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2.
J Ment Health Policy Econ ; 22(3): 109-120, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recovery high schools (RHS) provide a supportive educational and therapeutic environment for students subsequent to treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). Most students served by RHSs have concurrent mental health disorders and are at risk for school failure or dropout and substance use relapse. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The central question addressed is whether RHSs are economically efficient alternatives to other high school settings for students in recovery. The aim is to estimate the incremental cost-benefit of RHSs. METHODS: A quasi-experimental non-equivalent pretest-posttest comparison group design was used. We compared substance use and educational outcomes for adolescents who had received specialty SUD treatment; 143 who enrolled in an RHS were compared to 117 who enrolled in a non-RHS school. Groups were balanced by use of a propensity score to drop students who were not similar to those in the other group. The propensity score was also used as a covariate in multiple regression to estimate cost and outcome parameters and standard errors. To take account of uncertainties in impacts and shadow prices, we used Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the distribution of incremental benefits of RHS relative to non-RHS schooling. RESULTS: Two beneficial impacts of statistical and substantive importance were identified: increased probability of high school graduation and increased sobriety. RHS students had significantly (p<.05) less substance use during the study period -- at 12-month follow-up, 55% of RHS and 26% of comparison students reported 3 month abstinence from alcohol and drugs. Urinalysis confirmed abstinence from THC (cannabis) for 68% of RHS versus 37% of comparison students. RHS students' high school graduation rates were 21 to 25 percentage points higher than comparison students. Adopting a societal perspective, incremental benefits of RHSs were estimated by monetizing the increased probability of high school graduation and comparing it to incremental costs. Mean net benefits ranged from USD16.1 thousand to USD51.9 thousand per participant; benefit-to-cost ratios ranged from 3.0 to 7.2. DISCUSSION: Monetizing the benefits and the incremental costs of RHS relative to conventional schooling show substantial positive net benefits from RHS participation. Two factors lend credibility to the results. First, the RHS improvement in substance use indicates a mechanism through which the increased probability of high school graduation can plausibly occur. Second, the estimated increases in the probability of high school graduation were large and statistically significant. As the productivity gains from high school graduation are also large, the dominant benefit category is very plausible. Limitations include the non-randomized design; selection bias into the study conditions not fully controlled by the propensity scores; generalizability only to young people with treated behavioral health disorders; lack of estimates for direct monetization of reduced substance use among adolescents; possible attenuation of the value of education among individuals with behavioral health issues; and uncertainty in calculation of school costs. IMPLICATIONS FOR BEHAVIORAL HEALTH POLICIES: This research provides evidence that the recovery high school model provides cost beneficial support for high school students after primary SUD treatment. The students who enroll in RHSs typically have co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders, adding complexity to their continuing care. Funding policies recognizing the multiple systems of care (behavioral health, education, child and family services, juvenile justice) responsible for these young people are called for.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/economia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Doença Crônica , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/reabilitação
3.
Int Braz J Urol ; 45(6): 1167-1179, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808405

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) is a common clinical condition. Emotional and behavioral issues are increasing among children and adolescents, with stress indicating difficulties in personal and social functioning. This study evaluated whether urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is associated with stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, analytical study with 6-14-year-old patients with LUTS and no anatomical/neurogenic urinary tract abnormalities was conducted using the Dysfunctional Voiding Scoring System, a psychological assessment and the Child Stress Scale. The overall stress score was analyzed in relation to the psychological assessment data. Answers to the seven specific DVSS urinary questions were compared with those for the four Child Stress Scale domains. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The chi-square test and Pearson's correlation were used to determine associations. Significance was defined as p <0.05. RESULTS: Most children were male (56%). Mean age was 9.0±2.25 years. Stress was detected in 20 out of 98 patients (20.4%; 95% CI: 13-30%).Of these, 90% were born from unplanned pregnancies and 67% were upset about their disorder. All the Child Stress Scale domains were significantly associated with urinary dysfunction, with dysuria being significantly associated with all four domains. In the multivariate analysis, dysuria was the only symptom that remained associated with stress. Associations with stress strengthened as the frequency of dysuria increased: physical reactions (p <0.01), emotional reactions (p <0.05), psychological reactions with a depressive component (p<0.01) and psychophysiological reactions (p <0.05). CONCLUSION: Stress levels are higher in children and adolescents with LUTS who have more severe symptoms. Dysuria was the symptom most associated with stress, both in the physical reactions domain, in the psychological reactions domains with or without a depressive component and in the psychophysiological reactions domain.


