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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 349, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore current attitudes towards sun protection, and sun-seeking behaviour among young Australian adolescents. It was done as part of a larger project aiming to develop a digital resource to support young people in making informed sun-health decisions. RESULTS: Ten (4 male, 6 female) adolescents (12-13 years of age) living in Perth (Western Australia) were recruited through a social media-based strategy. Each participant engaged in a semi-structured telephone interview which explored their sun-health decision-making, with interview transcripts assessed qualitatively using NVivo. Three major themes (and eight sub-themes) were identified: (1) 'personal sun health considerations'; (2) 'attitudes towards sun protection'; and (3) 'recommendations'. The importance of sun protection was appreciated by participants. However, females were more diligent in the use of sun protection while males were indifferent. Behaviours were influenced by parental input, the school environment and engagement in sport. Adolescents had limited knowledge of the UV Index and its implications for sun protection, and the health importance of sun-derived vitamin D. Overall, the importance of sun protection was acknowledged but did not consistently translate into sun protective behaviours.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas , Queimadura Solar , Adolescente , Austrália , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Queimadura Solar/tratamento farmacológico , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256136, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Political ideologies drove public actions and health behaviors in the first year of the global pandemic. Different ideas about contagion, health behaviors, and the actions of governing bodies impacted the spread of the virus and health and life. Researchers used an immediate, mixed methods design to explore sociocultural responses to the virus and identified differences and similarities in anxiety, fear, blame, and perceptions of nation across political divides. METHODS: Researchers conducted 60 in-depth, semi-structured interviews and administered over 1,000 questionnaires with people living in the United States. The team analyzed data through an exploratory and confirmatory sequential mixed methods design. RESULTS: In the first months of the pandemic interviewees cited economic inequality, untrustworthy corporations and other entities, and the federal government as threats to life and pandemic control. Participants invoked ideas about others to determine blame. Findings reveal heavy associations between lack of safety during a public health crisis and blame of "culture" and government power across the political spectrum. CONCLUSION: Data indicate anxiety across political differences related to ideas of contagion and the maleficence of a powerful elite. Findings on how people understand the nation, politics, and pandemic management contribute to understanding dimensions of health behaviors and underlying connections between anxiety and the uptake of conspiracy theories in public health. The article ends with recommendations drawn from project findings for future pandemic response.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , COVID-19 , Medo/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Governo Federal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3839-3851, 2021.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468677

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to identify dietary patterns and associations with socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle, nutritional status, lipid profile and inflammatory profile in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a probabilistic sample using baseline data (2014) from the Longitudinal Study on Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, Eating Habits and Adolescent Health. A total of 1,438 adolescents (10 to 14 years old) from public schools in the city of João Pessoa, Brazil, participated in the study. Data were collected on socioeconomic characteristics, nutritional status, lifestyle and the results of biochemical tests. Dietary data were obtained using the 24-hour recall method and dietary patterns were identified by exploratory factor analysis. Associations of interest were estimated using multiple logistic regression. Three dietary patterns were found: "Traditional", "Snacks" and "Western". These patterns were associated with age, socioeconomic status, parental education and lifestyle. The "Traditional" pattern was associated lower adiposity and a better lipid profile. However, with the increase in age, greater frequencies of the "Snacks" and "Western" patterns were found. The present findings underscore the need for strategies that encourage healthy behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e928512, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global threat. This study was performed to gain an understanding of COVID-19-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among susceptible individuals. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients who had been diagnosed with old myocardial infarction were followed up via telephone survey based on an established follow-up system at the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak (January 2020) in Chongqing, Southwest China. RESULTS A total of 631 eligible patients participated in this survey, and 40.6% of the rural respondents did not know the transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2, which was higher than the proportion of urban respondents (40.6% vs 31.0). Rural residents had a lower rate of adopting preventive measures than urban residents, such as wearing masks (76.7% vs 90.1%), avoiding meetings and gatherings (58.6% vs 68.5%), and hand washing (56.0% vs 63.8%). A higher percentage of women than men did not take any preventive measures (11.3% vs 7.6%), while a lower percentage of women than men wore masks (77.7% vs 84.5%). Multiple logistic regression revealed that rural patients were more likely to lack knowledge about transmission (odds ratio (OR): 1.51). Rural patients had an increased risk of failing to implement protective measures. CONCLUSIONS Female and rural populations lacked knowledge and failed to adopt protective measures during the beginning of the COVID-19 epidemic. Therefore, these populations may benefit from health education campaigns and policies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , China , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 213, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although physical activity (PA) and sedentary time in cancer survivors (CSs) were associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL), it was not clear whether their associations were similar among CSs with different number of comorbid chronic diseases (CCDs). This study aimed to investigate the associations between PA, sedentary time and HRQOL in CSs with different number of CCDs. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1546 CSs between June and September 2018 in Shanghai, China. Data were collected with a self-reported questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, CCDs, PA, sedentary time and HRQOL. International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core30 were respectively used to measure PA and HRQOL of CSs. Associations of PA and sedentary time with HRQOL among CSs with different number of CCDs were evaluated by using logistic regression, adjusted for confounding factors. RESULTS: About seventy-five percent CSs had at least one CCD. Approximately three fifths CSs had high PA level and < 4 h/day sedentary time. Moderate PA level and high PA level were shown to be associated with better HRQOL among all participants. In CSs with ≤ 2 CCDs, high PA level was significantly associated with higher scores of physical function and lower scores of nausea and vomiting, appetite loss. However, there was a positive association between high PA level and constipation score among CSs with ≥ 3 CCDs. CSs with shorter sedentary time had better HRQOL in those with CCDs. CONCLUSIONS: High PA level and long sedentary time have significant association with worse HRQOL of CSs with ≥ 3 CCDs, while high PA level is positively associated with HRQOL in CSs with ≤ 2 CCDs. Our findings may support further studies of the causal association between PA, sedentary times and HRQOL to provide targeted proposal to improve the HRQOL of CSs according to their number of CCDs.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Terapêutica
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 617468, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490173

