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1.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057485

RESUMO

Disturbances in eating behaviors have been widely related to obesity. However, little is known about the role of obesity-related biomarkers in shaping habitual patterns of eating behaviors (i.e., eating styles) in childhood. The objective of the present study was to explore the relationships between several biomarkers crucially involved in obesity (ghrelin, insulin resistance, and leptin/adiponectin ratio) and eating styles in children and adolescents with obesity. Seventy participants aged between 8 and 16 (56.2% men) fulfilled the Spanish version of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire for Children to measure external, emotional, and restrained eating styles. In addition, concentrations of ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, and glucose were obtained through a blood test. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for age and sex were computed for each eating style. Results indicated that individuals with higher ghrelin concentration levels showed lower scores in restrained eating (ß = -0.61, p < 0.001). The total model explained 32% of the variance of the restrained pattern. No other relationships between obesity-related biomarkers and eating behaviors were found. This study highlights that one of the obesity-risk factors, namely lower plasma ghrelin levels, is substantially involved in a well-known maladaptive eating style, restraint eating, in childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Adiponectina/sangue , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Pediatr Neurol ; 126: 20-25, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Specific health-risk behaviors are present in older adolescents and young adults wtih Tourette syndrome (TS), but little is known about health-risk behaviors in youth with TS. METHODS: We compared responses on the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS) in youth with TS with those in a concurrent community control group. The YRBS evaluates risk behaviors most closely associated with morbidity and mortality in young people. Tic severity, presence of comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), measures of ADHD symptom severity, and whether or not the individual had been bullied in school were also compared between the groups. RESULTS: Data from 52 youth with TS and 48 control youth were included. We did not detect any differences between control youth and youth with TS in the reporting of risky behaviors. Tic severity was not significantly associated with high-risk behavior. However, ADHD was significantly more common in youth with TS (P < 0.0002), and youth with TS who identified themselves as victims of bullying had significantly higher ADHD symptom severity scores (P = 0.04) compared with those who were not bullied. CONCLUSIONS: Risk behaviors are not reliably or clinically different in youth with TS compared with control youth. ADHD severity, but not tic severity, was associated with being bullied in youth with TS.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde/fisiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Síndrome de Tourette/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidade do Paciente , Síndrome de Tourette/epidemiologia
3.
J Pain ; 23(2): 223-235, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403788

RESUMO

Pain appraisals are closely tied to pain and functional outcomes. Pain-related injustice and pain catastrophizing appraisals have both been identified as important cognitive-emotional factors in the pain experience of youth. Although pain-related injustice and catastrophizing have been linked to worse pain outcomes - as primary predictors and intermediary variables - little is known about whether they operate as independent or parallel mediators of the relationship between pain and functioning in youth. We tested pain-related injustice and catastrophizing appraisals as candidate mediators of the relationship between baseline pain intensity and 3-month functional outcomes in adolescents. Youth with chronic pain (N = 89, 76% female, 89% White, average age = 15 years) completed measures assessing pain intensity, pain-related injustice, and catastrophizing at baseline, as well as measures assessing functional disability and overall quality of life 3 months later. Multiple mediation analyses indicated that injustice mediated the relationship between pain intensity and 3 month quality of life. Exploratory analyses of specific quality of life domains indicated that injustice mediated the relationship between pain intensity and 3 month emotional functioning, whereas catastrophizing mediated the relationship between pain intensity and 3 month social functioning. The findings suggest these pain-related appraisals play different intermediary roles in the relationships among pain and future psychosocial outcomes. PERSPECTIVE: Pain-related injustice and catastrophizing appraisals play different intermediary roles in the relationships among pain and future psychosocial outcomes in youth with chronic pain. Treatments targeting pain-related injustice appraisals in pediatric populations are needed to complement existing treatments for catastrophizing.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Catastrofização , Dor Crônica , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Catastrofização/fisiopatologia , Catastrofização/psicologia , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
4.
J Pain ; 23(2): 212-222, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375744

