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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1941): 20201756, 2020 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352071

RESUMO

Economic preferences may be shaped by exposure to sex hormones around birth. Prior studies of economic preferences and numerous other phenotypic characteristics use digit ratios (2D : 4D), a purported proxy for prenatal testosterone exposure, whose validity has recently been questioned. We use direct measures of neonatal sex hormones (testosterone and oestrogen), measured from umbilical cord blood (n = 200) to investigate their association with later-life economic preferences (risk preferences, competitiveness, time preferences and social preferences) in an Australian cohort (Raine Study Gen2). We find no significant associations between testosterone at birth and preferences, except for competitiveness, where the effect runs opposite to the expected direction. Point estimates are between 0.05-0.09 percentage points (pp) and 0.003-0.14 s.d. We similarly find no significant associations between 2D : 4D and preferences (n = 533, point estimates 0.003-0.02 pp and 0.001-0.06 s.d.). Our sample size allows detecting effects larger than 0.11 pp or 0.22 s.d. for testosterone at birth, and 0.07 pp or 0.14 s.d. for 2D : 4D (α = 0.05 and power = 0.90). Equivalence tests show that most effects are unlikely to be larger than these bounds. Our results suggest a reinterpretation of prior findings relating 2D : 4D to economic preferences, and highlight the importance of future large-sample studies that permit detection of small effects.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Economia , Estrogênios , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Dedos , Humanos , Masculino , Parto , Gravidez , Caracteres Sexuais , Testosterona
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243929, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326458

RESUMO

It has been widely accepted that moral violations that involve impurity (such as spitting in public) induce the emotion of disgust, but there has been a debate about whether moral violations that do not involve impurity (such as swearing in public) also induce the same emotion. The answer to this question may have implication for understanding where morality comes from and how people make moral judgments. This study aimed to compared the neural mechanisms underlying two kinds of moral violation by using an affective priming task to test the effect of sentences depicting moral violation behaviors with and without physical impurity on subsequent detection of disgusted faces in a visual search task. After reading each sentence, participants completed the face search task. Behavioral and electrophysiological (event-related potential, or ERP) indices of affective priming (P2, N400, LPP) and attention allocation (N2pc) were analyzed. Results of behavioral data and ERP data showed that moral violations both with and without impurity promoted the detection of disgusted faces (RT, N2pc); moral violations without impurity impeded the detection of neutral faces (N400). No priming effect was found on P2 and LPP. The results suggest both types of moral violation influenced the processing of disgusted faces and neutral faces, but the neural activity with temporal characteristics was different.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Princípios Morais , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Asco , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Julgamento Moral Retrospectivo , Adulto Jovem
3.
Pap. psicol ; 41(3): 184-190, sept.-dic. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197405

RESUMO

La Psicología ha evolucionado desde la definición de tratado del alma hasta la actualidad, donde se la considera ciencia que estudia la mente y la conducta humana. El camino de alejarse de la filosofía para acercarse a la ciencia ha sido complejo porque la ciencia se ajustaba más a otras disciplinas donde puede evaluarse la causalidad más fácilmente que en la Psicología. A pesar de la complejidad del objeto de análisis, la Psicología ha aportado conocimientos que han mejorado la vida de las personas en ámbitos muy diversos. Asimismo, el acercamiento a la ciencia ha dotado a la Psicología de métodos sistemáticos para organizar el conocimiento Este artículo trata de profundizar en las fortalezas que tiene la Psicología para ser legítimamente ciencia y también señala que el deseo de aprender y la actitud científica como actitud crítica podría ser el camino para la mejora de la Psicología


Psychology has evolved from its definition as a treatise on the soul to the present day, where it is considered a science that studies the mind and human behavior. The path of moving away from philosophy and towards science has been complex because science was better suited to other disciplines where causality can be evaluated more easily than in psychology. In spite of the complexity of the object of analysis, psychology has contributed knowledge that has improved people's lives in very diverse areas. Similarly, the approach toward science has provided psychology with systematic methods with which to organize knowledge. This article aims to delve into the strengths that psychology has as a legitimate science and it also points out that the desire to learn and the scientific attitude as a critical attitude could be the way to improve psychology


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia/métodos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Ciência , Comportamento/fisiologia , Psicoterapia , Características Humanas , Pesquisa Comportamental
4.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(4): 314-327, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873747

