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1.
BMJ ; 370: m2436, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between US state policies that establish age 18 or 21 years as the minimum purchaser age for the sale of handguns and adolescent suicide rate. DESIGN: Regression discontinuity and difference-in-differences analyses. SETTING: 46 US states without policy changes between 2001 and 2017; Missouri and South Carolina, which lowered the age for handgun sales in 2007 and 2008, respectively; and West Virginia and Wyoming, which increased the age for handgun sales in 2010. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents aged 13 to 20 years(554 461 961 from 2001 to 2017) in the regression discontinuity analysis, and adolescents aged 18 to 20 years (168 934 041 from 2002 to 2014) in the main difference-in-differences analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Suicide rate per 100 000 adolescents. RESULTS: In the regression discontinuity analysis, state policies that limited the sale of handguns to those aged 18 or older (relative to 21 or older) were associated with an increase in suicide rate among adolescents aged 18 to 20 years equivalent to 344 additional suicides in each state where they were in place between 2001 and 2017. In the difference-in-differences analysis, state policies that limited the sale of handguns to those aged 21 or older were associated with 1.91 fewer suicides per 100 000 adolescents aged 18 to 20 years (95% confidence interval -3.13 to -0.70, permutation adjusted P=0.025). In the difference-in-differences analysis, there were 1.83 fewer firearm related suicides per 100 000 adolescents (-2.66 to -1.00, permutation adjusted P=0.002), with no association between age 21 handgun sales policies and non-firearm related suicides. Separate event study estimates indicated increases in suicide rates in states that lowered the age of handgun sales, with no association in states that increased the age of handgun sales. CONCLUSIONS: A clear discontinuity was shown in the suicide rate by age at age 18 in states that limited the sale of handguns to individuals aged 18 or older. State policies to limit the sale of handguns to individuals aged 21 or older were associated with a reduction in suicide rates among adolescents. Increases in suicide rates were observed after states lowered the age of handgun sales, but no effect was found in states that increased the age of handgun sales.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Comércio/tendências , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Armas de Fogo/economia , Humanos , Missouri/epidemiologia , Políticas , Análise de Regressão , South Carolina/epidemiologia , Suicídio/etnologia , West Virginia/epidemiologia , Wyoming/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384598

RESUMO

How to overcome informational conformity consumer behavior when faced with threats of death is a social problem in response to COVID-19. This research is based on the terror management theory, the need to belong theory and the materialism theory. It uses a theoretical model to determine the relationships between threats of death and informational conformity consumer behavior. From 1453 samples collected during outbreak of COVID-19 in China, we used a structural equation model to test multiple research hypotheses. The result shows that threats of death are positively associated with a need to belong, materialism and informational conformity consumer behavior. The need to belong and materialism can play a mediating role between threats of death and information conformity consumption behavior, and perceived social support can play a moderating role between threats of death and information conformity consumption behavior.


Assuntos
Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor , Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Pneumonia Viral , Conformidade Social , Apoio Social , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Morte , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
BMJ ; 369: m1311, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine changes in categories of soft drink consumption in a cohort of Mexican adults, three years after the implementation of the sugar sweetened beverage tax. DESIGN: Open cohort longitudinal analysis. SETTING: Three waves of the Health Workers Cohort Study, Mexico, spanning 2004 to 2018. PARTICIPANTS: 1770 people aged 19 years or older with information on drinks consumption available in at least one of the three cohort waves. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Change in probability of belonging to one of four categories of soft drinks consumption (non, low, medium, high) after the tax was implemented. Heterogeneity of associations by income and education was also assessed. RESULTS: Before the implementation of the tax, more than 50% of the participants were medium and high consumers of soft drinks and less than 10% were in the non-consumer category. After the tax was implemented, 43% of the population was categorised as medium or high consumers and the prevalence of non-consumers increased to 14%. Three years after implementation of the tax on 1 January 2014, the probability of being a non-consumer of soft drinks increased by 4.7 (95% confidence interval 0.3 to 9.1) percentage points and that of being a low consumer increased by 8.3 (0.6 to 16.0) percentage points compared with the pre-tax period. Conversely, the probability of being in the medium and high levels of soft drinks consumption decreased by 6.8 (0.5 to 13.2) percentage points and 6.1 (0.4 to 11.9) percentage points, respectively. No significant heterogeneity of the tax across income levels was observed, but stronger effects of the tax were seen in participants with secondary school education or higher, compared with those with elementary school or less. CONCLUSIONS: The Mexican sugar sweetened beverage tax was associated with a reduction in the probability of consuming soft drinks in this cohort of employees from a healthcare provider. The results cannot be extrapolated to the Mexican population, but they suggest that three years after implementation, the tax had helped to increase the proportion of people who do not consume soft drinks while decreasing the proportion of high and medium consumers.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/economia , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231706, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315337