RESUMO

Mechanisms explaining the relationship between pain-related injustice appraisals and functional outcomes in youth with chronic pain have yet to be examined. In studies of adults, greater pain-related injustice is associated with worse depressive symptoms and greater pain through greater anger. No study to date has examined anger expression as a mediator in the relationships between pain-related injustice appraisals and physical and psychosocial functioning in youth with chronic pain. The current sample consisted of 385 youth with varied pain conditions (75% female, 88% White, Mage=14.4 years) presenting to a university-affiliated pain clinic. Patients completed self-report measures assessing anger expression (anger-out and anger-in), pain-related injustice, pain intensity, functional disability, and emotional, social, and school functioning. Bootstrapped mediation analyses indicated that only anger-out (indirect effect= -.12, 95% CI: -.21, -.05) mediated the relationship between pain-related injustice and emotional functioning, whereas both anger-out (indirect effect= -.17, 95% CI: -.27, -.09) and anger-in (indirect effect= -.13, 95% CI: -.09, -.001) mediated the relationship between pain-related injustice and social functioning. Neither mode of anger expression mediated the relationship between pain-related injustice and pain intensity, functional disability, or school functioning. Collectively, these findings implicate anger as one mechanism by which pain-related injustice impacts psychosocial outcomes for youth with chronic pain. PERSPECTIVE: Anger expression plays a mediating role in the relationship between pain-related injustice appraisals and psychosocial outcomes for youth with chronic pain. Anger represents one target for clinical care to decrease the deleterious impact of pain-related injustice on emotional and social functioning.


Assuntos
Ira/fisiologia , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Dev Psychobiol ; 63 Suppl 1: e22220, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964495

RESUMO

Sleep and autonomic nervous system functioning are important bioregulatory systems. Poor sleep and low baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of parasympathetic nervous system activity, are associated with externalizing behaviors and depressive symptoms in youth. Rarely, however, have measures of these systems been examined conjointly. The present study examined baseline RSA (RSA-B) as a moderator of longitudinal relations between adolescent sleep and adjustment. Participants were 256 adolescents (52% girls, 66% White/European American, 34% Black/African American) from small towns and surrounding rural communities in the southeastern United States. Sleep (minutes, efficiency, variability in minutes and efficiency) was assessed at age 15 via actigraphs across seven nights. RSA-B was derived from electrocardiogram data collected at rest. Adolescents self-reported externalizing problems and depressive symptoms at ages 15 and 17. Controlling for age 15 adjustment, findings generally demonstrated that sleep predicted age 17 adjustment particularly at higher (rather than lower) levels of RSA-B, such that adolescents with good sleep (more minutes and lower variability) and high RSA-B were at lowest risk for maladjustment. The results highlight the value of examining multiple bioregulatory processes conjointly and suggest that promoting good sleep habits and regulation of physiological arousal should support adolescent adjustment.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Arritmia Sinusal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático , Sono/fisiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24094, 2021 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916545

