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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e36283, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1103400

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar a influência das composições familiares na ocorrência da gravidez na adolescência. Método:estudo caso-controle, realizado com 74 gestantes adolescentes, grupo de casos, e 74 adultas jovens sem história pregressa de gravidez na adolescência, grupo controle, pareadas pela variável renda familiar. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas estruturadas realizadas no período deagosto a outubro de 2016 em Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, e em seguida analisados pelos métodos estatísticos descritivo e inferencial. Resultados: identificou-se associação entre a ocorrência do desfecho com pertencer a famílias não nucleares, não permanecer a mesma família durante a infância e adolescência, e a constituição de uma família própria no período da adolescência. Conclusão:verificou-se que adolescentes inseridas em famílias não nucleares estão mais expostas a fatores de risco para ocorrência da gravidez na adolescência, quando comparadas às jovensprovenientes de famílias com ambos os pais.


Objective: to analyze the influence of family compositions in the occurrence of pregnancy in adolescence. Method:this is a case-control study performed with 74 pregnant adolescents, group of cases, and 74 young adults without background history of pregnancy during adolescence, group control, paired by family income. Data were collected through structured interviews conducted in the period from August to October 2016 in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, and then analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results:we identified an association between the occurrence of the outcome and the belonging to non-nuclear families, as well as the non-belonging to the same family during childhood and adolescence, besides the constitution of an own family in the period of adolescence. Conclusion: checked that adolescents inserted in nonnuclear families are more exposed to risk factors for the occurrence of pregnancy in adolescence when compared to young people coming from families with both parents.


Objetivo: analizar la influencia de las composiciones familiares en la ocurrencia del embarazo adolescente. Método: estudio caso-control efectuado con 74 adolescentes embarazadas, grupo de casos, y 74 jóvenes adultas sin historia anterior de embarazo en la adolescencia, grupo de control, agrupadas por sus ingresos familiares. Los datos se recopilaron mediante entrevistas estructuradas conducidas en el periodo de agosto a octubre de 2016 en Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, y posteriormente analizados por los métodos estadísticos descriptivo e inferencial. Resultados:se identificó una asociación entre la ocurrencia del desenlace y la pertenencia a las familias no nucleares, no permanencia en la misma familia durante niñez y adolescencia, y la constitución de una familia propia en el periodo de la adolescencia. Conclusion: comprobado eso que las adolescentes insertadas en familias no nucleares están más expuestas a los factores de riesgo para la ocurrencia del embarazo adolescente en comparación con las jóvenes provenientes de familias con ambos padres biológicos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Gravidez na Adolescência/psicologia , Características da Família , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Núcleo Familiar/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Relações Pai-Filho , Relações Mãe-Filho
2.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 85-92, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190653

RESUMO

Antisocial behaviors in adolescents are present and prevalent around the world and have harmful consequences for individuals and societies. The research focused on antisocial behaviors in young people has been very fruitful, but studies are usually fragmented and focused on specific problem behaviors either in school or outside of school. Although victim-offender overlap was described in many studies, most projects focused either on victims or on offenders. This prospective longitudinal study was conducted to discover patterns of antisocial behavior from a comprehensive perspective, including different problem behaviors in and out of schools, focusing on both victimization and offending. A sample of 450 early adolescents was followed-up during one school year. Latent class and latent transition analyses were performed and identified four groups of students. These groups were: low antisocial, highly antisocial and victimized, high bullying victimization, and high offending outside of school. Transition analyses showed that the low antisocial and offenders outside of school groups were relatively stable over time. Students in the high bullying victimization group transitioned to different groups, and students in the highly antisocial and victimized group either remained in the highly antisocial group or transitioned to high offending outside of school. Findings suggest that single antisocial behaviors are not common and students who display one problem behavior usually display other problem behaviors. Early adolescents who are involved in antisocial behaviors in one time period frequently remain involved one year later. It is therefore possible that the antisocial potential of some adolescents is expressed in different contexts. This has important implications for research and practice that need to adopt a more holistic and comprehensive approach


