Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 15.896
Filtrar
1.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107466, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055056

RESUMO

Psychological reactance (PR) is a psychological state or trait typified by resistant responses to threats to behavioral freedom. PR has been linked with negative health behaviors, including risky substance use; however, factors that may foster approaches to mitigate the impact of PR on these behaviors, as well as rejection of other health promotion communications is less understood. The current studies examined relations between parental warmth and monitoring with trait PR and responses to preventive cannabis communications and usage intentions. Two in-school surveys were administered to two difference samples of middle school students (Study 1, N = 1,416; Study 2, N = 1,118). Path analytic models tested multivariable linkages among relevant parenting variables, PR, and outcomes associated with cannabis use. Follow-up regression analyses explored significant interaction effects. In Study 1 (p <0.001) and Study 2 (p <0.01), parental warmth moderated the relation between monitoring and trait PR: High monitoring was a protective factor only when combined with high warmth. In turn, PR mediated the relationships between parenting practices and cannabis intentions in both studies (p <0.001). In Study 2, PR also was linked with resistance to persuasion via more unfavorable reactions to anti-cannabis appeals (p <0.001). Findings indicated that low parental warmth combined with high parental monitoring was associated with high trait reactance in adolescents, which predisposed them to stronger resistance to preventive communications. Interventions might focus on counseling parents about the likely outcomes of parenting style, and ways to implement beneficial approaches.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Humanos , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia
2.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 96-101, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273680

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Family conflict is a risk factor for suicidal behaviors among adolescents. However, few longitudinal studies have investigated this association and explored the mediation effect of behavioral and emotional problems. This study aimed to examine the longitudinal association between family conflict, internalizing and externalizing problems, and suicidal behaviors in a large sample of Chinese adolescents. METHOD: This longitudinal study of 7,072 adolescents was based on the Shandong Adolescent Behavior & Health Cohort (SABHC). Participants completed a self-administrated questionnaire to assess family conflict, internalizing and externalizing problems, suicidal behaviors, and family demographics at baseline. Excluding adolescents with any suicidal behavior at baseline (N = 839), others (N = 6,233) were allowed to report their internalizing and externalizing problems and suicidal behaviors one-year later. Path analyses were conducted to examine the mediation relationship of internalizing and externalizing problems between family conflict and suicidal behaviors. RESULTS: Of 6,233 participants, mean age was 14.52 at baseline and 51.2% were males. Adolescents with subsequent suicidal behaviors reported higher scores in family conflict, internalizing and externalizing problems (Ps < 0.01). Path analyses showed that internalizing and externalizing problems played a significant mediating role in the associations of family conflict with suicidal behaviors after adjusting for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Family conflict is associated with suicidal behaviors in adolescents, which is partially mediated by internalizing and externalizing problems. Internalizing problems is the major mediator between family conflict and suicidal thought or suicide plan; however, internalizing and externalizing problems play similar mediating roles in the family conflict-suicide attempt link.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Conflito Familiar , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Estudos Longitudinais , Tentativa de Suicídio , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , China
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e066307, 2022 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332961