RESUMO

The dopamine receptor 4 (DRD4) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) acts to modulate behaviours including cognitive control and motivation, and has been implicated in behavioral inhibition and responsivity to food cues. Adolescence is a sensitive period for the development of habitual eating behaviors and obesity risk, with potential mediation by development of the PFC. We previously found that genetic variations influencing DRD4 function or expression were associated with measures of laboratory and real-world eating behavior in girls and boys. Here we investigated brain responses to high energy-density (ED) and low-ED food cues using an fMRI task conducted in the satiated state. We used the gene-based association method PrediXcan to estimate tissue-specific DRD4 gene expression in prefrontal brain areas from individual genotypes. Among girls, those with lower vs. higher predicted prefrontal DRD4 expression showed lesser activation to high-ED and low-ED vs. non-food cues in a distributed network of regions implicated in attention and sensorimotor processing including middle frontal gyrus, and lesser activation to low-ED vs non-food cues in key regions implicated in valuation including orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial PFC. In contrast, males with lower vs. higher predicted prefrontal DRD4 expression showed minimal differences in food cue response, namely relatively greater activation to high-ED and low-ED vs. non-food cues in the inferior parietal lobule. Our data suggest sex-specific effects of prefrontal DRD4 on brain food responsiveness in adolescence, with modulation of distributed regions relevant to cognitive control and motivation observable in female adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Alimentos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Receptores de Dopamina D4/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D4/metabolismo , Adolescente , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Receptores de Dopamina D4/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais
7.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate eating episodes in a group of adolescents in their home-setting using wearable electromyography (EMG) and camera, and to evaluate the agreement between the two devices. APPROACH: Fifteen adolescents (15.5 ± 1.3 years) had a smartphone-assisted wearable-EMG device attached to the jaw to assess chewing features over one evening. EMG outcomes included chewing pace, time, episode count, and mean power. An automated wearable-camera worn on the chest facing outwards recorded four images/minute. The agreement between the camera and the EMG device in detecting eating episodes was evaluated by calculating specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy. MAIN RESULTS: The features of eating episodes identified by EMG throughout the entire recording time were (mean (SD)); chewing pace 1.64 (0.20) Hz, time 10.5 (10.4) minutes, episodes count 56.8 (39.0), and power 32.1% (4.3). The EMG device identified 5.1 (1.8) eating episodes lasting 27:51 (16:14) minutes whereas the cameras indicated 2.4 (2.1) episodes totaling 14:49 (11:18) minutes, showing that the EMG-identified chewing episodes were not all detected by the camera. However, overall accuracy of eating episodes identified ranged from 0.8 to 0.92. SIGNIFICANCE: The combination of wearable EMG and camera is a promising tool to investigate eating behaviors in research and clinical-settings.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Eletromiografia/instrumentação , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Projetos Piloto , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adolescente , Craniossinostoses , Feminino , Holoprosencefalia , Humanos , Arcada Osseodentária/fisiologia , Masculino , Mastigação/fisiologia , Smartphone
8.
Sch Psychol ; 36(5): 293-302, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591584

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is adversely affecting adolescents' mental health and health behaviors, particularly among those with preexisting mental health conditions and from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. However, direct tests of changes in health outcomes among vulnerable adolescents from before to during COVID-19 are limited. In addition, little is known about how to buffer adolescents, particularly those who are most vulnerable, against stress-related decrements in health. This randomized controlled trial begins to fill these gaps in the literature by exploring changes in mental health, health behaviors, executive function, emotion regulation, and mindfulness among vulnerable adolescents involved in a mentoring program during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also examined to what extent there were protective benefits of incorporating mindfulness training within a mentoring program for buffering adolescents from negative pandemic health effects. Thirty-five adolescents (Mage = 12.9, 37% female) and 32 parents (Mage = 44.75, 80% female) completed questionnaires at baseline (February 2020) and follow-up (July 2020). There were few significant reductions in health; instead, on average, youth reported improvements in sleep, emotion regulation, executive function, and mindfulness over time. Adolescents randomized to mentoring + mindfulness displayed significantly less posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and emotional impulsivity at follow-up, compared to the mentoring-as-usual condition. These pilot findings suggest that mentoring with a mindfulness training component may offer an effective strategy for protecting adolescents from deteriorations in health outcomes during COVID-19. Further, there may be unique benefits of mindfulness training for vulnerable youth as a way to adapt to stressful events. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , COVID-19 , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Tutoria , Atenção Plena , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256867, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research examining the associations between movement behaviours and mental health indicators within a compositional framework are sparse and limited by their cross-sectional study design. This study has three objectives. First, to describe the change in movement behaviour composition over time. Second, to explore the association between change in movement behaviour composition and change in depressive symptoms. Third, to explore how reallocations of time between movement behaviours are associated with changes in depressive symptoms. METHODS: Longitudinal data of 14,620 students in grades 9-12 (mean age: 14.9 years) attending secondary schools in Canada (Ontario, British Columbia, Alberta, Quebec) were obtained from two waves (2017/18, 2018/19) of the COMPASS study. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), recreational screen time, and sleep duration were self-reported. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (Revised)-10 (CESD-R-10). Compositional data analyses using pivot coordinates and compositional isotemporal substitution for longitudinal data were used to analyse the data. Analyses accounted for school clustering, were stratified by gender and age (< or ≥ 15 years), and were adjusted for race/ethnicity, body mass index z-score, baseline movement behaviour composition, and baseline depressive symptoms. RESULTS: There were significant differences in movement behaviour composition over time across all subgroups. For example, the relative contributions of MVPA and sleep duration to the movement behaviour composition decreased over time while screen time increased among younger boys and girls and older girls. Increasing sleep duration relative to the remaining behaviours (i.e. screen time and MVPA) was associated with lower depressive symptoms among all subgroups. Increasing screen time relative to the remaining behaviours (i.e. MVPA and sleep duration) was associated with higher depressive symptoms among all subgroups. Increasing MVPA relative to the remaining behaviours (i.e. screen time and sleep duration) was associated with lower depressive symptoms in older girls only. Isotemporal substitution estimates indicated that decreasing screen time by 60 minutes/day and replacing that time with 60 minutes of additional sleep is associated with the largest change in depressive symptoms across all subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this prospective analysis suggest that increased sleep duration and reduced screen time are important determinants of lower depressive symptoms among adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Movimento/fisiologia , Adolescente , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Tela , Comportamento Sedentário , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Sono/fisiologia
11.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(4): 386-389, Aug. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288593

