and inclusion, HS youth showed significantly lower activity in precentral and postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, insula, and putamen compared to LS youth; and significantly reduced activity in caudate and anterior cingulate cortex compared to HC youth. In a second analysis, suicide attempters (n = 26;SA) were compared to other groups. SA adolescents showed significantly higher activity in ACC and superior and middle frontal gyrus than all other groups. Brain activity was significantly correlated with negative emotionality, social functioning, and cognitive control. Conclusions: Adolescent suicide ideation and attempts were linked to altered neural function during positive and negative peer interactions. We discuss the implications of these findings for suicide prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Relações Interpessoais , Neostriado/fisiopatologia , Grupo Associado , Distância Social , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adolescente , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neostriado/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Evol Psychol ; 17(2): 1474704919847450, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068008

RESUMO

Adolescent bullying perpetration has previously been associated with dating benefits and costs in the short- and long-term, yet it is unclear how early temperament traits facilitate these associations. Therefore, the developmental pathways from temperament in early adolescence to bullying perpetration in middle adolescence and to dating outcomes in late adolescence were examined. Participants included 463 individuals who completed self-report measures on temperament traits at age 12, bullying perpetration at age 14, dating outcomes at age 19, and were in a romantic relationship at age 19. Findings from a path analysis revealed that an early adolescent temperament trait reflecting difficulty with self-regulation (i.e., lower inhibitory control) was associated with middle adolescent bullying perpetration and bullying perpetration was associated with late adolescent dating benefits (i.e., more dating partners) and costs (i.e., higher dating aggression perpetration). Lower inhibitory control also had significant indirect associations to the late adolescent dating outcomes through middle adolescent bullying perpetration. Findings suggest that although a temperament trait can facilitate adaptive dating outcomes through bullying, it can also come at a cost for romantic relationships. Results highlight the importance of early tailoring of bullying interventions to the self-regulatory difficulties of youth to prevent adverse long-term outcomes and to also recognize the challenges of developing interventions for behavior that can result in benefits.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Agressão/fisiologia , Bullying/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Temperamento/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 44, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clusters of adolescents differentiated by patterns of physical activity and sedentary behavior (activity-related typologies) are common. Understanding both the characteristics of adolescents and modifiable correlates of these typologies, can help to develop interventions for those most at risk. This systematic review aimed to synthesize the socio-demographic characteristics and modifiable correlates of activity-related behavioral typologies among adolescents. METHODS: A systematic search of seven electronic databases was conducted to identify quantitative studies using person-oriented statistical approaches to identify activity-related behavioral typologies among 12-18 year-olds. This systematic review was registered in Prospero (registration number: CRD42016046879). RESULTS: Thirty-six studies met the inclusion criteria and were classified according to three sub-themes based on behaviors included in the typologies (1. physical activity and sedentary behavior only; 2. physical activity, sedentary behavior and risk-related behaviors; 3. physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet). Studies were mostly cross-sectional and relied on self-report measures. Methods were considerably heterogeneous, however results revealed some consistency in typologies within specific groups. For example, typologies characterized by unhealthy behavior patterns (e.g., characterized by physical inactivity, high sedentary behavior and poor diet or high risk-related behaviors) comprised more older adolescents. With the exception of socio-demographics (age, sex, body mass index and socio-economic status), very few correlates have been studied to date (mostly school-related behavioral factors and intrapersonal influences), with evidence largely from typologies comprised of physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet. CONCLUSIONS: More research is needed to assess a range of modifiable correlates associated with activity-related behavior typologies among adolescents. This will allow for more targeted interventions, to achieve long-lasting, positive behavior change in adolescent populations.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Comportamento Sedentário
19.
Percept Mot Skills ; 126(4): 585-602, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033404

RESUMO

This study examined the relationship between physical literacy (i.e., motor competence, physical activity, and health-related fitness) and academic performance (i.e., executive function, class attendance, and standardized test scores) among adolescents. Second, we investigated whether these relationships differ between boys and girls using a structural invariable test. Using a prospective research design, we recruited 330 adolescents (154 boys and 176 girls; Mage = 12.52 years, SD = 0.86) in Texas and conducted correlational analyses, finding that physical literacy variables were significantly related to executive function (while the rs range was from -.16 to -.30, the high scores on the instrument we used, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, indicate higher risks for executive dysfunction; p < .01) and positively associated with school attendance (rs range from .19 to .34; p < .05). Structural equation models supported the significant direct and indirect effects of motor competence on executive function and school attendance for boys and girls through physical fitness (all three components) and school-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. The structural invarince test indicated noninvariant models (based on path coefficients) between girls and boys (p < .01). Embracing psychomotor associations with physical literacy may be a promising way to elicit behavioral change in physical fitness and create a behavioral channel to academic success for adolescents.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas
20.
Pediatrics ; 143(5)2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mental illnesses affect >15% of Canadian adolescents. New preventive strategies are critically needed. We examined the associations of meeting established recommendations for diet, physical activity, sleep, and sedentary behavior in childhood with mental illness in adolescence. METHODS: Population-based prospective study (n = 3436) linking 2011 health behavior survey data of 10- to 11-year-olds with administrative health data from 2011 to 2014. Lifestyle behaviors were measured with the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire and self- and parental-proxy reports, expressed as meeting recommendations for vegetables and fruit, grain products, milk and alternatives, meat and alternatives, added sugar, saturated fat, sleep, screen time, and physical activity. Mental illness was defined by physician-diagnosed internalizing, externalizing, and other psychiatric conditions. Negative binomial regression was used to determine the independent and cumulative associations of meeting lifestyle recommendations with physician visits for mental illnesses. RESULTS: Of all participants, 12%, 67%, and 21% met 1 to 3, 4 to 6, and 7 to 9 recommendations, respectively, and 15% had a mental illness diagnosis during follow-up. Compared with meeting 1 to 3 recommendations, meeting 7 to 9 recommendations was associated with 56% (95% confidence interval: 38%-69%) fewer physician visits for mental illness during follow-up. Every additional recommendation met was associated with 15% fewer physician visits for mental illnesses (95% confidence interval: 9%-21%). CONCLUSIONS: Mental illness in adolescence is associated with compliance to lifestyle recommendations in childhood, with stronger associations seen when more recommendations are met. Emphasizing lifestyle recommendations in pediatric practice may reduce the future burden of mental illness.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Estilo de Vida , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Dieta/tendências , Exercício/fisiologia , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/tendências , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento Sedentário
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