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1.
Meat Sci ; 184: 108705, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768180

RESUMO

Sheep meat is an essential element within the multicultural mosaic of Mexican agri-food traditions. A total of 332 consumers were surveyed face-to-face in restaurants specializing in selling traditional sheep meat products. Our results showed that consumers could be segmented based on their perceptions, habits, and preferences towards sheep meat. For consumers, sheep meat is perceived as food with unique sensory attributes, coming from healthier animals than other species and traditional characters. Their willingness to pay extra is subject to the guarantee that the meat is safe, free of hormones and antibiotics, and to a lesser extent, certified organic. The multivariate analysis suggested three clusters or consumer profiles named passive, wholehearted, and deep-rooted, which explained the associations among attitudes, some demographic variables, and consumption frequency. The nascent national sheep meat industry needs to consider these concerns in developing marketing and trust strategies to attract, maintain, and build loyalty among Mexican consumers.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Culinária/métodos , Carne Vermelha , Adulto , Animais , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ovinos , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108616, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481232

RESUMO

This cross-country study investigates the potential to improve pig welfare by exploiting consumer demand, domestically and in export markets, for welfare pork produced in indoor production systems. The analysis is based on questionnaire data collected in 2019 focusing on demand for Danish welfare pork both in Denmark and in two nearby export markets, Sweden and Germany. To reduce hypothetical bias, a willingness-to-pay indicator is combined with an indicator of positive interest in buying a fictive Danish welfare labelled pork. We find that the market potential is relatively weak. Our findings indicate that there is some, albeit limited, potential in Denmark and Germany while demand is practically non-existing in Sweden, probably because the pig welfare guaranteed by Swedish legislation is similar to what is provided by the fictive welfare label employed in the study. Hence, consumer demand alone cannot secure enhanced pig welfare. Moreover, we found national differences in the characteristics of consumers who are interested in Danish welfare pork.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne de Porco/normas , Adulto , Animais , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carne de Porco/economia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia , Suínos
3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258686, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653227

RESUMO

Usually, studies on the informal economy focus mainly upon those working in the informal economy (supply side). However, many exchanges in the informal economy are initiated by purchasers asking how much a good or service costs if paid cash in hand. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to advance understanding of who make purchases in the informal economy and the reasons of the consumers making these purchases (demand side). Two potential explanations are evaluated. Firstly, consumers are explained as rational economic actors seeking a more convenient deal or profit maximisation (i.e., lower price or better value for money), making purchases from the informal economy due to the lack of availability of the product or service they need on the formal market, or they make such purchases involuntarily, due to the lack of perfect information necessary to make a fully rational economic decision when purchasing. Secondly, the consumers are portrayed as social actors pursuing community help. Using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis on a 2019 Eurobarometer interviews in 27 EU member states and the UK reveal how the prevalence of these motives significantly varies across populations and regions. The theoretical and policy implications of the findings are discussed in the concluding section.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Setor Informal , União Europeia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Motivação , Análise Multinível , Reino Unido
4.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003729, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous product placement trials in supermarkets are limited in scope and outcome data collected. This study assessed the effects on store-level sales, household-level purchasing, and dietary behaviours of a healthier supermarket layout. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a prospective matched controlled cluster trial with 2 intervention components: (i) new fresh fruit and vegetable sections near store entrances (replacing smaller displays at the back) and frozen vegetables repositioned to the entrance aisle, plus (ii) the removal of confectionery from checkouts and aisle ends opposite. In this pilot study, the intervention was implemented for 6 months in 3 discount supermarkets in England. Three control stores were matched on store sales and customer profiles and neighbourhood deprivation. Women customers aged 18 to 45 years, with loyalty cards, were assigned to the intervention (n = 62) or control group (n = 88) of their primary store. The trial registration number is NCT03518151. Interrupted time series analysis showed that increases in store-level sales of fruits and vegetables were greater in intervention stores than predicted at 3 (1.71 standard deviations (SDs) (95% CI 0.45, 2.96), P = 0.01) and 6 months follow-up (2.42 SDs (0.22, 4.62), P = 0.03), equivalent to approximately 6,170 and approximately 9,820 extra portions per store, per week, respectively. The proportion of purchasing fruits and vegetables per week rose among intervention participants at 3 and 6 months compared to control participants (0.2% versus -3.0%, P = 0.22; 1.7% versus -3.5%, P = 0.05, respectively). Store sales of confectionery were lower in intervention stores than predicted at 3 (-1.05 SDs (-1.98, -0.12), P = 0.03) and 6 months (-1.37 SDs (-2.95, 0.22), P = 0.09), equivalent to approximately 1,359 and approximately 1,575 fewer portions per store, per week, respectively; no differences were observed for confectionery purchasing. Changes in dietary variables were predominantly in the expected direction for health benefit. Intervention implementation was not within control of the research team, and stores could not be randomised. It is a pilot study, and, therefore, not powered to detect an effect. CONCLUSIONS: Healthier supermarket layouts can improve the nutrition profile of store sales and likely improve household purchasing and dietary quality. Placing fruits and vegetables near store entrances should be considered alongside policies to limit prominent placement of unhealthy foods. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03518151 (pre-results).


