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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 622, 2022 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35110527

RESUMO

In memory, our continuous experiences are broken up into discrete events. Boundaries between events are known to influence the temporal organization of memory. However, how and through which mechanism event boundaries shape temporal order memory (TOM) remains unknown. Across four experiments, we show that event boundaries exert a dual role: improving TOM for items within an event and impairing TOM for items across events. Decreasing event length in a list enhances TOM, but only for items at earlier local event positions, an effect we term the local primacy effect. A computational model, in which items are associated to a temporal context signal that drifts over time but resets at boundaries captures all behavioural results. Our findings provide a unified algorithmic mechanism for understanding how and why event boundaries affect TOM, reconciling a long-standing paradox of why both contextual similarity and dissimilarity promote TOM.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2041, 2022 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35132101

RESUMO

Theta oscillations (~ 4-12 Hz) are dynamically modulated by speed and direction in freely moving animals. However, due to the paucity of electrophysiological recordings of freely moving humans, this mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we combined mobile-EEG with fully immersive virtual-reality to investigate theta dynamics in 22 healthy adults (aged 18-29 years old) freely navigating a T-maze to find rewards. Our results revealed three dynamic periods of theta modulation: (1) theta power increases coincided with the participants' decision-making period; (2) theta power increased for fast and leftward trials as subjects approached the goal location; and (3) feedback onset evoked two phase-locked theta bursts over the right temporal and frontal-midline channels. These results suggest that recording scalp EEG in freely moving humans navigating a simple virtual T-maze can be utilized as a powerful translational model by which to map theta dynamics during "real-life" goal-directed behavior in both health and disease.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Recompensa , Couro Cabeludo/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Realidade Virtual , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2339, 2022 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165309

RESUMO

Can our brain perceive a sense of ownership towards an independent supernumerary limb; one that can be moved independently of any other limb and provides its own independent movement feedback? Following the rubber-hand illusion experiment, a plethora of studies have shown that the human representation of "self" is very plastic. But previous studies have almost exclusively investigated ownership towards "substitute" artificial limbs, which are controlled by the movements of a real limb and/or limbs from which non-visual sensory feedback is provided on an existing limb. Here, to investigate whether the human brain can own an independent artificial limb, we first developed a novel independent robotic "sixth finger." We allowed participants to train using the finger and examined whether it induced changes in the body representation using behavioral as well as cognitive measures. Our results suggest that unlike a substitute artificial limb (like in the rubber hand experiment), it is more difficult for humans to perceive a sense of ownership towards an independent limb. However, ownership does seem possible, as we observed clear tendencies of changes in the body representation that correlated with the cognitive reports of the sense of ownership. Our results provide the first evidence to show that an independent supernumerary limb can be embodied by humans.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais/psicologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Extremidades/fisiologia , Adulto , Comportamento/fisiologia , Dedos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Robótica/normas , Adulto Jovem
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2285, 2022 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35145138

RESUMO

Disrupting memory reconsolidation provides an opportunity to abruptly reduce the behavioural expression of fear memories with long-lasting effects. The success of a reconsolidation intervention is, however, not guaranteed as it strongly depends on the destabilization of the memory. Identifying the necessary conditions to trigger destabilization remains one of the critical challenges in the field. We aimed to replicate a study from our lab, showing that the occurrence of a prediction error (PE) during reactivation is necessary but not sufficient for destabilization. We tested the effectiveness of a reactivation procedure consisting of a single PE, compared to two control groups receiving no or multiple PEs. All participants received propranolol immediately after reactivation and were tested for fear retention 24 h later. In contrast to the original results, we found no evidence for a reconsolidation effect in the single PE group, but a straightforward interpretation of these results is complicated by the lack of differential fear retention in the control groups. Our results corroborate other failed reconsolidation studies and exemplify the complexity of experimentally investigating this process in humans. Thorough investigation of the interaction between learning and memory reactivation is essential to understand the inconsistencies in the literature and to improve reconsolidation interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento/efeitos dos fármacos , Extinção Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Medo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Consolidação da Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Propranolol/farmacologia , Retenção Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 767, 2022 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031675

