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1.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 26, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A coherent sexuality education program for adolescents is part of their sexual and reproductive rights and can help them have a healthier future. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the perspectives and intervention preferences of Iranian stakeholders regarding comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) in male adolescents based on the IMB model (information, motivation, behavioral skills). METHODS: This study was a qualitative study that was analyzed through a directed content analysis approach. Individual interviews and focused group discussions (FGDs) were used for data collection. The data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews with stakeholders in two schools and the Education Department in Sari and the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Education in Tehran from March 2019 to August 2019. Data saturation was achieved after 28 interviews and 1 FGDs with 9 participants. Finally, two sets of data were coded and analyzed using directed content analysis. RESULTS: In this study, five themes emerged as (1) role of institutions; (2) role of organizations; (3) need for stakeholder's partnership; (4) need for adolescent sexuality socialization management; and (5) need for enhancing the teachers' professional competence, which seemed to influence the implementation of CSE in male adolescents. Participants also expressed a number of intervention preferences for CSE. The most important of these was the change in macro policies, helping to create a culture against all forms of violence and breaking the taboo of sexuality education for children and adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study revealed the need for a CSE program for adolescents' sexuality socialization. The finding showed that teachers required training to enhance their professional competence about sexuality issues. Therefore, it is necessary to design and implement culture-appropriate skill based programs to enhance the teachers' professional competence regarding the adolescents' sexual health.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Percepção , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , Educação Sexual , Saúde Sexual/educação , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Educação Sexual/métodos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Participação dos Interessados , Adulto Jovem
2.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 48, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contraceptive use among adolescent girls is low in many sub-Saharan African countries including Kenya. Attitude and perspectives about contraception of community members including adolescent girls themselves may be likely to limit contraceptive use among adolescent girls. This study was conducted to explore and compare adults'/parents' and adolescent girls' narratives and perspectives about contraception in Narok and Homa Bay counties, Kenya. METHODS: Qualitative data from 45 in-depth-interviews conducted with purposively selected consenting adolescent girls aged 15-19 was used. Additionally, twelve focus group discussions were held with 86 consenting adults conveniently recruited from the two counties. All discussions were conducted in the local language and audio recorded following consent of the study participants. Female moderators were engaged throughout the study making it appropriate for the study to solicit feedback from the targeted respondents. RESULTS: Findings highlighted adults' perceptions on adolescents' sexuality and the presence of stringent conceptions about the side-effects of contraception in the study communities. Some participants underscored the need for open contraceptive talk between parents and their adolescent girls. Four main themes emerged from the discussions; (i) Perceptions about adolescents' sexuality and risk prevention, (ii) Conceptions about contraception among nulligravida adolescents: fear of infertility, malformation and sexual libertinism, (iii) Post-pregnancy contraceptive considerations and (iv) Thinking differently: divergent views regarding contraceptives and parent/adolescent discussion. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the need for increased attention towards adolescents and their caregivers particularly in demystifying contraceptive misconceptions. Programmatic responses and models which include the provision of comprehensive sexuality education and increased access to and utilization of SRH information, products and services through a well-informed approach need to be well executed. Programmatic efforts like SRH community education should further seek to enhance the capacity of parents to discuss sexuality with their adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo , Casamento , Relações Pais-Filho , Percepção , Psicologia do Adolescente , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Adulto , Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepção/psicologia , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Casamento/psicologia , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/prevenção & controle , Gravidez na Adolescência/psicologia , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Educação Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238515, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881922

