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1.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 607199, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744573

RESUMO

Objectives: To explore the association of family-related adversities with physical fighting, and whether this association is mediated by hopelessness. Methods: The sample consisted of 3712 Slovak adolescents (mean age: 13.9, 50.7% girls). Participants answered questions regarding experienced family-related adversities, involvement in physical fighting in the last 12 months and the Hopelessness Questionnaire. First, the association of family adversities in general with fighting and of each of family-related adversity separately was assessed using linear regression models and second, mediation was assessed using the a*b product method with bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals Results: Adolescents who had experienced at least one family adversity reported more frequent fighting. Similarly, each of reported family adversities (death of a parent, substance abuse problems of a parent, conflicts/physical fights, divorce) was associated with more frequent fighting among adolescents. The mediation effect of hopelessness was found in each association of family-related adversity with fighting. Conclusion: These findings suggest that interventions to support adolescents who had experienced family adversities could among other things be directed at better coping with hopelessness.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Características da Família , Violência , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Feminino , Esperança , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Eslováquia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684315

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate changes in the exercise pattern and dietary habits in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. The 12-18-year-old population in the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey data of 2019 and 2020 was enrolled. The exercise pattern and dietary habits of 105,600 participants (53,461 in the 2019 group and 52,139 in the 2020 group) were compared. The odds ratios (ORs) for the dietary habits and exercise pattern of the 2020 group compared to the 2019 group were analyzed using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling. The odds of eating fruit, drinking soda, drinking sweet drinks, and consuming fast food were lower in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). The odds of eating breakfast were higher in the 2020 group than in the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). The 2020 group showed lower odds of frequent vigorous and moderate aerobic exercise and higher odds of frequent anaerobic exercise than the 2019 group (all p < 0.001). During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents consumed less fruit, soda, and sweet drinks, while they had more breakfast. The frequency of aerobic exercise was lower, while the frequency of anaerobic exercise were higher during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Dieta/métodos , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , República da Coreia , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 40: e2020385, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the effects of social isolation on children's and teenagers' development, with emphasis on the possible impacts over their physical and mental health. DATA SOURCE: Review of the literature following the standards of PRISMA using the SciELO, LILACS and PubMed databases. The following key-words were used: "social isolation" and "child development", "quarantine" and "adolescent development" according to the Medical Subject Headings (MESH) and their translation to the Portuguese. Studies in English, Portuguese and Spanish from inception were included. DATA SYNTHESIS: 519 studies were screened and 12 were included in the systematic review. Five of those focused the psychology and social issues, two of them the effects of pandemics on these issues; four studies reported on impacts on general health and two consequences over the hypothalamus- hypophysis - adrenal axis and the cognitive and social development. CONCLUSIONS: The review shows a strong association between social isolation and anxiety and depression in children and adolescents. Social isolation leads to higher levels of cortisol and worse cognitive development. Therefore, the mental and physical health of children and adolescents need a careful follow up by health professionals during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , COVID-19/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mudança Social
4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258036, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613984

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether perceived social support among adolescent students moderated the association between violence exposure and internalising symptoms in São Paulo city, Brazil. METHODS: We tested the stress-buffering model using data from the cross-sectional school-based, survey São Paulo Project on the Social Development of Children and Adolescents. Internalising symptoms were measured using an adapted version of the Social Behaviour Questionnaire; serious victimisation, being bullied once/week, school violence and community violence, friend and teacher support were scales adapted by the research team; the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire measured parenting style. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify moderation effects of (i) social support between violence exposure and internalising symptoms and (ii) gender between violence exposure and internalising symptoms across schools. RESULTS: Across schools, being bullied once/week, school violence, and community violence were associated with a significant (p<0.001) increase in internalising symptoms (e.g., bullied b = 5.76, 95% CI 2.26, 9.26; school violence b = 0.48, 95% CI 0.30, 0.67; community violence b = 0.36; 95% CI 0.22, 0.50). Males exposed to all types of violence had significantly lower (p<0.01) internalising symptoms compared to females (e.g., serious victimisation: b = -1.45; 95% CI -2.60, -0.29; school violence b = -0.27; 95% CI -0.30, -0.24; community violence b = -0.23; 95% CI -0.25, -0.20). As a main effect, social support was associated with a significant (p<0.01) decrease in internalising symptoms across schools (e.g., positive parenting b = -2.42; 95% CI -3.12, -1.72; parent involvement b = -2.75; 95% CI -3.32, -2.17; friend support b = -1.05; 95% CI -1.74, -0.34; teacher support b = -0.90; 95% CI -1.58, -0.22). Social support did not moderate the association between violence exposure and internalising symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent students in São Paulo exposed to violence have a higher likelihood of internalising symptoms, compared to those who are not. Support from parents, friends, and teachers, independent of violence, appear to be protective against internalising symptoms, pointing to potential programmes that could improve adolescent mental health.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Apoio Social
5.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(5): 977-990, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538307