RESUMO

China Railway Corporation (CRC) has been paid more attention to passenger transportation revenue, with its increase proportion in transportation revenue. Due to the price regulation, the only way CRC can improve ticket sale profit is to find a best seat allocation scheme. This study focuses on the optimization of railway revenue management problem in China with consideration of i) customer behaviors including their arrival and purchase preferences, ii) a specific ticket booking mechanism called "seat-based control". To evaluate the performance of seat-based control, we build a Discrete-Time Markov Chain model to describe the ticket reservation process and then design a genetic algorithm to find approximate solutions. The performance of proposed method is tested in two experiments with two other benchmarks. Finally, we apply it to practical data of the Nanning-Guangzhou high-speed railway line.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Ferrovias/economia , Transportes/economia , China , Humanos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230506, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food taxes and subsidies are one intervention to address poor diets. Price elasticity (PE) matrices are commonly used to model the change in food purchasing. Usually a PE matrix is generated in one setting then applied to another setting with differing starting consumptions and prices of foods. This violates econometric assumptions resulting in likely mis-estimation of total food consumption. In this paper we demonstrate this problem, canvass possible options for rescaling all consumption after applying a PE matrix, and illustrate the use of a total food expenditure elasticity (TFEe; the expenditure elasticity for all food combined given the policy-induced change in the total price of food). We use case studies of: NZ$2 per 100g saturated fat (SAFA) tax, NZ$0.4 per 100g sugar tax, and a 20% fruit and vegetable (F&V) subsidy. METHODS: We estimated changes in food purchasing using a NZ PE matrix applied conventionally, and then with TFEe adjustment. Impacts were quantified for pre- to post-policy changes in total food expenditure and health adjusted life years (HALYs) for the total NZ population alive in 2011 over the rest of their lifetime using a multistate lifetable model. RESULTS: Two NZ studies gave TFEe's of 0.68 and 0.83, with international estimates ranging from 0.46 to 0.90 (except a UK outlier of 0.04). Without TFEe adjustment, total food expenditure decreased with the tax policies and increased with the F&V subsidy-implausible directions of shift given economic theory and the external TFEe estimates. After TFEe adjustment, HALY gains reduced by a third to a half for the two taxes and reversed from an apparent health loss to a health gain for the F&V subsidy. With TFEe adjustment, HALY gains (in 1000's) were: 1,805 (95% uncertainty interval 1,337 to 2,340) for the SAFA tax; 1,671 (1,220 to 2,269) for the sugar tax; and 953 (453 to 1,308) for the F&V subsidy. CONCLUSIONS: If PE matrices are applied in settings beyond where they were derived, additional scaling is likely required. We suggest that the TFEe is a useful scalar, but we also encourage other researchers to examine this issue and propose alternative options.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Alimentos/economia , Gastos em Saúde , Marketing , Modelos Econômicos , Impostos/economia , Humanos
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 82, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Generic substitution (GS) was introduced in Finland in 2003 and supplemented with a reference price system (RPS) in 2009. Patients play a vital role in the acceptance of GS and the use of less expensive generic medicines. The objective of this study was to explore Finnish pharmacy customers' experience with allowing and refusing GS. Specific aims were to investigate the reasons for (1) allowing and (2) refusing GS and (3) to determine the prescription medicine-related factors influencing the customer's choice of an interchangeable prescription medicine. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted in February 2018. Questionnaires were handed out from 18 community pharmacies across Finland to customers ≥18 years who purchased for themselves a prescription medicine included in the RPS. A descriptive approach was used in the analysis using frequencies, the Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The final study material consisted of 1043 questionnaires (response rate 40.0%). Of the customers, 47.9% had both allowed and refused GS, 41.2% had only allowed GS and 6.0% had only refused GS. Customers had allowed GS because they wanted to lower their medicine expenses (75.5%), or because the prescribed medicine (30.8%) or medicine they had used before (27.4%) was unavailable at the pharmacy. The main reasons for refusing GS were an insignificant price difference between interchangeable medicines (63.3%) and satisfaction with the medicine used before (60.2%). The main factors influencing customers' choice of an interchangeable prescription medicine were price (81.1%), familiarity (38.4%) and availability (32.8%). Customers who had allowed GS chose the medicine based on price. Customers who had only refused GS appreciated familiarity more than the price of the medicine. CONCLUSIONS: GS is a common practice in Finnish community pharmacies. The price of the medicine was the most important factor affecting customers' decision to allow or refuse GS and the choice of an interchangeable prescription medicine. Thus, customers should receive information about medicine prices at the pharmacy in order to help them make their decision. However, individual needs should also be taken into account in counselling because customers regard several factors as important in their choice of an interchangeable medicine.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Substituição de Medicamentos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Substituição de Medicamentos/economia , Medicamentos Genéricos/economia , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmácias , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226731, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940371