RESUMO

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become a major issue in Mexico, reporting almost 100,000 attributable deaths in 2016. Low-income Mexican citizens who face various issues associated with T2DM, including the lack of access to self-management services, are particularly affected by the condition. Health centers have been designated to serve T2DM patients by providing resources on chronic disease prevention. Meta Salud Diabetes (MSD) is a self-management intervention developed to address cardiovascular complications and other health issues within the T2DM population, which have been proven effective and useful for health centers. The intervention was designed for T2DM support groups-grupos de ayuda mutua (GAMs) located within health centers. Methods: From February to June 2019, a binational research team conducted a test scale-up study in Northwest Sonora under the Ministry of Health utilizing the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Framework for scaling up health interventions. Investigators worked in collaboration and trained 19 stakeholders from a regional health system identified from various ecological levels on MSD and implementation process. Results: All five GAMs within the regional health system received and completed the intervention. In total, 72 participants were enrolled with behavioral and biological [HbA1c, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI)] measures taken at baseline. Post-intervention measurements were taken from 72% of participants who completed the intervention. Statistical analysis demonstrated improved behavioral and biological measures when comparing baseline to post-intervention, specifically statistically significant improvements in HbA1c and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Implementation fidelity (IF) measures indicated extensive adherence to the intervention curriculum, and moderators specifically demonstrated influences on implementation. Stakeholders from various ecological levels provided support to those facilitating the MSD intervention by allotting time and resources to properly prepare for sessions. An implementation coordinator from the regional health office assisted MSD facilitators by resolving barriers to implementation and worked toward federal accreditation for GAMs to receive additional funding. Conclusion: Results provide evidence for using regional health systems as a scalable unit when implementing chronic disease self-management interventions state- and nationwide. This study will help inform future efforts to scale up the health intervention in various states throughout Mexico. Clinical Trial Registration:www.ClinicalTrials.gov; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02804698?term=NCT02804698&draw=2&rank=1, identifier: NCT02804698.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Autogestão , Doença Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , México/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1611, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neighborhood social cohesion (NSC) is the network of relationships as well as the shared values and norms of residents in a neighborhood. Higher NSC has been associated with improved cardiovascular health, largely among Whites but not African Americans. In a bi-racial cohort, we aimed to study the association between NSC and chronic disease awareness and engagement in healthy self-management behaviors, two potential mechanisms by which NSC could impact cardiovascular health outcomes. METHODS: Using the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Lifespan Study (HANDLS), we cross-sectionally examined the association between NSC and awareness of three chronic conditions (diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and hypertension) and engagement in healthy self-management behaviors including physical activity, healthy eating, and cigarette avoidance. RESULTS: Study participants (n = 2082) had a mean age of 56.5 years; 38.7% were White and 61.4% African American. Of the participants, 26% had diabetes, 70% had hypertension and 20.2% had CKD. Mean NSC was 3.3 (SD = 0.80) on a scale of 1 (lowest score) to 5 (highest score). There was no significant association between NSC and any chronic disease awareness, overall or by race. However, each higher point in mean NSC score was associated with less cigarette use and healthier eating scores, among Whites (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: =0.76, 0.61-0.94; beta coefficient [ßc]:, 95% CI: 1.75; 0.55-2.97, respectively) but not African Americans (aOR = 0.95, 0.79-1.13; ßc: 0.46, - 0.48-1.39, respectively; Pinteraction = 0.08 and 0.06). Among both Whites and African Americans, higher NSC scores were associated with increases in self-reported physical activity (ßc: 0.12; 0.08-0.16; Pinteraction = 0.40). CONCLUSIONS: Community engagement and neighborhood social cohesion may be important targets for promotion of healthy behaviors and cardiovascular disease prevention. More research is needed to understand the different associations of NSC and healthy behaviors by race.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Características de Residência , Afro-Americanos , Doença Crônica , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 49(9): 905-911, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530599

