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1.
J Dent Hyg ; 93(5): 6-14, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628171

RESUMO

Purpose: Numerous oral health promotion programs are directed at reducing the prevalence of early childhood caries. Smartphone applications (app) may be beneficial in oral health promotion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a smartphone app, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), on the oral health behaviors of the parents of preschoolers.Methods: A two-phase, sequential, embedded mixed methods design explored how the app influenced the attitudes, beliefs, perceived behavioral control, and intentions of parents of preschoolers. Phase 1 was a quasi-experimental, one-group pretest-posttest design. Parents of preschool aged children (n=26) participated in the 4-week intervention. Phase 2 consisted of qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of parents from Phase 1 (n=11).Results: Parents' behavioral intentions or oral health behaviors with their preschoolers did not significantly change from pre- to post-intervention (p>.05). Social norms (SN) and perceived behavioral control (PBC) predicted behavioral intentions pre-intervention and behavioral change post-intervention. Thematic analysis revealed that parents' belief in the importance of establishing oral health habits and brushing reminders and videos delivered via a mobile application supported efforts to form oral health habits.Conclusion: The use of TPB constructs in the development of oral health promotions aimed at parents of preschoolers was partially supported. Intention and behavior were not affected post-intervention, but SN and PBC emerged as significant predictors of intentions and behavior. A dental smartphone app may aid parents to make good oral health habits part of their preschooler's daily routine.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Smartphone , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Pais
2.
Orv Hetil ; 160(43): 1687-1697, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630554

RESUMO

Long-term successful weight control poses a huge challenge to people who are overweight and treat them in the obesogenic environment. After reaching a clinically significant (5-10%) weight loss, the goal is to maintain the weight loss achieved. However, this requires virtually constant resistance to temptations and requires sustained effort in terms of dietary restriction and physical activity, which requires a strong motivational base. From the point of view of behavior, motivation is the probability that the patient starts, pursues, or persistently follows a strategy that triggers change, that is, in the case of obesity, is committed to health-related behaviors that support weight management and abandons health risk behaviors that hinders weight control efforts. The present study describes the transtheoretical model of behavioral change and provides examples of practical ways to increase motivation and adherence at all stages of behavioral change. All this can contribute to the work of primary care and outpatient care professionals in supporting weight loss patients with excess weight. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(43): 1687-1697.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora/métodos , Exercício , Motivação , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Perda de Peso , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia
3.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 82, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of poor self-rated sleep and to identify the population subgroups most susceptible to the problem. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, population-based study developed with data from the Health Survey conducted in the city of Campinas (ISACamp 2014/2015). Data from a sample of 1,998 individuals aged 20 years or older were analyzed. The self-rated quality of sleep was analyzed according to socio-demographic characteristics, morbidities, health behaviors and feeling of well-being. The association of sleep quality with different complaints and characteristics of sleep was also analyzed. Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimed using Poisson multiple regression model allowing for the sample weights. RESULTS: Prevalence of poor self-rated sleep was 29.1% and showed to be significantly higher in women, in individuals aged from 40 to 50 years, migrants, without occupation, physically inactive in leisure context, with common mental disorder (PR = 1.59), with greater number of health problems (PR = 2.33), poor self-rated health (PR = 1.61), and life dissatisfaction. Poor sleep was strongly associated with reports of difficulty in initiating sleep (PR = 4.17), in maintaining sleep (PR = 4.40) and with never or almost never feeling well when waking up (PR = 4.52). CONCLUSIONS: The results identify the population subgroups with poor quality of sleep that deserve greater attention. It also highlight the need to consider, in addition to the presence of comorbidities, mental health and the feeling of well-being in the care of patients with sleep problems and in the interventions planed for promoting healthy sleep.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Autoimagem , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17409, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577752

