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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143145

RESUMO

In the context of global fighting against the unexpected COVID-19 pandemic, how to promote the public implementation of preventive behavior is the top priority of pandemic prevention and control. This study aimed at probing how the media would affect the public's preventive behavior and excessive preventive intention accordingly. Data were collected from 653 respondents in the Chinese mainland through online questionnaires and further analyzed by using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Taking risk perception, negative emotions, and subjective norms as mediators, this study explored the impact of mass media exposure and social networking services involvement on preventive behavior and excessive preventive intention. Based on differences in the severity of the pandemic, the samples were divided into the Wuhan group and other regions group for multi-group comparison. The results showed that mass media exposure had a significant positive impact on subjective norms; moreover, mass media exposure could significantly enhance preventive behavior through subjective norms, and social networking services involvement had a significant positive impact on negative emotions; meanwhile, social networking services involvement promoted excessive preventive intention through negative emotions.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Mídias Sociais , Rede Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(10)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037063

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented public health crisis. It is becoming increasingly clear that people's behavioural responses in the USA during this fast-changing pandemic are associated with their preferred media sources. The polarisation of US media has been reflected in politically motivated messaging around the coronavirus by some media outlets, such as Fox News. This resulted in different messaging around the risks of infection and behavioural changes necessary to mitigate that risk. This study determined if COVID-related behaviours differed according to trust in left-leaning or right-leaning media and how differences changed over the first several months of the pandemic. METHODS: Using the nationally representative Understanding America Study COVID-19 panel, we examine preventive and risky behaviours related to infection from COVID-19 over the period from 10 March to 9 June for people with trust in different media sources: one left-leaning, CNN and another right-leaning, Fox News. People's media preferences are categorised into three groups: (1) those who trust CNN more than Fox News; (2) those who have equal or no preferences and (3) those who trust Fox News more than CNN. RESULTS: Results showed that compared with those who trust CNN more than Fox news, people who trust Fox News more than CNN engaged in fewer preventive behaviours and more risky behaviours related to COVID-19. Out of five preventive and five risky behaviours examined, people who trust Fox News more than CNN practised an average of 3.41 preventive behaviours and 1.25 risky behaviours, while those who trust CNN more than Fox News engaged in an average of 3.85 preventive and 0.94 risky behaviours, from late March to June. The difference between these two groups widened in the month of May (p≤0.01), even after controlling for access to professional information and overall diversity of information sources. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that behavioural responses were divided along media bias lines. In such a highly partisan environment, false information can be easily disseminated, and health messaging, which is one of the few effective ways to slowdown the spread of the virus in the absence of a vaccine, is being damaged by politically biased and economically focused narratives. During a public health crisis, media should reduce their partisan stance on health information, and the health messaging from neutral and professional sources based on scientific findings should be better promoted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Confiança/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Med Care ; 58(11): 968-973, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African Americans are significantly more likely than non-African Americans to have diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and uncontrolled hypertension, increasing their risk for kidney function decline. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare how African Americans and non-African Americans with diabetes responded to a multifactorial telehealth intervention designed to slow kidney function decline. RESEARCH DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Primary care patients (N=281, 56% African American) were allocated to either: (1) a multifactorial, pharmacist-delivered phone-based telehealth intervention focused on behavioral and medication management of diabetic kidney disease; or (2) an education control. MEASURES: The primary study outcome was change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Linear mixed models were used to explore the moderating effect of race on the relationship between study arm and eGFR decline over time; the mean annual rate of eGFR decline was estimated by race and study arm. RESULTS: Findings demonstrated a differential intervention effect on kidney function over time by race (Pinteraction=0.005). Among African Americans, the intervention arm had significantly greater preservation of eGFR over time than the control arm (difference in the annual rate of eGFR decline=1.5 mL/min/1.73 m; 95% confidence interval: 0.04, 3.02). For non-African Americans, the intervention arm had a faster decline in eGFR over time than the control arm (difference in the annual rate of eGFR decline=-1.7 mL/min/1.73 m; 95% confidence interval: -3.3, -0.02). CONCLUSION: A multifactorial, pharmacist-delivered telehealth intervention for diabetic kidney disease may be more effective for slowing eGFR decline among African Americans than non-African Americans.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/educação , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Gerenciamento Clínico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupos de Populações Continentais/educação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/educação , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Telefone , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236706, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760146

