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1.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1146, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: UK African and Caribbean (AfC) communities are disproportionately burdened by type 2 diabetes (T2D). Promoting healthy eating and physical activity through structured education is the cornerstone of T2D care, however cultural barriers may limit engagement in these communities. In addition, changes in lifestyle behaviour are shaped by normative influences within social groups and contextual factors need to be understood to facilitate healthful behaviour change. The Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) and associated COM-B framework offer intervention designers a systematic approach to developing interventions. The aim of this study was to apply the BCW in the design of a culturally sensitive self-management support programme for T2D in UK AfC communities. METHODS: An intervention development study was conducted. Focus groups were held with 41 AfC patients with T2D to understand healthful weight-management, diet and physical activity behaviours. The COM-B framework and BCW were used to evaluate the qualitative data, identify appropriate behaviour change techniques and specify the intervention components. RESULTS: Participants were motivated to avoid diabetes-related consequences although did not always understand the negative impact of their current health behaviours on long-term diabetes outcomes. Barriers to healthful behaviour included gaps in knowledge related to diet, physical activity and weight management guidance. In addition, motivation and social opportunity barriers included an acceptance of larger body sizes, rejection of body mass index for weight guidance and cultural identity being strongly linked to consumption of traditional starches. There was a lack of social opportunity to perform moderate to vigorous physical activity, although walking and dance were culturally acceptable. The resulting Healthy Eating & Active Lifestyles for Diabetes (HEAL-D) intervention uses social support, social comparison, credible sources and demonstration as key behaviour change techniques. CONCLUSION: Use of COM-B and the BCW highlighted the need for an intervention to address motivational and social opportunity barriers to engaging in healthful behaviours, as well as addressing key gaps in knowledge. This framework facilitated the linkage of theoretical behaviour constructs with evidence-based behaviour change techniques, which will enable us to evaluate operationalisation of our chosen BCTs and their impact on behaviour change in a future feasibility study.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/educação , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Dieta para Diabéticos/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Autogestão/educação , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/educação , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Dieta para Diabéticos/etnologia , /métodos , Exercício , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Autogestão/métodos , Apoio Social , Reino Unido
2.
Nurs Res ; 68(5): 348-357, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Through its influence on social interactions, simpatía may have a wide-ranging influence on Latinx health. Simpatía-which does not have a direct English translation-refers to being perceived as likeable, pleasant, and easygoing. Research to investigate the influence simpatía on Latinx health is limited, likely due to a lack of options for measuring simpatía among diverse Latinx populations. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this research was to develop a bilingual, survey-based simpatía scale for use among ethnically diverse Latinx adults in health-related settings. METHODS: Data were obtained through a telephone survey data of 1,296 Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban American adults living in the United States. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish. Exploratory factor analysis, item response theory analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and computation of estimates of internal consistency reliability were conducted to inform the development of the final simpatía scale. RESULTS: Results indicate that the final, nine-item, simpatía scale has high internal consistency (α = .83) and measurement invariance among Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban American adults. Two dimensions were identified, as indicated by a perceptions subscale and a behavior subscale. Cuban Americans were found to have the highest simpatía scores, followed by Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans. DISCUSSION: Culture is often identified as a powerful potential influence on health-related behaviors, but measures are often not available to assess specific cultural traits. By developing a new tool for measuring simpatía, this research advances opportunities for understanding and promoting Latinx health.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Multilinguismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Cuba/etnologia , Características Culturais , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porto Rico/etnologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos
3.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2610-2617, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377894

RESUMO

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy and the postpartum period is necessary to prevent vertical HIV transmission and to secure the long-term health of an HIV-infected woman. Health behavior theory suggests that patients' attitudes towards medication can predict their medication-taking behaviour. This study sought to understand how women's attitudes towards ART changes between the pregnancy and postpartum periods, and the factors associated with these attitudes. The study enrolled 200 pregnant women living with HIV. Structured surveys were administered during pregnancy and at three and 6 months postpartum. Overall, attitudes towards ART were stable over time. More positive attitudes towards ART were associated with HIV acceptance, lower levels of depression, and lower levels of shame. Counselling interventions are needed to help HIV-infected women accept their status and reduce shameful emotions. Depression screening and treatment should be integrated into PMTCT services. This study emphasizes the importance of early attention to attitudes towards ART, in order to establish a trajectory of sustained care engagement.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Gestantes/etnologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(5): 429-435, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339603