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early sexual activity, often defined as initiation before the age of 16, is a risk behaviour associated with negative health outcomes in adulthood. The objective of this study was to explore links between early sexual activity and individual and contextual characteristics in Canadian youth, and whether these differ for girls and boys. METHODS: Data were from the 2018 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey administered in classrooms across Canada to students in grades 6 to 10 (ages 11 to 16). The sample includes the 7882 students in grades 9 and 10 who were asked about sexual activity. Individual and contextual measures used included emotional well-being, socioeconomic status, participation in team sports, body image, social media use, family structure, and family support. Descriptive data overall and separately for girls and boys are presented, followed by Poisson regression models to estimate relative risks and associated 95% confidence intervals for strength of associations between characteristics and early sexual activity. Models were adjusted for clustering by school using generalised estimating equations. RESULTS: Overall, contextual factors i.e. disrupted family structure or low family support were the characteristics most strongly associated with early sexual activity. Among boys there was an incremental and strong relationship between hours spent in organised sport and early sexual activity. Among girls, poorer body image, lower socioeconomic status, and higher social media use aligned most strongly with early sexual activity. CONCLUSION: Persistent gender stereotypes appear to underlie differences in individual and contextual factors associated with adolescents' sexual behaviour. Findings from this exploratory analysis may be of benefit to subsequent researchers, policy makers and those who care for youth.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Canadá , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , Mídias Sociais
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235252, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716944

RESUMO

Subjective happiness is often regarded as a major life goal. Although Japan is an economically powerful country, the level of subjective well-being reported among Japanese adolescents is lower than in other countries. We aimed to investigate the lifestyle factors related to unhappiness in Japanese adolescents. We collected data through the 2017-2018 Lifestyle Survey of Adolescents, a nationally representative cross-sectional study enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. We assessed the prevalence of subjective unhappiness in junior and senior high school students according to school life factors and daily lifestyle habits. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between these factors and unhappiness. A total of 64,329 students were included in the sample (mean age 15.7 years, 53.9% boys). The average prevalence of unhappiness was 10.2%. The logistic regression analyses indicated that unhappiness was strongly associated with being male and with engaging in unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as not having breakfast, poor sleep quality, and some problematic Internet usage. Although the prevalence of unhappiness was significantly higher among current smokers and alcohol drinkers, these behaviors were not associated with unhappiness in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. Unhappiness among Japanese adolescents appears to be strongly related to how they spend their daily life. We therefore consider it desirable for school officials to educate students on the importance of happiness and lifestyle factors conducive to happiness.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Felicidade , Estilo de Vida , Tristeza/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desjejum/fisiologia , Desjejum/psicologia , Bem-Estar da Criança/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Japão , Masculino , Tristeza/fisiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sono/fisiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Ann Epidemiol ; 49: 20-26, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681981

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined the association between sleep duration trajectories from adolescence to young adulthood and the risk of asthma into young adulthood. METHODS: Using data from 10,362 participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) free of asthma at baseline, we constructed trajectories of sleep duration from adolescence (age 13-18 years) to young adulthood (age 24-32 years) and used them to examine the association between sleep duration patterns and the risk of new-onset asthma using a log-binomial regression model after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: The results revealed that 14.4% of nonasthmatic participants had persistent short sleep duration, whereas 80.0% had adequate sleep duration from adolescence through young adulthood. Consistently short-sleepers had 1.52 times the risk of new-onset asthma by age 32 years (95% CI 1.11, 2.10) compared with consistently adequate sleepers. The association was stronger in those with a family history of asthma (aRR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.15, 5.13) than in those without such history (aRR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.05, 1.95). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that persistent short sleep duration is associated with an increased risk of new-onset asthma in young adults. This association may be more pronounced among those at high risk of asthma because of family history.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Asma/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Adulto , Asma/etiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235327, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649666

