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1.
Health Rep ; 30(5): 26-32, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coping has been the subject of numerous studies over the past decades, yet significant debate remains regarding the structure of this construct. DATA AND METHODS: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) data to examine the factor structure of coping items. A total of 6,696 Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) Regular Force members completed a coping inventory that assessed 14 coping strategies (e.g., problem solving, talking to others). RESULTS: Results indicated that coping among CAF Regular Force members was best represented by two factors: positive coping and negative coping. Coping strategies categorized as positive coping included active efforts to confront the stressor or improve one's well-being, whereas those categorized as negative coping reflected passive or avoidant efforts or behaviours that may compromise one's health. Positive coping factor scores were positively associated with perceptions of one's ability to handle difficult problems and day-to-day demands, while negative coping factor scores were negatively associated with such perceptions, suggesting that the factors had good concurrent validity. Additional analyses pointed to higher positive and negative coping scores among female Regular Force members compared with male Regular Force members. The additional analyses also showed generally less favourable coping scores among lower-ranking Regular Force members and those with a history of deployment to Afghanistan relative to their respective counterparts. Lastly, Regular Force members who received mental health training demonstrated higher positive coping scores. DISCUSSION: The report discusses implications for the use of coping indicators in future analyses involving the CFMHS.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Saúde Mental , Militares/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/classificação , Adulto , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Canadá , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/classificação , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 23(3): 999-1010, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30418890

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of fitness trackers and smartphone applications for promoting physical activity. Many of these applications use accelerometers to estimate the level of activity that users engage in and provide visual reports of a user's step counts. When provided, most recommendations are limited to popular general health advice. In our study, we develop an approach for providing data-driven and personalized recommendations for intraday activity planning. We generate an hour-by-hour activity plan that is based on the user's probability of adhering to the plan. The user's probability of adherence to the plan is personalized, based on his/her past activity patterns and current activity target. Using this approach, we can tailor notifications (e.g., reminders, encouragement) to each user. We can also dynamically update the user's activity plan at mid-day, if his/her actual activity deviates sufficiently from the original plan. In this paper, we describe an implementation of our approach and report our technical findings with respect to identifying typical activity patterns from historical data, predicting whether an activity target will be achieved, and adapting an activity plan based on a user's actual performance throughout the day.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/classificação , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Smartphone
3.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 16(4): 0-0, oct.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-180981

RESUMO

Background: High level of self-efficacy and adherence to self-care activities have a positive impact on the achievement of glycemic goal among diabetic patients. In Sudan, there is a gap in knowledge related to self-efficacy management and its influence on adherence to self-care activities and overall disease control. Objective: To identify the influence of management self-efficacy on adherence to self-care activities and treatment outcome among Sudanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at two health care facilities in Sudan from April to May 2016. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included. Convenience sampling method was adopted. Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale and the Revised Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities were used to collect data through a face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analysis was performed. A p value <0.05 was considered to be significant. Data were processed using the software SPPS v 21.0. Results: A total of 392 patients were included. Respondents classified with high level of self- efficacy across all domains were 191 (48.7%). Moreover, high level of education [adjusted OR 0.5 (0.3-0.7), (p=0.001)] and formal health education on diabetes [adjusted OR 2.4 (1.6-3.7), (p<0.001)], were found to be significantly associated with high level of diabetes management self-efficacy. Patients who had high level of self-efficacy to manage nutrition, physical exercise activity and medication were found more adherent to general diet, exercise activity, and medication taking, respectively. Patients with controlled disease were 87(22.2%). The only predictor of diabetes control was diabetes management self-efficacy [OR 2.1(1.3- 3.5), (p=0.002)]. Conclusions: Diabetes management self-efficacy was associated with high level of education and receiving health education. Self-efficacy was significantly associated with adherence to self-care activities and glycemic control. Substantial efforts are still needed to empower the patients with self-efficacy and improving adherence to self-care activities through appropriate interventions


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Autoeficácia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/classificação , Sudão/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 16(4): 0-0, oct.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180985