RESUMO

Prism Adaptation (PA) is used to alleviate spatial neglect. We combined immersive virtual reality with a depth-sensing camera to develop virtual prism adaptation therapy (VPAT), which block external visual cues and easily quantify and monitor errors than conventional PA. We conducted a feasibility study to investigate whether VPAT can induce behavioral adaptations by measuring after-effect and identifying which cortical areas were most significantly activated during VPAT using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Fourteen healthy subjects participated in this study. The experiment consisted of four sequential phases (pre-VPAT, VPAT-10°, VPAT-20°, and post-VPAT). To compare the most significantly activated cortical areas during pointing in different phases against pointing during the pre-VPAT phase, we analyzed changes in oxyhemoglobin concentration using fNIRS during pointing. The pointing errors of the virtual hand deviated to the right-side during early pointing blocks in the VPAT-10° and VPAT-20° phases. There was a left-side deviation of the real hand to the target in the post-VPAT phase, demonstrating after-effect. The most significantly activated channels during pointing tasks were located in the right hemisphere, and possible corresponding cortical areas included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontal eye field. In conclusion, VPAT may induce behavioral adaptation with modulation of the dorsal attentional network.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/instrumentação , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual/instrumentação , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual/métodos , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(1): 161-194, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013005

RESUMO

The nature of brain-behavior covariations with increasing age is poorly understood. In the current study, we used a multivariate approach to investigate the covariation between behavioral-health variables and brain features across adulthood. We recruited healthy adults aged 20-73 years-old (29 younger, mean age = 25.6 years; 30 older, mean age = 62.5 years), and collected structural and functional MRI (s/fMRI) during a resting-state and three tasks. From the sMRI, we extracted cortical thickness and subcortical volumes; from the fMRI, we extracted activation peaks and functional network connectivity (FNC) for each task. We conducted canonical correlation analyses between behavioral-health variables and the sMRI, or the fMRI variables, across all participants. We found significant covariations for both types of neuroimaging phenotypes (ps = 0.0004) across all individuals, with cognitive capacity and age being the largest opposite contributors. We further identified different variables contributing to the models across phenotypes and age groups. Particularly, we found behavior was associated with different neuroimaging patterns between the younger and older groups. Higher cognitive capacity was supported by activation and FNC within the executive networks in the younger adults, while it was supported by the visual networks' FNC in the older adults. This study highlights how the brain-behavior covariations vary across adulthood and provides further support that cognitive performance relies on regional recruitment that differs between older and younger individuals.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Mapeamento Encefálico , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 18(1): e1009799, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35089913

RESUMO

One of the main goals of current systems neuroscience is to understand how neuronal populations integrate sensory information to inform behavior. However, estimating stimulus or behavioral information that is encoded in high-dimensional neuronal populations is challenging. We propose a method based on parametric copulas which allows modeling joint distributions of neuronal and behavioral variables characterized by different statistics and timescales. To account for temporal or spatial changes in dependencies between variables, we model varying copula parameters by means of Gaussian Processes (GP). We validate the resulting Copula-GP framework on synthetic data and on neuronal and behavioral recordings obtained in awake mice. We show that the use of a parametric description of the high-dimensional dependence structure in our method provides better accuracy in mutual information estimation in higher dimensions compared to other non-parametric methods. Moreover, by quantifying the redundancy between neuronal and behavioral variables, our model exposed the location of the reward zone in an unsupervised manner (i.e., without using any explicit cues about the task structure). These results demonstrate that the Copula-GP framework is particularly useful for the analysis of complex multidimensional relationships between neuronal, sensory and behavioral variables.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Camundongos , Distribuição Normal , Vigília/fisiologia
8.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 148(2): 262-266, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35063142

RESUMO

Currently used antidepressant drugs target and facilitate the action of monoamine neurotransmission. However, approximately 30% of patients do not respond to these drugs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic targets. Several clinical studies have reported that inflammatory cytokines and neutrophils are increased in the blood of patients with major depression. Since social and environmental stress is a risk factor for mental illnesses such as major depression, many research groups have employed chronic stress models in which mice are repeatedly exposed to stressful events. Chronic stress induces neuroinflammation originating from microglia in the medial prefrontal cortex, leading to depressive-like behavior. Moreover, chronic stress influences peripheral immune cells by activating the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland axis. The infiltration of monocytes expressing interleukin (IL)-1ß into the brain is involved in chronic stress-induced elevated anxiety. The penetration of IL-6 derived from monocytes into the nucleus accumbens is involved in chronic stress-induced depression-like behavior. Furthermore, cell-cell and peripheral brain interactions and their molecular basis have been discovered. These findings may pave the way for the development of biological markers and therapeutic drugs.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , /patologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Doença Crônica , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Estresse Psicológico/complicações
10.
Neuropharmacology ; 204: 108906, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856204