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to identify the videogame-related experiences expressed by regular adolescent gamers and to explore the socio-family factors related to these experiences. A cross-sectional observational and descriptive study was carried out with a convenience sample of regular Spanish videogamers between 16 and 18 years old. To measure the use of videogames for evasion and its negative consequences, the Questionnaire of Videogame-Related Experiences (Cuestionario de Experiencias Relacionadas con Videojuegos, CERV) was used and socio-family variables collected, evaluating their relationship with the results of the CERV. A total of 206 adolescents participated, 89.3% men [84.3-93.2] and 17.9% [12.9-23.9] allocating more than 35 hours a week to videogames. The CERV subscale related to the evasive use of videogames (max. = 24 points) obtained a mean value of 11.71 (SD = 3.52) and the mean value for the subscale related to the negative consequences (max. = 27 points) was 7.14 (SD = 3.33). A higher frequency of high values of evasive use (p = .038) and higher scores of this subscale (p = .02) were found in gamers without brothers or sisters. Higher scores and larger numbers of negative consequences were found in gamers who play more than 21 hours a week (p = .032). In conclusion, frequent use of videogames does not seem to be carried out with an evasive purpose, except in the case of absence of siblings. Frequent videogame use has only proven to carry a higher level of negative consequences when playing more than 21 hours a week. No other socio-family variables related to these subscales of the CERV have been identified.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
7.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(2-3): 117-131, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early puberty is associated with higher than average risk of antisocial behaviour, both in girls and boys. Most studies of such association, however, have focused on psychosocial mediating and moderating factors. Few refer to coterminous hormonal measures. AIM: The aim of this review is to consider the role of hormonal markers as potential mediating or moderating factors between puberty timing and antisocial behaviour. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted searching Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane and Google Scholar. RESULTS: Just eight studies were found to fit criteria, all cross-sectional. Measurements were too heterogeneous to allow meta-analysis. The most consistent associations found were between adrenal hormones-both androgens and cortisol-which were associated with early adrenarche and antisocial behaviours in girls and later adrenarche and antisocial behaviour in boys. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from our review suggest that longitudinal studies to test bidirectional hormone-behaviour associations with early or late puberty would be worthwhile. In view of the interactive processes between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, integrated consideration of the hormonal end products is recommended.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adrenarca/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/etiologia , Hormônios/sangue , Menarca/fisiologia , Puberdade/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Adrenarca/fisiologia , Androgênios , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Gonadotropinas Hipofisárias/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234374, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569320