Las conductas antisociales de los adolescentes están presentes en todo el mundo y tienen consecuencias perjudiciales para individuos y sociedades. La investigación centrada en las conductas antisociales de los jóvenes ha sido muy fructífera, pero los estudios están generalmente fragmentados y se centran en comportamientos problemáticos específicos, ya sea en la escuela o fuera de la escuela. Aunque la superposición víctima-agresor se ha descrito en muchos estudios, la mayoría se ha centrado en las víctimas o en los agresores. Este estudio longitudinal prospectivo se ha realizado para descubrir patrones de conducta antisocial desde una perspectiva integral, que incluye diferentes comportamientos problemáticos dentro y fuera de la escuela, centrándose tanto en la victimización como en la agresión. Se ha seguido una muestra de 450 estudiantes durante un año escolar y se han realizado análisis de clases latentes y de transiciones latentes, identificando cuatro grupos de estudiantes: bajo antisocial, altamente antisocial y victimizado, alta victimización por bullying y alto en ofensas fuera de la escuela. Los análisis de transición mostraron que el grupo bajo antisocial y el grupo alto en ofensas fuera de la escuela eran relativamente estables en el tiempo. Los estudiantes del grupo alta victimización por bullying hicieron la transición a diferentes grupos y los estudiantes del grupo altamente antisocial y victimizado permanecieron en su grupo o pasaron al grupo alto en ofensas fuera de la escuela. Los resultados indican que no son frecuentes las conductas antisociales aisladas y que los estudiantes que muestran un comportamiento problemático, generalmente, presentan otros comportamientos problemáticos. Los adolescentes que están implicados en conductas antisociales en un momento temporal con frecuencia siguen implicados un año después. Por lo tanto, es posible que el potencial antisocial de algunos adolescentes se exprese en diferentes contextos. El estudio tiene importantes implicaciones para la investigación y la práctica, ya que tienen que adoptar un enfoque más holístico e integral


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240349, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027308

RESUMO

Adolescence is a formative phase for social development. The COVID-19 pandemic and associated regulations have led to many changes in adolescents' lives, including limited opportunities for social interactions. The current exploratory study investigated the effect of the first weeks of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on Dutch adolescents' (N = 53 with attrition, N = 36 without attrition) mood, empathy, and prosocial behavior. Longitudinal analyses comparing pre-pandemic measures to a three-week peri-pandemic daily diary study showed (i) decreases in empathic concern, opportunities for prosocial actions, and tension, (ii) stable levels of social value orientation, altruism, and dire prosociality, and (iii) increased levels of perspective-taking and vigor during the first weeks of lockdown. Second, this study investigated peri-pandemic effects of familiarity, need, and deservedness on giving behavior. To this end, we utilized novel hypothetical Dictator Games with ecologically valid targets associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Adolescents showed higher levels of giving to a friend (a familiar other, about 51% of the total share), a doctor in a hospital (deserving target, 78%), and individuals with COVID-19 or a poor immune system (targets in need, 69 and 63%, respectively) compared to an unfamiliar peer (39%) This suggests that during the pandemic need and deservedness had a greater influence on adolescent giving than familiarity. Overall, this study demonstrates detrimental effects of the first weeks of lockdown on adolescents' empathic concern and opportunities for prosocial actions, which are important predictors of healthy socio-emotional development. However, adolescents also showed marked resilience and a willingness to benefit others as a result of the lockdown, as evidenced by improved perspective-taking and mood, and high sensitivity to need and deservedness in giving to others.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Afeto , Altruísmo , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Empatia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diários como Assunto , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Grupo Associado , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena/métodos , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240962, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064778