RESUMO

The parasubthalamic nucleus (PSTN), a small nucleus located on the lateral edge of the posterior hypothalamus, has emerged in recent years as a highly interconnected node within the network of brain regions sensing and regulating autonomic function and homeostatic needs. Furthermore, the strong integration of the PSTN with extended amygdala circuits makes it ideally positioned to serve as an interface between interoception and emotions. While PSTN neurons are mostly glutamatergic, some of them also express neuropeptides that have been associated with stress-related affective and motivational dysfunction, including substance P, corticotropin-releasing factor, and pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide. PSTN neurons respond to food ingestion and anorectic signals, as well as to arousing and distressing stimuli. Functional manipulation of defined pathways demonstrated that the PSTN serves as a central hub in multiple physiologically relevant networks and is notably implicated in appetite suppression, conditioned taste aversion, place avoidance, impulsive action, and fear-induced thermoregulation. We also discuss the putative role of the PSTN in interoceptive dysfunction and negative urgency. This review aims to synthesize the burgeoning preclinical literature dedicated to the PSTN and to stimulate interest in further investigating its influence on physiology and behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Interocepção/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Núcleos Posteriores do Tálamo/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Animais , Anorexia/fisiopatologia , Apetite , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Comportamento Aditivo , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Polipeptídeo Hipofisário Ativador de Adenilato Ciclase/metabolismo , Núcleos Posteriores do Tálamo/metabolismo , Substância P/metabolismo
11.
Neurobiol Aging ; 110: 1-12, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837869

RESUMO

Impaired memory is a hallmark of prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Prior knowledge associated with the memoranda improves memory in healthy individuals, but we ignore whether the same occurs in early AD. We used functional MRI to investigate whether prior knowledge enhances memory encoding in early AD, and whether the nature of this prior knowledge matters. Patients with early AD and Controls underwent a task-based fMRI experiment where they learned face-scene associations. Famous faces carried pre-experimental knowledge (PEK), while unknown faces with which participants were familiarized prior to learning carried experimental knowledge (EK). Surprisingly, PEK strongly enhanced subsequent memory in healthy controls, but importantly not in patients. Partly nonoverlapping brain networks supported PEK vs. EK associative encoding in healthy controls. No such networks were identified in patients. In addition, patients displayed impaired activation in a right sub hippocampal region where activity predicted successful associative memory formation for PEK stimuli. Despite the limited sample sizes of this study, these findings suggest that the role prior knowledge in new learning might have been so far overlooked and underestimated in AD patients. Prior knowledge may drive critical differences in the way healthy elderly and early AD patients learn novel associations.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiopatologia , Conhecimento , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Memória/fisiologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Voluntários Saudáveis/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa
12.
Neuroimage ; 247: 118801, 2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896588

RESUMO

Dynamic properties of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) provide rich information on brain-behavior relationships. Dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) has been used as a method to characterize FC dynamics. However, it remains unclear whether dynamic modes (DMs), spatial-temporal coherent patterns computed by DMD, provide information about individual behavioral differences. This study established a methodological approach to predict individual differences in behavior using DMs. Furthermore, we investigated the contribution of DMs within each of seven specific frequency bands (0-0.1,...,0.6-0.7 Hz) for prediction. To validate our approach, we tested whether each of 59 behavioral measures could be predicted by performing multivariate pattern analysis on a Gram matrix, which was created using subject-specific DMs computed from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data of individuals. DMD successfully predicted behavior and outperformed temporal and spatial independent component analysis, which is the conventional data decomposition method for extracting spatial activity patterns. Most of the behavioral measures that were predicted with significant accuracy in a permutation test were related to cognition. We found that DMs within frequency bands <0.2 Hz primarily contributed to prediction and had spatial structures similar to several common resting-state networks. Our results indicate that DMD is efficient in extracting spatiotemporal features from rs-fMRI data.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Conectoma/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Algoritmos , Cognição/fisiologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Descanso , Adulto Jovem
13.
Neuroimage ; 249: 118854, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34971767

RESUMO

Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and its regularised versions have been widely used in the neuroimaging community to uncover multivariate associations between two data modalities (e.g., brain imaging and behaviour). However, these methods have inherent limitations: (1) statistical inferences about the associations are often not robust; (2) the associations within each data modality are not modelled; (3) missing values need to be imputed or removed. Group Factor Analysis (GFA) is a hierarchical model that addresses the first two limitations by providing Bayesian inference and modelling modality-specific associations. Here, we propose an extension of GFA that handles missing data, and highlight that GFA can be used as a predictive model. We applied GFA to synthetic and real data consisting of brain connectivity and non-imaging measures from the Human Connectome Project (HCP). In synthetic data, GFA uncovered the underlying shared and specific factors and predicted correctly the non-observed data modalities in complete and incomplete data sets. In the HCP data, we identified four relevant shared factors, capturing associations between mood, alcohol and drug use, cognition, demographics and psychopathological measures and the default mode, frontoparietal control, dorsal and ventral networks and insula, as well as two factors describing associations within brain connectivity. In addition, GFA predicted a set of non-imaging measures from brain connectivity. These findings were consistent in complete and incomplete data sets, and replicated previous findings in the literature. GFA is a promising tool that can be used to uncover associations between and within multiple data modalities in benchmark datasets (such as, HCP), and easily extended to more complex models to solve more challenging tasks.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Encéfalo , Conectoma/métodos , Rede de Modo Padrão , Processos Mentais , Modelos Teóricos , Rede Nervosa , Teorema de Bayes , Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Rede de Modo Padrão/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede de Modo Padrão/fisiologia , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260625, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910766