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine country of birth differences in the odds of reporting chronic diseases among those of Lebanese ethnicity in comparison to those of Australian ethnicity. METHODS: Participants were 41,940 Australians aged 45 years and older, sampled from the 45 and Up Study baseline dataset. Participants included those of Lebanese ethnicity born in Lebanon (n=401), Australia (n=331) and other countries (n=73); and those of Australian ethnicity (n=41,135). Logistic regression models were conducted to examine differences in the odds of reporting chronic disease between those of Lebanese ethnicity and those of Australian ethnicity. RESULTS: Those of Lebanese ethnicity had higher odds of reporting diabetes (OR 1.62; 95%CI 1.32-2.00) and lower odds of reporting hypertension (OR 0.82; 95%CI 0.70-0.96) when compared with those of Australian ethnicity. After country of birth stratification, only those born in Lebanon had higher odds of reporting diabetes (OR 2.21; 95%CI 1.71-2.85) and also had lower odds of reporting cancer (OR 0.66; 95%CI 0.46-0.97), when compared with those of Australian ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Country of birth differences in health exist among those of Lebanese ethnicity. Implications for public health: Country of birth is an important factor that could assist in explaining differences in health among ethnic groups of the same origin.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Comportamento Sedentário/etnologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Comparação Transcultural , Estudos Transversais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(7): 988-996, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293266

RESUMO

Background: Health-seeking behavior is important as it reveals the preventive, curative, and rehabilitative actions taken by individuals to rectify perceived ill-health. Aim and Objectives: To identify existing eye health-seeking behavior, factors influencing such behavior, and suggest ways in which the system can respond to the needs of the target population in order to reduce visual impairment and blindness. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study; 600 respondents were interviewed using a semistructured pretested questionnaire administered to every fifth new patient attending the eye clinic of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) for a period of 5 months by a single interviewer. People unable to respond appropriately were interviewed alongside their caregivers. Results: Poor distant vision was the most frequent ocular complaint in this study. The mean duration of complaint before presentation to any health facility was 370.65 ± 889.48 days with a range of 0-9,125 days. Nature of eye complaint was the most significant factor that determined how early respondents sought help (P < 0.001). Place of residence, nature of eye complaint, and employment status were significant determinants of the choice of place of first presentation for ocular complaints. Conclusion: There is need for improved eye health education and awareness for prompt presentation to an appropriate eye care professional at the onset of symptoms and even case finding for potentially blinding eye conditions.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Cegueira/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Baixa Visão/epidemiologia , Baixa Visão/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262065