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sexual activity is an important integrative behaviour that interacts with biological, psychological and social factors among various changes in adolescence. However, starting sex at an early age is associated with adverse outcomes. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the factors associated with adolescents' sexual experience based on the biopsychosocial model. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: The participants were selceted through a complex sample design at high schools and middle schools nationwide in Korea. PARTICIPANTS: We employed 4-year data (2017-2020) of the cross-sectional Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. In total, 234567 participants attending middle school and high school were analysed. Sexual experience was defined as having had sexual intercourse (oral, anal or vaginal) in their lifetime. To identify variables associated with adolescents' sexual experiences, we used a biopsychosocial model. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the variables associated with sexual experience. RESULTS: 3.4% of boys and 1.6% of girls attending middle school had sexual experiences, showing a significant difference. A total of 10.4% of boys and 5.1% of girls attending high school had sexual experiences (p<0.001). Among the biological factors of the biopsychosocial model, age and gender were significantly associated with sexual experiences in adolescents. Regarding the psychological factors, suicidal thoughts were a significant risk factor associated with sexual experience. Furthermore, social factors including drinking, smoking and family structure were associated with sexual experience in adolescents. Particularly, a significantly higher sexual experience was found in the three groups living with a single parent, step-parents and no parents compared with the group living with both parents in family structure. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the factors associated with adolescents' sexual experience based on the biopsychosocial model. Further research and policy strategies that consider supporting family communication and mental health and preventing substance use are required to prevent adolescents' sexual health.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Assunção de Riscos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Sexual , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Internet , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
4.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 30(spe): e3744, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic e to explore adolescents' perception of emotional and behavioral problems identified. METHOD: mixed-method explanatory sequential design. Participants were 479 adolescents aged 15 to 18 from a Brazilian Central-West region capital. RESULTS: with a total of 479 participants, mean age was 16.03 years (SD=1.01). The prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems was 61.17%, and there was a difference between the sexes (ORb=2.93; p<0.01). The highest prevalence was related to peer relationship problems (54.49%) and emotional symptoms (52.40%). Adolescents noticed an increase in loneliness, anxiety, sadness, distancing from friends and difficulties in socializing during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: most of the investigated adolescents were classified as having emotional and behavioral problems, and girls were more likely to have them than boys. The adolescents' statements reinforce the quantitative findings. In this way, there is a need to implement actions to promote and restore the adolescents' mental health, in order to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic socio-emotional impact on this population. KEYPOINTS: (1) The COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on emotions and behaviors. (2) 61.17% of adolescents were classified as having emotional and behavioral problems (EBPs). (3) Girls presented the highest level of prevalence of EBP in the pandemic context. (4) Peer relationship problems and emotional symptoms were the most prevalent.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , COVID-19 , Comportamento Problema , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Pandemias , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Emoções
5.
Pediatr Obes ; 17(12): e12962, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about parent and adolescent motivations for engaging in weight communication. OBJECTIVES: To assess parent and adolescent motivations for engaging in, or avoiding, weight communication, and whether these reasons differed across sex, race/ethnicity, weight, and engagement in weight management. METHODS: Independent samples of parents (N = 1936) and unrelated adolescents (N = 2032) completed questionnaires assessing their agreement with different reasons they engage in, or avoid, parent-adolescent weight communication, using 7-point Likert scales (strongly-disagree to strongly-agree). RESULTS: Parents, irrespective of sex, race/ethnicity, and child's weight status, expressed stronger motivations for engaging in weight communication in order for their child to feel good about his/her weight and body size compared to being motivated because a health professional raised their child's weight as a concern. Adolescent motivations for weight communication with parents stemmed from health concerns and worry about their weight; avoidance stemmed from feeling embarrassed, upset, or not wanting to obsess about weight. Differences emerged across sex and race/ethnicity but were most pronounced by weight status and weight management. CONCLUSION: Parents and adolescents have different motivations for engaging in or avoiding weight communication. Protecting adolescents' emotional wellbeing and body esteem are viewed as reasons for both engaging in or avoiding weight communication.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Motivação , Criança , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Comunicação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ansiedade , Relações Pais-Filho , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
6.
J Adolesc Health ; 71(6S): S24-S31, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404016

RESUMO

Due to its long-term longitudinal design, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) has provided numerous valuable insights into adolescent and young adult sexual behavior. Framed by a conceptual model of sexual behavior and health, I review research using Add Health data to study sexual behavior and health. In this paper, I review research examining both predictors (e.g., neighborhood, family, genetic, individual) and health outcomes (e.g., sexually transmitted infections, mental health) of sexual behavior in adolescents and young adults. Where possible, I focus on long-term longitudinal studies that make use of the unique strengths of the Add Health data. Existing Add Health research has provided considerable information about both the predictors and health consequences of adolescent and young adult sexual behavior. Factors ranging from neighborhoods to genetics predict whether adolescent and young adults engage in sexual behaviors. Findings on long-term outcomes of adolescent sexual behavior suggest that early sexual behavior predicts higher rates of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy in young adulthood, but not long-term changes to mental health. Unique contributions of Add Health include the ability to examine multidimensional bio-ecological predictors of sexual behavior and to examine long-term effects of sexual behavior and how sexual behaviors and their correlates change across adolescence into adulthood. Future work can leverage these strengths, and in particular the long-term longitudinal nature of the data, to uncover new insights about the developmental course of sexual behavior and health.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Adulto Jovem , Gravidez , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto , Estudos Longitudinais , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Saúde do Adolescente
7.
Neurotoxicol Teratol ; 94: 107132, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adverse developmental effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) are hypothesized to extend into late adolescence, yet few studies have investigated the association between PCE and late adolescent mental health outcomes. We examined the associations between PCE and self-reported mental health symptoms at age 17, controlling for biologic and environmental confounders. We further explored the potential moderating role of sex and the mediating role of earlier drug use by age 15 in the associations. METHOD: 327 (162 PCE; 165 non-cocaine exposed, NCE) urban adolescents, primarily African Americans, of low socioeconomic status, were prospectively recruited at birth for a longitudinal study and participated in the current study. We administered the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV to assess their mental health symptoms at age 17. Alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use by age 15 were assessed using biologic samples and self-reports. Confounders included other prenatal drug exposures, caregiving environment, and childhood maltreatment. RESULTS: Although no overall associations between PCE and mental health outcomes were observed, multivariate logistic regression models indicate girls with PCE were 3.60 times (95% CI = 1.45-8.96, p = .006) more likely to have symptoms of oppositional defiance disorder than girls with NCE. This relationship was partially mediated by marijuana use by age 15. CONCLUSION: Continued studies into emerging adulthood will further elucidate the long-term mental health outcomes associated with PCE.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Produtos Biológicos , Cocaína , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Criança , Gravidez , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto , Cocaína/efeitos adversos , Autorrelato , Estudos Longitudinais , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
8.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0272922, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206517