RESUMO

Organizations nowadays are under immense external pressure due to advancements in information technology, making it precarious. It also inserts extra pressure to keep the employees motivated and productive. Therefore, while information technology benefits the organization, it also challenges the organization and employees more. In order to meet these challenges, many organizations have begun to flatten their organizational structures and decentralized their management approaches. This study collected 336 valid questionnaires from 20 service companies. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were tested. In addition, the exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Relevant analysis and empirical analysis were also carried out using hierarchical regression. The study finds that (1) Goal-setting participation positively affects employees' proactive behavior. (2) Perceived insider status plays a mediating role between goal-setting participation and employee proactive behavior. (3) The power distance positively modifies the goal-setting participation in the relationship of employee's perceived insider status. (4) Power distance positively moderates perceived insider status in the relationship of goal-setting participation on employee proactive behavior through perceived insider status. This research applies goal-setting theory and social cognition theory to build a theoretical framework for the influence mechanism of goal-setting participation on employee's proactive behavior. Expands the application scope of fundamental theoretical research and improve understanding of the relationship between goal-setting participation and employee's proactive behavior. The research conclusions help organizations understand the formation mechanism of employees' proactive behaviors, strengthen the focus on goal-setting participation, and optimize the relationship between leaders and employees.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Objetivos Organizacionais , Comunicação , Humanos , Liderança , Negociação , Cultura Organizacional
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(47)2021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785596

RESUMO

Roughly 10% of the human population is left-handed, and this rate is increased in some brain-related disorders. The neuroanatomical correlates of hand preference have remained equivocal. We resampled structural brain image data from 28,802 right-handers and 3,062 left-handers (UK Biobank population dataset) to a symmetrical surface template, and mapped asymmetries for each of 8,681 vertices across the cerebral cortex in each individual. Left-handers compared to right-handers showed average differences of surface area asymmetry within the fusiform cortex, the anterior insula, the anterior middle cingulate cortex, and the precentral cortex. Meta-analyzed functional imaging data implicated these regions in executive functions and language. Polygenic disposition to left-handedness was associated with two of these regional asymmetries, and 18 loci previously linked with left-handedness by genome-wide screening showed associations with one or more of these asymmetries. Implicated genes included six encoding microtubule-related proteins: TUBB, TUBA1B, TUBB3, TUBB4A, MAP2, and NME7-mutations in the latter can cause left to right reversal of the visceral organs. There were also two cortical regions where average thickness asymmetry was altered in left-handedness: on the postcentral gyrus and the inferior occipital cortex, functionally annotated with hand sensorimotor and visual roles. These cortical thickness asymmetries were not heritable. Heritable surface area asymmetries of language-related regions may link the etiologies of hand preference and language, whereas nonheritable asymmetries of sensorimotor cortex may manifest as consequences of hand preference.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/genética , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comportamento/fisiologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Mãos , Humanos , Idioma , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lobo Occipital , Córtex Sensório-Motor
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(44)2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716272

RESUMO

Actions with identical goals can be executed in different ways (gentle, rude, vigorous, etc.), which D. N. Stern called vitality forms [D. N. Stern, Forms of Vitality Exploring Dynamic Experience in Psychology, Arts, Psychotherapy, and Development (2010)]. Vitality forms express the agent's attitudes toward others. In a series of fMRI studies, we found that the dorso-central insula (DCI) is the region that is selectively active during both vitality form observation and execution. In one previous experiment, however, the middle cingulate gyrus also exhibited activation. In the present study, in order to assess the role of the cingulate cortex in vitality form processing, we adopted a classical vitality form paradigm, but making the control condition devoid of vitality forms using jerky movements. Participants performed two different tasks: Observation of actions performed gently or rudely and execution of the same actions. The results showed that in addition to the insula, the middle cingulate cortex (MCC) was strongly activated during both action observation and execution. Using a voxel-based analysis, voxels showing a similar trend of the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal in both action observation and execution were found in the DCI and in the MCC. Finally, using a multifiber tractography analysis, we showed that the active sites in MCC and DCI are reciprocally connected.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , /fisiologia , Adulto , Atitude , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6645271, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660795

