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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 40392, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1094841

RESUMO

Objetivo: discutir sobre a aplicação do construto da perspectiva temporal e os principais instrumentos de análise utilizados em estudos na área da saúde e da enfermagem. Conteúdo: a perspectiva temporal é uma das forças fundamentais na vida das pessoas e desempenha influência nos comportamentos, atitudes e decisões. Por ter forte influência nos comportamentos, o campo da saúde pode se beneficiar da sua aplicação. As dimensões temporais de passado, presente e futuro são usadas na codificação, armazenamento e recuperação de experiências vividas, inclusive de saúde e doença, fornecendo interpretações, estabelecendo metas e auxiliando a tomada de decisões. Conclusão: destaca-se a importância da influência da perspectiva temporal no comportamento relacionado à saúde, visto que a incorporação da avaliação da perspectiva temporal nas ações de cuidado à saúde também pode contribuir na prática da assistência, tanto para prevenção de comportamentos considerados prejudiciais, quanto para o desenvolvimento de comportamentos protetores para a saúde.


Objective: to discuss the application of the temporal perspective construct and the main analytical tools used in health and nursing studies. Content: the time perspective is one of the fundamental forces in people's lives and influences behavior, attitudes and decisions. Because it has a strong influence on behaviors, the field of health can be benefited with its application. The time dimensions of past, present and future are used in the codification, storage and retrieval of lived experiences, including health and illness, providing interpretations, setting goals and assisting in decision making. Conclusion: the importance of the time perspective's influence on health-related behavior is highlighted, since the incorporation of the temporal perspective evaluation into health care actions can also contribute to the practice of care, both for the prevention of behaviors considered harmful and for the development of protective behaviors for health. Descriptors: Time perception; health behavior; delivery of health care; nursing.


Objetivo: discutir la aplicación del construco de la perspectiva temporal y las principales herramientas analíticas utilizadas en los estudios de salud y enfermería. Contenido: la perspectiva del tiempo es una de las fuerzas fundamentales en la vida de las personas e influye en el comportamiento, las actitudes y las decisiones. Debido a que tiene una fuerte influencia en los comportamientos, el campo de la salud se puede beneficiar con su aplicación. Las dimensiones de tiempo del pasado, presente y futuro se utilizan en la codificación, almacenamiento y recuperación de experiencias vividas, incluida la salud y la enfermedad, proporcionando interpretaciones, estableciendo objetivos y ayudando en la toma de decisiones. Conclusión: se destaca la importancia de la influencia de la perspectiva del tiempo en el comportamiento relacionado con la salud, ya que la incorporación de la evaluación de la perspectiva temporal en las acciones de atención de la salud también puede contribuir a la práctica de la atención, tanto para la prevención de comportamientos considerados perjudiciales como para el desarrollo de comportamientos protectores para la salud.


Assuntos
Humanos , Percepção do Tempo , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Assistência à Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vulnerabilidade em Saúde , Cuidados de Enfermagem
2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1483, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behavioural science can play a critical role in combatting the effects of an infectious disease outbreak or public health emergency, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The current paper presents a synthesis of review literature discussing the application of behaviour change theories within an infectious disease and emergency response context, with a view to informing infectious disease modelling, research and public health practice. METHODS: A scoping review procedure was adopted for the searches. Searches were run on PubMed, PsychInfo and Medline with search terms covering four major categories: behaviour, emergency response (e.g., infectious disease, preparedness, mass emergency), theoretical models, and reviews. Three further top-up reviews was also conducted using Google Scholar. Papers were included if they presented a review of theoretical models as applied to understanding preventative health behaviours in the context of emergency preparedness and response, and/or infectious disease outbreaks. RESULTS: Thirteen papers were included in the final synthesis. Across the reviews, several theories of behaviour change were identified as more commonly cited within this context, specifically, Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behaviour, and Protection Motivation Theory, with support (although not universal) for their effectiveness in this context. Furthermore, the application of these theories in previous primary research within this context was found to be patchy, and so further work is required to systematically incorporate and test behaviour change models within public health emergency research and interventions. CONCLUSION: Overall, this review identifies a range of more commonly applied theories with broad support for their use within an infectious disease and emergency response context. The Discussion section details several key recommendations to help researchers, practitioners, and infectious disease modellers to incorporate these theories into their work. Specifically, researchers and practitioners should base future research and practice on a systematic application of theories, beginning with those reported herein. Furthermore, infectious disease modellers should consult the theories reported herein to ensure that the full range of relevant constructs (cognitive, emotional and social) are incorporated into their models. In all cases, consultation with behavioural scientists throughout these processes is strongly recommended to ensure the appropriate application of theory.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Teoria Psicológica , Humanos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
3.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008059

