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1.
Neuron ; 103(4): 563-581, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437453

RESUMO

Spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) is a leading cellular model for behavioral learning and memory with rich computational properties. However, the relationship between the millisecond-precision spike timing required for STDP and the much slower timescales of behavioral learning is not well understood. Neuromodulation offers an attractive mechanism to connect these different timescales, and there is now strong experimental evidence that STDP is under neuromodulatory control by acetylcholine, monoamines, and other signaling molecules. Here, we review neuromodulation of STDP, the underlying mechanisms, functional implications, and possible involvement in brain disorders.


Assuntos
Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurotransmissores/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Astrócitos/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Encefalopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/fisiologia , Receptores de Neurotransmissores/fisiologia , Reforço (Psicologia) , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Front Neurol Neurosci ; 44: 15-22, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220852

RESUMO

In neurology and neuropsychology, behavior refers to the way human beings act and make decisions in contact with their environment. Behavioral impairment is therefore defined as a pathology, following brain lesion, that impacts the interactions between the brain-lesioned individual and his/her surrounding social world. First descriptions of behavioral disorders, including neuroanatomical correlates, date back to the mid-19th century. However, attempts towards their systematic identification and analysis only began at the turn of the 19th to 20th century. In this chapter, we shall span 3 main themes by introducing the first case reports based on thorough clinical descriptions, dating back to the 19th century. We then examine the emergence of checklist questionnaires and their application to large cohorts of individuals starting after World War II. Finally, we outline how, over the last 3 decades, the pace has significantly accelerated in the pursuit of defining the fine-grained processes underlying behavioral functioning, as well as the development of new and more complex measures, along with the emergence of the social cognition and social brain concepts. As the assessment tools have expanded and become more specific, an increasing complexity of mechanisms underlying behavior has begun to emerge.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Neurologia/história , Encéfalo/fisiologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Pacientes/psicologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2317, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127095

RESUMO

Linking human behavior to resting-state brain function is a central question in systems neuroscience. In particular, the functional timescales at which different types of behavioral factors are encoded remain largely unexplored. The behavioral counterparts of static functional connectivity (FC), at the resolution of several minutes, have been studied but behavioral correlates of dynamic measures of FC at the resolution of a few seconds remain unclear. Here, using resting-state fMRI and 58 phenotypic measures from the Human Connectome Project, we find that dynamic FC captures task-based phenotypes (e.g., processing speed or fluid intelligence scores), whereas self-reported measures (e.g., loneliness or life satisfaction) are equally well explained by static and dynamic FC. Furthermore, behaviorally relevant dynamic FC emerges from the interconnections across all resting-state networks, rather than within or between pairs of networks. Our findings shed new light on the timescales of cognitive processes involved in distinct facets of behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição/fisiologia , Conectoma/métodos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Science ; 364(6437): 255, 2019 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000656

RESUMO

Neuronal populations in sensory cortex produce variable responses to sensory stimuli and exhibit intricate spontaneous activity even without external sensory input. Cortical variability and spontaneous activity have been variously proposed to represent random noise, recall of prior experience, or encoding of ongoing behavioral and cognitive variables. Recording more than 10,000 neurons in mouse visual cortex, we observed that spontaneous activity reliably encoded a high-dimensional latent state, which was partially related to the mouse's ongoing behavior and was represented not just in visual cortex but also across the forebrain. Sensory inputs did not interrupt this ongoing signal but added onto it a representation of external stimuli in orthogonal dimensions. Thus, visual cortical population activity, despite its apparently noisy structure, reliably encodes an orthogonal fusion of sensory and multidimensional behavioral information.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/citologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Potenciais Evocados Visuais/fisiologia , Neuroimagem Funcional , Camundongos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa
5.
Kobe J Med Sci ; 64(5): E189-E196, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988266