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Due to provider shortages, it is probable that non-Latinx health care providers (HCPs) will treat Latinx patients. Because of this discrepancy, both providers and patients are likely to experience barriers and cultural differences during medical encounters. This article discusses select cultural factors and behaviors such as language, communication styles, and health care practices of Latinx families through the lens of their non-Latinx HCPs. The purpose of this study was to examine how non-Latinx HCPs perceive and describe certain behaviors they observe during healthcare visits with Latinx patients and families, and to illustrate how those behaviors can alternatively be interpreted as representing Latinx cultural norms. METHODS: This qualitative study used a template coding approach to examine narrative interviews conducted with 18 non-Latinx HCPs to report how they described interactions with and the behaviors of their Latinx patients. Template codes were based on well-established Latinx cultural norms (e.g., familismo, respeto, personalismo, simpatía, confianza). RESULTS: Many HCP descriptions of Latinx patient behaviors were coded into the Latinx cultural values categories (familismo, personalismo, simpatía, respeto, and confianza) by the research team. Results suggest that HCPs were not aware of how several of their patients' behaviors may be culturally grounded, and that cultural differences between HCPs and their Latinx patients may exist. DISCUSSION: Understanding how Latinx-specific cultural norms may be exhibited by Latinx patients and their families during healthcare encounters has potential to improve providers' understanding of patient behavior, helping to promote culturally congruent care for Latinxs.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/normas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto , Família , Feminino , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Relações Profissional-Paciente
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751821

RESUMO

The tendency of misperceiving one's body image was found to be higher among those at normal body mass index (BMI). Thus, the present study aims to provide basic data to seek solutions for ideal physical activities and right body image perception by comparing health-related behaviors of women at normal BMI. Among the 39,225 respondents from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHNES) conducted from 2013 to 2017, 10,798 adult women with World Health Organization (WHO) BMI Classifications of 18.5 ≤ BMI < 25 (Asia-Pacific) were considered, from which pregnant and breast-feeding women and women whose body image perception was not identified were excluded, leading to a total of 9288 women. Data were analyzed utilizing SAS ver. 9.4 for frequency analysis, cross tabulation, GLM (generalized linear model), and logistic regression analysis with complex samples design, in conformity with the guidelines of the KNHNES. The results showed that approximately most (87.6%) of adult Korean women misperceived their body image. Misperception of body image was related to inappropriate health-related behaviors such as smoking, insufficient sleeping, and excessive body weight management; those who had underestimated their body image (≤64 odds ratio (OR) (0.718 (confidence interval (C.I.) 0.594-0.866))) carried out fewer health-related behaviors, while women aged 65 or above engaged in more health-related behaviors when they perceived themselves as obese (OR 1.683 (C.I. 1.260-2.248; overestimation)). To sum up, it was found that lack of health management, inappropriate body weight control, and health-related behaviors are related to body image misperception compared with real BMI. As such, it is necessary to have educational programs to encourage building proper perception of one's body image and body weight, and to carry out health-related behaviors.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Peso Corporal/etnologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , República da Coreia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare illness concepts and coping strategies among native German cancer patients and those with a Turkish migration background. METHODS: Guideline-based, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 German (♂: 8, ♀: 3) and 11 Turkish (♂: 2, ♀: 9) cancer patients. The transcripts were evaluated using a qualitative content analysis in accordance with Mayring. RESULTS: We identified eight categories of illness concepts: stressful life events, environmental influences, the will of God, medical factors, fate, trauma, health behaviour, and psychological causes. German patients frequently attributed their illness to environmental influences, persistent stress, or medical factors, whereas Turkish patients blamed persistent stress, the will of God, or trauma. The last two categories are not found among German patients. We classified the coping strategies into 11 main categories: social support, activity, patient competence, fighting spirit/positive thinking, use of health services/alternative healing methods, lifestyle, emotional coping, cognitive coping, religious coping, spiritual coping, and culture-specific methods for patients of Turkish origin. For German patients, activities as well as social support played primary roles in coping. Turkish patients also often used social support. However, in contrast to the German patients, they are less active and use much more religious coping and culture-specific means. In addition, negative emotions occur more often when processing the illness than in the German patients. CONCLUSION: Common illness representations and coping strategies could be found for Turkish and German patients, but also specific ones for the respective group. It is particularly noticeable that German patients attach more importance to medical factors and try more actively to cope with the illness. For Turkish patients, cultural and religious factors play an important role, which should also be considered in treatment.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Características Culturais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/etnologia , Religião , Apoio Social , Turquia/etnologia
8.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 121, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determining the effective factors on the adoption of preventive behaviors capable of reducing the risk of skin cancer is an important step in designing interventions to promote these behaviors. Based on the protection motivation theory, the present study is aimed to conduct a path analysis of skin cancer preventive behaviors in rural women to explore these factors. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 243 rural women were randomly selected from the west of Iran to receive a valid and reliable questionnaire assessing constructs from the protection motivation theory, as well as demographic information. Fully completed questionnaires were returned by 230 women and the data were analyzed by SPSS 22 and LISREL8.8. RESULTS: Concerning skin cancer preventive behaviors, 27.8% of women wore sun-blocking clothing when working under the sun, 21.7% used sunscreen cream, 5.7% wore a cap, and 4.8% used gloves and sunglasses. Protection motivation theory and per capita income explained 51% of motivation variance and 25% of the variance of skin cancer preventive behaviors. The response efficacy construct was the strongest predictor of the motivation of protection (ß = - 0.44, p < 0/001). Per-capita income (ß = - 0.34, p < 0/001) and motivation (ß = - 0.33, p < 0/001) were the strongest predictors of these behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that protection motivation theory is efficient in predicting skin cancer preventive behaviors and the interventions can be designed and implemented by this theory. Proper planning is also necessary for promoting these behaviors among people with low per-capita income.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Motivação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , População Rural , Autoeficácia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etnologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517182