RESUMO

Studies have yielded mixed findings regarding changes in adolescent substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic; some report increased alcohol and cannabis use, others show less binge drinking and vaping behaviors, and others no change. In 2019, only 8.3% of the 1.1 million adolescents with a substance use disorder received specialized treatment. Treatment rates for 2020 have not yet been published. Stay-at-home orders and social distancing guidelines put into place in March 2020 caused the partial closure of many outpatient substance use clinics. The implications of this treatment suspension and special considerations for working with adolescents during stay-at-home orders are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Vaping/epidemiologia
6.
Am J Public Health ; 111(10): 1874-1884, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529503

RESUMO

Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy of the Respecting the Circle of Life program (RCL) among Native American youths 11 to 19 years of age residing in a rural reservation community in the southwestern United States. Methods. Between 2016 and 2018, we conducted a randomized controlled trial of the RCL program with 534 Native youths. Participants completed assessments at baseline and 9 and 12 months after the intervention. We conducted intention-to-treat analyses based on study group randomization. Results. At 9 months, intervention participants had significantly better condom use self-efficacy (P < .001), higher intentions to use condoms (P = .024) and abstain from sex (P = .008), and better contraceptive use self-efficacy (P < .001) than control participants, as well as better condom use (P = .032) and contraceptive use (P = .002) negotiation skills. At 12 months, intervention participants had significantly better sexual and reproductive health knowledge (P = .021), condom use self-efficacy (P < .001), contraceptive use self-efficacy (P < .001), and contraceptive use negotiation skills (P = .004) than control participants. Intervention participants reported significantly more communication with their parents about sexual and reproductive health than control participants at both 9 and 12 months (P = .042 and P = .001, respectively). Conclusions. The RCL program has a significant impact on key factors associated with pregnancy prevention among Native youths and should be used as an adolescent pregnancy prevention strategy. Trial Registration.  Clinical Trials.gov identifier: NCT02904629. (Am J Public Health. 2021;111(10): 1874-1884. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306447).


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Sexual/métodos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257329, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although Problematic Internet Use (PIU) is an emerging area of study in psychology, little is known about the unique features of specific subgroups of internet users and their psychosocial vulnerabilities within robust and nationwide populations. METHODS: The aim of this study was to identify distinct latent groups of internet users based on their PIU risk and to compare their psychosocial outcomes. To achieve this, a nationally representative sample of adolescents of the same grade (N = 1,066, Meanage = 13.46 years, range = 12-16) was recruited from several schools in Slovenia through stratified random sampling. RESULTS: A Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) revealed a two-class solution, with Class 1 (n = 853, 80%) featuring 'low PIU risk' participants and Class 2 (n = 213, 20%) including 'high PIU risk' participants. Behaviorally, the main feature of Class 1 denoted 'time management difficulties' while Class 2 was best characterized by 'mood and time management issues'. Further frequentist and Bayesian analyses indicated that Class 2 presented greater psychosocial risk compared to Class 1 due to significantly higher levels of PIU (generalized and across specific PIU subfactors) coupled with lower levels of subjective well-being and self-control. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to what was initially envisaged, the two classes did not differ in terms of perceived quality in parent-child relationship. This study shows that PIU patterns and symptom-severity may be developmentally specific, further highlighting the need for clinically age-adjusted PIU screening practices within epidemiological and healthcare settings.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Uso da Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Fatores de Risco , Eslovênia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257573, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547040