RESUMO

COVID-19 related restrictions aimed at curbing the spread of the coronavirus result in changes in daily routines and physical activity which can have a negative effect on eating and health habits. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with diabetes and their nutrition and health behaviours. A survey conducted in July 2020 included 124 individuals with type 1 (n = 90) and 2 (n = 34) diabetes mellitus from Poland. To assess nutritional and health behaviours, an online questionnaire covering basic information, anthropometric data, and details regarding physical activity, eating, and hygiene habits was used. Almost 40% of all respondents with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) stated that their disease self-management had significantly improved. Over 60% of all participants declared that they had started eating more nutritious and regular meals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Enhanced hygiene, in particular, during the period, a statistically significant increase in hand sanitiser use was reported by respondents (18% vs. 82%, p < 0.001). The study demonstrated that the pandemic had a significant impact on the behaviour of patients with DM. Improved disease self-management and making healthy, informed food and hygiene choices were observed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Autogestão , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4151-4156, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027351

RESUMO

Our aim was to analyze the association between previously diagnosed lifetime depression and changes in physical activity (PA), TV-viewing, consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as frequency of ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption. Data of 41,923 Brazilian adults (6,881 with depression and 35,042 without depression) were used. Participants reported PA (≥ 150 min/week), TV-viewing (≥ 4 h/day), frequency of eating fruits or vegetables (≤ 4 days/week) and UPF (≥ 5 days/week). For incidence indicators, we only considered participants without the risk behavior before the quarantine. People without and with depression presented, respectively, incidence of physical inactivity [70.1% (95%CI: 67.4-72.8) vs 76.3 (70.3-81.5)], high TV-viewing [31.2 (29.6-32.8) vs 33.9 (30.5-37.4)], low frequency of fruit or vegetable consumption [28.3 (25.8-31.0) vs 31.5 (26.1-37.5)] and elevated frequency of UPF consumption [9.7 (8.9-10.7) vs 15.2 (13.0-17.7)]. Participants with depression were more likely to present elevated frequency of UPF consumption incidence [OR:1.49 (95%CI:1.21-1.83)]. Thus, participants with previous diagnosis of depression were at risk for incidence of unhealthy diet behaviors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Frutas , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Televisão , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240396, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031476