RESUMO

Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have detrimental impact on health-related quality of life. This study has 2 aims: first to identify the optimum model for LUTS study and then to explore the potential associated factors of LUTS and bother LUTS with the optimum model among adult women in China.The survey was conducted in 6 regions of China between February and July 2006. A modified Chinese Bristol Female LUTS questionnaire was administered. The number of LUTS was the main outcome measure. The fitting goodness was compared to identify the optimum model with likelihood ratio test statistics. Zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) model was used to explore the potential associated factors of LUTS and bother LUTS.Of all 18,992 respondents, 55.5% of respondents reported one (any LUTS) or more LUTS (mixed LUTS) and 36.5% of respondents reported one or more bother LUTS. With the largest log likelihood and smallest AIC and BIC, ZINB model showed the best goodness of fit. In the ZINB model, we identified multiple associated factors for any LUTS and mixed LUTS; older age (ß≥0.2), overweight [ß = 0.059, 95%CI (0.016∼0.102)], obese [ß = 0.143, 95%CI (0.087∼0.198)], postmenopausal status [ß = 0.099, 95%CI (0.023∼0.175)], prolonged labor [ß = 0.188, 95%CI (0.104∼0.272)], constipation [ß = 0.309, 95%CI (0.262∼0.357)], coexisting pelvic organ prolapse (POP) [ß = 0.348, 95%CI (0.224∼0.473)], diabetes (ß = 0.178, 95%CI (0.100∼0.257), hypertension [ß = 0.092, 95%CI (0.041∼0.143)], smoking (ß = 0.192, 95%CI (0.127∼0.258) and alcohol consumption [ß = 0.063, 95%CI (0.001∼0.126)] increased the odds of mixed LUTS. We identified multiple associated factors for bother LUTS and mixed LUTS; older age (ß ≥ 0.1), prolonged labor [ß = 0.153, 95%CI (0.031∼0.275)], constipation [ß = 0.359, 95%CI (0.292∼0.426)] coexisting POP (ß = 0.212, [95%CI (0.031∼0.393)], diabetes [ß = 0.154, 95%CI (0.030∼0.278)], and smoking [ß = 0.169, 95%CI (0.076∼0.262)] increased the odds of bother mixed LUTS.ZINB model was the optimum model to explore the potential associated factors of LUTS. Older age, coexisting POP and constipation were both closely related to any and bother LUTS, also the severity of LUTS. Compared to nulliparity, single or multiple deliveries and women who had perineal laceration had nothing to do with the severity of LUTS.


Assuntos
Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
5.
Dent Clin North Am ; 63(4): 607-620, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470916

RESUMO

Dental caries and periodontal diseases are preventable. Nevertheless, they remain prevalent. Dental practices offer an ideal setting for educating patients about oral health-related behavior change. This article describes the motivational communication approach to changing behavior and applies it to a discussion of behavior change communication over the course of life. CONTENT considerations focus on on identifying high-priority behaviors for change; patient affect, behavior, and cognition related to these behaviors, and understanding in which stage of change the patient is. Process the four principles of the Motivational Interviewing approach by Miller & Rollnick to analyze oral health-related behavior change over the life course.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Entrevista Motivacional , Doenças Periodontais , Comunicação , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e16873, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490371

RESUMO

At present, intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunotherapy is recommended for prophylaxis purposes after transurethral resection of bladder tumor, but has chances of recurrence. Radical cystectomy reduces the risk of recurrence in bladder cancer patients, but may have chances of postoperative complications. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that radical cystectomy has overtreatment and definitive BCG immunotherapy has undertreatment in intermediate or high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer patients. Data regarding biopsies, ultrasound, the computed tomography scan, adopted treatment strategy, treatment-emergent adverse effect, and a follow-up period of 312 patients with confirmed nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (pTa, pTis, or pT1 stage; intermediate or high-risk cancer) were reviewed. Patients who had received definitive intravesical BCG immunotherapy were included in BCG group (n = 210) and those who underwent radical cystectomy were included in RXC group (n = 87). Clinical decision-making for treatment strategies was evaluated for both groups. Cystitis was frequently observed in all patients who received BCG immunotherapy. In RXC group, ileus was frequently observed in all patients in early days after the operation. During 2 years of the follow-up period, biopsies, ultrasound, and the computed tomography scan reported that BCG group had fewer numbers of negative cancer patients after treatment than the RXC group after surgery (P < .0001). Total expenditure for BCG immunotherapy was higher than radical cystectomy (22,945 ±â€Š945 ¥/patient vs 17,985 ±â€Š545 ¥/patient; P < .0001). Definitive BCG immunotherapy had undertreatment and radical cystectomy had overtreatment for intermediate or high-risk invasive bladder cancer patients (level of evidence III).


