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1.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0238472, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical Cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among Ethiopian women. Despite many interventions were conducted, there is low uptake of cervical cancer screening services. Also, limited evidence was available on the women's intention and its predictors towards cervical cancer screening. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the intention and predicators of behavioral intention toward cervical cancer screening. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Gomma district, Jimma, Ethiopia from August 1-30, 2019. The total sample sizes were 422 and a systematic random sampling technique was employed to select the samples. Data were collected through interviews using a structured questionnaire guide. Data were entered in epidata, and exported and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 software. Descriptive, correlation, and multicollinearity analysis were done. Also, simple and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to identify the predictors for behavioral intention. The p-value<0.05 was used to declare a significant association. RESULT: The response rate was 382 (90.5%). The mean age of the participants was of 26.45 (SD = 4.76). Direct attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control had a mean score of 16.78 (SD = 2.87), 15.61(SD = 1.92), and 12.86 (SD = 4.85), respectively. The intention has a mean score of 14.52 (SD = 4.01). From regression analysis, direct attitude (B = 0.346, p<0.001), direct subjective norm (B = 0.288, p = 0.008), direct perceived behavioral control (B = 0.132, p = 0.002) indirect attitude (B = 0.015, p = 0.019) and the indirect perceived behavioral control (B = 0.132, p = 0.002) were statistically significant with intention. CONCLUSION: From this study, it was understood that women's intention towards cervical cancer screening was low. The predictors were the direct and indirect attitude, direct and indirect subjective norm, direct and indirect perceived behavioral control. This calls a need to develop strategies and take action to improve the attitude of women and their influential peoples and increase sense of control to improve their intention to screen for cervical cancer. Moreover, health care providers should have to conduct social and behavioral change communication to improve women's health seeking behavior towards cervical cancer screening applying the concept of theory of planned behavior.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia , Mulheres/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Intenção , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teoria Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Public Health ; 189: 14-19, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to understand the role of household variables on the percentage of physical activity (%PA) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) confinement in Portugal. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design using an anonymous online survey was launched to assess how Portuguese families with children aged younger than 13 years adjusted their daily routines to the confinement. METHODS: Separate analyses of variance were performed to investigate how factors such as the number of children, age, sex, the housing characteristics, and the adults' job situation can affect the percentage of time for PA (%PA). RESULTS: Findings, based on data from 2159 children, indicate that (1) boys and girls did not differ in the %PA on any of the age-groups; (2) children with an outdoor space and who had other children in the household were significantly more active (P < .001); (3) children from families with all adults working from home showed lower levels of %PA; and (4) being younger, having a big outdoor space, having other children in the household, and having at least one adult free from working from home were significant positive predictors of children's %PA, explaining 21% of the overall variance. CONCLUSION: Time allocated for PA during this period is reduced compared with what is usually reported on normal days. It is necessary to find strategies to increase children's PA, especially in families in which both parents are working and have no outdoor space.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , /epidemiologia , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Work ; 66(4): 751-753, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925136

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the shutdown of much of the world's economic and social operations. Given shutdown of exercise facilities, there has been a sharp uptick in a sedentary lifestyle. As people have lost their normal daily activity patterns, it is reasonable to assume that musculoskeletal pain-related syndromes will consequently begin to increase. In addition, there has been a rise in social network, television, and online home-based workouts. In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is unclear whether previous recommendations for physical activities will remain sufficient, given cessation of normal physical activities from day-to-day life. We raise a variety of questions in dealing with the potential fallout of the COVID-19 shutdown from a musculoskeletal standpoint.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sedentário , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Dor Musculoesquelética/fisiopatologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/reabilitação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Health Psychol ; 39(11): 966-974, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955279

RESUMO

Objective: Research concerning trans-disease processes aims to ascertain an underlying mechanism of several seemingly dissonant behaviors, pathological conditions, or both. The theory of reinforcer pathology posits that excessive delay discounting and the maladaptive overvaluation of a particular commodity underlie a variety of dysfunctional health behavior ranging from substance abuse to overeating and financial responsibility. The present study extends recent health behavior research by examining the extent delay discounting and food valuation correlate with engagement in a latent factor model of health and financial behaviors among healthy-weight participants and participants with obesity using the Health Behaviors Questionnaire. Method: A total of 700 participants (n = 340, body mass index [BMI] < 30; n = 360, BMI > 30 kg/m2) were recruited using Amazon Mechanical Turk. Participants completed a monetary delay discounting assessment, the Health Behaviors Questionnaire, and 2 measures of food valuation: Behavioral economic demand and the Power of Food Scale (PFS). Results: Utilizing structural equation modeling, both delay discounting and food valuation significantly correlated with engagement in health and financial behavior for both groups. The comparison of latent factors between groups indicated that participants with obesity were less likely to engage in multiple health behaviors and that these differences can be partially attributed to differences in delay discounting and food valuation. Conclusion: These results replicate previous research and further support the role of delay discounting as a trans-disease process. Given these results, trans-disease interventions, such as episodic future thinking, designed to specifically target reinforcer pathology may have a profound effect on overall functioning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Reforço Psicológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Health Psychol ; 39(11): 986-996, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969695