Assuntos
Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/epidemiologia , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(10): 641-647, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566419

RESUMO

While there is a growing body of research on how individuals evaluate interracial exclusion in offline settings, much less is known about evaluations of interracial exclusion in online settings. This study aimed to address this gap by examining evaluations by male adolescents and young adults (N = 151; Mage = 17.59, standard deviation = 0.50) of interracial exclusion in both online and offline settings to understand these evaluations in concert. Furthermore, participants completed measures of offline and online intergroup contact, providing new evidence that intergroup contact in online settings is an important context for learning about others. The findings indicate that participants' online and offline intergroup contacts were related. In terms of evaluations of exclusion, participants were much more likely to attribute exclusion to nonrace-based reasons in online and offline settings than to race-based reasons. Additionally, participants with higher rates of intergroup contact were more likely to perceive race-based exclusion as wrong than those with low rates of contact. The novel findings document that young men's online and offline intergroup contact shape their evaluations of interracial exclusion in online settings.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Internet , Racismo/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 1912-1923, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520234

RESUMO

Most empirical research examining youth's gender development measures felt pressure to conform to gender norms using a composite value of felt pressure from multiple sources; however, because of the different socialization processes at work from parents, peers, and the self, analyzing these sources separately may elucidate different effects on gender development. Thus, the purpose of this study was to (a) differentiate the effects of perceived gender socialization pressure from parents, peers, and the self on early adolescents' own- and other-gender typicality, and (b) to examine whether a bi-directional relation between gender typicality and felt pressure is evident when distinguished across sources. With a sample of 212 early adolescents (54% girls; Mage = 11.11 years), felt pressure was found to be distinguishable by socialization source: adolescents' perceptions of parents, peers, and their own pressures were distinct, and each contributed differently to gender development. Pressure from self and peers were both found to relate concurrently to typicality (i.e., positively to own-gender typicality, negatively to other-gender typicality); only pressure from the self was found to have a longitudinal effect on adolescents' developing gender identity (i.e., an increase in own-gender typicality). Interestingly, other-gender typicality did not elicit higher felt pressure; in fact, it was negatively related to later felt pressure from the self, suggesting that adolescents may be developing self-acceptance of their levels of gender typicality. The findings suggest that the development of gender identity may involve a complex interplay with various sources of socialization pressures (e.g., parent, peers, self), and may further shift in relation to the adolescent's own levels of gender typicality.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Grupo Associado , Infuência dos Pares , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Criança , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Socialização
6.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 1924-1937, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520235

RESUMO

Dual identity (e.g., strong ethnic and national identity) is a psychological resource for minority groups, but how it develops during adolescence is less clear. In this 3-wave longitudinal study, a person-oriented approach was used to examine dual identity development in a sample of 2145 Muslim adolescents (MT1 = 15 years, 51% female) in four Western European countries. The results of a growth-mixture model pointed toward four distinct developmental Classes: (1) "Dual identity", (2) "Separation to dual identity", (3) "Assimilation to dual identity", and (4) "Separation". Multiple group comparisons further showed that adolescents in Class 1 were well adjusted, but well-being (e.g., internalizing problems, life satisfaction) and health were even higher among adolescents in Class 2. Adolescents in Class 3 had consistently lower levels of well-being, and adolescents in Class 4 had lower levels of socio-cultural adjustment (e.g., problem behaviour at school, delinquent behaviour, and lack of intergroup contact). The findings underscore that most Muslim minority adolescents in Western Europe develop a dual identity, and that the developmental process, not simply the outcome, matters for adjustment.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Islamismo/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Comportamento Problema
7.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(11): 1056-1067, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether initiating the Family Check-Up (FCU) during early childhood prevented a severe form of psychopathology in adolescence-co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems-and whether effects operated indirectly through early childhood maternal depression and parents' positive behavior support. METHOD: Participants were drawn from a randomized controlled trial of the FCU (50.2% FCU; 49.5% girls; 46.6% Caucasian, and 27.6% Black; 13.4% Hispanic/Latino). At Ages 2 and 3, mothers self-reported depression, and primary caregivers' (PCs') positive behavior support was coded by trained observers. PCs, alternate caregivers (ACs), and teachers reported on 14-year-olds' problem behaviors. Latent profile analyses (LPAs) identified problem behavior groups for each reporter, which were outcomes in multinomial logistic regressions (PC, n = 672; AC, n = 652; teacher, n = 667). RESULTS: LPAs identified a low-problem, internalizing-only, externalizing-only, and co-occurring-problem group for each reporter. For PC- and AC-reported outcomes, the FCU predicted a lower likelihood that adolescents belonged to the co-occurring group relative to the low-problem, externalizing-only (p < .05), and internalizing-only (p < .05 for PC, p < 0.10 for AC) groups; these effects operated through maternal depression (p < .05). For teacher-reported outcomes, the FCU predicted a lower likelihood that adolescents belonged to the co-occurring group relative to the low-problem, internalizing-only, and externalizing-only (p < 0.05) groups; effects operated through positive behavior support (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Early delivery of the FCU indirectly prevented adolescents' co-occurring internalizing/externalizing problems in both home and school contexts by improving the quality of the early home environment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/prevenção & controle , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Autorrelato
8.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1656905, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512573