RESUMO

Several companies in Japan introduced early working conditions (including recommendations on early morning work and prohibitions on nighttime overtime work) to decrease the number of long working hours at night. Nevertheless, individuals possess their own chronotype, i.e., their behavioral timing preference-be it morning or evening-that is associated with worker health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronotype and working conditions on sleep and health related quality of life (HRQOL) using 126 daytime office workers who were classified as morning or evening type by their Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire scores. We then compared morning and evening type workers' sleep variables (sleep onset/offset time and total sleep time), sleep quality (using the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and HRQOL scores. Additionally, we compared the same sleep variables, sleep quality, and HRQOL scores of each chronotype category of worker under early and normal working conditions. As the results, evening type workers had late sleep onset/offset time, poor sleep quality, and low HRQOL (role-social component) compared to morning type workers. Furthermore, the evening type workers under early working conditions had earlier sleep onset/offset time and poorer sleep quality compared to those workers under normal working conditions. These results suggest that evening type workers in general have poor sleep and low HRQOL and those same workers under early working conditions, in particular, are associated with poor sleep quality. Therefore, in order to optimize worker health, we suggest that working conditions should be taken account of individual chronotypes.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Relógios Biológicos/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Sono/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/fisiologia , Adulto , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/psicologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1503, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944325

RESUMO

Imagine how flicking through your photo album and seeing a picture of a beach sunset brings back fond memories of a tasty cocktail you had that night. Computational models suggest that upon receiving a partial memory cue ('beach'), neurons in the hippocampus coordinate reinstatement of associated memories ('cocktail') in cortical target sites. Here, using human single neuron recordings, we show that hippocampal firing rates are elevated from ~ 500-1500 ms after cue onset during successful associative retrieval. Concurrently, the retrieved target object can be decoded from population spike patterns in adjacent entorhinal cortex (EC), with hippocampal firing preceding EC spikes and predicting the fidelity of EC object reinstatement. Prior to orchestrating reinstatement, a separate population of hippocampal neurons distinguishes different scene cues (buildings vs. landscapes). These results elucidate the hippocampal-entorhinal circuit dynamics for memory recall and reconcile disparate views on the role of the hippocampus in scene processing vs. associative memory.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Comportamento/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Córtex Entorrinal/citologia , Córtex Entorrinal/fisiologia , Feminino , Hipocampo/citologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/citologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Naturwissenschaften ; 106(5-6): 16, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011827

RESUMO

Recent functional and zooarchaeological studies conducted on the archeological finds of Pirro Nord (PN13) produced new, reliable data on early European hominid subsistence activities. The age of the site is estimated to be ~ 1.3-1.6 Ma, based on bio-chronological data, and the archeological excavation of the Pirro Nord 13 fissure led to the discovery of more than 300 lithic artifacts associated with thousands of vertebrate fossil remains of the final Villafranchian (Pirro Nord Faunal Unit). The analysis of the fossil faunal remains allowed for the identification of anthropogenic traces linked to the exploitation of different animal carcass (cut marks and intentional bone breakages). Use-wear traces were also observed on some flint artifacts and have been interpreted as the result of the exploitation of animal resources by early hominids and carnivores. It has not been possible to identify the type of access that hominins developed on the carcasses, although it has been established that the hominins competed with carnivores for animal resources. The stone tools and faunal remains with anthropogenic traces recovered in the PN13 fissure represent among the earliest evidence of hominin faunal exploitation in Europe.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Hominidae , Animais , Comportamento/fisiologia , Hominidae/fisiologia , Humanos , Itália , Mamíferos
8.
Psychol Assess ; 31(7): 905-912, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869967