RESUMO

During the past 6 months, the world has lost almost 950,000 lives because of the outbreak of COVID-19, with more than 31 million individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 worldwide. In response, lockdowns, and various other policies have been implemented. Unfortunately, many individuals are violating those policies and governments have been urging people to comply with the behavioral guidelines. In this paper, we argue that personality traits need to be considered to understand and encourage more effective public compliance with COVID 19 transmission mitigation behavioral guidelines. Using a sample of 8,548 individuals from Japan, we show that certain personality traits are related to the tendency to comply with COVID-19 transmission mitigation behavioral guidelines. We emphasize the importance of understanding why people respond differently to the same authority's messages and provide actionable insights for government policy makers and those who implement policies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e925877, 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a major public health challenge all over the world. People's knowledge, attitudes, and preventive behaviors about diseases affect the degree of adherence to control measures. This study aimed to survey the affecting factors of COVID-19 prevention behavior among nursing students in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS Six-hundred thirteen nursing students in Anhui, China participated in an online survey from March 30 to April 5, 2020. The survey collected demographic information, electronic health (eHealth) literacy, COVID-19-related knowledge, attitudes, and prevention behavior data using descriptive analysis and multinomial logistic regression to analyze the data. RESULTS The mean age of study participants was 20.88 years, of which 31.8% were male (n=613). Television (84.9%) and WeChat (79.6%) were the major sources of their information. Nursing students had good knowledge (14.68±2.83), had positive attitudes (4.03±0.59), had good practices (3.92±0.65), and had basic eHealth literacy (30.45±6.90). Nursing students with higher eHealth literacy (odds ratio [OR]=0.89, P<0.01), good knowledge (OR=0.89, P<0.01), and positive attitudes (OR=0.24, P<0.01) took more preventive behaviors. Students living in the countryside (OR=0.09, P<0.01) and of a young age (OR=1.51, P<0.05) seldom took preventive actions. Men, compared with women, were less likely to take preventive measures. (OR=1.44, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Good eHealth literacy, good knowledge, and a positive attitude were the most important variables that affected the prevention behavior against COVID-19. Targeted health education should be conducted for male students and students living in the countryside by providing reliable and effective online sources.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Internet , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , China , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e22910, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic stretched the medical system in Wuhan and posed a challenge to the state's risk communication efforts. Timely access to quality health care information during outbreaks of infectious diseases can be effective to curtail the spread of disease and feelings of anxiety. Although existing studies have extended our knowledge about online health information-seeking behavior, processes, and motivations, rarely have the findings been applied to an outbreak. Moreover, there is relatively little recent research on how people in China are using the internet for seeking health information during a pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore how people in China are using the internet for seeking health information during a pandemic. Drawing on previous research of online health information seeking, this study asks the following research questions: how was the "#COVID-19 Patient Seeking Help" hashtag being used by patients in Wuhan seeking health information on Weibo at the peak of the outbreak? and what kinds of health information were patients in Wuhan seeking on Weibo at the peak of the outbreak? METHODS: Using entity identification and textual analysis on 10,908 posts on Weibo, we identified 1496 patients with COVID-19 using "#COVID-19 Patient Seeking Help" and explored their online health information-seeking behavior. RESULTS: The curve of the hashtag posting provided a dynamic picture of public attention to the COVID-19 pandemic. Many patients faced difficulties accessing offline health care services. In general, our findings confirmed that the internet is used by the Chinese public as an important source of health information. The lockdown policy was found to cut off the patients' social support network, preventing them from seeking help from family members. The ability to seek information and help online, especially for those with young children or older adult members during the pandemic. A high proportion of female users were seeking health information and help for their parents or for older adults at home. The most searched information included accessing medical treatment, managing self-quarantine, and offline to online support. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings contribute to our understanding of health information-seeking behaviors during an outbreak and highlight the importance of paying attention to the information needs of vulnerable groups and the role social media may play.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pais , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psicothema ; 32(4): 490-500, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has highlighted the importance of studying the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. The aim of this study is to examine the role of age in the early psychological responses to the pandemic in a Spanish community sample, focusing on how different generations coped with it. METHOD: An online survey was conducted during the early stages of the quarantine. Sociodemographic, health and behavioral variables were compared for five age groups. Mental health was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and psychological impacts were assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). RESULTS: 3,524 participants were included (Mage = 39.24, SDage = 12.00). Participants aged between 18 and 33 years old showed more hyperactivation and evitation, were more depressed, anxious and stressed. Those aged between 26 and 33 years old showed more intrusion. Those aged between 18 and 25 years old suffered more sleep disturbances, claustrophobia and somatization and maintained worse routines. Elderly people showed better psychological responses in general. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides initial evidence that the negative psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic hits young people harder. These results should be taken into account when developing specific evidence-based strategies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/etiologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Hábitos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amostragem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050404

RESUMO

Unexpected isolation, which has not yet been seen on a global scale, has created the conditions for evaluating nutrition in a situation of reduced spatial activity. The study aimed to assess the influence of lockdown on selected eating habits of Polish adults. An anonymous questionnaire was conducted, including questions about eating habits and self-reported anthropometric measurements, referring to "before" and "during" lockdown. We reported the findings of 312 adults (aged 41.12 ± 13.05 years). Overall, 64.1% of the participants were women, 77.7% urban inhabitants and 78.6% employed. The average length of social isolation was 50.79 ± 10.53 days. The majority (51.6%) of the respondents did not eat outside the house during lockdown (p < 0.0001). The number of meals eaten during the day during lockdown increased significantly, 11.2% of the respondents ate 5 and more meals (p < 0.0001). The percentage of people snacking between meals increased by 5.1% during lockdown (p = 0.0001). Eggs, potatoes, sweets, canned meat and alcohol were consumed considerably more commonly during lockdown, while fast-food products, instant soups and energy drinks were eaten or drunk significantly less frequently. A marked decrease in the number of daily servings of the following products was observed: bakery products, red meat, fast food, instant soups, sweet beverages and energy drinks. Conversely, the number of daily servings of sweets and canned meat significantly increased. Two thirds of the respondents reported body weight changes, with 45.86% of the participants being overweight during lockdown. Significant changes in the diet of Polish adults were found during lockdown due to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Massa Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fast Foods , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Lanches , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
11.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053656