RESUMO

Taxes on unhealthy foods and sweetened beverages, as well as subsidies to healthy foods, have become increasingly popular strategies to curb obesity and related non-communicable diseases. The existing evidence on the welfare effects of such fiscal policies is mixed and almost uniquely focused on tax schemes. Using the 2016-2017 Chilean Household Budget Survey, we estimate a censored Exact Affine Stone Index (EASI) incomplete demand system and simulate changes in purchases, tax incidence, and consumer welfare of three different policy scenarios: (1) a 5 percentage point additional tax on sweetened beverages (currently taxed at 18%) and a new 18% tax on sweets and snacks, (2) a healthy subsidy by zero-rating fruits and vegetables from the current 19% value-added tax, and (3) a combined (tax plus subsidy) policy. Under full pass-through of these policies, the combined scheme captures the incentives to switch purchases from both single-policy alternatives, resulting in a net welfare gain and subsidy transfer for the average Chilean household. In terms of welfare, low-income households strictly benefit from a combined policy, while high-income households experience a small consumer welfare loss, resulting in re-distributional effects.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Dieta Saudável/economia , Política Fiscal , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Econômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Impostos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227800, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978096

RESUMO

The Internet of Things (IoT) brings internet connectivity to everyday electronic devices (e.g. security cameras and smart TVs) to improve their functionality and efficiency. However, serious security and privacy concerns have been raised about the IoT which impact upon consumer trust and purchasing. Moreover, devices vary considerably in terms of the security they provide, and it is difficult for consumers to differentiate between more and less secure devices. One proposal to address this is for devices to carry a security label to help consumers navigate the market and know which devices to trust, and to encourage manufacturers to improve security. Using a discrete choice experiment, we estimate the potential impact of such labels on participant's purchase decision making, along with device functionality and price. With the exception of a label that implied weak security, participants were significantly more likely to select a device that carried a label than one that did not. While they were generally willing to pay the most for premium functionality, for two of the labels tested, they were prepared to pay the same for security and functionality. Qualitative responses suggested that participants would use a label to inform purchasing decisions, and that the labels did not generate a false sense of security. Our findings suggest that the use of a security label represents a policy option that could influence behaviour and that should be seriously considered.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Tomada de Decisões , Internet das Coisas/economia , Privacidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Internet das Coisas/legislação & jurisprudência , Internet das Coisas/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Políticas , Privacidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/economia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/psicologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226938, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978050

RESUMO

Recent protests by athletes focused on raising awareness of social issues and injustices, such as the Black Lives Matter protests led by Colin Kaepernick of the National Football League's San Francisco 49ers, have generated a great deal of attention and debate within society. Notably, the protests conducted by these players before games in the 2016 and 2017 seasons became such a sensational topic, that extraordinary amounts of attention was paid to it by the media, consumers, and even politicians who often denounced the players as being unpatriotic. Against this backdrop, the current research examines whether fluctuations in attendance at National Football League games are associated with explicit attitudes towards race, implicit racial prejudice, and racial animus within a population. Specifically, using multiple measures of racial attitudes as part of an econometric model estimating attendance at games, the results suggest that having a higher level of implicit bias in a market leads to a decline in consumer interest in attending games. Additionally, using interaction effects, it is found that while protests generally reduced the negative effects of implicit bias on attendance, markets with lower levels of implicit bias actually had greater declines of attendance during the protests. From this, the current study advances the understanding of racial attitudes and racial animus, and its impact on consumer behavior at the regional level. That is, this research highlights that racial sentiments in a local market were able to predict changes in market behaviors, suggesting that race relations can have wide reaching impacts.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano/economia , Relações Raciais/psicologia , Racismo/economia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Atitude , Participação da Comunidade , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Humanos , Ativismo Político , Estados Unidos
10.
J Food Sci ; 85(1): 182-191, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869860