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Background: The generation of individual behavior is closely related to the environment in which it is located and is easily affected by environmental factors. Objective: The thesis takes the social ecology model theory as the starting point, applies the five different levels of influencing factors in the theoretical model to the field of youth physical exercise behavior, and seeks the interrelationship between the various influencing factors. Methods: Using questionnaire surveys, interviews, and other research methods, the paper makes a simple theoretical combing and analysis of the healthy behavior ecology model, seeks the interrelationship between the influencing factors, propose complementary intervention strategies, and promote the development of adolescents' physical exercise habits through effective ways. Results: The motivation of sports participation, the protection of physical health, family health awareness, economic and educational environment, professional quality of physical education teachers and school exercise environment and community facilities affect the direction of the development of adolescents' physical exercise behavior. Conclusions: Only by comprehensively considering the relationship between various related factors can we better understand adolescent physical exercise development characteristics, propose complementary intervention strategies, and promote physical exercise habits effectively. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Antecedentes: A geração do comportamento individual está intimamente relacionada ao ambiente em que está inserida e é facilmente afetada por fatores ambientais. Objetivo: A tese toma como ponto de partida a teoria do modelo da ecologia social, aplica os cinco diferentes níveis de fatores influenciadores do modelo teórico ao campo do comportamento de exercício físico juvenil e busca a inter-relação entre os vários fatores influenciadores. Métodos: Utilizando questionários, entrevistas e outros métodos de pesquisa, o artigo faz uma análise teórica simples do modelo de ecologia do comportamento saudável, busca a inter-relação entre os fatores que influenciam, propõe estratégias de intervenção complementares e promove o desenvolvimento físico dos adolescentes. hábitos de exercício através de formas eficazes. Resultados: A motivação para a prática de esportes, a proteção da saúde física, a conscientização sobre a saúde da família, o ambiente econômico e educacional, a qualidade profissional dos professores de educação física e o ambiente de exercício escolar e as instalações comunitárias afetam a direção do desenvolvimento do comportamento de exercício físico dos adolescentes. Conclusões: Somente considerando de forma abrangente a relação entre vários fatores relacionados podemos entender melhor as características do desenvolvimento de exercícios físicos em adolescentes, propor estratégias de intervenção complementar e promover hábitos de exercícios físicos de forma eficaz. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos: investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Antecedentes: La generación del comportamiento individual está íntimamente relacionada con el entorno en el que se ubica y es fácilmente afectado por factores ambientales. Objetivo: La tesis toma como punto de partida la teoría del modelo de ecología social, aplica los cinco niveles diferentes de factores de influencia en el modelo teórico al campo de la conducta de ejercicio físico juvenil y busca la interrelación entre los diversos factores de influencia. Métodos: Mediante cuestionarios, entrevistas y otros métodos de investigación, el trabajo realiza un simple peinado y análisis teórico del modelo de ecología del comportamiento saludable, busca la interrelación entre los factores influyentes, propone estrategias de intervención complementarias y promueve el desarrollo de la física de los adolescentes. Hábitos de ejercicio de forma eficaz. Resultados: La motivación de la participación deportiva, la protección de la salud física, la conciencia de la salud familiar, el entorno económico y educativo, la calidad profesional de los profesores de educación física y el entorno de ejercicio escolar y las instalaciones comunitarias afectan la dirección del desarrollo de la conducta de ejercicio físico de los adolescentes. Conclusiones: Solo considerando de manera integral la relación entre varios factores relacionados podemos comprender mejor las características del desarrollo del ejercicio físico en los adolescentes, proponer estrategias de intervención complementarias y promover los hábitos de ejercicio físico de manera efectiva. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Meio Social , Estudantes , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise Fatorial , Modelos Teóricos
12.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(4): 434-439, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288592