RESUMO

Cross talk between both pre- and postsynaptic components of glutamatergic neurotransmission plays a crucial role in orchestrating a multitude of brain functions, including synaptic plasticity and motor planning. Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 5 exhibits promising therapeutic potential for many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders as a consequence of its modulatory control over diverse neuronal networks required for memory, motor coordination, neuronal survival, and differentiation. Given these crucial roles, mGluR5 signaling is under the tight control of glutamate release machinery mediated through vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) that ultimately dictate glutamatergic output. A particular VGLUT isoform, VGLUT3, exhibits an overlapping, but unique, distribution with mGluR5, and the dynamic cross talk between mGluR5 and VGLUT3 is key for the function of specific neuronal networks involved in motor coordination, emotions, and cognition. Thus, aberrant signaling of the VGLUT3-mGluR5 axis is linked to various pathologies including, but not limited to, Parkinson disease, anxiety disorders, and drug addiction. We argue that a comprehensive profiling of how coordinated VGLUT3-mGluR5 signaling influences overall glutamatergic neurotransmission is warranted. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Vesicular glutamate receptor (VGLUT) 3 machinery orchestrates glutamate release, and its distribution overlaps with metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 5 in regional brain circuitries, including striatum, hippocampus, and raphe nucleus. Therefore, VGLUT3-mGluR5 cross talk can significantly influence both physiologic and pathophysiologic glutamatergic neurotransmission. Pathological signaling of the VGLUT3-mGluR5 axis is linked to Parkinson disease, anxiety disorders, and drug addiction. However, it is also predicted to contribute to other motor and cognitive disorders.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/metabolismo , Proteínas Vesiculares de Transporte de Glutamato/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Transmissão Sináptica
6.
Dialogues Clin Neurosci ; 22(2): 93-97, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699509

RESUMO

The digital revolution has changed, and continues to change, our world and our lives. Currently, major aspects of our lives have moved online due to the coronavirus pandemic, and social distancing has necessitated virtual togetherness. In a synopsis of 10 articles we present ample evidence that the use of digital technology may influence human brains and behavior in both negative and positive ways. For instance, brain imaging techniques show concrete morphological alterations in early childhood and during adolescence that are associated with intensive digital media use. Technology use apparently affects brain functions, for example visual perception, language, and cognition. Extensive studies could not confirm common concerns that excessive screen time is linked to mental health problems, or the deterioration of well-being. Nevertheless, it is important to use digital technology consciously, creatively, and sensibly to improve personal and professional relationships. Digital technology has great potential for mental health assessment and treatment, and the improvement of personal mental performance.
.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Tecnologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Neuroimagem , Psicoterapia
7.
Chronobiol Int ; 37(7): 1106-1109, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498625

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 leads to numerous unplanned or natural experiments with health and disease. Physical (social) distancing - a counter-measure with no alternative, but with no precedence in scope and scale either - is a key intervention and trigger of natural experiments. From a practical perspective, concerned disciplines should increase awareness of, provide recommendations to meet, and develop research for, health challenges arising from physical distancing at home. From the field of chronobiology, prolonged home stays may place undue strain on the body's circadian timing system but straightforward and often underestimated advice for coping can be provided (herein we provide such advice). Of course, advice or recommendations from other concerned disciplines that identify challenges associated with current COVID-19 mitigation strategies are also needed. From a research perspective, different disciplines should rise to the occasion and explore unsuspected natural experiment angles toward novel insights to promote health and prevent disease.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Risco
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3247, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591544

RESUMO

The brain derives cognitive maps from sensory experience that guide memory formation and behavior. Despite extensive efforts, it still remains unclear how the underlying population activity unfolds during spatial navigation and how it relates to memory performance. To examine these processes, we combined 7T-fMRI with a kernel-based encoding model of virtual navigation to map world-centered directional tuning across the human cortex. First, we present an in-depth analysis of directional tuning in visual, retrosplenial, parahippocampal and medial temporal cortices. Second, we show that tuning strength, width and topology of this directional code during memory-guided navigation depend on successful encoding of the environment. Finally, we show that participants' locomotory state influences this tuning in sensory and mnemonic regions such as the hippocampus. We demonstrate a direct link between neural population tuning and human cognition, where high-level memory processing interacts with network-wide visuospatial coding in the service of behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lógica , Masculino , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Realidade Virtual , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0228365, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421714