RESUMO

The purpose of this research is to study the efficacy of the home-based Hero program in promoting positive emotions and prosocial behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. The sample included 237 12- to 15-year-old adolescents from Argentina. The level of positive emotions and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends and family in the adolescent intervention group increased through the three evaluation periods. The Hero program was focused on recognizing one's own emotions and provided an opportunity to reflect on different positive aspects of life, thus allowing a change in perspective related to immediate negative events. Moreover, the program provided an opportunity to change adolescents' perspective from personal worries to concerns about others, including friends, family members, and even strangers in need.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Emoções , Humanos , Pandemias , Comportamento Social
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(41): 1301-1305, 2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36227769

RESUMO

Social and educational disruptions during the COVID-19 pandemic have exacerbated concerns about adolescents' mental health and suicidal behavior. Data from the 2021 Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey (ABES) indicate that 37.1% of U.S. high school students reported poor mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic, with 19.9% considering and 9.0% attempting suicide in the preceding year (1). Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs)* are associated with poor mental health and suicidal behaviors (2,3), and high prevalence of some ACEs have been documented during the pandemic (4). ACEs are preventable, potentially traumatic events that occur in childhood (ages 0-17 years) such as neglect, experiencing or witnessing violence, or having a family member attempt or die by suicide. Also included are aspects of a child's environment that can undermine their sense of safety, stability, and bonding. Associations between ACEs occurring during the pandemic and mental health or suicidal behaviors among U.S. high school students were examined using ABES data. Experience of one to two ACEs was associated with poorer mental health and increased suicidal behaviors, and these deleterious outcomes increased with additional ACE exposure. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, adolescents who reported four or more ACEs during the pandemic had a prevalence of poor current mental health four times as high as, and a prevalence of past-year suicide attempts 25 times as high as, those without ACEs during the pandemic. Experience of specific ACE types (e.g., emotional abuse) was associated with higher prevalences of poor mental health and suicidal behaviors. Prevention and intervention strategies (5), including early identification and trauma-informed mental health service and support provision, for ACEs and their acute and long-term impacts could help address the U.S. child and adolescent mental health and suicide crisis.†.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Experiências Adversas da Infância , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Estudantes , Ideação Suicida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Prev Med ; 164: 107299, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228874

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of connectedness and parental behaviors with adolescent physical activity (PA) and mental health during COVID-19. Participants were a representative sample of US high school students who completed the 2021 Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey (ABES; N = 7705; 50.4% female). ABES was completed online during the spring of 2021 and data were analyzed during the spring of 2022. Independent variables were items asking about perceived school and virtual connectedness, parental emotional abuse, and parental monitoring. Latent variables represented both PA and mental health. Two weighted structural equation models tested the associations between connectedness, parental behaviors, and mental health mediated through PA (Model 1) and between connectedness, parental behaviors, and PA mediated through mental health (Model 2) with indirect effect confidence intervals obtained using Monte Carlo simulations. School connectedness directly associated with better mental health in Model 1 (ß = 0.17, p < 0.001) and with higher PA in Model 2 (ß = 0.19, p < 0.001) while virtual connectedness directly associated with higher PA in Model 2 (ß = 0.08, p < 0.001). Parental emotional abuse directly associated with poorer mental health in Model 1 (ß = -0.43, p < 0.001). Standardized indirect effects to better mental health mediated through higher PA were observed for school connectedness (IE = 0.017, p < 0.001) and virtual connectedness (IE = 0.007, p < 0.001) and indirect effects to lower PA mediated through poorer mental health were observed for parental emotional abuse (IE = -0.050, p < 0.001). Perceptions of school and virtual connectedness and parental emotional abuse both directly and indirectly impacted adolescent PA and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Análise de Mediação , Pandemias , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Exercício Físico , Pais
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17305, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243789