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 disease (COVID)-19 is having profound effects on the global economy and food trade. Limited data are available on how this pandemic is affecting our dietary and lifestyle-related behaviors at the global level. Google Trends was used to obtain worldwide relative search volumes (RSVs) covering a timeframe from before the COVID-19 pandemic 1 June 2019 to 27 April 2020. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients were used to measure relationships between daily confirmed cases and aforementioned RSVs between 31 December 2019 and 15 April 2020. RSV curves showed increased interest in multiple keywords related to dietary and lifestyle behaviors during the COVID-19 lockdown period in March and April 2020. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that the strongest variables in each keyword category were (1) food security (food shortage: r = 0.749, food bank: r = 0.660, and free food: r = 0.555; all p < 0.001), (2) dietary behaviors (delivery: r = 0.780, restaurant: r = -0.731, take-away: r = 0.731, and food-delivery: r = 0.693; all p < 0.001), (3) outdoor-related behaviors (resort: r = -0.922, hotel: r = -0.913, cinema: r = -0.844, park: r = -0.827, fitness: r = -0.817, gym: r = -0.811; plant: r = 0.749, sunbathing: r = 0.668, and online: r = 0.670; all p < 0.001), and (4) immune-related nutrients/herbs/foods (vitamin C: r = 0.802, vitamin A: r = 0.780, zinc: r = 0.781, immune: r = 0.739, vitamin E: r = 0.707, garlic: r = 0.667, omega-3 fatty acid: r = -0.633, vitamin D: r = 0.549, and turmeric: r = 0.545; all p < 0.001). Restricted movement has affected peoples' dietary and lifestyle behaviors as people tend to search for immune-boosting nutrients/herbs and have replaced outdoor activities with sedentary indoor behaviors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Curcuma , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Alho , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Nutrientes , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Restaurantes , Ferramenta de Busca , Comportamento Sedentário , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Oligoelementos , Vitaminas
12.
Cir Cir ; 88(5): 562-568, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064695

RESUMO

Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the state of anxiety, depression, and stress present in the society during the development of the 2019 coronavirus pandemic. Methods: Mixed methods study; a three-section questionnaire was developed which included sociodemographic, perceptions, emotions, and behaviors related to the 2019 coronavirus pandemic, and two emotional assessment psychometric tests. The proportions and confidence intervals of the variables were calculated and compared using the Chi-square test. Results: More than 40% of the subjects presented some degree of anxiety and 41.3% depression; the proportion of stress was < 30%. Of the subjects who experienced anxiety, 18.6% also had moderate-to-very severe depression or stress. Conclusion: There are emotional indicators derived from the 2019 coronavirus pandemic in almost half of the study population. The identification and timely treatment of these states could lessen the psychological impact due to 2019 coronavirus.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Psicometria , Assunção de Riscos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065991

RESUMO

The COVID-19 quarantine has caused significant changes in everyday life. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the quarantine on dietary, physical activity and alcohol consumption habits of Lithuanians and the association between health behaviours and weight changes. An online cross-sectional survey was carried out among individuals older than 18 years in April 2020. The self-administered questionnaire included health behaviour and weight change data. Altogether 2447 subjects participated in the survey. Almost half of the respondents (49.4%) ate more than usual, 45.1% increased snacking, and 62.1% cooked at home more often. Intake of carbonated or sugary drinks, fast food and commercial pastries decreased, while consumption of homemade pastries and fried food increased. A decrease in physical activity was reported by 60.6% of respondents. Every third (31.5%) respondent, more often those already with overweight, gained weight. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the higher odds of weight gain were associated with females, older age, increased consumption of sugary drinks, homemade pastries and fried food, eating more than usual, increased snacking, decreased physical activity and increased alcohol consumption. Our data highlighted the need for dietary and physical activity guidelines to prevent weight gain during the period of self-isolation, especially targeting those with overweight and obesity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social , Ganho de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Fast Foods , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena , Lanches , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e040448, 2020 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of describing an antibody-positive test result using the terms Immunity and Passport or Certificate, alone or in combination, on perceived risk of becoming infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and protective behaviours. DESIGN: 2×3 experimental design. SETTING: Online. PARTICIPANTS: 1204 adults from a UK research panel. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomised to receive one of six descriptions of an antibody test and results showing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, differing in the terms describing the type of test (Immunity vs Antibody) and the test result (Passport vs Certificate vs Test). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome: proportion of participants perceiving no risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 given an antibody-positive test result. Other outcomes include: intended changes to frequency of hand washing and physical distancing. RESULTS: When using the term Immunity (vs Antibody), 19.1% of participants (95% CI 16.1% to 22.5%) (vs 9.8% (95% CI 7.5% to 12.4%)) perceived no risk of catching coronavirus given an antibody-positive test result (adjusted OR (AOR): 2.91 (95% CI 1.52 to 5.55)). Using the terms Passport or Certificate-as opposed to Test-had no significant effect (AOR: 1.24 (95% CI 0.62 to 2.48) and AOR: 0.96 (95% CI 0.47 to 1.99) respectively). There was no significant interaction between the effects of the test and result terminology. Across groups, perceiving no risk of infection was associated with an intention to wash hands less frequently (AOR: 2.32 (95% CI 1.25 to 4.28)); there was no significant association with intended avoidance of physical contact (AOR: 1.37 (95% CI 0.93 to 2.03)). CONCLUSIONS: Using the term Immunity (vs Antibody) to describe antibody tests for SARS-CoV-2 increases the proportion of people believing that an antibody-positive result means they have no risk of catching coronavirus in the future, a perception that may be associated with less frequent hand washing. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Open Science Framework: https://osf.io/tjwz8/files/.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Imunidade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus , Certificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Revelação , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Medição de Risco , Reino Unido
17.
FP Essent ; 496: 11-15, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902241