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes type 2 is considered one of the main public health concerns. Lack of adherence to treatment leads to poor therapeutic outcome, poor glycemic control, and high risk for developing diabetes complications. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate adherence to oral antidiabetic medication in Diabetes type 2 Lebanese patients, and to evaluate factors leading to low adherence. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in outpatients endocrinology clinics of two hospitals and four private clinics located in Beirut-Lebanon. Data was collected using a well-structured questionnaire by trained pharmacists. Adherence level was measured by the Lebanese Medication Adherence Scale (LMAS-14). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS version 20. Results: Overall, 245 patients were included in the study with the majority being females (54.3%) and obese (47.8%). Only 29% of the participants had controlled glycemia (HbA1c <7%) with 31.8% of subjects had high adherence to their medication compared to 68.2% with low adherence. Increased working hours/day was associated with a decrease in adherence to oral antidiabetic medication (OR=0.31; 95% CI 0.11:0.88; p=0.029). Other factors significantly associated with decreased adherence to treatment were forgetfulness, high drug costs, complex treatment regimens, experiencing side effects, and perception of treatment inefficacy. Postponing physician office visits also decreased the probability of being adherent to oral antidiabetic medication (OR=0.36; 95% CI 0.15:0.86; p=0.022). Skipping or doubling the dose in case of hypo/hyperglycemia and the sensation of treatment burden also decreased medication adherence (OR=0.09; 95% CI 0.02:0.34; p=0.001, and OR=0.04; 95% CI 0.01:0.13; p<0.001 respectively). Conclusions: Adherence to oral antidiabetic medication is low for Lebanese patients, which leads to a poor glycemic control and increases the diabetes complications. Intervention programs including patient education strategies are essential to improve medication adherence


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/classificação , Líbano/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais
5.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 18(1): 127, 2018 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension remains one of the most important preventable risk factors for diseases and death. Identifying clustered patterns of modifiable lifestyle risk factors for hypertension and demographics factors related to these clustered patterns allows for targeting health prevention interventions. Therefore, this study aims to identify latent classes of hypertensive patients' lifestyle risk factors based on the clustering of four modifiable lifestyle risk factors: eating, physical activity patterns, smoking habits, and blood pressure control. METHODS: A total of 750 patients (Mage = 65.38 years, SDage = 9.2 years) with diagnosed hypertension in urban and rural primary health care centers in Takab (Iran) were recruited randomly from August 2016 to February 2017. Latent class analysis was performed by using proc. LCA in SAS 9.2. RESULTS: Three classes of lifestyle patterns were identified. About 14.4% of hypertensive patients were categorized in a low-risk class (I), 54.6% in an intermediate-risk class (II), and 31% in a high-risk class (III) of lifestyle. A one-year increase in age significantly increases the risk of membership in classes II and III. Similarly, being widowed or divorced increases the risk of membership in classes II and III. Also, having a higher education level decreases the risk of membership in classes II and III. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the literature on lifestyle behaviors among older adults and provides evidence that there are considerable differences in lifestyle behaviors between subgroups of older adult patients. The three profiles of hypertensive patients' conditions suggest that because behaviors often occur simultaneously within an individual level, a latent-class approach helps cluster co-occurrence risk behaviors and focuses on interventions targeted to several healthy behaviors among high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Dieta , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/classificação , Humanos , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
6.
Soc Sci Med ; 189: 53-62, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783502