RESUMO

We aimed to study the hypothesis of socioeconomic equalization in health among Armenian adolescents participating in the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children 2013/14 survey. Classes corresponding to the ages 11, 13, and 15 were selected using a clustered sampling design. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used. In a nationally representative sample of 3679 students, adolescents with a low family socioeconomic position (SEP) had greater odds of reporting less than good health (odds ratio (OR) = 2.81, 95% CI = 2.25-3.51), low psychosocial well-being (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.44-2.61), or psychosomatic symptoms (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.07-1.56). Low levels of material well-being were associated with a higher likelihood of reporting less than good health (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.06-1.65) or low psychosocial well-being (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.04-1.54). The presence of both risk factors had a synergistic effect on having low psychosocial well-being (P-interaction = 0.031). Refuting the equalization hypothesis, our results indicate that low SEP might be strongly related to adolescent health in middle-income countries such as Armenia. Low material well-being also proved important, and, for further research, we hypothesized an association via decreased peer social status and compromised popularity.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Armênia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 100, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation (FGM) has been a longstanding tradition in Egypt and until recently the practice was quasi-universal. Nevertheless, there are indications that the practice has been losing support and that fewer girls are getting cut. This study analyzes the prevalence of FGM in different birth cohorts, to test whether the prevalence declined over time. The study also examines whether such a decline is occurring in all segments of society or whether it is limited mostly to certain more modernized segments of society. METHODS: This study pooled data from the 2005, 2008 and 2014 waves of the Egypt Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS). The women participating in the EDHS provided data on 62,507 girls born to them between 1987 and 2014, including whether they were cut and at what age. Kaplan-Meier and Weibull proportional hazard survival analyses were used to examine trends in the prevalence and hazards of FGM across birth cohorts. Controls for region, religion and socioeconomic status of the parents were included in the Weibull regression. RESULTS: The results show a steady decline in FGM across the birth cohorts studied. The base hazard for the 2010 birth cohort is only 30% that of the 1987 one. Further analyses show that the decline in FGM occurred in all segments of Egyptian society in a fairly similar manner although differences by region, religion and socioeconomic status persisted. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that FGM is declining in Egypt. The proportion of girls getting cut has declined rapidly over the past few decades. This decline is not limited to the more modernized segments of society, but has spread to the more traditional segments as well. The latter increases prospects for the eventual eradication of the practice.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Circuncisão Feminina/etnologia , Circuncisão Feminina/tendências , Empoderamento , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Circuncisão Feminina/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Prevalência , Religião , Saúde Reprodutiva
11.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 88, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ensuring good health of immigrants is a serious issue across countries, including Japan. This study focused on the health of middle-aged female immigrants in Japan who experienced changes to their health as well as an increased risk of non-communicable diseases. Specifically, the study aimed to clarify the risks and perceptions of non-communicable diseases and health promotion behavior of middle-aged female immigrants in Japan. METHODS: This investigation used an exploratory design. The participants were a purposive sample of 35 middle-aged female immigrants (age ≥ 40 years) living in urban and rural areas of Japan. Data were generated using mixed methods. A quantitative approach provided data of their risks of non-communicable diseases. Focus group discussions provided insights to identify their health promotion perceptions. RESULTS: Blood pressure measurement revealed that 29% of the immigrants had hypertension, 29% had a body mass index of > 30, and 71% had an abdominal girth of > 80 cm. About 31% had a history of chronic disease and 34% had regular medication. There were 80% who received regular health check-up, 49% who received breast cancer screening, and 34% who received cervical cancer screening. The focus group discussions indicated that the middle-aged female immigrants recognized the threat of non-communicable diseases. However, they lacked knowledge about the prevention of non-communicable diseases, and they felt that non-communicable diseases were unavoidable. They also failed to understand the benefits of health promotion behavior. The study revealed that the monolingual Japanese health service prevented immigrant women from understanding their health check-up and cancer screening results, and how to utilize the health service system. CONCLUSIONS: Middle-aged female immigrants in Japan had potential risks of non-communicable diseases, and recognized their threat. These settled immigrant women received health check-ups and cancer screenings with the support of their family, and consequently attained the same level of adherence as that of Japanese women. However, lack of knowledge about health promotion and its benefits and the absence of a culturally sensitive health service system for immigrants in Japan constrained their health-promotion behavior. Sociocultural multilingual-tailored interventions including interpretation services by care providers with cultural sensitivities must be developed.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
12.
AIDS Care ; 32(8): 1036-1044, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362131