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Introduction: Physical exercise has a positive effect on the health of individuals. Long-term sedentary behavior can induce coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Lack of physical exercise has become the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore, youth sports are very important for physical health. Objective: To systematically reveal the influencing factors of adolescents' physical exercise and improve the effectiveness of interventions on adolescents' physical exercise behaviors, this article is based on social ecology theory to study the structural model of adolescents' physical exercise factors. Methods: The thesis considers factors affecting adolescent physical exercise as the research object and uses literature method, questionnaire survey, mathematical statistics, etc., to construct a structural model of factors affecting youth physical exercise, including four primary indicators and 19 secondary indicators. Results: Adolescent physical exercise is affected by the school, family, social and personal factors. Among them, family factors have the greatest impact on young people's physical exercise. Personal factors rank second, school factors, and social factors rank third. Among the family factors, the major influences on youth physical exercise are "parental support," "parents' cognition of physical exercise," and "parental exercise habits." Conclusions: The influencing factors of adolescent physical exercise involve four aspects: family, society, school, and self. Family factors have the greatest impact on adolescent physical exercise, and personal factors are the second, school factors, and social factors are the third. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies - investigation of treatment results.


RESUMO Introdução: o exercício físico tem um efeito positivo na saúde das pessoas. O comportamento sedentário de longo prazo pode induzir doenças coronárias, hipertensão, diabetes e outras doenças crônicas. A falta de exercício físico tornou-se a quarta causa de morte em todo o mundo. Portanto, os esportes juvenis são muito importantes para a saúde física. Objetivo: Desvendar sistematicamente os fatores que influenciam o exercício físico de adolescentes e melhorar a eficácia das intervenções sobre os comportamentos de exercício físico de adolescentes, este artigo se baseia na teoria da ecologia social para estudar o modelo estrutural dos fatores do exercício físico de adolescentes. Métodos: a tese considera os fatores que afetam o exercício físico do adolescente como objeto de pesquisa e usa o método da literatura, questionário, estatística matemática, etc., para construir um modelo estrutural de fatores que afetam o exercício físico do jovem, incluindo quatro indicadores primários e 19 indicadores secundários. Resultados: O exercício físico dos adolescentes é afetado por fatores escolares, familiares, sociais e pessoais. Dentre eles, os fatores familiares são os de maior impacto sobre a prática de exercícios físicos dos jovens. Fatores pessoais estão em segundo lugar, fatores escolares e fatores sociais vêm em terceiro. Entre os fatores familiares, as principais influências sobre a prática de exercícios físicos dos jovens são "apoio dos pais", "conhecimento dos pais sobre a prática de exercícios físicos" e "hábitos de exercício dos pais". Conclusões: Os fatores que influenciam a prática de exercícios físicos no adolescente envolvem quatro aspectos: família, sociedade, escola e eu. Os fatores familiares têm maior impacto sobre o exercício físico dos adolescentes, e os pessoais em segundo lugar, os escolares e os sociais em terceiro. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos- investigação dos resultados do tratamento.