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine if the associations between eating competence (EC) and eating behaviors that were found in a USA sample of predominantly Hispanic parents of 4th grade youth could be replicated in a USA sample of predominantly non-Hispanic white parents of 4th graders. Baseline responses from parents (n = 424; 94% white) of youth participating in a year-long educational intervention were collected using an online survey. Validated measures included the Satter Eating Competence Inventory (ecSI 2.0TM), in-home fruit/vegetable (FV) availability, healthful eating behavior modeling, and FV self-efficacy/outcome expectancies (SE/OE). Data were analyzed with general linear modeling and cluster analyses. The findings replicated those from the primarily Hispanic sample. Of the 408 completing all ecSI 2.0TM items, 86% were female, 65% had a 4-year degree or higher, and 53% were EC (ecSI 2.0TM score ≥ 32). Compared with non-EC parents, EC modeled more healthful eating, higher FV SE/OE, and more in-home FV availability. Behaviors clustered into those striving toward more healthful practices (strivers; n = 151) and those achieving them (thrivers; n = 255). Striver ecSI 2.0TM scores were lower than those of thrivers (29.6 ± 7.8 vs. 33.7 ± 7.6; p < 0.001). More EC parents demonstrated eating behaviors associated with childhood obesity prevention than non-EC parents, encouraging education that fosters parent EC, especially in tandem with youth nutrition education.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento Alimentar , Pais/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/etnologia , Colorado/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco
9.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 74, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined factors influencing cultural beliefs associated with later-stage detection of breast cancer and determined what factors influence those cultural beliefs in Vietnamese women residing in a rural Vietnamese community. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 289 women aged 20-64 years from 12 villages using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Cultural beliefs were measured with a 13-item cultural beliefs scale consisting of four domains-characteristics of breast lumps, self-help techniques, faith-based beliefs, and futility of treatment. Data were collected in February 2017 and analyzed using chi-square tests, nonparametric tests, Fisher's exact tests, and multiple linear regression analyses with SPSS/WIN 24.0 statistical software. RESULTS: Although the total score was relatively low (3.4 out of 13), cultural beliefs that could contribute to later-stage breast cancer were identified. Younger women (ß = .15, p = .016) and women with a lower income (ß = .21, p < .001) held more erroneous cultural beliefs as compared to their counterparts. Most women believed they would not get breast cancer if they took care of themselves. More than one-third held cultural beliefs about breast lumps, thinking they would need to be painful and/or actively growing to be breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the urgent need for education concerning breast cancer health promotion, including breast cancer assessment as well as guidance on evidence-based and up-to-date detection measures to change rural Vietnamese women's cultural beliefs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Mamografia/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 78(1): 1607703, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043136

RESUMO

Rapid social, economic, and environmental changes in the northern territories of Canada have raised concerns about potentially increasing levels of chronic disease. This concern prompted us to compare multimorbidity prevalence in Canada between the territories and provinces. We analyzed Canadian Community Health Survey data for 2013/14. We defined multimorbidity, the outcome, as having 3 or more chronic conditions and used survey-weighted multivariable logistic regression for comparisons between territories and provinces. We found a prevalence of multimorbidity in Canada of 14.0% (95% CI: 13.6, 14.3). We could not find significant difference in multimorbidity prevalence between the territories and provinces of Canada overall; however, the territories tended to have lower prevalence estimates than provinces for multimorbidity (adj-OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.74-1.04). Sensitivity analyses from propensity score analyses had similar conclusions. Effect modification analyses identified lower multimorbidity in territories versus provinces among households without a post-secondary graduate (adj-OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.34-0.61 for northern residence), males (adj-OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.54-0.93), and ages 12-29 years (adj-OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.39-0.99). Caution is needed in interpreting the results in light of representativeness of CCHS in northern populations of Canada.


Assuntos
Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Regiões Árticas/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas/etnologia , Prevalência , Pontuação de Propensão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Issues Ment Health Nurs ; 40(8): 672-681, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081707