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Past research supports individual planning as an effective intervention strategy to increase physical activity in individuals. A similar strategy, dyadic planning, adds a planning partner who supports an individual's planning processes. Whether the two planning formats differ in terms of participants' entered plan content and whether and how different content characteristics are linked to plan enactment remains unknown. By investigating the content of generated plans, this study aimed at distinguishing plan characteristics of the two planning formats and examining their role as predictors of later plan enactment. METHODS: Secondary analyses of a three-arm RCT with German couples (data collection between 2013 and 2015). Couples were assigned to an individual (IPC, n = 114) or dyadic planning condition (DPC, n = 111) and formulated up to 5 physical activity plans for a target person. Couples assigned to a control condition were not included as they did not generate plans. The following characteristics were distinguished and coded for each plan: number of planned opportunities, presence of a planned routine, planned cue- or activity-related specificity, activity-related intensity, and chronological plan rank. One week before (T0) and two weeks following (T2) the intervention (T1), increase vs. no increase of the planned activity was coded as a dichotomous plan enactment variable. Multilevel logistic regressions were fit. RESULTS: Plan enactment was higher in dyadic than in individual planners. Findings indicated that routines (e.g., after work) were positively related to plan enactment, whereas a high specificity of when-cues (e.g., Friday at 6.30 p.m.) showed a negative relationship. None of the examined plan characteristics could explain differences in enactment between IPC and DPC. CONCLUSIONS: Linking health behaviours to other behavioural routines seems beneficial for subsequent plan enactment. Dyadic planning was linked with higher enactment rates than individual planning. However, as mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear, they should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Metas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/classificação , Intenção , Técnicas de Planejamento , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Rev Saude Publica ; 51(suppl 1): 8s, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28591352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of health-related behaviors according to presence and type of depression in Brazilian adults. METHODS: Based on a sample of 49,025 adults (18 to 59 years) from the National Survey on Health 2013 (PNS 2013), we estimated the prevalence of health-related behaviors (smoking; passive smoking; frequent or risky alcohol consumption; leisure time physical activity; time watching TV; and eating pattern indicators), according to the presence of depression (minor and major), evaluated by the Patient Health Questionnaire - 9 (PHQ-9), and the report of depressive mood (in up to seven days or more than seven days) over a two-week period. Prevalence ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Evaluated by the PHQ-9 scale, 9.7% of the Brazilian adults had depression and 3.9% presented major depression. About 21.0% reported depressive mood and, in 34.9% of them, that feeling has been present for more than seven days. In individuals with major depression (PHQ-9), higher prevalence was found in almost all unhealthy behaviors analyzed, in particular, smoking (PR = 1.65), passive smoking (PR = 1.55), risk alcohol consumption (PR = 1.72), TV for ≥ 5 hours/day (PR = 2.13), consumption of fat meat (PR = 1.43) and soft drink (PR = 1.42). The prevalence ratios tended to be lower in those with minor depression. Similar results were observed in adults with depressive mood. CONCLUSIONS: This study detected relevant association between depression and health behaviors, in particular for smoking and physical activity. The associations found with the PHQ were similar to those observed with the application of a single question about depressive mood. Our results indicate the importance of assessing the presence of depression and the frequency and severity of symptoms when implementing actions for the promotion of healthy behaviors.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/classificação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am J Health Behav ; 41(4): 378-389, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28601097

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study purpose was to identify clusters of weight-related behaviors by sex in a college student populations. METHODS: We conducted secondary data analysis from online surveys and physical assessments collected in Project Young Adults Eating and Active for Health (YEAH) with a convenience sample of students on 13 college campuses in the United States. We performed 2-step cluster analysis by sex to identify subgroups with homogeneous characteristics and behaviors. We used 8 derivation variables: healthy eating; eating restraints; external cues; stress; fruit/vegetable intake; calories from fat; calories from sugar-sweetened beverages; and physical activity. Contribution of derivation variables to clusters was analyzed with a MANOVA test. RESULTS: Data from 1594 students were included. Cluster analysis revealed 2-clusters labeled "Healthful Behavior" and "At-risk" for males and females with an additional "Laid Back" cluster for males. "At-risk" clusters had the highest BMI, waist circumference, elevated health risk, and stress and least healthy dietary intake and physical activity. The "Laid Back" cluster had normal weights and the lowest restrained eating, external cues sensitivity, and stress. CONCLUSION: Identified differences in characteristics and attitudes towards weight-related behaviors between males and females can be used to tailor weight management programs.


Assuntos
/classificação , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/classificação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes/classificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
9.
Rev. saúde pública ; 51(supl.1): 8s, 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-845914