RESUMO

Due to the COVID- 19 outbreak in the Netherlands (March 2020) and the associated social distancing measures, families were enforced to stay at home as much as possible. Adolescents and their families may be particularly affected by this enforced proximity, as adolescents strive to become more independent. Yet, whether these measures impact emotional well-being in families with adolescents has not been examined. In this ecological momentary assessment study, we investigated if the COVID-19 pandemic affected positive and negative affect of parents and adolescents and parenting behaviors (warmth and criticism). Additionally, we examined possible explanations for the hypothesized changes in affect and parenting. To do so, we compared daily reports on affect and parenting that were gathered during two periods of 14 consecutive days, once before the COVID-19 pandemic (2018-2019) and once during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multilevel analyses showed that only parents' negative affect increased as compared to the period before the pandemic, whereas this was not the case for adolescents' negative affect, positive affect and parenting behaviors (from both the adolescent and parent perspective). In general, intolerance of uncertainty was linked to adolescents' and parents' negative affect and adolescents' positive affect. However, Intolerance of uncertainty, nor any pandemic related characteristics (i.e. living surface, income, relatives with COVID-19, hours of working at home, helping children with school and contact with COVID-19 patients at work) were linked to the increase of parents' negative affect during COVID-19. It can be concluded that on average, our sample (consisting of relatively healthy parents and adolescents) seems to deal fairly well with the circumstances. The substantial heterogeneity in the data however, also suggest that whether or not parents and adolescents experience (emotional) problems can vary from household to household. Implications for researchers, mental health care professionals and policy makers are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Bem-Estar da Criança/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Comportamento Paterno/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Incerteza
6.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 210-219, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192057

RESUMO

Sexting is a recent phenomenon in which people send and receive photos, videos and/or text messages of sexual nature via smartphones or similar devices. Similar to other developed countries, it is becoming an increasingly popular practice among teenagers in Spain. Provided it has appeared very recently, scarce research has focused on examining in-depth factors involved in its initiation and maintenance. Therefore, the two main aims of this study were to determine its prevalence and to analyse the explanatory variables of the sexting behaviours. The sample consisted of 784 Spanish adolescents (52% boys and 48% girls) between 12 and 18 years of age (M = 14.44; SD = 1.61). The results showed that 24.4% have practised sexting at some time, with an average of 2.32 people (SD = 2.70). The regression analysis revealed that positive attitudes towards sexting, level of impulsivity, age, being male and having a partner are variables that predict engagement in sexting. These results are very important for designing and implementing preventive strategies that emphasise the responsible use of ICTs and social networks


El sexting es un fenómeno que consiste en el envío y la recepción de fotos, videos y/o mensajes de texto de naturaleza sexual a través de smartphones. Como en todos los demás países desarrollados, se está convirtiendo en una práctica cada vez más popular entre los adolescentes de España. Al tratarse de un fenómeno muy reciente todavía no existen muchos trabajos que hayan estudiado con profundidad su entidad y sus factores implicados. Por tanto, los dos objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar la prevalencia y analizar las variables explicativas del inicio y del mantenimiento de las conductas de sexting. La muestra estuvo formada por 784 adolescentes españoles (52% chicos y 48% chicas) con edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 18 años (M = 14.44; DT = 1.61). Los resultados indican que el 24.4% ha practicado sexting en alguna ocasión, realizando esta conducta con una media de 2.32 personas (DT = 2.70). El análisis de regresión reveló que las actitudes positivas hacia el sexting, el nivel de impulsividad, la edad, ser hombre y el mantener una relación de pareja son variables que predicen la práctica del sexting. Estos resultados son muy importantes en la elaboración e implementación de estrategias preventivas que enfaticen el uso responsable de las TICS y las redes sociales


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Parceiros Sexuais , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Atitude , Motivação , Psicometria/instrumentação , Análise de Regressão , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751998