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Cistectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Administração Intravesical , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Vacina BCG/efeitos adversos , Vacina BCG/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Cistectomia/efeitos adversos , Cistectomia/economia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Imunoterapia/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 217-220, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488729

RESUMO

A number of lifestyle factors have been recognised to play an important role in positively modifying medical and psychiatric diseases and their associated morbidity and mortality. These include, eating healthy food, greater physical activity, cessation of smoking, avoidance of alcohol and illicit substances. Additional lifestyle factors for healthy living include, safe and peaceful environment, optimal sleep, de-stressing and enjoyable activities, social connections/support and healthy mental activities. Physicians from the ancient times, through the middle ages to the early 20th century have recommended adoption of healthy lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise to manage medical and psychiatric disorders without really understanding their scientific basis. In this short paper, we discuss the important role lifestyle factors play in morbidity and mortality related to many important and common medical and psychiatric diseases. We explore how and if positively modifying lifestyle factors can help to improve and or prevent medical and psychiatric disorders with particular emphasis on food, diet and exercise.


Assuntos
Exercício , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Saúde Mental , Dieta Saudável , Humanos
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 371-375, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this paper we focus on adolescents in transition towards young adulthood (ATYA). We know from international studies that the transition process makes adolescents vulnerable to mental illness. However, little is known about Belgian ATYA mental-health status. Nor are risk factors associated with their mental illness understood, in particular with regard to depressive and anxiety disorder. The aim of this study is (1) to discuss evolution in time of prevalence of depressive disorder (DD) and anxiety disorder (AD) among Belgian ATYA and (2), to identify risk factors associated with these disorders among ATYA. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data was extracted from the Belgian Health Interview Survey (BHIS), which is a cross-sectional population survey, carried out in 2001, 2004, 2008, and 2013. Information about the population's background characteristics, health services utilization, health behaviours and mental health status were extracted and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: ATYA prevalence of DD and AD was higher in 2013 in comparison with previous years. These changes were significant only for DD (F=4.466, p=0.004). In contrast with younger adolescents, among ATYA odds of DD were 28.2% higher (OR 1.282, 95% CI 0.967-1.698, p=0.084) and, odds of AD were 55.2% higher (OR 1.552, 95% CI 1.137-2.119, p=0.006). For ATYA, a poor quality of social support was the most predictive factor of DD (OR 11.187, 95% CI 5.530-22.629, p<0.0001) and AD (OR 6.238, 95% CI 2.845-13.676, p<0.0001); whereas, having a paid job was the most protective factor with regard to DD (OR 0.282, 95% CI 0.169-0.470, p<0.0001) and AD (OR 0.552, 95% CI 0.330-0.924, p<0.024). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of mental illness among Belgian ATYA appears to worsen in time. In comparison with younger adolescents, ATYA are more vulnerable to anxiety disorders. Adverse and protective risk factors were identified and discussed in a way to improve access, continuity and mental healthcare pathways for Belgian ATYA.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529186

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Differences in the health status and health behavior of children and adolescents are analyzed, taking the income situation of the family into account. METHOD: The data is based on the second wave of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS Wave 2, 2014-2017). Health outcomes are the subjective health, chronic health limitations, mental disorders, ADHD, consumption of fresh fruit, consumption of sugary soft drinks, physical activity, sports activity during leisure time, overweight, and obesity. The income situation is recorded using the equivalized household income. RESULTS: Poor children and adolescents are more likely to have health problems than their peers from the middle- and, especially, the high-income group; their health behavior is less favorable. The biggest relative income-related differences are found in subjective health. With statistical control for parental education and occupational status, income-related differences in health status remain consistent while being significantly reduced for health behavior. DISCUSSION: The results confirm that low family income has a significant impact on the health of children and adolescents. Partly, this also applies to their health behavior, whereby the observed differences between the income groups can be attributed mainly to parental education and occupational status. This shows once again that children and adolescents growing up in poverty should be a key target group for prevention and health promotion.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Pobreza , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Alemanha , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
12.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(7-8): 264-272, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517459