RESUMO

We investigated the global structure of intrinsic cross-frequency dynamics by systematically examining power-based temporal associations among a broad range of oscillation frequencies both within and across EEG-based current sources (sites). We focused on power-based associations that could reveal unique timescale dependence independently of interacting frequencies. Large spectral-power fluctuations across all sites occurred at two characteristic timescales, sub-second and seconds, yielding distinct patterns of cross-frequency associations. On the fast sub-second timescale, within-site (local) associations were consistently between pairs of ß-γ frequencies differing by a constant Δf (particularly Δf ~ 10 Hz at posterior sites and Δf ~ 16 Hz at lateral sites) suggesting that higher-frequency oscillations are organized into Δf amplitude-modulated packets, whereas cross-site (long-distance) associations were all within-frequency (particularly in the >30 Hz and 6-12 Hz ranges, suggestive of feedforward and feedback interactions). On the slower seconds timescale, within-site (local) associations were characterized by a broad range of frequencies selectively associated with ~10 Hz at posterior sites and associations among higher (>20 Hz) frequencies at lateral sites, whereas cross-site (long-distance) associations were characterized by a broad range of frequencies at posterior sites selectively associated with ~10 Hz at other sites, associations among higher (>20 Hz) frequencies among lateral and anterior sites, and prevalent associations at ~10 Hz. Regardless of timescale, within-site (local) cross-frequency associations were weak at anterior sites indicative of frequency-specific operations. Overall, these results suggest that the fast sub-second-timescale coordination of spectral power is limited to local amplitude modulation and insulated within-frequency long-distance interactions (likely feedforward and feedback interactions), while characteristic patterns of cross-frequency interactions emerge on the slower seconds timescale. The results also suggest that the occipital α oscillations play a role in organizing higher-frequency oscillations into ~10 Hz amplitude-modulated packets to communicate with other regions. Functional implications of these timescale-dependent cross-frequency associations await future investigations.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Adolescente , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS Med ; 17(5): e1003039, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence in India continues to be high due, in large part, to long delays experienced by patients before successful diagnosis and treatment initiation, especially in the private sector. This diagnostic delay is driven by patients' inclination to switch between different types of providers and providers' inclination to delay ordering of accurate diagnostic tests relevant to TB. Our objective is to quantify the impact of changes in these behavioral characteristics of providers and patients on diagnostic delay experienced by pulmonary TB patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a discrete event simulation model of patients' diagnostic pathways that captures key behavioral characteristics of providers (time to order a test) and patients (time to switch to another provider). We used an expectation-maximization algorithm to estimate the parameters underlying these behavioral characteristics, with quantitative data encoded from detailed interviews of 76 and 64 pulmonary TB patients in the 2 Indian cities of Mumbai and Patna, respectively, which were conducted between April and August 2014. We employed the estimated model to simulate different counterfactual scenarios of diagnostic pathways under altered behavioral characteristics of providers and patients to predict their potential impact on the diagnostic delay. Private healthcare providers including chemists were the first point of contact for the majority of TB patients in Mumbai (70%) and Patna (94%). In Mumbai, 45% of TB patients first approached less-than-fully-qualified providers (LTFQs), who take 28.71 days on average for diagnosis. About 61% of these patients switched to other providers without a diagnosis. Our model estimates that immediate testing for TB by LTFQs at the first visit (at the current level of diagnostic accuracy) could reduce the average diagnostic delay from 35.53 days (95% CI: 34.60, 36.46) to 18.72 days (95% CI: 18.01, 19.43). In Patna, 61% of TB patients first approached fully qualified providers (FQs), who take 9.74 days on average for diagnosis. Similarly, immediate testing by FQs at the first visit (at the current level of diagnostic accuracy) could reduce the average diagnostic delay from 23.39 days (95% CI: 22.77, 24.02) to 11.16 days (95% CI: 10.52, 11.81). Improving the diagnostic accuracy of providers per se, without reducing the time to testing, was not predicted to lead to any reduction in diagnostic delay. Our study was limited because of its restricted geographic scope, small sample size, and possible recall bias, which are typically associated with studies of patient pathways using patient interviews. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that encouraging private providers to order definitive TB diagnostic tests earlier during patient consultation may have substantial impact on reducing diagnostic delay in these urban Indian settings. These results should be combined with disease transmission models to predict the impact of changes in provider behavior on TB incidence.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Tardio/prevenção & controle , Modelos Teóricos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Comportamento/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Setor Privado , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6789, 2020 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322008

RESUMO

The scientific study of compassion is burgeoning, however the putative neurophysiological markers of programs which actively train distress tolerance, such as Compassionate Mind Training (CMT), are less well known. Herein we offer an integrative, multi-method approach which investigated CMT at neural, physiological, self-report, and behavioural levels. Specifically, this study first assessed participants' neural responses when confronted with disappointments (e.g., rejection, failure) using two fundamental self-regulatory styles, self-criticism and self-reassurance. Second, participant's heart-rate variability (HRV) - a marker of parasympathetic nervous system response - was assessed during compassion training, pre- and post- a two-week self-directed engagement period. We identified neural networks associated with threat are reduced when practicing compassion, and heightened when being self-critical. In addition, cultivating compassion was associated with increased parasympathetic response as measured by an increase in HRV, versus the resting-state. Critically, cultivating compassion was able to shift a subset of clinically-at risk participants to one of increased parasympathetic response. Further, those who began the trial with lower resting HRV also engaged more in the intervention, possibly as they derived more benefits, both self-report and physiologically, from engagement in compassion.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Neurofisiologia/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Autorrelato , Autoavaliação , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0226789, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240174