RESUMO

LGBTQ populations experience human rights abuses worldwide; data need to document the health impact of these experiences in Africa. In Ghana, we measured events of sexuality-based stigma, discrimination, and violence among men who have sex with men (MSM) and the impact on HIV testing behavior. Data are from respondent-driven sampling surveillance surveys in Accra/Tema, Kumasi, Cape Coast/Takoradi, and Koforidua. Discrimination was common among MSM: 6.2%-30.6% were refused services, 29.0%-48.9% experienced verbal/symbolic violence, 2.8%-12.8% experienced physical violence, 12.3%-30.0% experienced sexual violence due to their sexuality in the preceding year. MSM who experienced sexual violence in their first male sexual encounter were less likely to ever test for HIV in Accra/Tema and Cape Coast/Takoradi. Further studies are needed to examine the impact of stigma and violence on MSM's HIV health-seeking behavior in Ghana. Structural interventions are needed to mitigate the consequences of stigma and discrimination on MSM health and well-being.


Assuntos
Discriminação Psicológica , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Estigma Social , Violência/psicologia , Adulto , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Psychooncology ; 29(7): 1193-1200, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Euphemisms may be used to reduce the threat associated with the word "cancer." Cancer may be particularly threatening in Indian culture due to the myths surrounding its cause and prognosis. This study explored the prevalence of euphemism use by Indian patients and the relationship among euphemism use and illness cognitions, affect, health behaviour, and spontaneous self-affirmation (a behaviour associated with dealing with threat). METHODS: In total, 350 cancer patients in India were recruited to take part in a study exploring patients' experiences of, and thoughts about, having an illness. They responded to a questionnaire measuring illness perceptions, coping strategies, anxiety, depression, health behaviours, and spontaneous self-affirmation. Patients were asked what words they used to describe their illness; euphemism users were those who used a euphemism (ie, non-medical term) as a first word. RESULTS: About 51% of patients used a euphemism as a first word. Those with less education, unskilled employment, a lower income, and more children were more likely to be euphemism users. Euphemism users reported (a) weaker illness perceptions (less personal control, greater reporting of symptoms, and less understanding of their condition), (b) less use of 3 of 14 coping strategies, (c) less likelihood of spontaneously self-affirming, and (d) fewer healthy eating days. CONCLUSIONS: Euphemism use in patients was not related to distress but was related to negative illness perceptions and use of fewer coping strategies, suggesting that we need further study about the extent to which euphemisms signal issues in psychological adaptation to cancer diagnosis.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Cognição , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etnologia , Percepção , Prevalência , Autoimagem , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 74(8): 655-661, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immigrants are at a higher risk of poor mental and physical health. Regular participation in physical activity (PA) and low levels of sedentary time are beneficial for both these aspects of health. The aim was to investigate levels and trends in domain-specific PA and sedentary behaviour in the US. immigrant compared with non-immigrant populations. METHODS: From the 2007-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a total of 25 142 adults (≥18 years) were included in this analysis. PA and sedentary behaviour time were assessed by a questionnaire. RESULTS: Transit-related PA showed downward linear trends in young immigrant adults (p trend=0.006) and middle-aged non-immigrant adults (p trend=0.009). We found significant upward linear trends in sedentary behaviour for both immigrants and non-immigrants across all age groups. For sitting watching TV or videos ≥2 hours/day, there was a downward linear trend in young immigrant adults (p trend=0.009). For computer use ≥1 hours/day, an upward linear trend in older non-immigrants was found (p trend=0.024). Young immigrants spent 37.5 (95% CI -55.4 to -19.6) min less than non-immigrants on recreational PA per week. Also, older immigrants spent 23.5 (95% CI 1.5 to 45.6) and 22.5 (95% CI 5.9 to 39.0) min/week more than non-immigrants on recreational PA and transit-related PA, respectively. Last, young and middle-aged immigrants spent 37.6 (95% CI -68.2 to -7.0) and 37.6 (95% CI -99.7 to -9.7) min/day less than non-immigrants on sedentary behaviour, respectively. CONCLUSION: Overall, levels of recreational PA were stable, yet the transit-related PA declined coupled with an increase in sedentary behaviour. US. immigrants exhibit higher levels of transit-PA, lower levels of leisure-time PA and lower levels of sedentary behaviour, in some age groups.