RESUMO

Latent Class Analysis can assist researchers interested in a better understanding of behavioral patterns and their association with health outcomes. This study aimed to identify lifestyle latent classes related to distinct domains of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) among adolescents and their association with health outcomes. This cross-sectional study included 217 Brazilian adolescents (15 to 18 years old, 49.3% female). The classes were based on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity (LPA), number of steps, sedentary behavior (SB), and screen time (ST). To assess these behaviors, participants wore an accelerometer for one week. ST, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, and signs of common mental disorders (CMD) were evaluated through questionnaires. Latent Class Analysis was used to identify lifestyle classes. Three classes were recognized: "Active-Non-sedentary" (class 1) with 28.1% of adolescents; "Inactive-Non-sedentary" (class 2), 48.85%; and "Inactive-Sedentary" (class 3), 23.04%. Sex and signs of CMD were associated with the prevalence of the classes. Female adolescents presented 4.48 (95% CI 2.04-9.77) times more chance of belonging to the "Inactive-Sedentary" (class 3). Adolescents who presented CMD had 11.35 (95% CI 3.45-101.1) times more chance of belonging to the "Inactive-Non-sedentary" (class 2). The interaction between sex and signs of CMD showed that girls with signs of CMD were 9.20 (95% CI 1.17-71.52) more likely to belong to the Inactive-Sedentary class than the "Active-Non-sedentary". Results indicate that sex and signs of CMD can affect the prevalence of the classes. Our findings highlight that physical inactivity and SB can be associated with signs of CMD, especially in female adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tempo de Tela , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(2): 164-172, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine the prospective effects of early adolescent marijuana use on late adolescent attentional and inhibitory control. Alcohol use, antisocial problems, and gender were included as statistical control variables. METHOD: The community sample of 387 adolescents and a caregiver was drawn from a longitudinal study of adolescent substance use that included nine annual assessments. Adolescents were eligible if they were between ages 11 and 12 at recruitment and did not have any disabilities that would preclude them from either understanding or completing the assessment. The sample was evenly split on gender (55% female) and was predominantly non-Hispanic White (83.16%) or African American (9.07%). Attentional and inhibitory control were assessed using parent and adolescent self-reports on the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. RESULTS: Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. High levels of early marijuana use at ages 12-14 significantly predicted low levels of adolescent attentional control at ages 18-21 (ß = -.20, p < .05), above and beyond early attentional control, early alcohol use, and antisocial problems. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that marijuana use may adversely affect cognitive development, especially during the sensitive period of early adolescence. Results emphasize the need for further prospective work to investigate relationships between early adolescent marijuana use and the development of executive functioning.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Atenção , Inibição Psicológica , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/tendências , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
10.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 39: 101161, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) becomes chronic, with high physical, psychological and social morbidity and high mortality without early and effective treatment. The impact of physical exercise as a coadjutant to conventional treatment in this clinical population has been studied with favorable results. Although a Pilates program could be beneficial for patients with AN, no study has analyzed its feasibility and effects in adolescents with AN. Therefore, this study evaluated the safety of a Pilates program and investigated the feasibility and effect in adolescents with AN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective quasi-experimental study, body composition, blood analysis, sedentary time, physical activity and time of sleep, and physical fitness were measured objectively before and after a 10-week Pilates supervised program. RESULTS: Twelve female adolescents with AN (14.6 ± 1.7 years old) completed the program, with a session attendance rate of 96%, a persistence rate of 100%. There were significant increases in height, plasma calcium and sleep efficiency. Significant decreases in plasma follitropin, sleep duration and, duration and number of night perturbations were observed. CONCLUSION: A Pilates program is safe and feasible in adolescents with AN when they have a controlled and stable weight, and such a program could be a viable alternative among treatment programs to achieve better sleep quality.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Headache Pain ; 21(1): 48, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between pain catastrophizing level, sensory processing patterns, and headache severity among adolescents with episodic migraine. BACKGROUND: Catastrophizing about pain is a critical variable in how we understand adjustment to pain and has a unique contribution in predicting pain intensity. Recent reports found that migraine is also related to enhanced sensory sensitivity. However, the relationship between pain severity, pain catastrophizing level and sensory sensitivity requires greater study especially among adolescents. METHODS: Participants were 92 adolescents aged 13-18 years, 40 with episodic migraine and 52 healthy controls. The migraine patients were prospectively recruited from outpatient pediatric neurology clinics. All participants completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP), and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale for children (PCS-ch). The migraine groups also completed the PedMIDAS, which measures Headache related disability. RESULTS: Adolescents with migraine had significantly lower tendency to seek sensory input than healthy controls. Elevated rumination and helplessness correlated with higher migraine pain severity. Tendency to avoid sensory input predicted the migraine related disability level. They also significantly higher pain catastrophizing level than healthy controls, as seen in enhanced rumination (p ≤ 0.001) and helplessness (p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Sensory processing difficulties are common among adolescents with episodic migraine. Sensory avoidance may be related to pain experience, and pain catastrophizing and disability level. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN ISRCTN73824458. Registered 28 September 2014. retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/psicologia , Medição da Dor/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Catastrofização/diagnóstico , Catastrofização/fisiopatologia , Catastrofização/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/fisiopatologia , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/fisiopatologia , Dor/psicologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Pediatrics ; 145(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341182