RESUMO

Bullying has been described as one of the most tractable risk factors for poor mental health and educational outcomes, yet there is a lack of evidence-based interventions for use in low and middle-income settings. We aimed to develop and assess the feasibility of an adolescent-led school intervention for reducing bullying among adolescents in Indonesian secondary schools. The intervention was developed in iterative stages: identifying promising interventions for the local context; formative participatory action research to contextualize proposed content and delivery; and finally two pilot studies to assess feasibility and acceptability in South Sulawesi and Central Java. The resulting intervention combines two key elements: 1) a student-driven design to influence students pro-social norms and behavior, and 2) a teacher-training component designed to enhance teacher's knowledge and self-efficacy for using positive discipline practices. In the first pilot study, we collected data from 2,075 students in a waitlist-controlled trial in four schools in South Sulawesi. The pilot study demonstrated good feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. We found reductions in bullying victimization and perpetration when using the Forms of Bullying Scale. In the second pilot study, we conducted a randomised waitlist controlled trial in eight schools in Central Java, involving a total of 5,517 students. The feasibility and acceptability were good. The quantitative findings were more mixed, with bullying perpetration and victimization increasing in both control and intervention schools. We have designed an intervention that is acceptable to various stakeholders, feasible to deliver, is designed to be scalable, and has a clear theory of change in which targeting adolescent social norms drives behavioral change. We observed mixed findings across different sites, indicating that further adaptation to context may be needed. A full-randomized controlled trial is required to examine effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the program.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Análise Custo-Benefício , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Desenvolvimento de Programas
9.
Sleep Health ; 5(6): 539-545, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bedtime social media use is associated with poor sleep during adolescence, which in turn contributes to poor mental health, impaired daytime functioning and lower academic achievement. However, the underlying drivers for these bedtime social media habits remain understudied. This study adds an adolescent perspective on motivations for bedtime social media use and perceived impact on sleep. METHODS: Adolescents aged 11-17 years (n = 24) participated in focus group discussions exploring their experiences of using social media, particularly at night. Inductive reflexive thematic analysis produced themes that captured underlying drivers for social media use and associated impact on sleep. RESULTS: Our analyses produced two overarching themes: Missing Out and Norms & Expectations. Adolescents' nighttime social media use was driven by concerns over negative consequences for real-world relationships if they disconnected (often reporting delayed bedtimes, insufficient sleep and daytime tiredness). These concerns included the risk of offline peer exclusion from missing out on online interactions, and the fear of social disapproval from violating norms around online availability and prompt responses. CONCLUSIONS: These findings offer novel insight into why adolescents may choose to prioritize social media over sleep. Researchers and practitioners can respond to the evolving needs of today's adolescents by approaching social media use not as a technology-based activity, but as an embedded social experience underpinned by the same concerns as offline interactions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Motivação , Sono , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is important to clearly understand the factors associated with subjective health complaints. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between subjective health complaints, several health behaviors, and a composite measure of healthy lifestyle. METHODS: Data were from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2014 international database. Participants were 167,021 children and adolescents, aged 10-16 years, from 37 countries and regions. A composite score of healthy lifestyle was created using a combination of daily physical activity, daily consumption of fruit and vegetables, <2 hours spent daily in screen-based behaviors, no drinking, and no smoking. The subjective health complaints assessed were headaches, stomach aches, backache, dizziness, feeling low, irritability, nervousness, and sleep difficulties. RESULTS: Those who engage in physical activity every day, spend less than two hours a day in screen-based behaviors, do not drink alcohol, and do not smoke tobacco presented a higher likelihood of not having subjective health complaints. A healthy lifestyle was significantly related to having less of all the subjective health complaints. Those with a healthy lifestyle were 50% (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.5-0.6, p < 0.001) less likely to have multiple health complaints. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy behaviors and healthy lifestyles are related with less subjective health complaints and less multiple health complaints.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Adolescente , Criança , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 568-573, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emotional intelligence (EI) is described as the capacity to be aware of, control, and express one's emotions, and to handle interpersonal relationships judiciously and empathetically. It is considered as one of the most important predictors of success, quality of relationships, and overall happiness. Dynamically changing environment of the youth and young adults in recent years may influence their EI development, affecting their lives significantly. The purpose of this study was to analyse the way how the Internet is used by high school students, to determine the amount of time they spend on the Internet, identify the level of EI and to explore if there is any correlation between those factors. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 1450 high school students from Katowice, at the age from 18 to 21 years took part in an anonymous survey consisting of three parts: The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire - Short Form (TEIQue-SF), Internet Addiction Test and authorial test giving information about the way of spending time online. The questionnaires were collected from May 2018 to January 2019. RESULTS: 1.03% of the respondents fulfilled the Internet addiction criteria. Students at risk for addiction (33.5%) turned out to be a larger group. A statistically significant correlation between TEIQue-SF and Internet Addiction Test score (P<0.0001, r=-0.3308) was observed. Another significant correlation was found between TEIQue-SF score and amount of time spend on the Internet (p<0.0001, r=-0.162). CONCLUSION: A significant part of high school students used Internet excessively. Such behaviours were positively correlated with lower EI test results.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Inteligência Emocional , Internet , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Emoções , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 2005-2022, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482513