RESUMO

The alternative model of personality disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), Section III, "Emerging Measures and Models," includes both personality dysfunction and pathological-range traits. However, the nature of personality dysfunction and its relation to pathological-range traits needs further explication. In existing measures, the personality constructs of traits and functioning are highly overlapping. For example, a joint factor analysis of a large set of such measures found 5 factors, 2 of which were composed of both trait and functioning scales (Clark & Ro, 2014); however, the basis for this comingling remains unclear. In this research, we explored whether the comingling was at least partly due to similarity in the scales' item content. Specifically, we examined the affective, behavioral, and cognitive (ABC) composition of 212 items, each of which was rated by subsets of 7 judges. Results indicated that personality trait and functioning scales that load on a common factor have ABC profiles that are similar to each other but distinct from those of scales loading on other factors. These results suggest that combined trait-and-functioning factors emerge partly because of similarities in their scales' item content, despite the fact that the constructs they were intended to assess are theoretically distinct. Thus, ABC profiles may represent basic characteristics of empirical trait-and-functioning factors, suggesting that our conceptualization and/or measurement of these constructs need revision. Drawing from classic trait theory, we suggest that traits and functioning may be complementary rather than distinct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev Mal Respir ; 36(3): 342-349, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The midwife, in taking on a public health role, is one of the most important resources for the prevention of smoking and in helping smoking cessation among women of childbearing age thanks to their numerous contacts with pregnant women. With this in mind, we conducted a study among student midwives to examine their smoking behavior, their attitudes towards smoking, and their participation in prevention. METHOD: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted from 15 January to 15 February 2018 using a self-administered questionnaire and included the student midwives of the University of Health Science at Libreville (Gabon). RESULTS: A total of 188 student midwives completed the questionnaires (70.7% of students of the 1st year, 15.0% of students of the 2nd year and 14.3% of students of the 3rd year). Gaps exist in the knowledge of student midwives regarding the risks of cigarette smoking in pregnancy and its role in the development of complications for the mother and foetus. Overall, 17.1% of student midwives think that smoking is responsible for the occurrence of ectopic pregnancies, 20.3% believe it is responsible for retro-placental haematoma, 17.6% for premature rupture of the membranes. The prevalence of smoking was 11.1% and was most frequent in 2nd year students (25.0%) and 3rd year students (14.8%) (P<0.023). The mean age of beginning smoking was 19.0±4.4 years. The main initiating factors were peer influence (28.6%), pleasure (19.0%) and stress (14.3%). Nicotine dependence was weak to moderate among 48.8% of smokers and absent in 52.2%. CONCLUSION: Gaps exist in the knowledge of student midwives regarding the risks of cigarette smoking to complications of pregnancy. There is need therefore to include formal training on tobacco control strategies at an early stage in the medical curriculum.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comportamento/fisiologia , Tocologia , Fumar , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gabão/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Tocologia/educação , Tocologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Neurochem Res ; 44(5): 1192-1200, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887217

RESUMO

Catecholamines, including epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA), are associated with the response to stressful conditions. However, the relationships of catecholamines with intelligence and their interactions with stress remain unclear. This study assessed stress, intelligence quotient (IQ), and catecholamine levels in 70 healthy subjects to elucidate associations between catecholamines and stress, and between catecholamines and IQ. Additionally, the associations of catecholamines with stress and IQ were analyzed according to hemispheric dominance using the Brain Preference Indicator (BPI). There were positive correlations between the NE/E ratio and the somatization of stress but negative correlations between the E/NE ratio and the somatization of stress among the total number of subjects. In the right-brain-dominant group, a high E/DA ratio was correlated with low levels of stress, somatization and depression, and high NE/E and DA/E ratios were associated with high levels of somatization. In the left-brain-dominant group, high E levels were correlated with low levels of depression. In the total subjects, there were positive correlations between the NE/E and DA/E ratios and the sum of the vocabulary, arithmetic, picture arrangement, and block design IQ subtests. Thus, these catecholamines were associated with stress and IQ, which suggests that the autonomic functional regulation of catecholamine levels in relation to stress may also affect cognitive functions related to intelligence in the brain. Furthermore, the relationships between catecholamines and stress or IQ differed depending on hemispheric dominance, which suggests that the present results could be used to inform the development of personalized therapies based on hemispheric asymmetry.


Assuntos
Catecolaminas/metabolismo , Epinefrina/metabolismo , Inteligência/fisiologia , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(6)2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909503

RESUMO

In this paper, a preliminary baseball player behavior classification system is proposed. By using multiple IoT sensors and cameras, the proposed method accurately recognizes many of baseball players' behaviors by analyzing signals from heterogeneous sensors. The contribution of this paper is threefold: (i) signals from a depth camera and from multiple inertial sensors are obtained and segmented, (ii) the time-variant skeleton vector projection from the depth camera and the statistical features extracted from the inertial sensors are used as features, and (iii) a deep learning-based scheme is proposed for training behavior classifiers. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed deep learning behavior system achieves an accuracy of greater than 95% compared to the proposed dataset.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Comportamento/fisiologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Beisebol , Humanos , Articulações/fisiologia , Memória de Longo Prazo , Memória de Curto Prazo , Fotografação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
13.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211856, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768599