RESUMO

Exploration in reward-based motor learning is observable in experimental data as increased variability. In order to quantify exploration, we compare three methods for estimating other sources of variability: sensorimotor noise. We use a task in which participants could receive stochastic binary reward feedback following a target-directed weight shift. Participants first performed six baseline blocks without feedback, and next twenty blocks alternating with and without feedback. Variability was assessed based on trial-to-trial changes in movement endpoint. We estimated sensorimotor noise by the median squared trial-to-trial change in movement endpoint for trials in which no exploration is expected. We identified three types of such trials: trials in baseline blocks, trials in the blocks without feedback, and rewarded trials in the blocks with feedback. We estimated exploration by the median squared trial-to-trial change following non-rewarded trials minus sensorimotor noise. As expected, variability was larger following non-rewarded trials than following rewarded trials. This indicates that our reward-based weight-shifting task successfully induced exploration. Most importantly, our three estimates of sensorimotor noise differed: the estimate based on rewarded trials was significantly lower than the estimates based on the two types of trials without feedback. Consequently, the estimates of exploration also differed. We conclude that the quantification of exploration depends critically on the type of trials used to estimate sensorimotor noise. We recommend the use of variability following rewarded trials.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento/fisiologia , Biorretroalimentação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Recompensa , Distribuições Estatísticas , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230811, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275716

RESUMO

Contagion in online social networks (OSN) occurs when users are exposed to information disseminated by other users. Studies of contagion are largely devoted to the spread of viral information and to local neighbor-to-neighbor contagion. However, many contagion events can be non-viral in the sense of being unpopular with low reach size, or global in the sense of being exposed to non-adjacent neighbors. This study aims to investigate the differences between local and global contagion and the different contagion patterns of viral vs. non-viral information. We analyzed three datasets and found significant differences between the temporal spreading patterns of local contagion compared to global contagion. Based on our analysis, we can successfully predict whether a user will be infected by either a local or a global contagion. We achieve an F1-score of 0.87 for non-viral information and an F1-score of 0.84 for viral information. We propose a novel method for early detection of the viral potential of an information nugget and investigate the spreading of viral and non-viral information. In addition, we analyze both viral and non-viral contagion of a topic. Differentiating between local versus global contagion, as well as between viral versus non-viral information, provides a novel perspective and better understanding of information diffusion in OSNs.


Assuntos
Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Comportamento/fisiologia , Humanos , Redes Sociais Online , Mídias Sociais
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1712, 2020 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249849

RESUMO

The locus coeruleus (LC), the origin of noradrenergic modulation of cognitive and behavioral function, may play an important role healthy ageing and in neurodegenerative conditions. We investigated the functional significance of age-related differences in mean normalized LC signal intensity values (LC-CR) in magnetization-transfer (MT) images from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) cohort - an open-access, population-based dataset. Using structural equation modelling, we tested the pre-registered hypothesis that putatively noradrenergic (NA)-dependent functions would be more strongly associated with LC-CR in older versus younger adults. A unidimensional model (within which LC-CR related to a single factor representing all cognitive and behavioral measures) was a better fit with the data than the a priori two-factor model (within which LC-CR related to separate NA-dependent and NA-independent factors). Our findings support the concept that age-related reduction of LC structural integrity is associated with impaired cognitive and behavioral function.


Assuntos
Neurônios Adrenérgicos/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Locus Cerúleo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Comportamento/fisiologia , Ciências Biocomportamentais , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Locus Cerúleo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229470, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251476

RESUMO

The present study used exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) to examine the theorized dimension structure of the brief version of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BR) at the scale-level (i.e., 11 lower-order primary factors loading on four higher-order factors) and item-level (sets of 12 items loading on 11 lower-order primary factors). A total of 214 adults from the community addressed the MPQ-BR and the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)/Behavioral Approach System (BAS) scales. The findings revealed poor fit and poorly defined factors at the item-level alongside adequate fit and well-defined factors at the scale-level. The higher-order factors in the latter model were supported for external validity in terms of demonstrating the expected theoretical and empirical correlations with the scales of the BIS/BAS scales. Result related implications for professional application, as well as potential revisions of the MPQ-BF are illustrated.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/genética , Personalidade/genética , Psicometria , Adulto , Agressão/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Personalidade/fisiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/patologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/fisiopatologia , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Testes de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229197, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142518