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the relationship between the ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors and newonset heart failure. Methods: It was a prospective cohort study. People who attended the 2006-2007 physical examination of Kailuan Group Company and with complete data of cardiovascular behaviors and related factors were eligible for this study. A total of 95 167 participants who were free of valvular heart diseases, congenital heart diseases and a prior history of heart failure were included. Basic cardiovascular health score (CHS) of each participant was calculated. Participants were divided into 3 groups according to CHS. Group 1:CHS<8 (n=26 640), Group 2:8≤CHS<10 (n=35 230), Group3:CHS≥10 (n=33 297). The general clinical data and laboratory test results were collected. The outcome was defined as the first occurrence of heart failure at the end of followup(December 31, 2016). Cox regression model was used to determine the association between baseline CHS and the risk of newonset heart failure. Results: After a median followup of 10.3 years, the incidence of newonset heart failure in the group of CHS<8,8≤CHS<10,CHS≥10 were 2.7%(729/26 640), 1.8%(651/35 230) and 1.1%(360/33 297),respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, history of myocardial infarction, history of atrial fibrillation, income, alcohol consumption, education and the use of antihypertensive, cholesterol-lowering, glucose-lowering medications, compared with the group of CHS<8, the Cox regression model showed that HRs of the group of 8≤CHS<10 and CHS≥10 were 0.68 (95%CI 0.61-0.75), 0.49 (95%CI 0.43-0.55), respectively. Cox regression analysis after removing each single cardiovascular behavior or factor showed that the HR value range ability was as follows:systolic blood pressure(HR=0.78,95%CI 0.74-0.82), body mass index(HR=0.78,95%CI 0.74-0.82), fasting blood glucose (HR=0.77,95%CI 0.73-0.81), total cholesterol(HR=0.76,95%CI 0.72-0.80), physical exercise(HR=0.72,95%CI 0.69-0.76), smoking(HR=0.75,95%CI 0.71-0.79) and salt intake(HR=0.73,95%CI 0.69-0.77). Conclusion: CHS is negatively associated with the risk of newonset heart failure, and there is a dose-response relationship between the two indexes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256159, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495998