Assuntos
Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor , Dieta Saudável , Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Supermercados , Adolescente , Adulto , Doces , Comportamento de Escolha , Comércio/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Dieta Saudável/economia , Inglaterra , Feminino , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Alimentos/economia , Preferências Alimentares , Alimentos Congelados , Frutas , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255906, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543319

RESUMO

As the Internet retail industry continues to rise, more and more consumers choose to shop online, especially Chinese consumers. Using consumer behavior data left on the Internet to predict repurchase behavior is of great significance for companies to achieve precision marketing. This paper proposes an improved deep forest model, and the interactive behavior characteristics of users and goods are added into the original feature model to predict the repurchase behavior of e-commerce consumers. Based on the Alibaba mobile e-commerce platform data set, first construct a feature engineering that includes user characteristics, product characteristics, and interactive behavior characteristics. And then use our proposed model to make predictions. Experiments show that the model's overall performance with increased interactive behavior features is better and has higher accuracy. Compared with the existing prediction models, the improved deep forest model has certain advantages, which not only improves the prediction accuracy but also reduces the cost of training time.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Marketing/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Humanos
6.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255970, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469448

RESUMO

People can exhibit their status by the consumption of particular goods or experiential purchases; this is known as "conspicuous consumption"; the practice is widespread and explains the market characteristics of a whole class of goods, Veblen goods, demand for which increase in tandem with their price. The value of such positional goods lies in their distribution among the population-the rarer they are, the more desirable they become. At the same time, higher income, often associated with higher status, has been studied in its relation to unethical behavior. Here we present research that shows how a particular Veblen good, illicit behavior, and wealth, combine to produce the display of illegality as a status symbol. We gathered evidence at a large, country-level, scale of a particular form of consumption of an illictly acquired good for status purposes. We show that in Greece, a developed middle-income country, where authorities cannot issue custom vanity license plates, people acquire distinguishing plate numbers that act as vanity plate surrogates. We found that such license plates are more common in cars with bigger engines and in luxury brands, and are therefore associated with higher value vehicles. This cannot be explained under the lawful procedures for allocating license plates and must therefore be the result of illegal activities, such as graft. This suggests a pattern of "conspicuous corruption", where individuals break the law and use their gains as status symbols, knowing that the symbols hint at rule-breaking, as long as the unlawful practice cannot be incontestably established.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Hierarquia Social , Classe Social , Percepção Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Grécia , Humanos , Renda , Princípios Morais
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0252794, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469450