RESUMO

Increasing statutory retirement ages around the world are forcing employees to prolong their working lives. We study the different ways in which mid- and late-career workers respond to such changes. We distinguish between negative emotions about working longer, cognitive engagement with prolonged employment, and proactive behavior to facilitate longer working lives. We analyze data from 1,351 employees aged 40-66 from the Netherlands. We estimate a structural equation model to identify in which ways experiences of age discrimination, accessibility of accommodative HR facilities, and social norms in the workers' social networks are related to the three different types of responses. Results show that when employees do not experience age discrimination, when their employer offers easily accessible accommodative HR facilities, and the social norms support prolonged employment, employees have fewer negative emotional reactions and are more likely to behaviorally respond to facilitate longer working lives. When these contexts are misaligned, the reverse is generally found. We also find socioeconomic differences in the ways employees respond to the prospect of prolonged employment. This study shows the importance of supportive contexts at different levels-societally, in organizations, and in individuals' own lives-for policy changes such as increasing statutory retirement ages to be effective. Different responses between different socioeconomic groups may lead to growing long-term inequality.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Emprego/psicologia , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Normas Sociais
18.
Neurotoxicol Teratol ; 88: 107038, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678460

RESUMO

Adolescent inhalant misuse has a known association with suicidal thoughts and behaviour. This association persists even after inhalant misuse has ceased. Previous studies have hypothesised that this association may derive from socioeconomic disadvantage or vulnerability, and potentially mediated by impulsivity. This association may also be due to the central nervous system depressant effects of inhalants. This review takes a behavioural toxicology perspective, focussed particularly on the serotonergic system and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, as potential links between adolescent inhalant misuse and suicidal behaviour. The challenges of bridging the pre-clinical and clinical literature in this area are discussed, along with promising avenues for future research; ultimately aimed at reducing suicide risk in a vulnerable adolescent population group.


Assuntos
Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Ideação Suicida , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Comportamento/fisiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
19.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(10): e1009455, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606494

RESUMO

A standard view in the literature is that decisions are the result of a process that accumulates evidence in favor of each alternative until such accumulation reaches a threshold and a decision is made. However, this view has been recently questioned by an alternative proposal that suggests that, instead of accumulated, evidence is combined with an urgency signal. Both theories have been mathematically formalized and supported by a variety of decision-making tasks with constant information. However, recently, tasks with changing information have shown to be more effective to study the dynamics of decision making. Recent research using one of such tasks, the tokens task, has shown that decisions are better described by an urgency mechanism than by an accumulation one. However, the results of that study could depend on a task where all fundamental information was noiseless and always present, favoring a mechanism of non-integration, such as the urgency one. Here, we wanted to address whether the same conclusions were also supported by an experimental paradigm in which sensory evidence was removed shortly after it was provided, making working memory necessary to properly perform the task. Here, we show that, under such condition, participants' behavior could be explained by an urgency-gating mechanism that low-pass filters the mnemonic information and combines it with an urgency signal that grows with time but not by an accumulation process that integrates the same mnemonic information. Thus, our study supports the idea that, under certain situations with dynamic sensory information, decisions are better explained by an urgency-gating mechanism than by an accumulation one.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Comportamento/fisiologia , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0255531, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613975

RESUMO

Some evidence suggests that people behave more cooperatively and generously when observed or in the presence of images of eyes (termed the 'watching eyes' effect). Eye images are thought to trigger feelings of observation, which in turn motivate people to behave more cooperatively to earn a good reputation. However, several recent studies have failed to find evidence of the eyes effect. One possibility is that inconsistent evidence in support of the eyes effect is a product of individual differences in sensitivity or susceptibility to the cue. In fact, some evidence suggests that people who are generally more prosocial are less susceptible to situation-specific reputation-based cues of observation. In this paper, we sought to (1) replicate the eyes effect, (2) replicate the past finding that people who are dispositionally less prosocial are more responsive to observation than people who are more dispositionally more prosocial, and (3) determine if this effect extends to the watching eyes effect. Results from a pre-registered study showed that people did not give more money in a dictator game when decisions were made public or in the presence of eye images, even though participants felt more observed when decisions were public. That is, we failed to replicate the eyes effect and observation effect. An initial, but underpowered, interaction model suggests that egoists give less than prosocials in private, but not public, conditions. This suggests a direction for future research investigating if and how individual differences in prosociality influence observation effects.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Olho/fisiopatologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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