RESUMO

Parental religious beliefs and practices (religiosity) may have profound effects on youth, especially in neurodevelopmentally complex periods such as adolescence. In n = 5566 children (median age = 120.0 months; 52.1% females; 71.2% with religious affiliation) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development study, relationships between parental religiosity and non-religious beliefs on family values (data on youth beliefs were not available), topological properties of youth resting-state brain networks, and executive function, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility were investigated. Lower caregiver education and family income were associated with stronger parental beliefs (p < 0.01). Strength of both belief types was correlated with lower efficiency, community structure, and robustness of frontoparietal control, temporoparietal, and dorsal attention networks (p < 0.05), and lower Matrix Reasoning scores. Stronger religious beliefs were negatively associated (directly and indirectly) with multiscale properties of salience and default-mode networks, and lower Flanker and Dimensional Card Sort scores, but positively associated with properties of the precuneus. Overall, these effects were small (Cohen's d ~ 0.2 to ~ 0.4). Overlapping neuromodulatory and cognitive effects of parental beliefs suggest that early adolescents may perceive religious beliefs partly as context-independent rules on expected behavior. However, religious beliefs may also differentially affect cognitive flexibility, attention, and inhibitory control and their neural substrates.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Religião , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Encéfalo , Criança , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais
12.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 7655001, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36248952

RESUMO

In the context of multicultural information, to explore and analyze the use effect of voice interactive educational robot in the classroom of adolescent students, and the physical and mental impact of movie characters on adolescent students, and to lay the foundation for studying the positive development of adolescents, under the guidance of positive psychology theory, the relationship between positive psychology and adolescent mental health is analyzed, the application of adolescent educational robot is discussed, and the relationship between adolescent educational robot combined with movies characters and positive development of adolescent is analyzed. The questionnaire is used to collect data, including the questionnaire on the influence of movie characters on the positive development of adolescents, the questionnaire of pre- and postpopularization of artificial intelligence in primary and secondary schools, and the satisfaction questionnaire of voice interactive educational robot. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire are analyzed. The results show that students who watch more than 20 movies are 20% in grade one and that is only 10% in grade three. 79% of the students think that the movie characters have an impact on themselves. The distribution of the number of the grade two students exposed to the movie is relatively uniform, 40% of them watch 10-20 movies, and 82% of them think that the movie characters have an impact on themselves; the Cronbach coefficient of classroom satisfaction questionnaire is 0.929 > 0.9, the average value of the correlation of total correction items of the corresponding item is 0.612 > 0.5, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measurement value is 0.812 > 0.6, and the Sig value is 0.000 < 0.05, indicating that the reliability and validity of the questionnaire are very high and 92.3% of the students are very satisfied with the classroom. This shows that voice interactive educational robot combined with movie characters can promote the positive development of adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Robótica , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Filmes Cinematográficos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Am J Mens Health ; 16(5): 15579883221126884, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36305641

RESUMO

About one in eight U.S. high school students in Grades 9 to 12 report experiencing teen dating violence (TDV) in the form of physical, sexual, or psychological dating violence in the past year in person, on school grounds, and online. Compared with their urban counterparts, rural teens face nearly double the rate of physical dating abuse and an elevated risk of experiencing multiple forms of violence. Rural young males are exposed to regional masculinities and gender norms that may simultaneously promote female subordination (a prelude to dating violence) while impeding help-seeking intentions. We used an interpretive and dialectical approach grounded in Relational Dialectics Theory to explore how rural young males perceive and describe their own risk of experiencing and perpetrating dating violence and the factors contributing to their help-seeking intentions and behaviors. Data from three focus groups and individual interviews with 27 rural young males (ages 15-24) were collated. We identified two central dialectical themes described as (a) Social Tension Dialectics (subthemes include: Abusive vs. Unhealthy Relationships: A Dialectic of Language; #MeToo vs. #WeToo: A Dialectic of Victimhood; "It's All Country Boys": A Dialectic of Masculinity) and (b) Help-Seeking Dialectics demonstrating the dual roles Religion, School Guidance Counselors, Peer Mentors, and Social Cohesion play in promoting or preventing dating violence. Overall, we found dialectic tensions in rural youth risk perceptions about dating violence. These findings bear implications for advocates and practitioners working with rural youth in planning developmentally and culturally appropriate TDV prevention programs, offering policy and research-relevant insight.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Violência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Masculinidade
14.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 2482884, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36246463