RESUMO

What influences the adoption of SARS-CoV-2 mitigation behaviors-both personal, such as mask wearing and frequent handwashing, and social, such as avoiding large gatherings and physical contact-across countries? Understanding why some individuals are more willing to change their behavior to mitigate the spread of a pandemic will not only help us to address the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic but also to respond to future ones. Researchers have pointed to a variety of factors that may influence individual adoption of personal and social mitigation behaviors, including social inequality, risk perception, personality traits, and government policies. While not denying the importance of these factors, we argue that the role of trust and confidence has received insufficient attention to date. Our study explores whether there is a difference in the way trust and confidence in particular leaders and organizations affect individual compliance and whether this effect is consistent across different types of mitigation behaviors. Specifically, we utilize an original cross-national survey conducted during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (May-June 2020) to investigate how trust in scientists, medical professionals, politicians, and religious leaders and confidence in global, national, and local health organizations affects individual compliance in 16 countries/territories across five world regions. Our analyses, which control for the aforementioned factors as well as several others, suggest that trust in politicians and confidence in national health ministries have the most consistent influence on whether individuals adopt both personal and social mitigation behaviors. Across our sample, we find that greater trust in politicians is associated with lower levels of individual compliance with public health directives, whereas greater confidence in the national health ministry is associated with higher levels of individual compliance. Our findings suggest the need to understand trust and confidence as among the most important individual level characteristics driving compliance when developing and delivering messaging about the adoption of mitigation behaviors. The content of the message, it seems, will be most effective when citizens across countries trust its source. Trusted sources, such as politicians and the national health ministry, should thus consider working closely together when determining and communicating recommended health behaviors to avoid contradicting one another.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Confiança/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Governo , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256063, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383837

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic incited unprecedented restrictions on the behavior of society. The aims of this study were to quantify changes to sleep/wake behavior and exercise behavior, as well as changes in physiological markers of health during COVID-19 physical distancing. A retrospective analysis of 5,436 US-based subscribers to the WHOOP platform (mean age = 40.25 ± 11.33; 1,536 females, 3,900 males) was conducted covering the period from January 1st, 2020 through May 15th, 2020. This time period was separated into a 68-day baseline period and a 67-day physical distancing period. To provide context and allow for potential confounders (e.g., change of season), data were also extracted from the corresponding time periods in 2019. As compared to baseline, during physical distancing, all subjects fell asleep earlier (-0.15 hours), woke up later (0.29 hours), obtained more sleep (+0.21 hours) and reduced social jet lag (-0.13 hours). Contrasting sleep behavior was seen in 2019, with subjects falling asleep and waking up at a similar time (-0.01 hours; -0.03 hours), obtaining less sleep (-0.14 hours) and maintaining social jet lag (+0.06 hours) in corresponding periods. Individuals exercised more intensely during physical distancing by increasing the time spent in high heart rate zones. In 2020, resting heart rate decreased (-0.90 beats per minute) and heart rate variability increased (+0.98 milliseconds) during physical distancing when compared to baseline. However, similar changes were seen in 2019 for RHR (-0.51 beats per minute) and HRV (+2.97 milliseconds), suggesting the variation may not be related to the introduction of physical distancing mandates. The findings suggest that individuals improved health related behavior (i.e., increased exercise intensity and longer sleep duration) during physical distancing restrictions. While positive changes were seen to cardiovascular indicators of health, it is unclear whether these changes were a direct consequence of behavior change.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Distanciamento Físico , Sono/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , COVID-19 , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444523

RESUMO

As gestational diabetes, which is increasing steadily around the world, can cause complications in the mother and fetus, it is essential to change eating habits and eating behavior to prevent this. According to the 2020 American Diabetes Association recommendations, the food plan should be designed for the adequate calorie intake to achieve glycemic goals and consequently promote maternal and fetal health. Thus, the following study has used the qualitative theme analysis method to assess what it means for 28 South Korean women, who were diagnosed with gestational diabetes for the first time, to change their eating habits and behaviors. As a result, themes were derived related to reflection on daily life, formation of new relationships in the same group, efforts that must be made, rediscovery of couples, and lifestyles reborn as new roles. Based on the results of the study, it is shown that the study participants recovered the peace in their mental state after the crisis of gestational diabetes to pursue relaxation and ultimately higher quality of life by following the plan to fulfill healthy achievements, such as changing their eating habits and behaviors. Therefore, future research and support measures to help the healthy behaviors should be sought by comprehensively exploring the effects of women's experiences in changing their eating habits and behaviors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Gravidez , Qualidade de Vida
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444544