RESUMO

Despite the awareness of the importance of mental health problems among adolescents in developed countries like Australia, inequality has not been widely researched. This study, is therefore, aimed to measure and compare household income-related and area-based socioeconomic inequalities in mental health problems (bullying victimization, mental disorders-single and multiple, self-harm and suicidality-ideation, plan and attempt) among Australian adolescents aged 12-17 years. Young Minds Matter (YMM)-the 2nd national cross-sectional mental health and well-being survey involving Australian children and adolescents conducted in 2013-14, was used in this study to select data for adolescents aged 12-17 years (n = 2521). Outcome variables included: bullying, mental disorders, self-harm, and suicidal ideation, plan and attempt. The Erreygers's corrected concentration index (CI) approach was used to measure the socioeconomic inequalities in mental health problems using two separate rank variables-equivalised household income quintiles and area-based Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD) quintiles. The prevalence of mental health problems in the previous 12-months among these study participants were: bullying victimization (31.1%, 95% CI: 29%-33%), mental disorder (22.9%, 95% CI: 21%-24%), self-harm (9.1%, 95% CI: 8%-10%), suicidal ideation (8.5%, 95% CI: 7%-10%), suicidal plan (5.9%, 95% CI: 5%-7%) and suicidal attempt (2.8%, 95% CI: 2%-3%). The concentration indices (CIs) were statistically significant for bullying victimization (CI = -0.049, p = 0.020), multiple mental disorders (CI = -0.088, p = <0.001), suicidal ideation (CI = -0.023, p = 0.047) and suicidal attempt (CI = -0.021, p = 0.002), implying pro-poor socioeconomic inequalities based on equivalized household income quintiles. Similar findings revealed when adolescents mental health inequalities calculated on the basis of area based IRSAD (Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage) quintiles. Overall, adolescents from economically worse-off families experienced more mental health-related problems compared to those from economically better-off families. This has implications for prevention strategies and government policy in order to promote mental health and provide equitable healthcare facility.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371989

RESUMO

Currently, one of the main public health problems among children and adolescents is poor adherence to healthy habits, leading to increasingly high rates of obesity and the comorbidities that accompany obesity. Early interventions are necessary, and among them, the use of gamification can be an effective method. The objective was to analyse the effect of game-based interventions (gamification) for improving nutritional habits, knowledge, and changes in body composition. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed in CINAHL, EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, and Scopus databases, following the PRISMA recommendations. There was no restriction by year of publication or language. Only randomized controlled trials were included. Twenty-three articles were found. After the intervention, the consumption of fruit and vegetables increased, as well as the knowledge on healthy food groups. The means difference showed a higher nutritional knowledge score in the intervention group 95% CI 0.88 (0.05-1.75). No significant effect of gamification was found for body mass index z-score. Gamification could be an effective method to improve nutritional knowledge about healthier nutritional habits. Promoting the development of effective educational tools to support learning related to nutrition is necessary in order to avoid and prevent chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Composição Corporal , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444899

RESUMO

Emotional eating is one factor that increases the consumption of unhealthy food. This study aimed to investigate the association between emotional eating and frequencies of consuming fast food, high-fat snacks, processed meat products, dessert foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in adolescents. The baseline survey data (2015) from the Taiwan Adolescent to Adult Longitudinal Study (TAALS) were fitted into multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for sex, school type, Body Mass Index (BMI), eating while doing something, nutrition label reading, skipping breakfast, smoking, binge drinking, sedentary lifestyle, physical activity, peer and school support, and parental education level. Among the 18,461 participants (48.5% male and 51.5% female), those exhibiting emotional eating were more likely to consume fast food (Odds ratio (OR) = 2.40, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 2.18-2.64), high-fat snacks (OR = 2.30, 95% CI: 2.12-2.49), processed meat products (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.78-2.08), dessert foods (OR = 2.49, 95% CI: 2.31-2.69), and sugar-sweetened beverages (OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.70-1.98). Factors that were positively associated with unhealthy food consumption included eating while doing other activities, binge drinking, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle. Among all the covariates, nutrition label reading was the only factor that was inversely associated with frequent unhealthy food consumption. Sex and school type may moderate the effect of emotional eating on the frequent consumption of specific unhealthy food groups. In conclusion, adolescents with high emotional eating were more likely to report frequent consumption of unhealthy foods in Taiwan. Our findings showed that male participants appeared to consume fast foods, high-fat snacks, processed meat, and SSBs more often and dessert foods less often than females. Future longitudinal studies are recommended for understanding the causal relationship between emotional eating and unhealthy food consumption.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Comportamento Sedentário , Lanches/psicologia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos , Taiwan
11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371866