RESUMO

The use of physical exercise for the purpose of maintaining adolescents' mental health is an important topic of psychological research. However, there is no unified conclusion on the effect of physical exercise time on the level of mental health. This paper investigates the causal effect of physical activity on adolescent mental health using a multilayer linear modeling approach and a Bootstrap method to test for possible mediating effects. The results of the study showed that there was a nonlinear inverted U-shaped relationship between physical activity time and adolescent mental health, with a threshold value of 105 min, and the results of the mediating effect analysis showed that self-assessment of health, self-confidence, academic stress, peer relationships, and positive peer behaviour were important mediating mechanisms between physical activity and mental health. The results of the mediation effect analysis showed that physical exercise was an important mediating mechanism between self-assessment, confidence, academic stress, peer relationship, and positive peer behaviour.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Saúde do Adolescente , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Humanos , Grupo Associado
15.
Psychol Sci ; 33(10): 1664-1679, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219573

RESUMO

Cross-species research suggests that exploratory behaviors increase during adolescence and relate to the social, affective, and risky behaviors characteristic of this developmental stage. However, how these typical adolescent behaviors manifest and relate in real-world settings remains unclear. Using geolocation tracking to quantify exploration-variability in daily movement patterns-over a 3-month period in 58 adolescents and adults (ages 13-27) in New York City, we investigated whether daily exploration varied with age and whether exploration related to social connectivity, risk taking, and momentary positive affect. In our cross-sectional sample, we found an association between daily exploration and age, with individuals near the transition to legal adulthood exhibiting the highest exploration levels. Days of higher exploration were associated with greater positive affect irrespective of age. Higher mean exploration was associated with greater social connectivity in all participants but was linked to higher risk taking selectively among adolescents. Our results highlight the interplay of exploration and socioemotional behaviors across development and suggest that societal norms may modulate their expression in naturalistic contexts.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Normas Sociais , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231258

RESUMO

Based on the social and psychological capital framework, this study aimed to investigate the direct effect of bullying on adolescents' subjective well-being and to reveal the potential psychosocial mechanisms in this relationship. Through the multi-stage cluster random sampling procedure, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 728 adolescents from Hebei Province in China. Structural equation modeling was adopted for data analysis. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, the results indicated that only relational bullying had a significant negative effect on adolescents' subjective well-being. Moreover, social capital and psychological capital mediated the relationship between relational bullying and adolescents' subjective well-being. This study expands our understanding of the influencing mechanisms from bullying victimization to subjective well-being and also provides practical implications for future social policy development and relevant interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Capital Social , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17238, 2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36241902