RESUMO

This study classified the changes in alcohol use behavior among Korean adults and explored the related factors. The study used data from the 4th (2009) to 14th (2019) waves of the Korean Welfare Panel Study. The subjects were 8267 adults aged 19-60 years. Latent class growth analysis was used to classify the latent classes of alcohol use behavior among Korean adults, and logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the specific factors that form the classes. Additionally, the 11-year trajectories of major variables associated with alcohol use behavior for the derived classes were analyzed using growth mixture modeling. Four classes were identified according to the trajectories of alcohol use behavior. There were statistically significant differences in the trajectories of depression, self-esteem, satisfaction in family relationships, and satisfaction in leisure activities according to the class of alcohol use behavior. In particular, self-esteem and satisfaction in family relationships indicated distinctly decreasing trajectories in the low- to moderate-risk class, which suggested the need for longitudinal analysis of the factors that influence alcohol use behavior. Moreover, it is recommended that interventions for the prevention of high-risk drinking target not only individuals but also family units.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estudos Longitudinais , Satisfação Pessoal , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
14.
Health Psychol ; 40(7): 419-427, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the relative strengths of cognitive and emotional factors in explaining variance in adherence to recommendations for protective health behaviors against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). DESIGN: A longitudinal (4-month) study with 422 participants who completed an online survey assessing cognitive factors: perceptions of the severity of the disease, vulnerability to it, and the effectiveness of the protective behavior recommendations against it. The emotional factors investigated were: trait health anxiety, worries, and anxiety related to COVID-19. RESULTS: Adherence and perceived behavior efficacy decreased over time, while perceived vulnerability and worries increased. Regression analyses showed a clear predictive advantage of beliefs about the efficacy of adherence to protective behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the "cognitive approach" to explaining pandemic-related behaviors, particularly the key role of perceived efficacy of behavior recommendations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cognição , Emoções , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
15.
Psychiatr Pol ; 55(3): 497-509, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess anxiety among Poles between the 35th and the 42nd day after the introduction of the state of epidemiological threat, and to compare the obtained results with global reports and the pre-pandemic state. METHODS: The study was conducted on 2,457 respondents from Poland. The research methods comprised an original survey questionnaire, distributed via the Internet from 17 to 24 April 2020, assessing the sociodemographic state, and standardized psychometric tools: the Beck Depression Inventory, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7) and Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life. RESULTS: The results of 71% of the respondents indicated the presence of anxiety symptoms with various degrees of severity. In 45% of the respondents, the total score was ≥10 points, indicating signs of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Female respondents scored significantly higher than men. Place of residence, marital status and the type of performed work had no statistically significant impact on the level of anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected the mental condition of Poles, resulting in increased anxiety, fear and concerns regarding the future. 71% of the respondents showed different degrees of anxiety severity, and 44% of them scored at least 10 points in the GAD-7 scale, which indicates the presence of signs of Generalized Anxiety. There is a great need to provide Poles with mental support during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Quarentena/psicologia
16.
Am J Public Health ; 111(8): 1443-1447, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464195

RESUMO

To investigate how heat-health behaviors changed in summer 2020 compared with previous summers, our community-academic partnership conducted telephone surveys to collect data on cooling behaviors, safety concerns, and preferences for cooling alternatives for 101 participants living in Alabama. Participants indicating they would visit cooling centers declined from 23% in previous summers to 10% in summer 2020. The use of cooling centers and other public spaces may be less effective in reducing heat-related illness because of safety concerns amid the COVID-19 pandemic and police brutality.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Alta , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Alabama , COVID-19/psicologia , Habitação , Humanos
17.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(4): 756-770, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340742

RESUMO

Objectives: Cross-sectional reports on weight gain during the COVID-19 shelter-at-home have raised concerns for weight increases as the pandemic continues. We examined behaviors that impact energy intake and/or energy expenditure among adults in the United States during shelter-at-home. Methods: Cross-sectional data (N=1779; April 24 - May4, 2020) were collected on demographics, diet, physical activity, sleep, and food purchasing behaviors. Percent of participants reporting increase/ decrease/no change in these behaviors during the COVID-19 shelter-at-home were assessed. Each analysis was followed by comparing whether increases or decreases were more likely for each health behavior, in all participants and across sex (43.38% males). Results: Increased consumption of healthy foods, energy-dense unhealthy foods, and snacks, and increased sedentary activities (p < .001) was reported. Physical activity and alcohol intake declined (p < .001). Females were more likely than males (p < .001) to report ultra-processed foods/high-calorie snack intake, fruit/vegetable intake (p < .001) and increase (p < .01) sleep and sedentary behavior. Conclusion: Acute behavioral changes supporting greater energy intake and less energy expenditure, especially in females, underscore the significance of COVID-19-related increase in unstructured time. Longitudinal assessment of body weight and health behaviors is warranted to understand the impact of pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Distanciamento Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360321