RESUMO

Food hypersensitivity (FHS) refers to food-related symptoms, with or without concurrent Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies related to food(s). It remains unclear how different FHS phenotypes affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We examined self-reported HRQoL (with the generic instrument EQ-5D (dimensions and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), range 0-100) in association with phenotypes of FHS, and food-specific symptoms among adolescents (n = 2990) from a population-based birth cohort. Overall, 22% of the adolescents had FHS. Compared to adolescents without FHS, those with FHS reported more problems in the dimensions of pain/discomfort (p < 0.001), and anxiety/depression (p = 0.007). Females with FHS reported more problems than males in these dimensions (p < 0.001). Different FHS phenotypes (IgE-sensitization, allergic co-morbidity, and severity of symptoms) were not associated with differences in HRQoL. EQ-VAS scores were lowest for adolescents with symptoms for wheat vs. no wheat, median 80 vs. 89, p = 0.04) and milk vs. no milk (median 85 vs. 90, p = 0.03). Physician-diagnosed lactose intolerance median EQ-VAS was 80 vs. 90, p = 0.03 and also associated with more problems in the dimension of anxious/depression. In conclusion, FHS is associated with lower HRQoL in adolescence, irrespective of phenotypes, but differentially affects females vs. males, and those with vs. without symptoms for milk or wheat.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Escala Visual Analógica
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26747, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The incidence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) behavior in adolescents is increasing year by year. Patients with a history of both depression and NSSI behavior tend to be at greater risk for suicide. At present, the mechanism of adolescent depressive disorder with NSSI behavior is not clear and still in research and exploration. The expression of the Silent Information Regulator 2 Related Enzyme 1 (SIRT1) gene is closely related to the level of serotonin in molecular mechanisms, and may be closely related to the occurrence and development of depressive disorder. This study aimed to explore the relationship between the SIRT1 gene and NSSI behaviors in adolescents with depressive disorder. METHODS: A total of 15 adolescent depressed patients with NSSI behavior and 15 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Bisulfite Sequencing PCR (BSP) was used to test the methylation level of SIRT1 gene promoter region of the participants. The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was conducted to measure the mRNA expression level of SIRT1 gene. RESULTS: Our study found that the methylation level of SIRT1 gene promoter region at cytosine-guanine dinucleotide 5 (CpG5) site in depression group was higher than that of control group. Compared with that of control group, the plasma concentration of Sirt1 protein significantly decreased in depression group. CONCLUSION: Our study investigated the methylation level and the mRNA expression of SIRT1 gene in adolescent depressive patients with NSSI behavior. The study points towards finding an in vivo molecular marker for those adolescent patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , China/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Metilação , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/genética , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Sirtuína 1
13.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 79, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicidal behaviors are seriously social issues among adolescents in the world. Exposed to smoking and being bullied are risk factors of suicidal behaviors. The present study was aimed to examine the interaction of smoking and being bullied on suicidal behaviors among Chinese adolescents. METHODS: A total of 18,900 students were involved in the questionnaire study, in four cities of China from November 2017 to January 2018. Suicidal behaviors, smoking, and being bullied were measured by self-reported validated instruments. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to analyze the associations of suicidal ideation (SI)/suicidal plan (SP)/suicidal attempt (SA), smoking, and being bullied. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking, being bullied, SI/SP/SA, were 3.1%, 20.6%, 26.4%, 13.2%, and 5.2% respectively. Interaction analysis indicated that being bullied was associated with a greater increase in the likelihood of suicidal behaviors for adolescents with smoking than for those without smoking. CONCLUSIONS: These finding suggest that smoking exacerbates the association between being bullied and suicidal behaviors. Future research should explore how and why smoking appears to more bully-victims than for those without smoking and how to mitigate it.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Fumar/epidemiologia
14.
Sch Psychol ; 36(5): 277-284, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398634