RESUMO

While there has been much speculation on how the pandemic has affected work location patterns and home location choices, there is sparse evidence regarding the impacts that COVID-19 has had on amenity visits in American cities, which typically constitute over half of all urban trips. Using aggregate app-based GPS positioning data from smartphone users, this study traces the changes in amenity visits in Somerville, MA from January 2019 to December 2020, describing how visits to particular types of amenities have changed as a result of business closures during the public health emergency. Has the pandemic fundamentally shifted amenity-oriented travel behavior or is consumer behavior returning to pre-pandemic trends? To address this question, we calibrate discrete choice models that are suited to Census block-group level analysis for each of the 24 months in a two-year period, and use them to analyze how visitors' behavioral responses to various attributes of amenity clusters have shifted during different phases of the pandemic. Our findings suggest that in the first few months of the pandemic, amenity-visiting preferences significantly diverged from expected patterns. Even though overall trip volumes remained far below normal levels throughout the remainder of the year, preferences towards specific cluster attributes mostly returned to expected levels by September 2020. We also construct two scenarios to explore the implications of another shutdown and a full reopening, based on November 2020 consumer behavior. While government restrictions have played an important role in reducing visits to amenity clusters, our results imply that cautionary consumer behavior has played an important role as well, suggesting a likely long and slow path to economic recovery. By drawing on mobile phone location data and behavioral modeling, this paper offers timely insights to help decision-makers understand how this unprecedented health emergency is affecting amenity-related trips and where the greatest needs for intervention and support may exist.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Pandemias/economia , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Viagem/economia , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cidades , Humanos , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
8.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578908

RESUMO

The General Office of the State Council of China promulgated the National Nutrition Program 2017-2030 in 2017 to guide the people to improve their food supply and nutritional intake. This study uses qualitative and quantitative information which are analyzed to estimate the change in people's food purchases following the implementation of the National Nutrition Program 2017-2030, and puts forward measures that should be taken by the competent authorities and stakeholders. We use the translog revenue function of the food industry, and based on the data of listed companies of Chinese food enterprises from 2015 to 2020, and this study find that the National Nutrition Program 2017-2030 has had a positive impact on people's food purchases, and the impact is more obvious in people's food purchases from large food manufacturers. Finally, we also provide regulators with public policy implications, and provide food manufacturers with development suggestions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Nutricional/economia , Estado Nutricional , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , China , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo
9.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578941

RESUMO

To ensure the sustainable development of mountain livestock farming, the adequate remuneration of high-quality dairy products is fundamental. In this sense, communication strategies aimed at promoting mountain products and ensure better positioning and higher market prices are fundamental. The present research seeks to expand the literature regarding consumers' willingness to pay for mountain foods by using an online real auction experiment aimed at evaluating the premium price that consumers are willing to pay for summer over winter mountain cheese, depending on the information provided concerning the taste anticipation or animal welfare. The results showed an overall small premium price given to the higher quality summer cheese; this could be, partially, due to a generally low degree of consumer knowledge about mountain dairy farming. With reference to communication strategies, the results provide evidence about the effectiveness of the rational messages founded upon sensorial characteristics and the anticipated taste of cheese. In addition, this study explored that adding a logo had no main effect on the price premium participants were willing to pay. This may be due to the fact that logos and claims, having a lower information content, are more indicated to lead the choice of consumers with a higher level of awareness. In the conclusion section, policy and agribusiness implications of the findings are provided.


Assuntos
Queijo/economia , Queijo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos/economia , Rotulagem de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália , Gado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444837

RESUMO

Food production is a major contributor to environmental damage. More environmentally sustainable foods could incur higher costs for consumers. In this review, we explore whether consumers are willing to pay (WTP) more for foods with environmental sustainability labels ('ecolabels'). Six electronic databases were searched for experiments on consumers' willingness to pay for ecolabelled food. Monetary values were converted to Purchasing Power Parity dollars and adjusted for country-specific inflation. Studies were meta-analysed and effect sizes with confidence intervals were calculated for the whole sample and for pre-specified subgroups defined as meat-dairy, seafood, and fruits-vegetables-nuts. Meta-regressions tested the role of label attributes and demographic characteristics on participants' WTP. Forty-three discrete choice experiments (DCEs) with 41,777 participants were eligible for inclusion. Thirty-five DCEs (n = 35,725) had usable data for the meta-analysis. Participants were willing to pay a premium of 3.79 PPP$/kg (95%CI 2.7, 4.89, p ≤ 0.001) for ecolabelled foods. WTP was higher for organic labels compared to other labels. Women and people with lower levels of education expressed higher WTP. Ecolabels may increase consumers' willingness to pay more for environmentally sustainable products and could be part of a strategy to encourage a transition to more sustainable diets.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Rotulagem de Alimentos/economia , Alimentos/economia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Alimentos Orgânicos , Humanos
11.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445059