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to examine the psychometric properties of the Giscombe Superwoman Schema Questionnaire. Three separate studies conducted with 739 African American women provided preliminary evidence that the Questionnaire's factor structure aligns with the Superwoman Schema Conceptual Framework and has good reliability. In addition, it is positively associated with perceived stress, depressive symptoms, using food to cope with stress, poor sleep quality, and physical inactivity. This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that the Giscombe Superwoman Schema Questionnaire is psychometrically sound; Superwoman Schema is associated with health behaviors and psychological states that may increase risk for illness.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Exercício , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sono , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 66, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is prevalent in Iraqi Kurdistan Region, but there is a lack of adequate knowledge about how the practice is perceived by the women population who are the direct victims of the practice. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, beliefs, and attitude of a sample of Kurdish women of FGM and identify the main enabling factors for performing this practice and the barriers to ending it. METHODS: This qualitative study was based on six focus groups involving a sample of 51 women. We used a topic guide to lead discussions, which included questions on women's perspectives of different aspects of FGM such as the reasons for practicing it, the positive and negative consequences, the continuation of the practice and tackling this problem in the community. Content analysis was used for the qualitative analysis of the data. RESULTS: The women had poor knowledge about different aspects of FGM particularly concerning the procedure and the consequences. The mutilated participants revealed the devastating experience of the pain and the psychological effects they have experienced. Reducing sexual desire, having halal (permissible by Allah) hands, and religious requirement were the main reasons for practicing FGM. Reduction in women's sexual desire and the related social problems with the husband were the main problems identified to be associated with FGM. Most women did not support the continuation of FGM practice, but some women still think that FGM should be left to the people's preference. The participants identified raising people's awareness, active involvement of religious leaders in prevention efforts and the issuance and enforcement of legislation against FGM as the primary measures to reduce FGM practice. CONCLUSION: Passing through FGM at childhood is an overwhelming experience with long-term effects for women. There is still a significant segment among the women population that do not oppose the continuations of FGM and need religious and scientific evidence against FGM. Some reasons for practicing FGM are deeply embedded in the culture and traditions, and there is a need for extensive efforts to raise the awareness of the population and change their thoughts and behavior about FGM.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Circuncisão Feminina/etnologia , Circuncisão Feminina/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Circuncisão Feminina/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Iraque , Prevalência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 78(1): 1611329, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116098

RESUMO

The urgency of the problem under study is determined by the high prevalence of arterial hypertension among the indigenous minorities of the North in modern socio-economic conditions. The following article is aimed to evaluate the prevalence of behavioural arterial hypertension risk factors according to the results of single-step epidemiological research of Evenk people in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russian Federation. The leading approach to the study of this problem was the questioning of the population using the international questionnaire for behavioural risk factors (CYNDI). As a result of research, widespread smoking was found among native population (52.0% of men and 23.7% of women). The frequency of alcohol consumption among the male Evenki is comparable to that in the Yakut population, and among the female, the number is much lower. Evenks including young men belong to the physically inactive population. The frequency of arterial hypertension (AH) cases along with the factors listed above are significantly influenced by: marital status, employment, education, and housing conditions. Article materials may be useful for a differentiated approach in the development of prevention and rehabilitation programs for the indigenous peoples of the North.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Hipertensão/etnologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Regiões Árticas/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 640, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parental and peer support can influence children's physical activity; however, these associations have not been fully examined in a multi-ethnic population across early and late adolescence. The objective of this study was to examine associations between perceived parental/peer social support, perceived parental disapproval for not exercising, and physical activity/screen time behaviors among a multi-ethnic sample of adolescents. METHODS: The Texas School Physical Activity and Nutrition (TX SPAN) survey is a cross-sectional statewide probability-based survey, used to assess obesity-related behaviors such as diet and physical activity. The SPAN 2009-2011 study measured 8th and 11th grade students using a self-report questionnaire with established psychometric properties, along with objectively measured height and weight. Associations were examined using multiple logistic and linear regression. RESULTS: For every 1-point increase in parental physical activity support, adolescents had 1.14 higher odds of engaging in five or more days of moderate physical activity per week (p < 0.001), and 1.12 higher odds of engaging in three or more days of vigorous physical activity per week (p < 0.001). For every 1-point increase in peer physical activity support, adolescents had 1.17 higher odds of engaging in five or more days of moderate physical activity per week (p < 0.001), and 1.15 higher odds of engaging in three or more days of vigorous physical activity per week (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Parental and peer social support is associated with positive physical activity behaviors in adolescents. Strategies to focus on parent and peer support should be integral to intervention programs designed to increase physical activity in adolescents in middle and high schools.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Exercício/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Apoio Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126049