RESUMO

The quality perception of gluten-free beer was explored using conjoint analysis with a panel of Polish millennials (n = 200; aged 20 to 35), who were given 64 gluten-free beer concepts to evaluate and score on a 9-point scale of interest (1 = not interested at all; 9 = extremely interested). The constituent factors of the beer concepts were alcohol content, color, type of malt, price, drinking location and occasion, bottle size, label claims, type of farming, type of brewer, and bottle closure. Consumers judged price (38.4%) and alcohol (28.8%) five times more important than the other factors. Bottle size (5.3%), claims (4.8%), type of brewer (4.8%), malt type (4.6%), bottle closure (4.0%), beer color (3.6%), drinking location (2.3%), drinking occasion (2.0%), and type of farming (1.3%) were considered of little importance. The interest of Polish Millennials in gluten-free beer resulted moderate and not linked to medical needs. Males were more interested in gluten-free beers and gave more importance to alcohol content and less importance to price, compared to females. However, for both genders, interest and price were inversely correlated, while interest and alcohol content were directly correlated. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The identification of the product factors that are preferred by consumers is paramount to translate consumers' needs and expectations into a beer designed to produce the best possible product in a relatively short period. Including information directly obtained from consumers before final design decisions are taken on the final beer output, helps ensuring development directions are on target and constitutes a cost-competitive approach to product development.


Assuntos
Álcoois/análise , Cerveja/economia , Glutens/análise , Adulto , Álcoois/economia , Cerveja/análise , Cor , Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Glutens/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 23(2): 113-118, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851835

RESUMO

Online gambling has become increasingly popular but for a small minority of players can be problematic (∼5 percent). Many socially responsible online gambling operators have introduced responsible gambling tools to help their players stay in control of their gambling such as monetary limit-setting (in which gamblers predetermine the amount of money they want to spend per day/week/month on gambling). Despite the widespread introduction of such tools, few studies have evaluated their efficacy. This study comprised of an anonymized dataset of 49,560 players who had placed at least one wager with the online gambling operator Kindred. The primary aim of the study was to examine whether the setting of voluntary monetary limits (independent variable) had any effect on online gambling expenditure over a 1-year period (dependent variable). The secondary aim was to examine whether there were any differences in gambling expenditure by gender, age, or gambling intensity ("gambling intensity" was simply operationalized as the total amount of money wagered during a 3-month period). Results demonstrated that there were no differences with regard to age and gender but that among the most gambling-intense players, those who had voluntarily set limits gambled significantly less money a year later compared with those who had not. Given that those individuals with the highest gambling intensity are more likely to comprise problem gamblers, limit-setting appears to be an effective responsible gambling tool because the top 10 percent of most gambling-intense individuals in this study significantly reduced their gambling expenditure over a 1-year period.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Autocontrole/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/economia , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
12.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225538, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805079

RESUMO

One of the key arguments given to oppose the "sin taxes" is that they are regressive in nature and place disproportionately higher cost on the poor thereby reducing their net wealth. The response to a reduction in net wealth attributed to tax can potentially have significant effects through an increase in alcohol purchase by heavy drinkers reinforcing or even offsetting the direct price or substitution effect of these taxes in reducing alcohol consumption. Comparatively little is known empirically about the net wealth effect associated with changes in alcohol tax policy, and this study aims to help fill this gap in the literature. In this study we aim to estimate how the wealth effects of introducing a minimum unit price (MUP) of A$2.00 per standard drink vary over the distribution (quantiles) of alcohol consumers. The data used in this study is a longitudinal panel of 1,395 households' daily alcohol purchases (scanner data) recorded over a full year. Our analysis involves (i) quantile regression to estimate income elasticity over the distribution of consumption, and (ii) using these elasticities to estimate the potential wealth effects of a hypothetical change in alcohol prices from introducing an MUP policy. We control for consumer demographic characteristics, alcohol product prices and prices of close substitutes, and quarterly seasonal effects. We find that the estimated wealth effect from increasing the price of alcohol under a MUP policy is not significant at any point over the distribution of alcohol consumers. The policy increases per capita tax impact by less than A$5.00 per week for light/moderate consumers (50th-80th quantile) and decreases their daily per capita alcohol consumption by less than 0.02 standard drinks. Wealth effects attributable to an MUP policy are likely to be negligible. Substitution effects of the policy dominate the wealth effects in generating key health related outcomes such as reductions in alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor , Impostos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália , Comércio/economia , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Impostos/economia , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878189