RESUMO

Few Australians consume a healthy, equitable and more sustainable diet consistent with the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADGs). Low socioeconomic groups (SEGs) suffer particularly poor diet-related health problems. However, granular information on dietary intakes and affordability of recommended diets was lacking for low SEGs. The Healthy Diets Australian Standardised Affordability and Pricing protocol was modified for low SEGs to align with relevant dietary intakes reported in the National Nutrition Survey 2011-2012(which included less healthy and more discretionary options than the broader population), household structures, food purchasing habits, and incomes. Cost and affordability of habitual and recommended diets of low SEGs were calculated using prices of 'standard brands' and 'cheapest options'. With 'standard brands', recommended diets cost less than habitual diets, but were unaffordable for low SEGs. With 'cheapest options', both diets were more affordable, but recommended diets cost more than habitual diets for some low SEGs, potentially contributing to perceptions that healthy food is unaffordable. The study confirms the need for an equity lens to better target dietary guidelines for low SEGs. It also highlights urgent policy action is needed to help improve affordability of recommended diets.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/economia , Insegurança Alimentar/economia , Renda , Valor Nutritivo , Classe Social , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recomendações Nutricionais/economia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
12.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063614

RESUMO

An economic experiment was conducted in France in 2020 to evaluate consumer attitudes toward two ham products associated with different colorectal cancer risks. We focused specifically on comparing a conventional ham and a new hypothetical antioxidant-enriched ham with a reduced risk of provoking colorectal cancer. Study participants were given descriptions of the two hams before carrying out successive rounds of willingness-to-pay (WTP) assessments. The results show that WTP was higher for the antioxidant-enriched ham than for the conventional ham. WTP estimates were also impacted by providing additional information about the reduction in colorectal cancer risk associated with the antioxidant-enriched ham. Based on the participants' WTP, we came up with ex ante estimates for the social impacts of introducing the antioxidant-enriched ham onto the market, and we suggest that it would be socially optimal to promote the product. Competition arising from pre-existing product labelling and marketing assertions could greatly limit the market potential of antioxidant-enriched ham, which suggests that alternative approaches may be necessary, such as regulations mandating antioxidant enrichment. These results also concern all countries with high levels of meat consumption.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Alimentos Fortificados/economia , Carne de Porco/economia , Adulto , Antioxidantes , Comportamento de Escolha , Comércio , Dieta Saudável/economia , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , França , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carne de Porco/análise , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252675, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138892

RESUMO

Life cycle assessments (LCA) often highlight the environmental and health benefits for consumers if western diets substitute red meat. However, the specific trade-off consumer face when asked to substitute a red meat dish is scarcely researched, often neglecting the bouquet of substitution options and/or the price component involved. Four substitution strategies are evaluated within an individually adapted choice based conjoint: the substitution by (1) the same red meat dishes with a halved meat portion size, (2) novel plant-based products that mimic the functionality and taste, (3) authentic plant-based components that just mimic the functionality, and (4) vegetarian dishes that just neglect the meat component if still familiar to consumers. The analysis is executed for three popular red meat dishes to account for consistency across meal scenarios, namely Meatballs, Spaghetti Bolognese and Sausage Buns. The analysis is sensitive to red meat consumption habits to better understand the preferences of consumers that can actually substitute a red meat intake.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Carne Vermelha/economia , Paladar , Algoritmos , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Internet , Inquéritos e Questionários/economia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251798, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015011

RESUMO

This study investigates the extent to which individuals' perceptions and attitudes toward pesticides and pollinator related labeling influence their preferences for eco-labeled products. An incentive compatible second-price auction and a hypothetical discrete choice experiment were used to elicit individual preferences for ornamental plants grown with or without controversial (neonicotinoid) pesticides. Positive attitudes toward pollinators, neonicotinoid labeling regulations, and labeling of sustainable production methods were found to be significant predictors of individual choice behavior. Individuals with attitudes expressing concern for pollinators and agreement with mandatory labeling and disclosure of neonicotinoids, showed a stronger preference for neonicotinoid-free plants. Our results suggest that both hypothetical and non-hypothetical experiments are consistent in predicting the general direction of consumer preferences despite the elicitation mechanism. Implications for relevant stakeholders are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Inseticidas/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Neonicotinoides/economia , Humanos
15.
Meat Sci ; 179: 108548, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993070