RESUMO

A few studies in Japan have demonstrated positive attitudes, self-efficacy, social support, and perceived barrier were associated with fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in adults; however, limited evidence addresses the association of psychosocial factors with F&V intake in adolescents. A cross-sectional study through a questionnaire survey was conducted at junior and senior high schools, and 933 students completed the questionnaire. Data were analyzed by X2 test and Student t-test. The findings demonstrated 2.7% of participants were aware of the current recommendations for vegetable and 2.0% for fruit. Only 4% and 8.1% of participants reported they consumed recommended amount of vegetables and fruits. In comparison with males, females showed higher scores of attitude (p < 0.01), responsibility (p < 0.01), and social support (p < 0.01). The barriers to vegetable intake were "I'm eating enough now", "not always available when eating away from home"; the barriers to fruit intake were "don't have a habit of having 100% juice or fruit in the morning", and "cost too much". The findings suggest the change of adolescents' knowledge about what they should eat is needed in boosting F&V consumption. The development of an intervention program for adolescents needs to target socio-environmental factors such as family support, and nutritional education for early healthy habit formation.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Dieta , Frutas , Verduras , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784688

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the association of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and organized leisure-time activities with self-rated health among adolescents and whether these associations are mediated by body fat percentage. We used data on 888 adolescents (mean age 12.97, SD 1.20, 56.0% boys) from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in 2018 in Slovakia. We used logistic regression models to examine associations within self-reported data (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and organized leisure-time activities with self-rated health) and their mediation by anthropometric data (body fat percentage). The adolescents who were sufficiently physically active and with normal body fat were more likely to report good or excellent health (odds ratios-OR/95% confidence intervals-95% CI: 3.52/1.50-8.27 and 3.66/2.37-5.68). Similarly, the adolescents who were engaged in individual/team sport and with normal body fat were more likely to report good or excellent health (OR/95% CI: 2.04/1.31-3.17 and 3.66/2.37-5.68). Adjustment for body fat percentage reduced the association between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and self-rated health by 27.6% and the association between leisure-time activities and self-rated health by 30.7%. Active living and normal body fat might contribute to better health in adolescence. Programs and efforts to increase physical activity and leisure-time activities in childhood and adolescence need to identify which aspects of these activities are important, effective, and crucial for the population of adolescents.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Atividades de Lazer , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Eslováquia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858864

RESUMO

Families play an important role in helping teenagers avoid using tobacco, cannabis, and opioids, but some parents may underestimate the risk of their children using those substances. This study aimed to determine parents' perceived likelihood of their child initiating tobacco, cannabis, and opioid use, as well as the control they have in preventing their child from using those substances. We surveyed 427 parents of children aged 0-18 years old using the online Amazon Mechanical Turk platform in the spring of 2019. We measured participants' perceived likelihood of their child initiating tobacco, cannabis, or opioid use before the age of 18 compared to other children, using a five-point Likert scale. This perceived likelihood was dichotomized between optimistic (less likely than average) and non-optimistic (average or more likely than average). Independent variables included parental tobacco use, perceived parental control, and perceived severity of the behavior. Participants with missing data and participants with children who had already initiated substance use were excluded from statistical analyses. Mean age of participants was 38.1 years (Standard Deviation 8.4); 67% were female. Level of parental optimism was 59% for cannabis, 77% for tobacco, and 82% for opioids. Perceived severity was significantly lower for cannabis use (71/100) than tobacco (90/100) and opioid use (92/100) (p < 0.001). Current smokers were less likely than never smokers to be optimistic about their child's risk of initiating using tobacco (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 0.18 [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.10-0.34]) or cannabis (AOR: 0.21 [95% CI 0.12-0.38]). Parental perceived likelihood of a child initiating substance use represents an understudied and potential target for substance use prevention.