RESUMO

Purpose. This study investigated the effects of objective and subjective socioeconomic status (SES) indicators on two health behaviors, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking, among African American older adults. Methods. This community-based study recruited 619 economically disadvantaged African American older adults (age ≥ 65 years) residing in South Los Angeles. Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data. Data on demographic factors (age and gender), subjective SES (financial difficulties), objective SES (educational attainment), living arrangement, marital status, healthcare access (insurance), and health (number of chronic medical conditions, self-rated health, sick days, depression, and chronic pain) and health behaviors (cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking) were collected from participants. Logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. Results. High financial difficulties were associated with higher odds of smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol, independent of covariates. Educational attainment did not correlate with our outcomes. Similar patterns emerged for cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking. Conclusion. Subjective SES indicators such as financial difficulties may be more relevant than objective SES indicators such as educational attainment to health risk behaviors such as cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking among African American older adults in economically constrain urban environments. Smoking and drinking may serve as coping mechanisms with financial difficulty, especially among African American older adults. In line with the minorities' diminished returns (MDR) theory, and probably due to discrimination against racial minorities, educational attainment has a smaller protective effect among economically disadvantaged African American individuals against health risk behaviors.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Classe Social , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Los Angeles/etnologia , Masculino , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Sleep Health ; 5(2): 193-200, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of health behaviors (eg, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and diet) in the relationship between sleep (ie, duration and quality) and BMI among African American adults. DESIGN: A cross-sectional self-report questionnaire included questions related to health and health-related behaviors. SETTING: This study was based on data from the CHURCH study, which aimed to address cancer health disparities among church-going African Americans in Houston, TX. PARTICIPANTS: African American adults were recruited from three large community churches. The sample included a total of 1837 participants (75.2% female; mean age 48.2 ±â€¯13.7y; mean BMI 32.0 ±â€¯7.5 kg/m2). MEASUREMENTS: Linear regression models and path analyses controlling for demographic characteristics and depression estimated the associations between sleep and BMI as well as the mediating roles of health behaviors. RESULTS: The average self-reported sleep duration was 6.2 ±â€¯1.5 h/night with 61%, 35.8%, and 1.6% reporting short (≤6 h/night), normal (7-9 h/night), and long sleep (≥10 h/night), respectively. Short sleep was related to greater BMI (b = 1.37, SE = 0.38, P = .01), and the relationship was mediated by sedentary behaviors (est. = 0.08, SE = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Short sleep and poor quality sleep was related to poor diet and physical activity-related health behaviors, and BMI. The link between sleep and obesity is, in part, due to energy imbalance from increased sedentary behavior.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Sono , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/etnologia , Dieta/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário/etnologia , Autorrelato , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 30(1): 80-101, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827971

RESUMO

The purpose of the paper is to examine the effectiveness of a six-week, culturally sensitive, church-based health-promotion intervention in increasing nutrition label health literacy and health-promoting behaviors (i.e., healthy eating, healthy drinking, and physical activity) and improving weight and blood pressure among Black adults. Study participants are a sample of 321 Black adult churchgoers (N = 321) who were divided between an intervention group (N = 172) and a wait-list control group (N = 149). The health-promotion intervention program is informed by Health Self-Empowerment Theory. At post-test, the participants in the intervention group demonstrated significantly greater increases in nutrition label health literacy, overall level of engagement in health-smart behaviors, and levels of engagement in two specific health-smart behaviors (i.e., healthy eating and healthy drinking) compared with those in the wait-list control group. Implications of these findings for future similar health-promotion intervention programs and research are discussed.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Competência Cultural , Organizações Religiosas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
18.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(1): 24-31, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The poor health of Roma is well documented, but there is only limited data regarding the health of Roma children. The aim of this study was to describe the socioeconomic status, health related behaviour, and health of children living in segregated Roma settlements, and to compare the data with that of non-Roma children. METHODS: In March-April of 2011, a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among 11-year-old (211 boys and 252 girls) and 13-year-old (205 boys and 247 girls) children living in Roma settlements was performed (response rate: 91.5%). These data were compared with data from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey carried out in 2009/2010. RESULTS: The parents of Roma children were substantially less educated and less likely to be actively employed, and Roma children reported lower material welfare than non-Roma ones. The prevalence of consuming sweets and soft drinks at least 5 times per week was 1.5-2 times higher among Roma children. The prevalence of regular intense physical activity was higher at the age of 13 years among Roma boys, while physical inactivity was substantially higher in both age groups among Roma girls. Almost one quarter of Roma children and approximately 14% of non-Roma children had tried smoking at the age of 11. More Roma boys tried alcohol at the age of 11 than non-Roma ones. One in ten Roma children was obese in both age groups. The self-rated health status of Roma children was worse than that of non-Roma children. CONCLUSIONS: Children living in Roma settlements reported poorer socioeconomic conditions, higher consumption of sweets and soft drinks, earlier smoking and alcohol initiation, and worse self-rated health, but with some exceptions do not differ in fruit or vegetable consumption and BMI from general child population. To promote health of children living in Roma settlements, a multi-sector approach, special health education, plus social and health promotion programmes are needed.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Nível de Saúde , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Roma/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Roma/etnologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/etnologia , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(8): e14460, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813148