RESUMO

Pediatricians are encouraged to address male adolescent sexual and reproductive health on a regular basis, including taking a sexual history, discussing healthy sexuality, performing an appropriate physical examination, providing patient-centered and age-appropriate anticipatory guidance, and administering appropriate vaccinations. These services can be provided to male adolescent patients in a confidential and culturally appropriate manner, can promote healthy sexual relationships and responsibility, can and involve parents in age-appropriate discussions about sexual health.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/tendências , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Saúde Sexual/tendências , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Aconselhamento/métodos , Aconselhamento/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia
13.
Pediatrics ; 145(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of Families Talking Together (FTT), a triadic intervention to reduce adolescent sexual risk behavior. METHODS: Adolescents aged 11 to 14 and their female caregivers were recruited from a pediatric clinic; 900 families were enrolled; 84 declined. Families were randomly assigned to FTT or 1 of 2 control conditions. The FTT triadic intervention consisted of a 45-minute face-to-face session for mothers, health care provider endorsement of intervention content, printed materials for families, and a booster call for mothers. The primary outcomes were ever having had vaginal intercourse, sexual debut within the past 12 months, and condom use at last sexual intercourse. Assessments occurred at baseline, 3 months post baseline, and 12 months post baseline. RESULTS: Of enrolled families, 73.4% identified as Hispanic, 20.4% as African American, and 6.2% as mixed race. Mean maternal age was 38.8 years, and mean adolescent grade was seventh grade. At the 12-month follow-up, 5.2% of adolescents in the experimental group reported having had sexual intercourse, compared with 18% of adolescents in the control groups (P < .05). In the experimental group, 4.7% of adolescents reported sexual debut within the past 12 months, compared with 14.7% of adolescents in the control group (P < .05). In the experimental group, 74.2% of sexually active adolescents indicated using a condom at last sexual intercourse, compared with 49.1% of adolescents in the control group (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: This research suggests that the FTT triadic intervention is efficacious in delaying sexual debut and reducing sexual risk behavior among adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Saúde do Adolescente/tendências , Relações Pais-Filho , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Sexo Seguro/psicologia , Saúde Sexual/tendências , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sexo Seguro/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(8): 754-763, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reward system dysfunction is a well-known correlate and predictor of depression in adults and adolescents, with depressed individuals showing blunted (hyporeactive) striatal response to monetary rewards. Furthermore, studies of remitted depression suggest network-wide hyporeactivity of striatal (caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens) and cortical (insula, anterior cingulate cortex [ACC]) regions even in the absence of current symptoms. Thus, it remains unclear which patterns of hyporeactivity represent a trait-like indicator of depression and which represent a current depressed state. The authors examined the relationships between regions of a cortico-striatal circuit supporting reward processing and both current depression and cumulative depression history. METHODS: Using a functional MRI monetary reward task, the authors measured brain response to monetary gains and losses in a longitudinal sample of adolescents (N=131) who had been annually assessed for psychiatric symptoms since ages 3-5 years. RESULTS: Current depression severity was associated with hyporeactivity exclusively in the nucleus accumbens in response to the anticipation of a reward, while cumulative depression severity was associated with blunted response to anticipation across a cortico-striatal circuit (striatum, ACC, insula). Follow-up analyses investigating the effects of depression on reward processing at different developmental stages revealed a similar pattern: recent depression severity during adolescence was associated with more focal hyporeactivity in the nucleus accumbens, while depression severity during early childhood (i.e., preschool) was associated with more global hyporeactivity across the cortico-striatal circuit. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings indicate important distinctions between disruptions in reward system neural circuitry associated with a history of depression (particularly early-onset depression) and current depression. These results have implications for understanding the etiology and treatment of reward processing deficits in depression.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Corpo Estriado/fisiopatologia , Depressão , Recompensa , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neuroimagem Funcional/métodos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Psicopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 356-362, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056447

RESUMO

El suicidio es un problema de salud a nivel mundial, siendo la conducta suicida uno de los predictores de mortalidad por suicidio; sin embargo, su valoración aún sigue siendo compleja. Aunque la cantidad de literatura que ha abordado distintas perspectivas de la conducta suicida es abundante, se requiere ahondar en nuevos métodos que permitan una valoración rápida y objetiva de ésta, proporcionando a los clínicos y pacientes, un sistema de evaluación que registre los cambios de estados emocionales de manera dinámica. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue proporcionar una visión general de la morfología de los potenciales evocados auditivos de latencia tardía p300 y su rol en la evaluación de la conducta suicida.