RESUMEN Introducción: el ejercicio físico tiene un efecto positivo en la salud de las personas. El comportamiento sedentario a largo plazo puede inducir enfermedades coronarias, hipertensión, diabetes y otras enfermedades crónicas. La falta de ejercicio físico se ha convertido en la cuarta causa de muerte en todo el mundo. Por tanto, los deportes juveniles son muy importantes para la salud física. Objetivo: Revelar sistemáticamente los factores que influyen en el ejercicio físico de los adolescentes y mejorar la efectividad de las intervenciones sobre las conductas de ejercicio físico de los adolescentes, este artículo se basa en la teoría de la ecología social para estudiar el modelo estructural de los factores de ejercicio físico de los adolescentes. Métodos: La tesis considera factores que afectan el ejercicio físico adolescente como objeto de investigación y utiliza el método de la literatura, cuestionario, estadística matemática, etc., para construir un modelo estructural de factores que afectan el ejercicio físico juvenil, incluyendo cuatro indicadores primarios y 19 indicadores secundarios. Resultados: El ejercicio físico de los adolescentes se ve afectado por factores escolares, familiares, sociales y personales. Entre ellos, los factores familiares tienen el mayor impacto en el ejercicio físico de los jóvenes. Los factores personales ocupan el segundo lugar, los factores escolares y los factores sociales ocupan el tercer lugar. Entre los factores familiares, las principales influencias sobre el ejercicio físico de los jóvenes son el "apoyo de los padres", el "conocimiento de los padres sobre el ejercicio físico" y los "hábitos de ejercicio de los padres". Conclusiones: Los factores que influyen en el ejercicio físico adolescente involucran cuatro aspectos: familia, sociedad, escuela y yo. Los factores familiares tienen el mayor impacto en el ejercicio físico de los adolescentes, y los factores personales son el segundo, los factores escolares y los factores sociales el tercero. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos- investigación de los resultados del tratamiento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Meio Social , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Relações Familiares , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Fatores Sociais
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14640, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282234