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Objective - Our aim is to evaluate sleep habits, sleep quality and influencing factors among preschool- and schoolchildren. Methods: Two questionnaires were recorded. Questionnaire 1 dealt with sleeping habits, breastfeeding and health behavior of preschool children and infant, and it contained the abbreviated version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Questionnaire 2 dealt with health behavior and the application of sleep hygiene rules, as well as it contained the Athens Insomnia Scale. Subjects - We assessed a total of 1063 questionnaires: 516 kindergarten children participated in our online survey across the country; 547 primary and secondary school students participated in the 2nd questionnaire survey in Szolnok. Results: Parents' observation shows that the average nighttime sleeping time of kindergarten children is 10 hours 20 minutes on weekdays and 10 hours 36 minutes on weekends. The most popular sleeping habits in kindergarten age: teal reading (65.1%) and co-sleeping (42.8%). Parents of infants used breastfeeding (50.4%) and rocking (43.2%) most frequently before sleep. Co-sleeping has a positive influence on the length of lactation. Among the preschool sleeping habits we have proved a number of positive effects of teal reading, while watching television have negative effects. The sleep quality of school-age children according to the Athens Insomnia Scale is 6.11 points (SD: 4.11), 19% of the children are insomniac. Their sleep time is 7 hours 31 minutes on weekdays and 9 hours 30 minutes on weekends. The usage of good health behavior and sleep hygiene rules positively influence sleep quality and sleep duration. Conclusion: With our results, we would like to draw the attention of children and parents to the importance of sleeping and using sleep hygiene rules.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Higiene do Sono , Sono/fisiologia , Televisão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Iluminação , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465649

RESUMO

The Moscow residents are prone to lead a healthy lifestyle (29% follow most principles of a healthy lifestyle and 56% follow some of them). During the study six main aspects of a healthy lifestyle were selected and described in detail from the perspective of Muscovites' self-assessment. Factor analysis revealed two types of behavior that characterize attitudes toward a healthy lifestyle by Muscovites: an "active healthy lifestyle" (nutrition, physical activity, work and rest regime) and a "passive healthy lifestyle" (attitudes towards smoking and alcohol). The mental health factor was examined separately. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the respondents well-being is primarily related to sport and ability to cope with stress (p<0,001). The study also identified risk groups for each aspect of a healthy lifestyle based on differences in the main socio-demographic characteristics. Additionally, the aspect of rational medical behavior was analyzed. The analysis showed that not enough attention is paid to this aspect. The results of the study can be considered in developing priority directions of work in the field of the formation of a healthy lifestyle. The specificity of the approach taken in this study is that recommendations are based on determining the main aspects of a healthy lifestyle and their interrelation, as well as discovering risk groups for each of them and their connection to health self-assessment.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida Saudável , Atitude , Exercício , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Moscou , Fumar
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1049, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Promoting a positive lifestyle change is a challenge for primary health care. The aim of this study was to analyze health and risk-related beliefs and attitudes in relation to lifestyle and lifestyle change in a rural community. METHODS: The study was based on a five-year follow-up data of the Lapinlahti study (N = 361). The same structured questionnaire was used at baseline and follow-up with lifestyle items. These were ranked as unhealthy (- 1), neutral (0) or healthy (+ 1). At baseline, participants took a stand on 29 statements related to beliefs and attitudes towards health and health promotion on a 5-point Likert scale. A factor analysis yielded two attitude factors (Factor 1 = underrating risks/resistant to change); (Factor 2 = helplessness/pessimism). The factors were divided into tertiles. RESULTS: There was a linear positive trend (P < 0.001) in baseline lifestyle scores between the tertiles of Factor 1. A positive follow-up change of lifestyle score was found in all tertiles of Factor 1. For Factor 2, the difference between tertiles at baseline was non-significant. There was a significant positive change in all tertiles of Factor 2. Those who were underrating/ resistant but not helpless/pessimistic had the most significant positive lifestyle change. Those who were underrating/resistant and helpless/pessimistic did not improve their lifestyles. CONCLUSIONS: Beliefs and attitudes are related to lifestyle. Subjects with underrating and resistant attitudes with pessimism/helplessness seem to have a low potential for lifestyle change while those with resistant attitudes without pessimism and helplessness may have the most significant potential for lifestyle change. These findings suggest that it is possible to identify different groups of people with different needs and readiness and ability for health behavior change.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estilo de Vida , População Rural , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Medição de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 1019-1029, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390693