Assuntos
Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Otimismo , Pais/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Adulto , Controle Comportamental , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia
12.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 578-586, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: With the increasing popularity of electronic cigarettes and legalization of recreational marijuana, messaging from websites and social media is shaping product perceptions and use. Quantitative research on the aesthetic appeal of these advertisements from the adolescent and young adult perspective is lacking. We evaluated (1) how adolescents and young adults perceived tobacco and marijuana messaging online and through social media platforms and (2) interactive behaviors related to these messages. METHODS: We interviewed 24 participants from the Tobacco Perceptions Study, a longitudinal study of adolescents' and young adults' (aged 17-21) tobacco-related perceptions and tobacco use. We collected qualitative data from October 2017 through February 2018, through individual semi-structured interviews, on participants' experiences and interactions with online tobacco and marijuana advertisements and the advertisements' appeal. Two analysts recorded, transcribed, and coded interviews. RESULTS: Themes that emerged from the interviews focused on the direct appeal of online messaging to adolescents and young adults; the value of trusting the source; the role of general attitudes and personal decision-making related to using tobacco and/or marijuana; the appeal of messaging that includes colors, interesting packaging, and appealing flavors; and the preference of messages communicated by young people and influencers rather than by industry. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the need for increased regulation of social media messaging and marketing of tobacco and marijuana, with a particular focus on regulating social media, paid influencers, and marketing that appeals to adolescents and young adults. The findings also suggest the importance of prevention programs addressing the role of social media in influencing the use of tobacco and marijuana.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Publicidade , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Fumar Maconha/psicologia , Mídias Sociais , Normas Sociais , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
13.
Pediatrics ; 146(Suppl 1): S18-S24, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737228

RESUMO

With a few notable exceptions, adolescents do not possess the legal authority to provide consent for or refuse medical interventions. However, in some situations, the question arises regarding whether a mature minor should be permitted to make a life-altering medical decision that would be challenged if made by the minor's parent. In this article, I explore what we currently know about the adolescent brain and how that knowledge should frame our understanding of adolescent decision-making. The prevailing approach to determining when adolescents should have their decisions respected in the medical and legal context, an approach that is focused on establishing capacity under a traditional informed consent model, will be reviewed and critiqued. I will suggest that the traditional model is insufficient and explore the implications for the adolescent role in health care decision-making.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Doença de Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/psicologia , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/legislação & jurisprudência , Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Competência Mental/psicologia , Mães , Patient Self-Determination Act , Autonomia Pessoal , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
14.
S Afr Med J ; 110(2): 145-153, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The intersection of violence exposure and mental health problems is a public health crisis for South African (SA) adolescents. Understanding the impact of community violence on adolescent mental health can inform future interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess pathways between community violence exposure and internalising and externalising problems in SA adolescents receiving mental healthcare, and the roles of parent and peer relationships in these associations. METHODS: Participants (N=120 parent-adolescent pairs) were recruited from four mental health clinics in Western Cape Province to participate in a pilot test of a family-based HIV prevention study. Adolescents reported on their exposure to community violence, parental attachment, peer support of risk behaviour, and mental health. Parents reported on adolescents' internalising and externalising mental health problems. Participants received transport money (ZAR30 = USD3) and a shopping voucher or cash (ZAR50 = USD5) for their time. RESULTS: Adolescents were 12 - 18 years old (mean (standard deviation) 14.39 (1.82) years), 53% were male, and 67% and 33% reported black African and mixed-race ethnicity, respectively. Parents were 94% female and reported an average monthly income of ZAR3 973 (USD397). Boys reported significantly higher rates of witnessing community violence than girls. Among boys, significant paths emerged from community violence and low parent attachment to externalising symptoms and from community violence to peer support of risky behaviour. For girls, the only significant path was from low parent attachment to peer support of risky behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study sheds new light on the possible pathways from witnessing community violence to mental health problems among SA adolescents. Identifying factors that drive and mitigate psychological distress in the context of persistent community violence is critical to SA's future and can inform the selection and delivery of appropriate and targeted evidence-based interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Projetos Piloto , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul
15.
Ann Epidemiol ; 48: 36-42.e3, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651047