RESUMO

Many efforts have been devoted to investigating the effect of the interaction between the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and environment (G × E) on depression, but they yield mixed results. The inconsistency has suggested that G × E effects may be more complex than originally conceptualized, and further study is warranted. This study explored the association among 5-HTTLPR, peer victimization and depressive symptoms and the underlying mediating role of inhibitory control in this association. A total of 871 Chinese Han adolescents (Mage = 15.32 years, 50.3% girls) participated and provided saliva samples from which the 5-HTTLPR was genotyped. This study found that 5-HTTLPR interacted with peer victimization in predicting depressive symptoms. Adolescents carrying L allele reported more depressive symptoms than SS carriers when exposed to higher level of peer victimization. Furthermore, adolescents' inhibitory control deficits mediated the association between 5-HTTLPR × peer victimization and depressive symptoms. These findings suggested that one pathway in which G × E may confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms is through disruptions to adolescents' inhibitory control system.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Depressão , Inibição Psicológica , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/genética , Depressão/psicologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Polimorfismo Genético , Psicologia do Adolescente , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
14.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(11): 2404-2418, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent overweight and obesity are well documented in high-income countries (HICs). They are also emerging as a global public health concern in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), yet there is a lack of reliable, national-level data to inform policies and interventions. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and assess associated lifestyle risk factors amongst school-going adolescents in LMICs as well as HICs. METHODS: A total of 282,213 samples were drawn from 89 LMICs and HICs in the 'latest Global School-based Student Health Survey' of school children, aged 11-17 years, during 2003 to 2015, in the six World Health Organisation (WHO) regions. The prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity were estimated using the WHO BMI-for-age growth standards. A multinomial logistic regression model was employed to estimate the adjusted (age and sex) association of food patterns, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours with adolescent overweight and obesity. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst adolescents was 10.12%, and 4.96%, respectively, ranging from 2.40% in Sri Lanka to 29.08% in Niue for overweight and 0.40% in Sri Lanka to 34.66% in the Cook Islands for obesity. Overweight and obesity were associated with unhealthy dietary intake and lifestyles including respectively fast-food intake (adjusted relative risk ratio, RRR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.05-1.12 and RRR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.26-1.38), a high level of carbonated soft drinks consumption (RRR = 1.19; 1.12-1.24 and RRR = 1.28; 1.18-1.38), a low level of physical activity (RRR = 1.11; 1.06-1.17 and 1.20; 1.12-1.28), and high level of sedentary behaviours (RRR = 1.33; 1.27-1.39 and RRR = 1.73; 1.63-1.84). Adolescents who consumed vegetables at least two times per day had a lower risk of overweight (22%) and obesity (17%) than those who did not consume vegetables per day. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent overweight and obesity represent a global public health problem and can possibly track into adult weight status and morbidity. School-based obesity prevention that promotes environmental and policy changes related to healthy dietary practices and active living are urgently needed to curb the trend.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(11): 2439-2446, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, one in five adolescents are obese. Index-based dietary patterns are measures of the overall diet that have the potential to serve as valuable obesity risk stratification tools. However, little is known about the association between adherence to index-based dietary patterns in childhood and BMI during the transition from childhood to adolescence. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the relationship between adherence to three index-based dietary patterns in childhood and BMI trajectory during the transition to adolescence. METHODS: The study included 581 children enrolled in a Colorado prospective cohort study conducted between 2006 and 2015. Dietary intake was assessed with the Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire at age 10 years. Scores were calculated for the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the alternate Mediterranean (aMED) diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. Weight and height were assessed via anthropometry at two research visits (ages 10 and 16 years), with interim clinical measurements extracted from Kaiser Permanente medical records. Separate mixed models were used to assess the association between each diet index score and BMI over a 6-year period. Models were stratified by sex and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, income, and exposure to gestational diabetes. RESULTS: Median (IQR) number of BMI assessments was 14 (10-18). Among girls, for every ten-unit increase in HEI-2010 score, there was an average 0.64 kg/m2 decrease (p = 0.007) in BMI over time, after adjustment for covariates. Among girls, there was no association between BMI and aMED (ß = -0.19, p = 0.24) or DASH (ß = 0.28, p = 0.38). Among boys, there was no statistically significant association between BMI and HEI-2010 (0.06, p = 0.83), aMED (0.07, p = 0.70), or DASH (0.42, p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to prevent adolescent obesity could benefit from considering the degree of adherence to federal dietary guidance, as assessed by the HEI, in the period preceding adolescence, especially among girls.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Antropometria/métodos , Criança , Colorado/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento
16.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(9): 636-639, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280177

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate alexithymic traits in an adolescent clinical sample with internalizing and externalizing disorders. The study group consisted of 125 adolescents aged between 12 and 17 years who applied at our outpatient unit and diagnosed with an internalizing or externalizing disorder. The healthy control group consisted of 53 adolescents with no psychiatric disorder. All subjects fulfilled the Alexithymia Questionnaire for Children (AQC). Total AQC scores were higher in the study group than in the control group. When we divided the study group into two groups as internalizing and externalizing disorders, total AQC scores, AQC-difficulty identifying feelings, and AQC-difficulty describing feelings were significantly higher in the internalizing disorder group than in the externalizing disorder group. AQC-externally oriented thinking scores were significantly higher in the externalizing disorder group than in the internalizing disorder group. In future research, it would be useful to further increase understanding of alexithymia and its association with psychiatric disorders in adolescence.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Sintomas Afetivos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Sintomas Afetivos/etiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
18.
Psychophysiology ; 58(9): e13882, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145912