RESUMO

In economics, models of decision-making under risk are widely investigated. Since many empirical studies have shown patterns in choice behavior that classical models fail to predict, several descriptive theories have been developed. Due to an evident phenotypic heterogeneity, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients have shown a general deficit in decision making when compared to healthy control subjects (HCs). However, the direction for impairment in decision-making in OCD patients is still unclear. Hence, bridging decision-making models widely used in the economic literature with mental health research may improve the understanding of preference relations in severe patients, and may enhance intervention designs. We investigate the behavior of OCD patients with respect to HCs by means of decision making economic models within a typical neuropsychological setting, such as the Cambridge Gambling Task. In this task subjects have to decide the amount of their initial wealth to invest in each risky decision. To account for heterogenous preferences, we have analyzed the micro-level data for a more informative analysis of the choices made by the subjects. We consider two influential models in economics: the expected value (EV), which assumes risk neutrality, and a multiple reference points model, an alternative formulation of Disappointment theory. We find evidence that (medicated) OCD patients are more consistent with EV than HCs. The former appear to be more risk neutral, namely, less sensitive to risk than HCs. They also seem to base their decisions on disappointment avoidance less than HCs.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Teoria da Decisão , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Econômicos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
14.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 99: 59-89, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735681

RESUMO

In a meta-analysis of 113 experiments we examined neurophysiological outcomes of learning, and the relationship between neurophysiological and behavioral outcomes of learning. Findings showed neurophysiology yielding large effect sizes, with the majority of studies examining electroencephalography and eye-related outcome measures. Effect sizes on neurophysiological outcomes were smaller than effect sizes on behavioral outcomes, however. Neurophysiological outcomes were, but behavioral outcomes were not, influenced by several modulating factors. These factors included the sensory system in which learning took place, number of learning days, whether feedback on performance was provided, and age of participants. Controlling for these factors resulted in the effect size differences between behavior and neurophysiology to disappear. The findings of the current meta-analysis demonstrate that neurophysiology is an appropriate measure in assessing learning, particularly when taking into account factors that could have an influence on neurophysiology. We propose a first model to aid further studies that are needed to examine the exact interplay between learning, neurophysiology, behavior, individual differences, and task-related aspects.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Monitorização Neurofisiológica , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Humanos , Monitorização Neurofisiológica/métodos , Pesquisa , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
15.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 4139404, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733834

RESUMO

Objectives: The findings of previous studies focused on personality disorders in epileptic patients are difficult to interpret due to nonhomogeneous samples and noncomparable methods. Here, we aimed at studying the personality profile in patients with mild temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with psychiatric comorbidity. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with mTLE (22 males, mean age 40.7 ± 12.1) underwent awake and sleep EEG, 3T brain MRI, and an extensive standardized diagnostic neuropsychiatric battery: Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), Beck Depression Inventory-2, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Drug history was collected in detail. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis was performed on TCI-R data, while all other clinical and psychological variables were compared across the resulting clusters. Results: Scores of Harm Avoidance (HA), Reward Dependence (RD), Persistence (P), Cooperativeness (C), and Self-Transcendence (ST) allowed the identification of two clusters, describing different personality subtypes. Cluster 1 was characterized by an early onset, more severe anxiety traits, and combined drug therapy (antiepileptic drug and Benzodiazepine/Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) compared to Cluster 2. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that different personality traits may play a role in determining the clinical outcome in patients with mTLE. Specifically, lower scores of HA, RD, P, C, and ST were associated with worse clinical outcome. Thus, personality assessment could serve as an early indicator of greater disease severity, improving the management of mTLE.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto , Caráter , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade/fisiologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Temperamento/fisiologia
16.
Psychol Rev ; 126(2): 252-291, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702315