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to understand why a housing mobility experiment caused harmful effects on adolescent boys' risky behaviors. METHODS: Moving to Opportunity (MTO) (1994-2010) randomly assigned volunteer families to a treatment group receiving a Section 8 rental voucher or a public housing control group. Our outcome was a global risky behavior index (RBI; measured in 2002, n = 750 boys) measuring the fraction of 10 items the youth engaged in, 6 measuring past 30-day substance use and 4 measuring recent risky sexual behavior. Potential mediators (measured in 2002) included peer social relationships (e.g., peer drug use, peer gang membership). RESULTS: The voucher treatment main effect on boys' RBI was harmful (B (SE) = 0.05 (0.02), 95% CI 0.01, 0.08), and treatment marginally increased having friends who used drugs compared to controls (B (SE) = 0.67 (0.23), 95% CI 0.22, 1.12). Having friends who used drugs marginally mediated the MTO treatment effect on RBI (indirect effect: B (SE) = 0.02(.01), 95% CI -0.002, 0.04), reducing the total treatment effect by 39%. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating additional supports into housing voucher programs may help support teenage boys who experience disruptions to their social networks, to buffer potential adverse consequences of residential mobility.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Habitação Popular , Características de Residência , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/economia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Características da Família , Humanos , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Pobreza , Habitação Popular/economia , Habitação Popular/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
16.
Accid Anal Prev ; 144: 105678, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659492

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The current study had three aims: 1) describe distracted driving beliefs among adolescents by various distraction types (i.e., talking on a hands-free/hands-held cell phone, texting or emailing, taking "selfies," and updating/checking social media); 2) examine the factor structure of distracted driving beliefs; and 3) test whether individual difference factors, shown in prior work to be related to distracted driving behavior, significantly predicted factors of distracted driving beliefs. METHODS: Three hundred seventy-nine high school students enrolled in non-mandatory Driver's Education courses completed surveys of distracted driving beliefs, sensation seeking, and demographics. RESULTS: A factor analysis revealed four factors of distracted driving beliefs: 1) self-acceptance of interacting with a cell phone while driving; 2) perceived peer acceptance of interacting with a cell phone while driving; 3) perceived threat of distracted driving to personal safety; and 4) self- and peer- acceptance of talking on a cell phone while driving. Adolescents perceived a greater threat to safety and less self- and peer-acceptance of interacting with cell phones while driving (i.e., texting/emailing, updating/posting to social media, taking selfies) than talking on a cell phone while driving. In general, men, those with more driving experience, higher in sensation seeking, and those placing more importance on checking notifications on a phone had riskier beliefs about distracted driving. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest adolescent distracted driving beliefs are influenced by individual difference factors, providing some knowledge about the motivations for distracted driving. Future work should consider novel strategies for intervening to reduce this common yet extremely dangerous behavior among adolescents.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Direção Distraída/psicologia , Infuência dos Pares , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635567

RESUMO

This transversal study over a random representative sample of 1687 Mexican students attending public and private secondary schools (54% girls, 12-17 years old, M = 13.65. DT = 1.14) aimed to analyze psychosocial differences between victims and non-victims of bullying from the bioecological model. It included individual variables (ontosystem), familiar, community, and scholar factors (microsystem), and gender (macrosystem) to perform a multivariate discriminant analysis and a logistic regression analysis. The discriminant analysis found that psychological distress, offensive communication with mother and father, and a positive attitude toward social norms transgression characterized the high victimization cluster. For the non-victims, the discriminant variables were community implication, positive attitude toward institutional authority, and open communication with the mother. These variables allowed for correctly predicting membership in 76% of the cases. Logistic regression analysis found that psychological distress, offensive communication with the father, and being a boy increased the probability of high victimization, while a positive attitude toward authority, open communication with the mother, and being a girl decrease this probability. These results highlight the importance of open and offensive communication between adolescents and their parents on psychological distress, attitude toward authority, community implication, and bullying victimization.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Angústia Psicológica , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235327, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649666