RESUMO

Dysregulated autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity has been associated with adolescent risk-taking and internalizing behavior, but previous results in community samples have been mixed. We investigated whether ANS activity was associated with higher risk-taking and internalizing behavior in young adolescents (age 11/12; n = 875), and whether adolescents' gender, parents' parenting style or a combination of both moderated these associations. Adolescents and their parents were recruited as part of the population-based, longitudinal Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study. Risk-taking behavior was assessed with the Balloon Analogue Risk Task and the personality characteristics sensation seeking and impulsivity, measured with the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS). Internalizing behavior was assessed via the SURPS subscales anxiety sensitivity and hopelessness. Authoritative (AUTH-SW) and authoritarian (AUTH-S) parenting styles were measured with the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Resting ANS activity was assessed via heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Hierarchical, multivariable regression analyses showed higher RSA, but not heart rate, being associated with higher risk-taking behavior and sensation seeking. The associations between ANS activity and risk-taking variables were not significantly moderated by gender, parenting, or interactions between gender and parenting. Our findings suggest that RSA activity may be a relevant factor in mild to moderate risk-taking behavior in adolescents from the general population, regardless of their gender or the type of parenting they experience.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Sintomas Comportamentais/fisiopatologia , Poder Familiar , Personalidade/fisiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3823, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158482

RESUMO

Adolescents are prone to social influence from peers, with implications for development, both adaptive and maladaptive. Here, using a computer-based paradigm, we replicate a cross-sectional effect of more susceptibility to peer influence in a large dataset of adolescents 14 to 24 years old. Crucially, we extend this finding by adopting a longitudinal perspective, showing that a within-person susceptibility to social influence decreases over a 1.5 year follow-up time period. Exploiting this longitudinal design, we show that susceptibility to social influences at baseline predicts an improvement in peer relations over the follow-up period. Using a Bayesian computational model, we demonstrate that in younger adolescents a greater tendency to adopt others' preferences arises out of a higher uncertainty about their own preferences in the paradigmatic case of delay discounting (a phenomenon called 'preference uncertainty'). This preference uncertainty decreases over time and, in turn, leads to a reduced susceptibility of one's own behaviour to an influence from others. Neuro-developmentally, we show that a measure of myelination within medial prefrontal cortex, estimated at baseline, predicts a developmental decrease in preference uncertainty at follow-up. Thus, using computational and neural evidence, we reveal adaptive mechanisms underpinning susceptibility to social influence during adolescence.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Infuência dos Pares , Comportamento Social , Incerteza , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(7): 14, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115092

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate quality of life and participation in children aged 3 to 17 years with visual impairment (VI) compared to reference groups and between subgroups with increasing severity levels of VI. Methods: Parents of children aged 3 to 17 years (n = 500) and children aged 13 to 17 years (n = 75) completed the Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation (CASP). Children aged 7 to 17 years (n = 263) and their parents (n = 255) completed the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire to assess quality of life. Scores were compared to age and/or gender-appropriate population-based samples. For the CASP, a comparison was also made with children with chronic conditions or disabilities. The association between severity of VI and quality of life or participation was analyzed with linear regression models. Results: Children reported significantly worse on Physical Wellbeing and Social Support & Peers, but better on the School Environment KIDSCREEN-27 subscales compared to reference groups. Parents additionally reported worse on Autonomy & Parent Relation. Children's participation was significantly worse compared to a population-based sample, but significantly better compared to children with chronic conditions and disabilities. Having moderate or severe VI/blindness was significantly associated with worse participation, as reported by parents relative to those with no VI. Conclusions: Quality of life of children with VI is affected especially regarding Physical Wellbeing and Social Support & Peers compared to a reference population, and their participation is considerably worse. Participation was more affected in children with more severe VI. These results contribute to the understanding of the impact of VI. Interventions targeting physical health, social skills, and participation are warranted.


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência , Intervenção Psicossocial/métodos , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Qualidade de Vida , Participação Social/psicologia , Transtornos da Visão , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Saúde da Criança , Doença Crônica , Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Crianças com Deficiência/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Habilidades Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Visão/psicologia
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