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine whether restrictions put in place during the COVID-19 pandemic affected the social and psychological well-being of early adolescent schoolchildren. Participants were 309 youth (51% female, average age = 12.38 years) enrolled in the sixth, seventh, or eighth grades of a single middle school located in northeastern Pennsylvania, a state that took a moderately proactive approach to the pandemic. Employing a cross-sectional design, students in three instructional conditions (100% in-person, hybrid, 100% online) were compared on nine outcome measures (perceived parental support, perceived parental knowledge, peer deviance, neutralization, cognitive impulsivity, depression, delinquency, bullying victimization, and bullying perpetration). There were no significant between-groups differences, although there was a borderline significant effect for depression (100% online > 100% in-person, p = .06). A second set of analyses employed a longitudinal design and compared 174 children who completed the test battery in November 2019, 3 months before the start of the pandemic, and then again in November 2020, 9 months after the start of the pandemic. Three out of nine outcomes displayed significant change: A small reduction in parental support and modest increments in neutralization beliefs and cognitive impulsivity. Although there were no statistically significant differences between the three instructional conditions and only a handful of relatively small and predictable longitudinal changes between November 2019 and November 2020, there were a fair number of individual students who experienced moderate (≥ 50%) increases in depression (17.6%), cognitive impulsivity (15.8%), and bullying victimization (11.7%). (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , COVID-19 , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
15.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(10): 729-738, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental wellbeing in adolescents has declined considerably during past decades, making the identification of modifiable risk factors important. Prolonged screen time and insufficient physical activity appear to operate independently and synergistically to increase the risk of poor mental wellbeing in school-aged children. We aimed to examine the gender-stratified dose-dependent and joint associations of screen time and physical activity with mental wellbeing in adolescents. METHODS: We used data from three rounds of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional surveys (2006, 2010, and 2014) from 42 European and North American countries. Survey participants, aged 11 years, 13 years, and 15 years, provided self-reported information by completing an anonymous questionnaire that included items on health indicators and related behaviours. We used the self-reported variables of life satisfaction and psychosomatic complaints as indicators of adolescents' mental wellbeing, combining these with the self-reported discretionary use of screens and engagement in physical activity. We used generalised additive models and multilevel regression modelling to examine the gender-stratified relationships between mental wellbeing and screen time and physical activity. FINDINGS: Our sample included 577 475 adolescents (mean age 13·60 years, SD 1·64), with 296 542 (51·35%) girls and 280 933 (48·64%) boys. The mean reported life satisfaction score (on a scale of 0-10) was 7·70 (95% CI 7·69-7·71) in boys and 7·48 (7·46-7·50) in girls. Psychosomatic complaints were more common among girls (mean 9·26, 95% CI 9·23-9·28) than boys (6·89, 6·87-6·91). Generalised additive model analyses showed slightly non-linear associations of screen time and physical activity with life satisfaction and psychosomatic complaints for girls and boys. Detrimental associations between screen time and mental wellbeing started when screen time exceeded 1 h per day, whereas increases in physical activity levels were beneficially and monotonically associated with wellbeing. Multilevel modelling showed that screen time levels were negatively associated with life satisfaction and positively associated with psychosomatic complaints in a dose-dependent manner. Physical activity levels were positively associated with life satisfaction and negatively associated with psychosomatic complaints in a dose-dependent manner. Joint associations of screen time-physical activity with mental wellbeing showed that, compared with the least active participants with more than 8 h per day of screen time and no physical activity, most of the other screen time-physical activity groups had considerably higher life satisfaction and lower psychosomatic complaints. INTERPRETATION: Higher levels of screen time and lower levels of physical activity were associated with lower life satisfaction and higher psychosomatic complaints among adolescents from high-income countries. Public health strategies to promote adolescents' mental wellbeing should aim to decrease screen time and increase physical activity simultaneously. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Tempo de Tela , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , América do Norte , Satisfação Pessoal , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
16.
Neuron ; 109(20): 3203-3205, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380017

RESUMO

Lockdowns and school closures deprive adolescents of typical social interactions. In this NeuroView, we explore how the quality of existing peer relationships might moderate-both positively and negatively-the impact of these restrictions on adolescent mental health, and we highlight the importance of individual differences.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Individualidade , Relações Interpessoais , Saúde Mental , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos
17.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210069