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the disease knowledge and self-management behavior of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the respiratory ward of a tertiary hospital in China, and analyze the relationship between these.A total of 360 COPD patients were surveyed using the internationally validated COPD Questionnaire (COPD-Q), the COPD Patients' Self-Management Behavior Scale and a general sociodemographic questionnaire, and 346 valid responses were obtained.The results revealed that the surveyed COPD patients scored an average of 4.90 ±â€Š2.50 points (maximal of 13 points) on the COPD-Q and 117.23 ±â€Š20.56 points on the COPD Self-Management Behavior Scale, in which 86.1% of COPD patients were classified as having low to medium levels of self-management behavior. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the total points on the COPD Self-Management Behavior Scale, symptom management, daily life management, emotional management and information management were all positively correlated to the disease knowledge of COPD (P < .01). In addition to COPD knowledge, the multiple regression analysis revealed that age, marital status and place of residence could also affect self-management behavior.The level of disease knowledge and self-management behaviors of patients with COPD is rather low in China. COPD knowledge level was found to correlate with the level of self-management behavior. Health education that enhances the disease knowledge of COPD patients might thereby be necessary to help improve self-management behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Autogestão/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(8): e14519, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813154

RESUMO

To understand the risks associated with aplastic anemia (AA) in 4 cities of Zhejiang Province, China, with special focus on the joint contributions of multiple risks.Based on an Electronic Data Capture (EDC), a case control study was carried out. Data regarding socio-demographic, diseases history, living habits, and exposures to toxic substances, etc., were collected through survey questionnaires. t Test, chi-square test, or non-parametric rank sum test, and univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis were conducted to analyze data.The univariate logistic regression analysis results indicated that among all study participants (n = 1802), AA was associated with over 30 risks, in terms of their individual behaviors, daily and environmental exposures, diseases history, and family history. Multivariate logistic regression analysis further confirmed that the independent risks related to AA included presence of chemical factory within 3 km of living residence (odds ratio [OR] = 8.73, 95% CI: 1.42-53.74, P = .019), living in a newly decorated house/apartment (OR = 25.37, 95% CI: 4.44-144.81, P < .001), vegetarian diet (OR = 131.60, 95% CI: 3.45-5020.16, P = .009), preference of sugar (OR = 89.38, 95% CI: 7.22-1106.44, P < .001), preference of oily food (OR = 55.68, 95% CI: 5.12-605.26, P = .001), drinking lake water or pond water (OR = 58.05, 95% CI: 3.21-1049.81, P < .001), habit of staying up late (OR = 11.87, 95% CI: 3.43-41.02, P < .001), infection history (OR = 10.08, 95% CI: 2.75-36.93, P < .001). Result of receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis on the joint contribution of multiple risks indicated that AA was 13.835 times likely to occur when exposed to ≥1 risks than those exposed to 0 risks (95% CI: 9.995-19.149).Our study results demonstrated a comprehensive epidemiological pattern, in which the joint contributions of individual inherited health status, environment exposure, and individual behaviors lead to the occurrence of AA.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia Aplástica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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