Suicide is a global health problem, with suicidal behavior being one of the predictors of suicide mortality; however, its assessment is still complex. Although the amount of literature that has addressed different perspectives of suicidal behavior is abundant, it is necessary to deepen new methods that allow a rapid and objective assessment of it, providing clinicians and patients with an evaluation system that allows changes in emotional state to be recorded dynamically. The aim of this manuscript was to provide an overview of morphological patterns of auditory evoked potential P300 latency late in the assessment of suicidal behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Potencial Evocado P300/fisiologia , Ideação Suicida , Valores de Referência , Eletrofisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 287: 112918, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203752

RESUMO

Current evidence about the association between sleep and suicide are conflicting. This study aimed to investigate the association between sleep duration and quality with suicidal behaviors in a group of school-aged adolescents in China. The baseline survey was conducted among Chinese adolescents aged 12-13 years in October 2016. All participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. After 2 years follow-up, a total of 1513 adolescents completed the follow-up. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that shorter sleep duration (<8 h per night) in baseline was associated with an increased likelihood of suicidality in boys [suicidal ideation, adjusted odds ratio (OR)=2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.97 to 3.98; suicide planning, OR=2.47, 95% CI=1.22 to 5.01; suicide attempt, OR=2.97, 95% CI=1.39 to 6.38]. Similarly, poor sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) ≧ 5] was associated with an increased likelihood of suicidal ideation and suicide planning in boys (OR=2.14, 95% CI=1.15 to 3.99 and OR=2.47, 95% CI=1.16 to 5.25, respectively). This study indicates that school-aged boys are more likely to experience suicidality in exposure to short sleep or poor sleep quality.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Sports Sci ; 38(7): 780-786, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131698

RESUMO

The aims of this study were (i) to examine the sedentary time (ST) during different time periods [i.e., weekend, out-of-school weekdays hours, school hours, recess, physical education classes (PEC)] in children and adolescents; (ii) to identify 2-year longitudinal changes in the ST for these periods; and (iii) to examine if ST at baseline is associated with ST 2 years later. This was a 2-year follow-up study with 826 (51.9% boys) children and 678 (50.7% boys) adolescents. Accelerometers were used to assess ST. Students spent more than 60% of their weekend, out-of-school hours and school hours in ST. During these periods, girls and adolescents were more sedentary than boys and children, respectively (p < 0.05). Over 2-year follow-up, ST increased during the weekend, out-of-school hours, school hours and recess in all subgroups studied (p < 0.001). ST during PEC declined 2% per year in children (p < 0.001) but it increased in adolescents (p < 0.05). ST during the periods analysed at baseline was lowly associated with ST during these periods 2 years later (intraclass correlations from <0.001 to 0.364). Interventions in these settings may be adequate if the intention is to avoid ST increase in students.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães , Educação Física e Treinamento
18.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(3): 245-253, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies with behavioural and neuropsychological tests have supported the developmental taxonomy theory of antisocial behaviour, which specifies abnormal brain development as a fundamental aspect of life-course-persistent antisocial behaviour, but no study has characterised features of brain structure associated with life-course-persistent versus adolescence-limited trajectories, as defined by prospective data. We aimed to determine whether life-course-persistent antisocial behaviour is associated with neurocognitive abnormalities by testing the hypothesis that it is also associated with brain structure abnormalities. METHODS: We used structural MRI data collected at 45 years of age from participants in the Dunedin Study, a population-representative longitudinal birth cohort of 1037 individuals born between April 1, 1972, and March 31, 1973, in Dunedin, New Zealand, who were resident in the province and who participated in the first assessment at 3 years of age. Participants underwent MRI, and mean global cortical surface area and cortical thickness were extracted for each participant. Participants had been previously subtyped as exhibiting life-course-persistent, adolescence-limited, or no history of persistent antisocial behaviour (ie, a low trajectory group) based on informant-reported and self-reported conduct problems from the ages of 7 years to 26 years. Study personnel who processed the MRI images were masked to antisocial group membership. We used linear estimated ordinary least squares regressions to compare each antisocial trajectory group (life-course persistent and adolescence limited) with the low trajectory group to examine whether antisocial behaviour was related to abnormalities in mean global surface area and mean cortical thickness. Next, we used parcel-wise linear regressions to identify antisocial trajectory group differences in surface area and cortical thickness. All results were controlled for sex and false discovery rate corrected. FINDINGS: Data from 672 participants were analysed, and 80 (12%) were classified as having life-course-persistent antisocial behaviour, 151 (23%) as having adolescence-limited antisocial behaviour, and 441 (66%) as having low antisocial behaviour. Individuals on the life-course-persistent trajectory had a smaller mean surface area (standardised ß=-0·18 [95% CI -0·24 to -0·11]; p<0·0001) and lower mean cortical thickness (standardised ß=-0·10 [95% CI -0·19 to -0·02]; p=0·020) than did those in the low group. Compared with the low group, the life-course-persistent group had reduced surface area in 282 of 360 anatomically defined parcels and thinner cortex in 11 of 360 parcels encompassing circumscribed frontal and temporal regions associated with executive function, affect regulation, and motivation. Widespread differences in brain surface morphometry were not observed for the adolescence-limited group compared with either non-antisocial behaviour or life-course-persistent groups. INTERPRETATION: These analyses provide initial evidence that differences in brain surface morphometry are associated with life-course-persistent, but not adolescence-limited, antisocial behaviour. As such, the analyses are consistent with the developmental taxonomy theory of antisocial behaviour and highlight the importance of using prospective longitudinal data to define different patterns of antisocial behaviour development. FUNDING: US National Institute on Aging, Health Research Council of New Zealand, New Zealand Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, UK Medical Research Council, Avielle Foundation, and Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial , Córtex Cerebral , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Tamanho do Órgão , Psicopatologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947739