RESUMO

How the interplay between peer relationships and behaviors unfolds and how this differs between classrooms is an understudied topic. This study examined whether adolescents befriend or dislike peers whom they consider as aggressor or victim and whether these results differ in classrooms that received an intervention to promote prosocial behavior compared to classrooms without the intervention. The sample was composed of 659 seventh graders (Mage = 12.32; 48% girls) from nine intervention and seven control classrooms in eight schools in Santiago, Chile. It was hypothesized that adolescents in intervention classrooms would be less befriended and more disliked by classmates who considered them as aggressors, and more befriended and less disliked by classmates who considered them as victims, compared to control classrooms. Longitudinal multiplex social network analyses (RSiena) indicate that antipathies toward peers considered as aggressive and victimized were significantly lower in intervention classrooms than in control classrooms, but no significant differences were found for friendships. These findings suggest that the impact of an educational intervention may go beyond changing individual behavior and extend to the way peer relations develop in classrooms.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Amigos/psicologia , Adolescente , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Chile , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Grupo Associado
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1206, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine specific energy balance-related behaviors (sedentary behaviors, physical activity, and dietary) associating with adolescent weight loss intent using data from the 2017 US Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that employed a multi-stage cluster sampling procedure to obtain a representative sample of US adolescents. The target population consisted of public and private high schoolers from grades 9 through 12. The number of sampled adolescents was 18,324 with 14,765 of the 18,324 sampled students (Mean age = 15.9 (1.3) years) submitting questionnaires with usable data (81% response rate). The outcome was intent to lose weight with specific energy-balance related behaviors examined as predictor variables. A weighted logistic regression model was employed to examine the associations between sedentary behaviors, physical activity, and dietary-related variables with weight loss intent controlling for age, sex, BMI percentile, and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Variables associating with adolescent intent to lose weight included 3 or more hours of video game playing (OR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.01-1.31, p = 0.028), achieving 60 min of physical activity daily (OR = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.59-0.73, p < 0.001), daily breakfast consumption (OR = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.67-0.87, p < 0.001) and weekly salad consumption (OR = 1.30, 95%CI: 1.12-1.52, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Meeting physical activity guidelines and regular breakfast consumption associated with lower odds of weight loss intent and video game playing and salad consumption associated with higher odds of weight loss intent in a representative sample of US adolescents. Therefore, there is a discordance between adolescent weight loss intent and the engagement in specific energy balance-related health behaviors, particularly physical activity.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Metabolismo Energético , Intenção , Assunção de Riscos , Perda de Peso , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sedentário , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
14.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(7): 462-469, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403840