RESUMO

It is of great value to study consumer demand for safe foods in promoting the development of a safe food market system and the reduction of food safety risks, as well as foodborne diseases in China. This paper takes traceable pork as an example and constructs food safety information attributes with ex ante quality verification and ex post traceability. Interactions between safety information attributes and the consumer's response to cost-driven price changes were investigated for 345 consumers in Wuxi City, Jiangsu Province, China, using a menu-based choice (MBC) experiment and multivariate probit (MVP) model as analysis tools. The results suggest that food safety information attributes are important to consumers, as the consumers preferred pork quality inspection attributes to pre-incident quality assurance functions. Therefore, it is beneficial to include pork quality inspection attributes in the traceable pork attribute systems during the initial construction of traceable pork markets in China. Attribute price was an important factor that affected consumers' choice of information attributes. When customization cannot be achieved, a profile composed of elastic pork quality inspection attribute and supply chain-internal traceability attribute would be the most preferred traceable pork product in the market based on the need of building a fully functional traceable food system and reducing food safety risks. In addition, there was a strong substitution relationship between different information attributes, and there was heterogeneity in consumers' choice of information attributes. Therefore, the government should support manufacturers in producing multi-level safe food to meet diverse consumer demand.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/economia , Rotulagem de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 103, 2019 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following the 2014 sugary drinks tax implementation in Mexico, promising reduction in the volume of purchases of taxed beverages were observed overall and at different store-types. However, the tax's effects on purchasing patterns of calories and sugar remain unclear. METHODS: Using longitudinal data from Mexican households (n = 7038), we examined changes in volume, calories and total sugar of packaged beverages purchased from 2012 to 2016 overall and by store-type. We used fixed effects models to estimate means for volume, calories, and sugar of households. To address the potential selectivity from households shopping at different stores, we calculated inverse probability weights to model the purchases changes over time by store-type. RESULTS: For taxed beverages, the volume of purchases declined by - 49 ml and -30 ml in the first year and second year post tax (2014 and 2015, respectively), while purchases leveled off in the third year of the tax (2016). Calories and sugar from taxed beverage purchases decreased over time, with the majority of the declines occurring in the first two years post-tax implementation. The volume of untaxed beverage purchases increased, whereas changes in calories and total sugar of untaxed beverages were minimal. Store level purchases of taxed beverages significantly decreased in the first two years post taxation (2014 and to 2015) only in supermarkets and traditional stores. The steepest declines in purchases of taxed beverages in 2014 were observed at supermarkets (- 40 ml or - 45%). The volume of purchases of untaxed beverages increased over time in almost all store-types, while calories and sugar minimally decreased over time. CONCLUSION: Although the Mexican tax on SSBs has lowered the purchases of sugary drinks 3 years after the tax implementation, the tax should be strengthened and store-specific interventions should be implemented to further reduce SSBs purchases in the Mexican population.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Impostos , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , México , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/análise , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/economia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224380, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that engaging consumers and clinicians in development of health services creates a more responsive, integrated service that better meets the needs of consumers and the community of practice it serves. Further, consumer and clinician participation in service development processes can boost confidence and motivation levels in organisational employees and help foster clinical accountability. OBJECTIVE: To see where consumers' care experiences could be improved by better understanding where care coordination organisational systems needed improvement. METHODS: Experienced based co-design informed an investigation of consumer and clinician experiences of a care coordination service and involved the sharing of those experiences across service employees in a series of iterative and feedback loops over eighteen months (July 2012-January 2014). Formal participants included care coordination clinicians (n = 13) and consumers. Data from formal participants were collected during September-December 2012, consisting of consumer video-recorded and clinician audio-recorded interviews. Interview transcriptions were analysed to identify service "touch points", being emotionally significant events related to key service aspects that connect or disconnect consumers and/or clinicians. RESULTS: Results revealed that consumers highly valued the transdisciplinary skill base of the care coordination workforce, though service improvements were needed for transition support, quality discharge planning and conveying better understandings of care coordination activity both internally and externally. CONCLUSION: Incorporating consumer and clinician view-points about their experiences, including the production of a DVD, facilitated conversations across the entire service about care coordination provision and provided a catalyst for design improvement that may otherwise have been difficult to achieve. Some changes to the service were made such as improved client complaints processes, new roles for the care coordination service, and enlisting clinical staff to undertake motivational interviewing training to promote greater consumer self-management capacity. In this study, the user experience was given a platform within a larger healthcare workforce capability development project.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/organização & administração , Comunicação , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597262