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to conduct in-depth individual interviews with 30 African American adolescents with overweight and obesity and their families (caregiver/adolescent dyads) to gain a better understanding of how to integrate stress and coping essential elements into an existing family-based health promotion program for weight loss. Interview data from 30 African American adolescents with overweight and obesity (Mage = 15.30 ± 2.18; MBMI%-ile = 96.7 ± 3.90) were transcribed and coded for themes using inductive and deductive approaches by two independent coders. Inter-rater reliability was acceptable (r = 0.70-0.80) and discrepancies were resolved to 100% agreement. The themes were guided by the Relapse Prevention Model, which focuses on assessing barriers of overall coping capacity in high stress situations that may undermine health behavior change (physical activity, diet, weight loss). Prominent themes included feeling stressed primarily in response to relationship conflicts within the family and among peers, school responsibilities, and negative emotions (anxiety, depression, anger). A mix of themes emerged related to coping strategies ranging from cognitive reframing and distraction to avoidant coping. Recommendations for future programs include addressing sources of stress and providing supportive resources, as well as embracing broader systems such as neighborhoods and communities. Implications for future intervention studies are discussed.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Terapia Comportamental , Criança , Dieta/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Programas de Redução de Peso
18.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(7): 493-498, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264769

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effects of technology use for relationship maintenance on the longitudinal associations among self-isolation during the coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) pandemic and romantic relationship quality among adolescents. Participants were 239 (120 female; M age = 16.69, standard deviation [SD] = 0.61; 60 percent Caucasian) 11th and 12th graders from three midwestern high schools. To qualify for this study, adolescents had to be in the same romantic relationship for the duration of the study, ∼7 months (M length of relationship = 10.03 months). Data were collected in October of 2019 (Time 1) and again 7 months later in May of 2020 (Time 2). Adolescents completed a romantic relationship questionnaire at Time 1 and again at Time 2, along with questionnaires on frequency of self-isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic and use of technology for romantic relationship maintenance. Findings revealed that increases in self-isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic related positively to the use of technology for romantic relationship maintenance and negatively to Time 2 romantic relationship quality. High use of technology for romantic relationship maintenance buffered against the negative effects of self-isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescents' romantic relationship quality 7 months later, whereas low use strengthened the negative relationship between self-isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic and romantic relationship quality. These findings suggest the importance of considering the implications of societal crisis or pandemics on adolescents' close relationships, particularly their romantic relationships.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Corte/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia do Adolescente , Tecnologia
19.
J Anal Psychol ; 66(3): 546-560, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231895

RESUMO

COVID-19 has upended the way analysts and psychotherapists practice. Many use the phone for their sessions, many are using video platforms, and many use a combination of the two. Work with adolescents is very challenging in this new modality because of the loss of in-person connection and immediate non-verbal cues. The public health restrictions put in place to manage COVID-19 spread are at odds with the adolescent tasks of adventuring, experimenting and gaining new experiences. In addition, increased anxieties about infection, contamination and invasion are often manifest and adolescents can regress in the face of them. Using seminal ideas from Bion, this article looks at two process examples from adolescent boys who struggled with parts of themselves that felt disturbing and unacceptable. The author discusses the clinical exchanges in detail and offers ideas about the difficulty of creating psychic space when working virtually.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , COVID-19 , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Terapia Psicanalítica , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14147, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239031

RESUMO

Underweight or overweight in adolescence is linked to several adverse health outcomes. Less evidence exists about the association between weight status and school-related psychosocial characteristics in high income countries. We sought to investigate the relationship between weight status and psychosomatic and school-related complaints with a focus on gender differences. The study is a cohort of 18,462 adolescents (12-19 years; 51% girls) conducted in Sweden. The associations between weight status and psychosomatic and school-related complaints were estimated by binary logistic regression adjusted for several potential confounders. After correction for multiple testing, being underweight or overweight/obese was adversely associated with several psychosomatic and school-related complaints with significant differences between boys and girls. Specifically, underweight boys had higher odds to have psychosomatic complaints than normal-weight boys, while no such associations were observed among underweight girls. Overweight/obese (vs. normal-weight) boys had higher odds to complain about headache, pain in the back/hips, and feeling low. Overweight/obese (vs. normal-weight) girls were more likely to complain about feeling low, anxious/worried and having difficulty in falling asleep (P ≤ 0.01). In relation to school-related complaints (e.g., being bullied at school and academic failure), greater associations were observed for overweight/obese girls and boys than for underweight adolescents compared with normal-weight peers.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Magreza/psicologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Bullying/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/patologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/patologia
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