RESUMO

Our knowledge of events and situations in the world plays a critical role in our ability to understand what is happening around us, to predict what might happen next, and to comprehend language. What has not been so clear is the form and structure of this knowledge, how it is learned, and how it is deployed in real time. Despite many important theoretical proposals, often using different terminology such as schemas, scripts, frames, and event knowledge, developing a model that addresses these three questions (the form, learning, and use of such knowledge) has remained an elusive challenge for decades. In this article, we present a connectionist model of event knowledge that attempts to fill this gap. From sequences of activities, the model learns both the internal structure of activities as well as the temporal structure that organizes activity sequences. The model simulates a wide range of human behaviors that have been argued to involve the use of event knowledge and the temporal structure of events. Furthermore, it makes testable predictions about behaviors not yet observed. Most importantly, the model's ability to learn event structure from experience is a novel solution to the question, "What is the form and representation of event knowledge?" (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Redes Neurais (Computação) , Pensamento/fisiologia , Humanos , Conhecimento
18.
Trends Neurosci ; 42(3): 192-204, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616953

RESUMO

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is among the most common birth defects. Children with CHD frequently display long-term intellectual and behavioral disability. Emerging evidence indicates that cardiac anomalies lead to a reduction in cerebral oxygenation, which appears to profoundly impact on the maturation of cerebral regions responsible for higher-order cognitive functions. In this review we focus on the potential mechanisms by which dysregulation of cortical neuronal development during early life may lead to the significant cognitive impairments that commonly occur in children with CHD. Further understanding of the mechanisms underlying cortical dysmaturation due to CHD will be necessary to identify strategies for neonatal neuroprotection and for mitigating developmental delays in this patient population.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/metabolismo , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Humanos , Neurônios/metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210238, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629657

RESUMO

Previous studies have found a positive effect of cosmetics on certain behavioral measures, such as the tip given to waitresses by male patrons. These studies have employed confederates who usually wear cosmetics. We therefore sought to examine whether the positive effect found in these studies could, in part, be explained by a change in behavior. In order to test the possibility of a 'cosmetics placebo effect', we employed a confederate to solicit donations from passersby. On some days our confederate would not have any cosmetics applied to her face (i.e., no cosmetics condition), on some days cosmetics were pretended to be applied to her face (i.e., placebo cosmetics condition), and on other days cosmetics were actually applied to her face (i.e., cosmetics condition). In line with previous research, we found that across conditions men donated significantly more than women to our female solicitor, providing support for the 'showoff hypothesis', in which male generosity serves as a mating tactic. When investigating men's donations in more detail, we found that the highest percentage of donations came in the cosmetics condition, followed by the placebo cosmetics condition, and then by no cosmetics condition. The effect of condition on donation rates, however, was not statistically significant. Our study was limited to one solicitor and one dependent variable (i.e., percentage of people approached who donated) and therefore future research would benefit from using more confederates as well as examining other behavioral measures. Given the influence of cosmetics use on so many real-world outcomes, we believe that further exploration into a possible 'cosmetics placebo effect' would be valuable.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Cosméticos , Homens/psicologia , Percepção Social , Beleza , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Efeito Placebo
20.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 98: 208-220, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611802

RESUMO

The type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) was initially regarded as a peripheral cannabinoid receptor. However, recent technological advances in gene detection, alongside the availability of transgenic mouse lines, indicate that CB2Rs are expressed in both neurons and glial cells in the brain under physiological and pathological conditions, and are involved in multiple functions at cellular and behavioral levels. Brain CB2Rs are inducible and neuroprotective via up-regulation in response to various insults, but display species differences in gene and receptor structures, CB2R expression, and receptor responses to various CB2R ligands. CB2R transcripts also differ between the brain and spleen. In the brain, CB2A is the major transcript isoform, while CB2A and CB2B transcripts are present at higher levels in the spleen. These new findings regarding brain versus spleen CB2R isoforms may in part explain why early studies failed to detect brain CB2R gene expression. Here, we review evidence supporting the expression and function of brain CB2R from gene and receptor levels to cellular functioning, neural circuitry, and animal behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Canabinoides/metabolismo , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/genética , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptores de Canabinoides/genética , Receptores de Canabinoides/metabolismo
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