RESUMO

Repurchasing intention of agricultural materials is a key to a sustainable food business system. The novel contribution of this study is that we go beyond technical aspect and look into human capital dynamics in a general context, by examining how different dimensions of 'guanxi' (i.e., personal relations and instrumentality) between farmers and agricultural retailers affect trust between the two and, in turn, repeated purchase intention of agricultural materials by farmers in China. To further generate implications for food system as a whole, we also examined how dynamic environment moderates the effects mentioned above. Adopting survey method and multivariate analyses, this study tests the hypotheses with a collected data set of 578 farmers from representative rural areas of China. The results show that guanxi between farmers and agricultural retailers has a positive effect on trust between them and on repeated purchase intentions of farmers. While instrumentality has a negative effect on trust between them and on repeated purchase intentions of farmers. The trust between farmers and agricultural retailers promotes farmers' repeated purchase intentions. The intensity of competition negatively moderates the positive relation between trust and repeated purchases. Demand uncertainty does not moderate the positive effect of trust on repeated purchases. The results and discussion shed light on agricultural food system sustainability from a dynamic environment embedded business relationship perspective.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Confiança , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223196, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603901

RESUMO

We estimate the price and consumption effects of the 2012 French tax on sweetened non-alcoholic drinks using a difference-in-difference approach. Our identification strategy exploits Italian data as a natural control group. We use French and Italian Consumer Price Indices, purchase prices and quantities from the 2011 and 2012 Kantar and GfK home-scan surveys for two French regions and two neighbouring Italian regions, and expenditure data from the 2011 and 2012 Italian Expenditure Survey. We check for the robustness of our results by applying the difference-in-difference models using only French data and considering water as the benchmark (control) good. We find that the tax is transmitted to the prices of taxed drinks, with full transmission for soft drinks and partial transmission for fruit juices. The evidence on purchase responses is mixed and less robust, indicating at most a very small reduction in soft drink purchases (about half a litre per capita per year), an impact which would be consistent with the low tax rate. We find suggestive evidence of a larger response by the sub-sample of heavy purchasers. Fruit juices and water do not seem to have been affected by the tax.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/economia , Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/economia , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Água Potável/análise , Feminino , França , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/economia , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223910, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665171

RESUMO

Food labels may have both informational and signaling influences on consumer demand. We conduct a choice experiment with over 1,300 subjects to examine the signaling effect of the food product labels on consumer demand for other competing products in the market. Specifically, we focus on the genetically modified (GM) text labeling for fresh produce (strawberries, apples, and potatoes) in the United States. Contrary to some previous studies, our results indicate that the absence-claim label (Not-GM) does not have a negative impact on the demand for related conventional products. Instead, we find that consumer demand for unlabeled products is significantly enhanced with the introduction of presence-claimed GM labels. Our results contribute to the ongoing discussion of the enactment of mandatory labeling for GM foods by the federal U.S. government. Our results suggest that, in the case of direct text disclosure labels, consumers may no longer differentiate between unlabeled products and Not-GM-labeled products after the mandatory GM labeling law is in effect.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Frutas/genética , Verduras/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Política Pública , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224153, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661503

RESUMO

Fairness concern behavior is extremely common in social life, and many scholars are beginning to pay attention to this behavior. In this study, we investigate a two-echelon construction supply chain that consists of a general contractor and a subcontractor under cap-and-trade policy. We study the carbon emission reduction decisions and profit distribution mechanism in the construction supply chain with fairness concern and cap-and-trade. We use the Nash bargaining model to describe the fairness concerns of the construction supply chain members and use the co-opetition model to portray the profit distribution. We show that the fairness concern can impose an adverse influence on firms' profits and decrease the magnitude of their carbon emission reductions. The subcontractor's fairness concern causes greater losses to the construction supply chain's profit. We further demonstrate the impact of fairness concern on the optimal decisions of the general contractor and the subcontractor through numerical analysis.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Carbono/análise , Comércio , Indústria da Construção/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Tomada de Decisões , Carbono/economia , Competição Econômica , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
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