RESUMO

Extreme weather events (EWEs) are increasing in frequency, posing a greater risk of adverse human health effects. As such, developing sociological and psychological based interventions is paramount to empowering individuals and communities to actively protect their own health. Accordingly, this study compared the efficacy of two established social-cognitive models, namely the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) and Risks-Attitudes-Norms-Abilities-Self-regulation (RANAS) framework, in predicting health behaviours following EWEs. Surface water flooding was used as the exemplar EWE in the current study, due to the increasing incidence of these events in the Republic of Ireland over the past decade. Levels of prior experience with flooding were considered for analyses and comparative tools included a number of variables predicting health behaviours and intervention potential scores (i.e. measure of impact of targeting each model element). Results suggest that the RANAS model provides a robust foundation for designing interventions for any level of experience with an extreme weather event, however, use of the simpler HBM may be more cost-effective among participants unacquainted with an EWE and in relatively infrequent health threat scenarios. Results provide an evidence base for researchers and policymakers to appropriately engage with populations about such threats and successfully promote spatiotemporally appropriate health behaviours in a changing climate.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Modelos Teóricos , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água/epidemiologia , Água Subterrânea , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1988-1989, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438442

RESUMO

As a part of our research project (Beijing Social Science Foundation Project, No. 18XCB007), this study aims to provide an overview of the state of art of health information behavior study in China for the past decades. There were 43 studies that met our selection criteria, and they were reviewed regarding to their research objects, methods, and frequent research topics respectively, which provides guidance for future research in this area.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , China
17.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The basis for healthy development is established during the first years of one's life. In this early phase, parents can significantly influence the health conditions under which their child grows up. Parental education can play a key role in this regard. This study examines the association of maternal education with health and health behavior in infants. METHODS: A subsample of the representative German KiGGS study (Wave 1, 2009-2012) on the health of children and adolescents was investigated. Data from 1727 mothers who reported on health-specific characteristics of their infants (0 to 2 years), on their own educational background, and on characteristics of the family were analyzed. The influence of maternal education on indices of health and health behavior in infants was investigated by means of logistic regression; additional predictors were considered in regression models. RESULTS: Higher maternal education was associated with better health behavior, but not with overall infant health. The impact of maternal education on health behavior remained significant when considering other predictors (financial worries, low maternal age at childbirth, premature birth/low birth weight). Overall, low maternal education was accompanied by an accumulation of additional risks. CONCLUSIONS: Higher maternal education can help infants have a good start in their lives. The impact of poor health behavior on infant health may not become apparent until later in their lives. For prevention and intervention, it is important to identify sensitive stages of development during childhood and the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between maternal education and infant health behavior.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Mães/educação , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento Materno , Pais , Gravidez
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16926, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464929