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Atividades de Lazer , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(5): 104760, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An adequate stroke literacy among the general public and first-contact physicians is an essential prerequisite to ensure timely treatment and prevention of stroke. Knowledge on stroke pathophysiology, warning symptoms, risk factors and treatment, and its determinants was assessed among general public and general practitioners (GPs) in a South Asian population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among relatives of nonstroke patients admitted to the apex tertiary-care hospital in Sri Lanka. Trained doctors administered pretested, structured, open- and close-ended questionnaires. A postal survey using self-administered questionnaires was conducted among all registered GPs in Sri Lanka. RESULTS: The sample of general public (51.7% males; mean age = 40.7 years) from 21 of 25 districts of Sri Lanka was 840 (response-rate = 97.4%) while the sample of GPs (77.6% males; mean age = 59.63 years) was 98 (response-rate = 30%). Of the general public, 83.2% were aware of a vascular aetiology of stroke, but only 46.8% were aware that the affected organ was the brain while 67.5% believed that either the heart or limb muscles die as sequalae of stroke. Over 50% correctly identified stroke warning symptoms while 84.7% would seek immediate Western medical treatment. Approximately, 32%-46% were not aware of the major stroke risk factors. Lower education (adj. OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.3-2.3), absence of stroke risk factors (2.6; 1.9-3.7) and nonutility of information sources (1.5; 1.0-2.0) determined poor knowledge on risk factors. Only about 1 in 8 GPs accurately defined stroke and TIA while only 43.9% correctly classified stroke subtypes. Only 1 in 10 GPs were aware of the recommended therapeutic window for thrombolysis. Older age (P = 0.01) and longer service (P = 0.04) of GPs were associated with not requesting brain imaging in stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies to educate both the public and first-contact physicians to improve stroke literacy need to be an integral part of programmes that aim to reduce the burden of stroke in any population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde/etnologia , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Letramento em Saúde , Opinião Pública , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Educação Médica Continuada , Escolaridade , Feminino , Clínicos Gerais/educação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Fatores de Risco , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(5): 104716, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Stroke is a global burden. In Lebanon, recent studies have shown that stroke prevalence may be higher than other developing countries. While older people are particularly vulnerable to stroke, research suggests that they have poor stroke awareness. Since awareness is crucial for early hospital admission, thereby outcome, the main objectives of this study were to assess knowledge of stroke ie, symptoms, risk factors, and intended behavior in case of stroke suspicion. METHODS: A community-based survey targeting adults aged 50 and above was conducted at 20 random pharmacies in Beirut from May to October 2018 through face to face interviews utilizing a structured questionnaire composed of open and closed ended questions. Descriptive and multivariable analyses were performed. MAIN RESULTS: In total, 390 participants completed the questionnaire. Sixty-eight percent were able to spontaneously recall at least 1 stroke symptom, most frequently headache (29.2%), hemiparesis (25.4%), and dizziness (19.5%). Furthermore, 85.4% spontaneously recalled at least 1 risk factor, most frequently hypertension (48.2%), smoking (20.5%), and stress (43.1%). In case of stroke suspicion 57.69% would call an ambulance. Knowing a stroke patient and educational level were predictors for recall of more symptoms and risk factors for stroke. Adequate response to stroke was positively associated with identification of more stroke symptoms but inversely associated with having diabetes. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: There are major gaps in stroke knowledge among Beirut's older population. Culturally tailored awareness campaigns should be implemented at multiple levels using different media methods to target vulnerable populations at higher risk for stroke and their families. These campaigns should focus on improving stroke symptoms awareness and actions to take when suspecting stroke.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Letramento em Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Ambulâncias , Estudos Transversais , Características Culturais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
18.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 28(1): 1731296, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202220