RESUMO

Research shows that adolescents with mental illnesses have a bias for processing negative facial emotions, and this may play a role in impaired social functioning that often co-exists with a mental health diagnosis. This study examined associations between psychological and somatic problems and facial emotion recognition in early adolescence; as any processing biases in this age-group may be an early indicator of later mental illnesses. A community sample of 40 12-year-olds self-rated their symptoms of anxiety, depression, and somatization via two mental health screeners. They also completed a computerized emotion recognition task in which they identified photographs of 40 faces showing expressions of anger, fear, sadness, happiness, or neutral expression. Results showed that increased symptoms of anxiety, depression, and somatization were significantly associated with fewer correct responses to angry expressions. These symptoms were also associated with faster and more accurate recognition of fearful expressions. However, there was no association between mental health and recognition of sad affect. Finally, increased psychological and/or somatic symptomology was also associated with better identification of neutral expressions. In conclusion, youth with increased psychological and/or somatic problems exhibited a processing bias for negative anger and fear expressions, but not sadness. They showed better processing of neutral faces than youth with fewer psychological and/or somatic problems. Findings are discussed in relation to indicators of mental illnesses in early adolescence and the potential underpinning neural mechanisms associated with mental health and emotional facial recognition.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
20.
Epilepsy Behav ; 103(Pt A): 106879, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Perampanel (PER) is a noncompetitive α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor antagonist recently approved for focal and generalized epilepsies as an add-on therapy. It is well tolerated and effective as treatment of various pediatric epilepsy syndromes; PER does not seem to negatively affect the cognitive profile of children and adolescents, but its influence on executive functions is still to be assessed. METHODS: Our sample included 37 children aged 12-18 years, with focal pharmacoresistant epilepsy already in therapy with 2 or 3 antiepileptic drug (AED); PER was added with 1 mg/week increments up to a dose of 2-4 mg/day. Changes in executive functions were assessed by the EpiTrack Junior test. Emotional and behavioral aspects were evaluated through the interview for parents Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Both tests were performed before taking PER and after 6 and 12 months of treatment. RESULTS: After 12 months of PER in 22/30 patients, global score of the EpiTrack Junior test remained almost unchanged; in 7/30 patients, this score improved. The CBCL did not show significant changes in emotional or behavioral problems. CONCLUSIONS: Adjunctive treatment with PER did not negatively affect executive functions that could also be improved. No emotional/behavioral negative effects have been reported, and this suggests a good tolerability in the middle/long term.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Epilepsias Parciais/tratamento farmacológico , Função Executiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Epilepsias Parciais/psicologia , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/uso terapêutico , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
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