RESUMO

China has experienced significant economic growth in recent decades, and this has accounted for an increase in meat consumption. Therefore, it is important to understand the underlying factors of consumers' perception and purchasing behaviour of lamb meat in China. This study adopts a conceptual framework, which includes expectations, perception, and purchase behaviour of red meat among Chinese consumers. A total of 31 questions were included in a self-administered questionnaire through an online platform, with 601 meat consumers who participated in this study. Results showed that Australian and New Zealand meat were perceived as having positive quality characteristics (e.g. natural, reliable) followed by Chinese local meat. Partial Least Squares Path Modelling (PLS-PM) further identified that the key drivers that influenced meat purchase were seasonality, purchase location, and consumer experience particularly in cooking methods used. Purchase point for Chinese consumers were equally weighed with butchers, supermarket, and traditional market as being the most common purchase locations. Unexpectedly, Chinese consumers were found to consume less meat in summer and more during winter. Purchase drivers included meat safety certification and the perceived health benefits of meat.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne Vermelha/normas , Adulto , Animais , China , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carne Vermelha/economia , Carne Vermelha/estatística & dados numéricos , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804848

RESUMO

Research on the impact of school and community food environments on adolescent food choice is heavily reliant on objective rather than subjective measures of food outlets around schools and homes. Gaining the perspective of adolescents and how they perceive and use food environments is needed. The aim of this study was to explore adolescent's perception and use of the food environment surrounding their schools. Purposive sampling was used to recruit schools. Mapping exercises and discussion groups were facilitated with 95 adolescents from six schools. Thematic analysis showed that adolescents are not loyal to particular shops but are attracted to outlets with price discounts, those with 'deli' counters and sweets. Cost, convenience and choice are key factors influencing preference for food outlets and foods. Quality, variety and health were important factors for adolescents but these features, especially affordable healthy food, were hard to find. Social factors such as spending time with friends is also an important feature of food environments that deserves further attention. Adolescents' perceptions of their food environment provide insights into features that can be manipulated to enable healthy choices.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/economia , Dieta/métodos , Preferências Alimentares , Adolescente , Fast Foods/economia , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804858

RESUMO

Obesity and other diet-related health conditions have received much attention in the public health literature over the past two decades. This study investigates the relationship between household food budget shares at different food outlets with diet quality and weight-related health outcomes in the United States. Our analysis used event-level food purchase data from the national household food acquisition and purchases survey (FoodAPS). We find that, after controlling for observables, food purchase location is significantly associated with diet quality and body mass index (BMI). Our findings indicate that larger food budget shares at convenience stores and restaurants are linked with poor diet quality based on the healthy eating index-2015 (HEI-2015) scores and higher BMI. We further explored potential heterogeneity on outcomes of interest across income groups. Results suggest heterogeneous effects may exist across income groups: low-income households, who spent a larger share of their food budget at convenience stores and fast-food restaurants are related to poor diet quality and more likely to be obese. Our findings will help improve understanding of the causes of diet-related health problems and may illuminate potential avenues of intervention to address obesity.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Dieta/economia , Dieta/métodos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0251060, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909663

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 lockdown in the US, many businesses were shut down temporarily. Essential businesses, most prominently grocery stores, remained open to ensure access to food and household essentials. Grocery shopping presents increased potential for COVID-19 infection because customers and store employees are in proximity to each other. This study investigated shoppers' perceptions of COVID-19 infection risks and put them in context by comparing grocery shopping to other activities outside home, and examined whether a proactive preventive action by grocery stores influence shoppers' perceived risk of COVID-19 infection. Our data were obtained via an anonymous online survey distributed between April 2 and 10, 2020 to grocery shoppers in New York State (the most affected by the pandemic at the time of the study) and Washington State (the first affected by the pandemic). We found significant factors associated with high levels of risk perception on grocery shoppers. We identified some effective preventive actions that grocery stores implement to alleviate anxiety and risk perception. We found that people are generally more concerned about in-store grocery shopping relative to other out-of-home activities. Findings suggest that a strict policy requiring grocery store employees to use facemasks and gloves greatly reduced shoppers' perceived risk rating of infection of themselves by 37.5% and store employees by 51.2%. Preventive actions by customers and businesses are critical to reducing the unwitting transmission of COVID-19 as state governments prepare to reopen the economy and relax restrictions on activities outside home.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção/ética , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Características da Família , Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , New York , Percepção/fisiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Supermercados , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Washington
19.
Can J Public Health ; 112(4): 647-662, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768507