RESUMO

The femoral neck-preserving ratio is crucial in arthroplasty with a collum femoris-preserving (CFP) stem. The aim of our study was to analyze the relationships between the neck-preserving ratio and the short-term radiologic and clinical outcomes of patients who underwent total-hip arthroplasty (THA) with a CFP stem.The data of 325 hips from January 2015 to December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The demographic and radiologic data before and after surgery were obtained from patients. The neck-preserving ratio was defined as the ratio of the preserved femoral neck length to the preoperative femoral neck length. Correlations between the neck-preserving ratio and the radiologic and clinical outcomes of patients were analyzed.The mean neck-preserving ratio was 66.38 ±â€Š6.91% in the current study. We divided patients into 3 groups according to the neck-preserving ratio: group A (neck-preserving ratio ≤60.00%), group B (60.00% < neck-preserving ratio < 70.00%), group C (neck-preserving ratio ≥70.00%). Radiologic features, including the neck-shaft angle ratio (0.96 ±â€Š0.05), canal fill ratio (0.64 ±â€Š0.07), anterior-posterior offset ratio (1.04 ±â€Š0.10), and lateral offset ratio (2.55 ±â€Š1.56) (ratios of the postoperative values to the preoperative values), and the prevalence of complications was significantly different among the groups (χ = 21.173, P < .001). In the correlation analysis, we found a moderate negative correlation between the neck-preserving ratio and neck-shaft angle ratio (r = -0.308, P < .001) and a slight positive correlation of the neck-preserving ratio with the anterior-posterior offset ratio (r = 0.415, P < .001) and the lateral offset ratio (r = 0.164, P = .003). In the linear regression analyses, the neck-preserving ratio was significantly linearly correlated with the neck-shaft angle ratio (B = -0.232, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.311 to -0.154, P < .001), anterior-posterior offset ratio (B = 0.589, 95% CI = 0.447-0.730, P < .001), and lateral offset ratio (B = 3.693, 95% CI = 1.256-6.131, P = .003). However, there was no significant linear correlation between the neck-preserving ratio and the canal fill ratio (B = 0.073, 95% CI = -0.033 to 0.180, P = .174). Logistic regression analyses also showed that a sufficient neck-preserving ratio was a protective factor for periprosthetic femoral fractures (odds ratio [OR] = 0.924, 95% CI = 0.859-0.994, P = .035), dislocations (OR = 0.892, 95% CI = 0.796-0.999, P = .048), and thigh pain (OR = 0.886, 95% CI = 0.818-0.960, P = .003).For CFP stems, an insufficient neck-preserving ratio is significantly correlated with poor radiologic and clinical outcomes. Therefore, surgeons should be cognizant to preserve a sufficient femoral neck length during surgery to improve the outcomes for patients undergoing THA with CFP stems.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Colo do Fêmur/anatomia & histologia , Desenho de Prótese/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Comorbidade , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1059, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incentives are central to economics and are used across the public and private sectors to influence behavior. Recent interest has been shown in using financial incentives to promote desirable health behaviors and discourage unhealthy ones. MAIN TEXT: If we are going to use incentive schemes to influence health behaviors, then it is important that we give them the best chance of working. Behavioral economics integrates insights from psychology with the laws of economics and provides a number of robust psychological phenomena that help to better explain human behavior. Individuals' decisions in relation to incentives may be shaped by more subtle features - such as loss aversion, overweighting of small probabilities, hyperbolic discounting, increasing payoffs, reference points - many of which have been identified through research in behavioral economics. If incentives are shown to be a useful strategy to influence health behavior, a wider discussion will need to be had about the ethical dimensions of incentives before their wider implementation in different health programmes. CONCLUSIONS: Policy makers across the world are increasingly taking note of lessons from behavioral economics and this paper explores how key principles could help public health practitioners design effective interventions both in relation to incentive designs and more widely.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Motivação , Economia Comportamental , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16816, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441853

RESUMO

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a routine test for inflammation. Few studies have investigated the potential influence of lifestyle factors and common metabolic abnormalities on the ESR. This study investigates the influence of demographic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome on the ESR in adults.This cross-sectional study covered 1472 individuals (44.5% males; age range, 18-91 years) randomly selected from the population of a Spanish municipality. The ESR was measured using a standardized method. We assessed habitual alcohol consumption in standard drinking units, along with tobacco smoking, regular physical exercise (by questionnaire), body mass index, and variables defining metabolic syndrome. Multivariate analyses were performed, including mean corpuscular volume and hemoglobin concentration in the models.The ESR was higher in females than in males, and increased steadily with age. Median ESR of females was 2-fold higher than that of males, and median ESR of individuals aged >65 years was 2-fold higher than that of individuals in the youngest category (ages 18-35 years). Body mass index, presence of metabolic syndrome, and smoking were independently and positively associated with higher ESR values. Light alcohol drinkers and individuals with high regular physical activity displayed lower ESR values than did alcohol abstainers and individuals with low physical activity, respectively.ESR varies greatly with age and sex, and corresponding reference values are proposed. Lifestyle factors (physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption) and common metabolic abnormalities (obesity and related metabolic syndrome) may also influence ESR values.


Assuntos
Sedimentação Sanguínea , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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