RESUMO

Background: An abnormal interaction between cognition and emotion may contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Aims: In this study, we aimed to evaluate theory of mind and emotion regulation skills in adolescents diagnosed with OCD. In addition, the results were evaluated in accordance with patients' insight levels. Methods: This study was conducted with 50 patients, who were aged between 11 and 16 and who were newly diagnosed with OCD and 50 healthy individuals. The Turkish version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime was used to diagnose OCD and other comorbidities. The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, the Children's Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used for clinical evaluation. The intelligence levels were assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Short Form. Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test was used in patients. The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale was also used to evaluate the skills of regulating emotions. Results: Patients with OCD had lower ability with regard to reading minds in the eyes and emotion regulation than the healthy individuals. Patients with OCD, who had a poor insight, had more difficulty in reading minds in the eyes and emotion regulation than those with good insight. Conclusions: This study supports the idea that OCD is related to deficits in theory of mind and emotion regulation skills. Thus, further studies are required to confirm the findings of this study.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade
15.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(9): 1806-1817, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385231

RESUMO

Peer relationship plays an important role in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). However, little is known about how and in what conditions peer relationship may influence NSSI. By integrating multiple theories (i.e., attachment theory, the emotional regulation model of self-compassion and NSSI, and the differential-susceptibility theory), the current study investigated two potential mediators (i.e., self-compassion and depressive symptoms) and one potential moderator (i.e., behavioral impulsivity) of the relation between peer acceptance and NSSI. Participants were 813 Chinese adolescents (43% female; Mage at Wave 1 = 13.15 years) from a two-wave longitudinal study with data spanning one year. The results revealed that the indirect pathways linking peer acceptance and NSSI were conditioned on the level of behavioral impulsivity. Specifically, for adolescents with lower levels of impulsivity, a higher level of peer acceptance was related to fewer depressive symptoms directly or indirectly through self-compassion; fewer depressive symptoms, in turn, were linked to fewer NSSI behaviors longitudinally. For adolescents with higher levels of behavioral impulsivity, peer acceptance was related to fewer NSSI behaviors only through self-compassion. Results indicate that increasing peer acceptance is important in reducing adolescent NSSI. Interventions designed to reduce adolescent NSSI may also be effective if they focus on promoting adolescent self-compassion, particularly for adolescents with higher levels of behavioral impulsivity.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Distância Social , Adolescente , Depressão/psicologia , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Relações Interpessoais , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
16.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Acquiring the habit of doing regular physical activity in adolescents has shown positive effects in the prevention of diseases and the maintenance of physical and psychological health. The objective was to explore the topics related to physical activity of a group of adolescents, to identify the barriers and motivators of regular physical activity practice. METHODS: Qualitative research of phenomenological explanatory design. The information was obtained through four Discussion Groups conducted with: a) expert professionals (6 participants); b) adolescents of both sexes (10 participants); c) female adolescents (6 participants); d) male adolescents (9 participants). RESULTS: Perceived barriers and motivations were detected in all groups of adolescents, contributing a total of 104 units of analysis. The group of experts emphasized the need to involve the family, the school, and the agents that surround the teenagers. The adolescents showed barriers related to incompatibilities due to lack of time, participation in leisure activities and demotivation due to routine and imposed activities (37; 35.5%). Motivation was related to participation in team sports and the positive influence of friends (28; 28%). The girls also showed concern about their body image and diet (39; 37.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Barriers were identified in relation to the close environment of the adolescents in three main areas: family, friends and school. Motivators were linked to social and multicultural components. Priority actions in this group are to promote activities that include team sports as a mean to enhance social support.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Atividades de Lazer , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha
17.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 1899-1911, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446585

RESUMO

Schools are important contexts for adolescent health and health-risk behaviors, but how stable is this relationship? We develop a conceptual model based on Ecological Systems Theory describing the changing role of schools for adolescent health outcomes-in this case, teen e-cigarette use. To examine this change, we fit Bayesian multilevel regression models to two-year intervals of pooled cross-sectional data from the 2011-2017 U.S. National Youth Tobacco Survey, a school-based study of the nicotine use behaviors of roughly 65,000 middle and high school students (49.5% female; 41.1% nonwhite; x̄ age of 14.6 ranging from 9 to 18) from over 700 schools. We hypothesized that school-level associations with student e-cigarette use diminished over time as the broader popularity of e-cigarettes increased. Year-specific variance partitioning coefficients (VPC) derived from the multilevel models indicated a general decrease in the extent to which e-cigarette use clusters within specific schools, suggesting that students across schools became more uniform in their propensity to vape over the study period. This is above and beyond adjustments for personal characteristics and vicarious exposure to smoking via friends and family. Across all years, model coefficients indicate a positive association between attending schools where vaping is more versus less common and student-level odds of using e-cigarettes, suggesting that school contexts are still consequential to student vaping, but less so than when e-cigarettes were first introduced to the US market. These findings highlight how the health implications of multiply-embedded ecological systems like schools shift over time with concomitant changes in other ecological features including those related to policy, culture, and broader health practices within society. Though not uniformly reported in multilevel studies, variance partitioning coefficients could be used more thoughtfully to empirically illustrate how the influence of multiple developmentally-relevant contexts shift in their influence on teen health over time.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Vaping/psicologia , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos Transversais , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Vaping/epidemiologia
18.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 2065-2078, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440880