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to identify the videogame-related experiences expressed by regular adolescent gamers and to explore the socio-family factors related to these experiences. A cross-sectional observational and descriptive study was carried out with a convenience sample of regular Spanish videogamers between 16 and 18 years old. To measure the use of videogames for evasion and its negative consequences, the Questionnaire of Videogame-Related Experiences (Cuestionario de Experiencias Relacionadas con Videojuegos, CERV) was used and socio-family variables collected, evaluating their relationship with the results of the CERV. A total of 206 adolescents participated, 89.3% men [84.3-93.2] and 17.9% [12.9-23.9] allocating more than 35 hours a week to videogames. The CERV subscale related to the evasive use of videogames (max. = 24 points) obtained a mean value of 11.71 (SD = 3.52) and the mean value for the subscale related to the negative consequences (max. = 27 points) was 7.14 (SD = 3.33). A higher frequency of high values of evasive use (p = .038) and higher scores of this subscale (p = .02) were found in gamers without brothers or sisters. Higher scores and larger numbers of negative consequences were found in gamers who play more than 21 hours a week (p = .032). In conclusion, frequent use of videogames does not seem to be carried out with an evasive purpose, except in the case of absence of siblings. Frequent videogame use has only proven to carry a higher level of negative consequences when playing more than 21 hours a week. No other socio-family variables related to these subscales of the CERV have been identified.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663843

RESUMO

Based on Social Learning Theory and the General Aggression Model, this study aims to explore the relationship between parental emotional warmth and the cyberbullying perpetration attitudes of college students and the mediating roles of trait gratitude and empathy. Using the stratified cluster random sampling method, 1198 college students (716 boys and 482 girls with an average age of 20.44 years) were tested using the subscale of the Parenting Styles Instrument, the Basic Empathy Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire-6, and the Cyberbullying Attitude Questionnaire. Results: Emotional warmth, trait gratitude, cognitive empathy, and affective empathy all demonstrated significantly positive relationships with each other (rs from .175 to .403, ps < 0.01) and negative correlations with cyberbullying perpetration attitudes (rs from -.137 to -.306, ps < 0.01). Emotional warmth can exert an impact on cyberbullying perpetration attitudes through three fully mediating paths: the mediating roles of trait gratitude (41.91% of the total effect), cognitive empathy (14.5% of the total effect), and the chain mediating roles of trait gratitude-cognitive empathy (19.5% of the total effect). The results may have important implications for future studies to develop effective interventions for cyberbullying.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bullying/psicologia , Emoções , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235252, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716944

RESUMO

Subjective happiness is often regarded as a major life goal. Although Japan is an economically powerful country, the level of subjective well-being reported among Japanese adolescents is lower than in other countries. We aimed to investigate the lifestyle factors related to unhappiness in Japanese adolescents. We collected data through the 2017-2018 Lifestyle Survey of Adolescents, a nationally representative cross-sectional study enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. We assessed the prevalence of subjective unhappiness in junior and senior high school students according to school life factors and daily lifestyle habits. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between these factors and unhappiness. A total of 64,329 students were included in the sample (mean age 15.7 years, 53.9% boys). The average prevalence of unhappiness was 10.2%. The logistic regression analyses indicated that unhappiness was strongly associated with being male and with engaging in unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as not having breakfast, poor sleep quality, and some problematic Internet usage. Although the prevalence of unhappiness was significantly higher among current smokers and alcohol drinkers, these behaviors were not associated with unhappiness in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. Unhappiness among Japanese adolescents appears to be strongly related to how they spend their daily life. We therefore consider it desirable for school officials to educate students on the importance of happiness and lifestyle factors conducive to happiness.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Felicidade , Estilo de Vida , Tristeza/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desjejum/fisiologia , Desjejum/psicologia , Bem-Estar da Criança/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Japão , Masculino , Tristeza/fisiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Sono/fisiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
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