RESUMO

the first 6 months of life to achieve optimal growth, development, and health. The World Health Organization recommends continuation of breastfeeding, with the addition of complementary foods, for at least 2 years. Despite this guidance, while most newborns and infants in the United States receive some breast milk, most are not exclusively breastfed, and breastfeeding frequently is discontinued earlier than recommended. The reasons for noninitiation or early cessation of breastfeeding are multifactorial. Commonly cited reasons for early discontinuation of breastfeeding include lactation and latching issues, concerns about infant nutrition and weight, concerns about taking drugs while breastfeeding, milk pumping, unsupportive work policies, and lack of social support. Racial and ethnic disparities exist regarding the initiation and duration of breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos
18.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 2127-2133, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982205

RESUMO

Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is an important, evidence-based treatment that improves outcomes for people with COPD. Individualized exercise programmes aim to improve exercise capacity; self-management education and psychological support are also provided. Translating increased exercise capacity into sustained behavioural change of increased physical activity is difficult. Other unresolved problems with PR programmes include improving uptake, completion, response and sustaining long-term benefit. We offer a different perspective drawn from clinical experience of PR, quantitative and qualitative studies of singing groups for people with COPD, and stroke rehabilitation research that gives psychological factors a more central role in determining outcomes after PR. We discuss Take Charge; a simple but effective psychological intervention promoting self-management--that could be used as part of a PR programme or in situations where PR was declined or unavailable. This may be particularly relevant now when traditional face-to-face group programmes have been disrupted by COVID-19 precautions.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Terapia por Exercício , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Pesquisa de Reabilitação , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/psicologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/reabilitação , Projetos de Pesquisa , Autogestão/métodos , Autogestão/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239961, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 pandemic led to major life changes. We assessed the psychological impact of COVID-19 on dental academics globally and on changes in their behaviors. METHODS: We invited dental academics to complete a cross-sectional, online survey from March to May 2020. The survey was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The survey collected data on participants' stress levels (using the Impact of Event Scale), attitude (fears, and worries because of COVID-19 extracted by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), perceived control (resulting from training on public health emergencies), norms (country-level COVID-19 fatality rate), and personal and professional backgrounds. We used multilevel regression models to assess the association between the study outcome variables (frequent handwashing and avoidance of crowded places) and explanatory variables (stress, attitude, perceived control and norms). RESULTS: 1862 academics from 28 countries participated in the survey (response rate = 11.3%). Of those, 53.4% were female, 32.9% were <46 years old and 9.9% had severe stress. PCA extracted three main factors: fear of infection, worries because of professional responsibilities, and worries because of restricted mobility. These factors had significant dose-dependent association with stress and were significantly associated with more frequent handwashing by dental academics (B = 0.56, 0.33, and 0.34) and avoiding crowded places (B = 0.55, 0.30, and 0.28). Low country fatality rates were significantly associated with more handwashing (B = -2.82) and avoiding crowded places (B = -6.61). Training on public health emergencies was not significantly associated with behavior change (B = -0.01 and -0.11). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 had a considerable psychological impact on dental academics. There was a direct, dose-dependent association between change in behaviors and worries but no association between these changes and training on public health emergencies. More change in behaviors was associated with lower country COVID-19 fatality rates. Fears and stresses were associated with greater adoption of preventive measures against the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Docentes de Odontologia/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Teoria Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Análise de Componente Principal , Inquéritos e Questionários
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