RESUMO

Growing evidence reveals heterogeneity in antisocial behavior and urges the need to distinguish between aggressive and nonaggressive rule-breaking behaviors. This study characterized how aggression and rule-breaking behaviors shaped peer selection and influence. Using a longitudinal social network modeling approach, these questions were addressed in a sample of 1034 ethno-racially diverse early adolescents (49.52% females, Mage = 12.1), who were assessed in fall and spring of the same year. The results showed no evidence of peer selection on aggressive and rule-breaking behaviors, and significant peer influence on aggressive behavior only. Rule-breaking also forecasted a decreased susceptibility to peer influence on aggressive behavior. The findings expanded our knowledge about complex pathways through which heterogeneity in antisocial behavior is reciprocally related to friendship networks.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Amigos/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Infuência dos Pares , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 2051-2064, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444690

RESUMO

In bullying situations, adolescent bystanders may help bullied others, just stand by, or join in the antisocial behavior. Current studies have yet to fully examine the moral and social factors motivating these varied responses to bullying encounters. Extending from pertinent developmental theories, the present study investigated the relative contributions of moral identity (i.e., viewing moral qualities as central to the self), moral judgment, and social self-efficacy to adolescents' bystander behaviors vis-à-vis bullies. Also investigated were the interactions among these variables. Three hundred and thirty-seven adolescents (M age = 13 years, 56.1% female) who self-identified as Caucasian (90.2%), Hispanic-American (2.1%), Asian-American (0.9%), African-American (3.9%), or Other/Unknown (2.9%) participated in the study. Students completed questionnaires assessing moral identity, moral judgment, social self-efficacy, and how they would respond if they observed a peer being bullied. Moral identity predicted more prosocial action, particularly for adolescents high in social self-efficacy. Moral identity related positively to moral judgment, and both predicted less antisocial (joining in) behavior. Interestingly, moral judgment maturity primarily diminished antisocial behavior when moral identity was relatively low. Social self-efficacy predicted less passive bystanding. Overall, moral identity strongly relates to defending behavior, and-as does moral judgment maturity-predicts less antisocial behavior among bystanders.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Autoeficácia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1027, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent sexual risky behaviours continue to be significant drivers of the HIV epidemic globally. The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours among adolescents (10-19 years) in Karamoja sub-region, a pastoralist and post-conflict community in North-eastern Uganda. METHODS: Between August and September 2016, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 1439 adolescents receiving primary healthcare services at nine public health facilities located in five of the seven districts that make up Karamoja sub-region. High-risk sexual behaviour was defined as engaging in sex with two or more (2+) sexual partners in the 6 months preceding the survey or exchanging sex for money or gifts with no or inconsistent use of condoms over the same period of time. Factors associated with prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours were analysed using a modified Poison regression model with log-link and Poisson-family via a generalized linear model. RESULTS: Eighty-two percent (81.8%, n = 1177) of the respondents had ever tested for HIV while 62 % (61.5%, n = 885) had ever had sex. Of those that had ever had sex, 11.4% (n = 101) reported prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours. Prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours was lower among men than women (adjusted prevalence ratio (adj. PR) = 0.46; 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.33, 0.62) and those whose sex debut was above 14 years (adj.PR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.69). However, prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours was significantly higher in adolescents who were not aware of their recent sexual partner's HIV status (adj.PR = 2.43; 95% CI: 1.68, 3.52) and those who used illicit drugs (adj.PR = 2.76; 95% CI: 1.88, 4.05). CONCLUSION: Prior engagement in high-risk sexual behaviours was significantly associated with having sex with partners of unknown HIV sero-status and use of illicit drugs. These findings suggest a need for targeted interventions to improve mutual HIV status disclosure between sexual partners while minimizing their use of illicit drugs/substances.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Agricultura , Conflitos Armados , Criança , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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