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of health-related behaviors according to presence and type of depression in Brazilian adults. METHODS Based on a sample of 49,025 adults (18 to 59 years) from the National Survey on Health 2013 (PNS 2013), we estimated the prevalence of health-related behaviors (smoking; passive smoking; frequent or risky alcohol consumption; leisure time physical activity; time watching TV; and eating pattern indicators), according to the presence of depression (minor and major), evaluated by the Patient Health Questionnaire – 9 (PHQ-9), and the report of depressive mood (in up to seven days or more than seven days) over a two-week period. Prevalence ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS Evaluated by the PHQ-9 scale, 9.7% of the Brazilian adults had depression and 3.9% presented major depression. About 21.0% reported depressive mood and, in 34.9% of them, that feeling has been present for more than seven days. In individuals with major depression (PHQ-9), higher prevalence was found in almost all unhealthy behaviors analyzed, in particular, smoking (PR = 1.65), passive smoking (PR = 1.55), risk alcohol consumption (PR = 1.72), TV for ≥ 5 hours/day (PR = 2.13), consumption of fat meat (PR = 1.43) and soft drink (PR = 1.42). The prevalence ratios tended to be lower in those with minor depression. Similar results were observed in adults with depressive mood. CONCLUSIONS This study detected relevant association between depression and health behaviors, in particular for smoking and physical activity. The associations found with the PHQ were similar to those observed with the application of a single question about depressive mood. Our results indicate the importance of assessing the presence of depression and the frequency and severity of symptoms when implementing actions for the promotion of healthy behaviors.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a prevalência de comportamentos relacionados à saúde segundo a presença e tipo de depressão em adultos brasileiros. MÉTODOS Com base em amostra de 49.025 adultos (18 a 59 anos) da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde 2013, foram estimadas as prevalências de comportamentos relacionados à saúde (tabagismo, fumo passivo, consumo frequente ou de risco de álcool, atividade física de lazer, horas de TV e indicadores de padrão alimentar), segundo a presença de depressão (menor e maior), avaliada pela escala PHQ-9, e o relato de humor depressivo (em até sete dias ou em mais de sete dias) em um período de duas semanas. Razões de prevalências foram estimadas por meio de regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS Avaliados pela escala PHQ-9, 9,7% dos adultos brasileiros apresentaram depressão, e 3,9%, depressão maior. Cerca de 21,0% relataram humor depressivo e em 34,9% deles esse sentimento esteve presente por mais de sete dias. Nos indivíduos com depressão maior (PHQ-9), foram constatadas prevalências mais elevadas de quase todos os comportamentos não saudáveis analisados, principalmente tabagismo (RP = 1,65), fumo passivo (RP = 1,55), consumo de risco de álcool (RP = 1,72), horas de TV ≥ 5 h/dia (RP = 2,13), consumo de carne gordurosa (RP = 1,43) e refrigerante (RP = 1,42). As razões de prevalência tenderam a ser menores na depressão menor. Resultados similares foram observados nos adultos com humor depressivo. CONCLUSÕES O estudo detectou relevante associação entre depressão e comportamentos de saúde, em especial, para tabagismo e atividade física. As associações encontradas com o uso do PHQ foram similares às observadas com a aplicação de uma única pergunta sobre humor depressivo. Os resultados do estudo sinalizam a importância da avaliação da presença de depressão e da frequência e gravidade dos sintomas quando da implementação de ações para a promoção de comportamentos saudáveis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/classificação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
10.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 20(2): 682-90, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25794404

RESUMO

The identification of different stages of cognitive impairment can allow older adults to receive timely care and plan for the level of caregiving. People with existing diagnosis of cognitive impairment go through episodic phases of dementia requiring different levels of care at different times. Monitoring the cognitive status of existing patients is, thus, critical to deciding the level of care required by older adults. In this paper, we present a system to assess the cognitive status of older adults by monitoring a common activity of daily living, namely handwashing. Specifically, we extract features from handwashing trials of participants diagnosed with different levels of dementia ranging from cognitively intact to severe cognitive impairment, as assessed by the mini-mental state exam (MMSE). Based on videos of handwashing trials, we extract two classes of features: one characterizing the occupancy of different sink regions by the participant, and the other capturing the path tortuosity of the motion trajectory of participant's hands. We perform correlation analysis to assess univariate capacity of individual features to predict MMSE scores. To assess multivariate performance, we use machine learning methods to train models that predict the cognitive status (aware, mild, moderate, severe), as well as the MMSE scores. We present results demonstrating that features derived from hand washing behavior can be potential surrogate markers of a person's dementia, which can be instrumental in developing automated tools for continuously monitoring the cognitive status of older adults.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Desinfecção das Mãos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/classificação , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Testes Psicológicos , Gravação em Vídeo/métodos , Humanos
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