RESUMO

Extramarital sexual relations are forbidden in Islam, and sexual health information is not readily available in Islamic communities, especially for women. This review aimed to explore sexually transmitted infection (STI) knowledge and attitudes among Muslim women worldwide. A systematic review was conducted on seven electronic databases. We included qualitative and quantitative studies of female Muslim participants of reproductive age, focusing on STI knowledge and attitudes. A narrative synthesis approach was used with thematic analysis methods. Eighteen studies conducted in 13 countries were included. Three main themes were identified: poor knowledge and misconceptions; sources of sexual health information and information needs; and cultural influences on STI knowledge and attitudes. Generally, Muslim women had poor knowledge regarding STI signs and symptoms, prevention, diagnosis and treatment, in addition to many misconceptions. Negative attitudes towards people infected with HIV/AIDS were common, and attitudes were highly influenced by misconceptions and insufficient knowledge. Infected women tended to be subjected to more blame and judgement compared to men. While the review summarises knowledge and attitudes of Muslim women worldwide, we excluded studies that did not clearly state that the study participants were Muslim women, hence many countries with Muslim populations are not represented in this review. Negative attitudes towards STIs make it harder for women to access sexual health information, STI prevention and treatment. This review highlights the need for culturally sensitive sexual health education for Muslim women. Future sex education interventions would benefit from considering the wider personal and external barriers.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Islamismo , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Cultura , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Religião , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Saúde Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etnologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
19.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 59, 2020 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water-pipe smoking is the most common type of tobacco used among Iranian women. The aim of this study was to explain women's perceptions of their intention for quitting water-pipe smoking based on the theory of planned behavior. METHODS: The study was a qualitative content analysis which was carried out over 4 months in 2016 in Tehran-Iran. The participants were 26 women ages 18 to 45-years-old who smoked water-pipe and were selected through snowball sampling. The study was performed in hookah cafes, parks, and homes. The data were collected through individual interviews. The interviews were open-ended questions based on the theory of planned behavior. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Findings showed that women did not intend to quit water-pipe in that time. Main contributing factors influencing not having intention of cessation were positive attitude and false beliefs toward hookah smoking, as well as having peers and family members who smoked water-pipe or approved its use. Although most females realized the obstacles associated with hookah cessation, they believed that quitting water-pipe smoking was up to them and could control more barriers. CONCLUSION: Social pressure, positive attitude and false beliefs towards hookah smoking, as well as external and internal obstacles diminished women 's intention for cessation. Therefore, it is recommended to apply the theory of planned behavior into behavior change interventions in order to increase the intention to quit water-pipe smoking.


Assuntos
Árabes/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Intenção , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/etnologia , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Irã (Geográfico) , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Christ Nurs ; 37(2): 100-107, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149909

RESUMO

Faith communities provide a place for Latino congregants to discuss health information. A pilot study using focus groups and semistructured interviews explored how Latino faith community members define the meaning of health and examined their perceptions and attitudes surrounding health promotion and maintenance. Four themes emerged that reflect participants' health beliefs, with faith as a uniting force. Results support the faith community as a means of fostering health promotion for Latinos.


Assuntos
Cristianismo/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Nível de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Espiritualidade , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social
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