RESUMO

(1) The goal of this study was to analyze the prevalence and pattern of alcohol consumption (frequency of consumption, average daily consumption, and risky consumption) before and during confinement due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the adult population and based on gender. (2) Methods: Data from 3779 individuals were collected via a set of online surveys. The AUDIT alcohol consumption questions (AUDIT-C) were used to measure the frequency of consumption, the average daily consumption, intensive consumption, risky consumption, and standard drink units. (3) Results: During confinement, the prevalence of alcohol consumption declined in both males and females, but only intensive consumption showed significant differences, with a greater reduction in males. The number of females who consumed alcohol four or more times per week doubled, whereas the number of males who did so was multiplied by a factor of 1.5; in both females and males, the percentage who presented intensive consumption doubled. The percentage of females with risky consumption was higher than that of males both before and during confinement. In addition to gender, the interaction between age and the employment situation explain consumption before and during confinement. (4) Conclusions: During confinement due to COVID-19, alcohol consumption declined in both sexes, but alcohol-risk consumers increased their frequency of use. The interaction between gender, age, and employment situation was related to these changes. These findings are relevant for guiding public health and health-risk management policies related to alcohol consumption in environmental situations similar to COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360505

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected outpatient caregivers in a particular way. While the German population becomes increasingly older, the number of people in need of care has also increased. The health and, thus, the health behaviour of employees in the outpatient care become relevant to maintain working capacity and performance in the long term. The aims of the study were (1) to examine the health behaviour and (2) to explore pandemic-related perceived change of health behaviour among outpatient caregivers during the COVID-19 pandemic. In a mixed-methods study, 15 problem-centred interviews and a web-based cross-sectional survey (N = 171) were conducted with outpatient caregivers working in Northern Germany. Interviewees reported partially poorer eating behaviour, higher coffee consumption, lower physical activity, skipping breaks more often and less sleep duration and quality during the pandemic. Some quantitative findings indicate the same tendencies. A majority of participants were smokers and reported higher stress perception due to the pandemic. Preventive behaviour, such as wearing PPE or hand hygiene, was increased among interviewees compared to the pre-pandemic period. Our findings indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic could negatively affect outpatient caregivers' health behaviour, e.g., eating/drinking behaviour and physical activity. Therefore, employers in outpatient care should develop workplace health promotion measures to support their employees in conducting more health-promoting behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Cuidadores , Estudos Transversais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1523, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emerging adulthood is traditionally viewed as a time of optimal health, but also as a critical life span, characterized by changing life circumstances and the establishment of an individual lifestyle. Especially university life seems to hold several challenges impeding the manifestation of a health supporting manner, as many students tend to show a poorer health behavior and a higher amount of health-related problems than comparable age groups. This, along with a steady growth of the higher education sector, brings increased attention to the university setting in the context of prevention. To date, there are few empirical longitudinal and coherent cross-sectional data on the status of students' health literacy, health status, and health behaviors, and on the impact of the study format on students' health. The aim of this prospective cohort study is to reduce this research gap. METHODS: Starting during winter semester 2020/21, the prospective cohort study collects data on health literacy, health status and health behavior on a semester-by-semester basis. All enrolled students of the IST University of Applied Sciences, regardless of study format and discipline, can participate in the study at the beginning of their first semester. The data are collected digitally via a specifically programmed app. A total of 103 items assess the subjectively perceived health status, life and study satisfaction, sleep quality, perceived stress, physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug addiction and health literacy. Statistical analysis uses (1) multivariate methods to look at changes within the three health dimensions over time and (2) the association between the three health dimensions using multiple regression methods and correlations. DISCUSSION: This cohort study collects comprehensive health data from students on the course of study. It is assumed that gathered data will provide information on how the state of health develops over the study period. Also, different degrees of correlations of health behavior and health literacy will reveal different impacts on the state of students' health. Furthermore, this study will contribute to empirically justified development of target group-specific interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00023397 (registered on October 26, 2020).


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Hábitos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
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