RESUMO

INTERVENTION: This study examined whether the impacts of sugar taxes and front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labels differ across socio-demographic subgroups. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the main and moderating effects of individual-level characteristics on the nutrient content of participants' purchases in response to varying taxation levels and FOP labels? METHODS: Data from an experimental marketplace were analyzed. A sample of 3584 Canadians aged 13 years and older received $5 to purchase an item from a selection of 20 beverages and 20 snack foods. Participants were shown products with one of five FOP labels and completed eight within-subject purchasing tasks with different tax conditions. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the main and moderating effects of 11 individual-level variables on the sugars, sodium, saturated fats, and calorie content of participants' purchases. RESULTS: Participants who were younger, male, and more frequent consumers of sugary drinks purchased products containing more sugars, sodium, saturated fats, and calories. Sex and age moderated the relationship between tax condition and sugars or calories purchased: female participants were more responsive than males to a tax that included fruit juice, and younger participants were more responsive to all sugar tax conditions than older participants. Reported thirst and education level also moderated the relationship between tax condition and calories purchased. No individual-level characteristics moderated the effects of FOP labels. CONCLUSION: A small proportion (7 of 176) of the moderating effects tested in this study were significant. Sugar taxes and FOP labelling policies may therefore produce similar effects across key socio-demographic groups.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Açúcares da Dieta , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Impostos , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Demografia , Açúcares da Dieta/economia , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
BMJ ; 372: n254, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in household purchases of drinks and confectionery one year after implementation of the UK soft drinks industry levy (SDIL). DESIGN: Controlled interrupted time series analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Members of a panel of households reporting their purchasing on a weekly basis to a market research company (average weekly number of participants n=22 183), March 2014 to March 2019. INTERVENTION: A two tiered tax levied on manufacturers of soft drinks, announced in March 2016 and implemented in April 2018. Drinks with ≥8 g sugar/100 mL (high tier) are taxed at £0.24/L and drinks with ≥5 to <8 g sugar/100 mL (low tier) are taxed at £0.18/L. Drinks with <5 g sugar/100 mL (no levy) are not taxed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Absolute and relative differences in the volume of, and amount of sugar in, soft drinks categories, all soft drinks combined, alcohol, and confectionery purchased per household per week one year after implementation of the SDIL compared with trends before the announcement of the SDIL. RESULTS: In March 2019, compared with the counterfactual estimated from pre-announcement trends, purchased volume of drinks in the high levy tier decreased by 155 mL (95% confidence interval 240.5 to 69.5 mL) per household per week, equivalent to 44.3% (95% confidence interval 59.9% to 28.7%), and sugar purchased in these drinks decreased by 18.0 g (95% confidence interval 32.3 to 3.6 g), or 45.9% (68.8% to 22.9%). Purchases of low tier drinks decreased by 177.3 mL (225.3 to 129.3 mL) per household per week, or 85.9% (95.1% to 76.7%), with a 12.5 g (15.4 to 9.5 g) reduction in sugar in these drinks, equivalent to 86.2% (94.2% to 78.1%). Despite no overall change in volume of no levy drinks purchased, there was an increase in sugar purchased of 15.3 g (12.6 to 17.9 g) per household per week, equivalent to 166.4% (94.2% to 238.5%). When all soft drinks were combined, the volume of drinks purchased did not change, but sugar decreased by 29.5 g (55.8 to 3.1 g), or 9.8% (17.9% to 1.8%). Purchases of confectionery and alcoholic drinks did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with trends before the SDIL was announced, one year after implementation, the volume of soft drinks purchased did not change. The amount of sugar in those drinks was 30 g, or 10%, lower per household per week-equivalent to one 250 mL serving of a low tier drink per person per week. The SDIL might benefit public health without harming industry. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN18042742.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Alimentícia/economia , Política de Saúde/economia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/economia , Impostos , Bebidas Gaseificadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido
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