RESUMO

This study analyzed the factors influencing adolescents' non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) behavior and their interrelationships, and established a total influencing factor model. Through a literature analysis and semi-structured interviews with 87 adolescents and 27 experts in Guangxi Province, China, 13 influencing factors were identified from six aspects: physiological factors, cognitive factors, emotional factors, social support factors, social environment, and NSSI behavior. A system of factors influencing adolescents' NSSI behavior and a model of the factors influencing the comprehensive antagonism multilevel explanatory structure were obtained using a combination of Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory technique and Total Adversarial Interpretive Structural Model. In descending order, NSSI, emotional state, self-efficacy, and self-cognition influenced adolescents' NSSI behavior. Social environment, exercise, and recreation had a greater impact on other factors, while NSSI, emotional regulation ability, and emotional state were greatly affected by other factors. Emotion regulation ability, self-cognition, self-efficacy, family support, school support, social support, and sleep were found to be the core factors influencing NSSI behavior of adolescents. These factors could be used to directly intervene in adolescent NSSI behavior. Timely treatment of adolescents' negative emotional states is directly conducive to preventing NSSI behavior and alleviating its severity.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , China , Emoções , Humanos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Ideação Suicida
18.
Pediatrics ; 150(4)2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: First, to leverage 15 years of longitudinal data, from child ages 2 to 17, to examine whether maternal depressive symptoms in early and middle childhood and in adolescence predict their child's unhealthy behaviors during adolescence. Second, to examine whether the timing of maternal depressive symptoms or specific unhealthy behaviors matter and whether child depressive symptoms and body mass index explain these associations. METHODS: Data came from a prospective-longitudinal community sample with multi-informant data (N = 213) from child ages 2 to17. A cumulative adolescent unhealthy behavior index was calculated, summing the presence of poor sleep, poor diet, physical inactivity, sedentary behavior, and smoking. Regression analyses examined associations of maternal depressive symptoms in early childhood (ages 2 to 5), middle childhood (ages 7 to 10), and adolescence (age 15) with adolescents' unhealthy behaviors (ages 16 to17). Indirect effects of child depressive symptoms and body mass index were tested using a path model. RESULTS: Adolescents' unhealthy behaviors were common (eg, 2 out of 3 engaged in at least 1 unhealthy behavior). Higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms in middle childhood and adolescence were associated with adolescent engagement in more unhealthy behaviors at ages 16 to 17. Maternal depressive symptoms in early childhood were associated with adolescent unhealthy behaviors through indirect effects involving children's depressive symptoms and continuity of maternal depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal depressive symptoms are associated with the number of adolescent unhealthy behaviors, both directly and indirectly. Promoting mothers' mental health can be crucial for promoting children's health behaviors and health.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Depressão , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
J Youth Adolesc ; 51(12): 2328-2339, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087192

RESUMO

The healthy context paradox indicates that in "healthy" contexts, with lower bullying or victimization norms, victimization experiences would unexpectedly exacerbate adolescents' adjustment difficulties, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, particularly from the clique perspective. The current 2-year longitudinal multilevel study attempts to examine the conditional effects of both clique structure (i.e., status hierarchy) and clique norms (i.e., aggression norms) on the relationship between individual victimization and aggressive behavior. The sample consisted of 691 Chinese junior high school students (Mage = 12.74, SD = 0.43; 55.6% boys), who were identified to belong to 153 cliques with sizes varying from 3 to 12 students (Msize = 5.08, SD = 1.89), according to the social cognitive map. Participants completed peer-nominated measures at two time points, two years apart. The multilevel models revealed that it was in less hierarchical cliques with lower aggression that victimized adolescents would exhibit more relational forms of aggression (rather than overt forms) two years later. More intriguingly, contrary results were found in all-girls cliques and all-boys cliques. Specifically, victimized girls' overt and relational aggression was higher in cliques with less hierarchy and lower aggression, whereas, in cliques with more hierarchy and higher aggression, victimized boys' relational aggression was higher, which conforms to the healthy context paradox and the peer contagion hypothesis, respectively. These findings highlight that egalitarian cliques with low aggression would promote aggressive behavior of victimized adolescents, especially for girls rather than for boys, which in turn has crucial implications for anti-bullying interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Criança , Agressão/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Grupo Associado
20.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 40: 15-24, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a global health problem with considerable variability across countries in its prevalence and correlates. The aims of this study were to: (a) explore the prevalence and psychosocial determinants of adolescent suicidal ideation, and (b) explore the perceived stigma of suicide among adolescents. METHOD: A nationally representative electronic survey was utilized to collect data from school adolescents. The Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal checklist for studies reporting prevalence data was used to design the survey. The study collected data on adolescents' suicidal ideation, depression, self-esteem, stigma of suicide, family functioning, educational stress, and anxiety levels. A representative sample of 647 Jordanian school adolescents was included. RESULTS: The prevalence of suicidal ideation among school adolescents was 11%. Suicidal ideation was significantly higher among respondents who were boys and enrolled in public schools, had a mental health problem, a family history of suicidal attempt, a lower self-esteem, and higher depressive symptoms. The majority of school adolescents agreed with the descriptions of people who take their own lives as being "lost" (70%), "coward" (53%), "stupid" (51%), and "lonely" (49%). CONCLUSION: There is no typical suicide victim, and there are no specific characteristics that can point out those who are suicidal. Suicide remains a complex phenomenon that is embedded in its sociocultural context. Collaborative efforts from Jordanian policy makers, healthcare providers, researchers, and educators are needed to develop culturally appropriate screening and prevention approaches to address suicide among adolescents. Nurses have a significant role in helping adolescents experiencing suicidal ideation and their families restore, maintain, and/or promote their mental health and wellbeing.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Suicídio , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes , Ideação Suicida
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...