RESUMO

A potentially effective way to influence people's fire prevention behavior is letting them experience a fire in an immersive virtual environment (IVE). We analyze the effects of experiencing a fire in an IVE (versus an information sheet) on psychological determinants of behavior-knowledge, vulnerability, severity, self-efficacy, and locus of control-based mainly on arguments from Protection Motivation Theory and the Health Belief Model. Crucial in our setup is that we also relate these determinants to actual prevention behavior. Results show that IVE has the hypothesized effects on vulnerability, severity, and self-efficacy, and an unexpected negative effect on knowledge. Only knowledge and vulnerability showed subsequent indirect effects on actual prevention behavior. There remains a direct positive effect of IVE on prevention behavior that cannot be explained by any of the determinants. Our results contradict the implicit assumption that an induced change in these psychological determinants by IVE, necessarily implies a change in behavior. A recommendation for research on the effects of IVE's is, whenever possible, to study the actual target behavior as well.


Assuntos
Fogo/prevenção & controle , Conhecimento , Motivação/fisiologia , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Sistemas de Combate a Incêndio , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Autoeficácia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229096, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176697

RESUMO

Redistribution preferences depend on factors such as self-interest and political views. Recently, Deffains et al. (2016) reported that redistributive behavior is also sensitive to the actual experience of success or failure in a real effort task. While successful participants ('overachievers') are more likely to attribute their success to their effort rather than luck and opt for less redistribution, unsuccessful participants ('underachievers') tend to attribute their failure to external factors and opt for more redistribution. The aim of the present study was to test how the experience of success (symbolic success) and political views interact in producing redistributive behavior in an experimental setting. The study was conducted during the 2017 French presidential election. Our sample was biased towards left-wing, and most participants reported voting for Mélenchon, Hamon or Macron. Our findings reveal that 1) Macron voters redistribute less than Hamon voters who themselves redistribute less than Mélenchon voters, 2) overachievers redistribute less than underachievers only among Mélenchon voters. This suggests that redistributive behavior is governed primarily by political opinions, and that influence by exogenous manipulation of symbolic success is not homogenous across left-wing political groups.


Assuntos
Atitude , Comportamento do Consumidor , Sistemas Políticos/psicologia , Política , Simbolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Governo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Opinião Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(13): 6976-6984, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170012

RESUMO

Consciousness is currently a thriving area of research in psychology and neuroscience. While this is often attributed to events that took place in the early 1990s, consciousness studies today are a continuation of research that started in the late 19th century and that continued throughout the 20th century. From the beginning, the effort built on studies of animals to reveal basic principles of brain organization and function, and of human patients to gain clues about consciousness itself. Particularly important and our focus here is research in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s involving three groups of patients-amnesia, split brain, and blindsight. Across all three groups, a similar pattern of results was found-the patients could respond appropriately to stimuli that they denied seeing (or in the case of amnesiacs, having seen before). These studies paved the way for the current wave of research on consciousness. The field is, in fact, still grappling with the implications of the findings showing that the ability to consciously know and report the identity of a visual stimulus can be dissociated in the brain from the mechanisms that underlie the ability to behave in a meaningful way to the same stimulus.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência , Neurociências/história , Psicologia/história , Animais , Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos
20.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219921

RESUMO

To assess the effects of negative and positive behaviors on milk yields, this study examined the attitudes and behaviors of stockpersons toward their cows and milk yields at a farm where 15 workers milked 67 cows as rotating shift work. At a holding area when moving cows to the parlor, stockperson behaviors were observed at 34 milkings. Behaviors were classified as negative (NEG) or positive (POS): NEG were attempts to move cows using touching (NT), vocalization (NV), and gestures (NG); POS were communications without attempting to move cows, consisting of touch (PT) or vocalization (PV). Numbers of NV and NEG were negatively correlated with milk yields of first parity (p < .05). Average milk yields of first parity and all cows were higher when PT were observed (p < .001, p < .0001) and POS were observed (p < .001 and p < .0001). Numbers of PT were positively correlated with milk yields of first parity (p < .05). Average milk yields of second parity were higher when PV was observed (p < .01). Positive behaviors, especially touching, are related to higher herd milk yields. Negative behaviors such as negative vocalizations are related to lower yields of younger cows.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Comportamento/fisiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Bovinos/psicologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Lactação/psicologia , Leite/metabolismo , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Humanos
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