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated associations between child maltreatment and body mass, body weight perceptions, and weight control behaviors among men and women. METHOD: Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate links between dimensions of childhood maltreatment and adult (a) classifications of body mass index (BMI), (b) discrepancies in perceived weight and actual BMI categories, and (c) normative and risky weight control behaviors. RESULTS: Childhood maltreatment was highly predictive of BMI classification, weight perception discrepancies, and weight control behaviors for women. Women who reported physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect had increased risks for being slightly or very overweight, and among those who reported physical abuse and/or a combination of physical abuse and neglect, there is an increased likelihood of holding overweight perceptions. Finally, female victims of physical abuse, physical abuse and neglect, and of neglect only were more likely to adopt risky (e.g., diet pills or purging) versus normative (e.g., diet and exercise) weight control behaviors. CONCLUSION: Results indicated that women who reported childhood maltreatment have increased risks for developing body and weight related issues, confirming research documenting female-specific effects of childhood maltreatment. For women, certain forms of maltreatment strongly predicted BMI groupings, discrepant weight perceptions, and risky weight behaviors. Taken together, findings suggest that child maltreatment is a predictor of health-related outcomes. Moreover, results highlight the importance of assessing gender-specific effects when examining outcomes related to body, weight, and dieting. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(8): e2011381, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777059

RESUMO

Importance: There is potential for mental health status to act as a determinant of an individual's ability to engage in healthful lifestyle behaviors. Objective: To investigate the associations of parent-reported mental health problems during childhood and self-reported mental health problems in adolescence with health behaviors in adolescence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from wave 4 (collected in 2008) and wave 6 (collected in 2015) of the Millennium Cohort Study, a UK population-representative longitudinal study of young people born during 2000 to 2001. Wave 4 included data on parent-reported mental health issues for children at age 7 years. Wave 6 included data on self-reported mental health problems as well as health behaviors for the same children at age 14 years. Data were analyzed July 5, 2020. Exposures: Mental health problems at age 7 years were parent-reported using Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Mental health problems at age 14 years were self-reported using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Main Outcomes and Measures: Health behaviors at age 14 years were the main outcome of interest. Sleep duration; fruit, vegetable, and soft drink consumption; and social media use were self-reported using recall on a typical day. Regression models were calculated for each lifestyle variable, with mental health change from ages 7 to 14 years as the exposure variable. Data were weighted to account for the potential clustering of region of sampling and adjusted for nonresponse. Results: A total of 9369 participants were included in waves 4 and 6 of the Millennium Cohort Study, including 4665 (48.1%) girls and 6014 participants (81.9%) who were born in England. Adolescents who self-reported mental health problems at age 14 years only were less likely to have at least 9 hours of sleep (odds ratio [OR], 0.39; 95% CI, 0.34-0.45) and to consume fruit (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.46-0.65) and vegetables (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.52-0.83) reported greater use of social media (b = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.49-0.75) compared with individuals who did not have mental health problems at both time points. Similarly, those with mental health problems at both time points were less likely to achieve 9 hours sleep (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.51-0.90), consume fruit (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.26-0.58) and vegetables (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35-0.91), and reported greater social media use (b = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.34-0.91). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the presence of depressive symptoms at ages 7 and 14 years and at age 14 years only were associated with some health behaviors in adolescence. These findings are particularly important given that independent health behaviors can deteriorate and become habitual during adolescence, and adolescence is a known time for the first emergence of mental health problems that continue into adulthood.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Depressão , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Reino Unido
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e19996, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the growing body of literature examining social media in health contexts, including public health communication, promotion, and surveillance, limited insight has been provided into how the utility of social media may vary depending on the particular public health objectives governing an intervention. For example, the extent to which social media platforms contribute to enhancing public health awareness and prevention during epidemic disease transmission is currently unknown. Doubtlessly, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) represents a great challenge at the global level, aggressively affecting large cities and public gatherings and thereby having substantial impacts on many health care systems worldwide as a result of its rapid spread. Each country has its capacity and reacts according to its perception of threat, economy, health care policy, and the health care system structure. Furthermore, we noted a lack of research focusing on the role of social media campaigns in public health awareness and public protection against the COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan as a developing country. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of social media platforms on public health protection against the COVID-19 pandemic via public health awareness and public health behavioral changes as mediating factors in Jordan. METHODS: A quantitative approach and several social media platforms were used to collect data via web questionnaires in Jordan, and a total of 2555 social media users were sampled. This study used structural equation modeling to analyze and verify the study variables. RESULTS: The main findings revealed that the use of social media platforms had a significant positive influence on public health protection against COVID-19 as a pandemic. Public health awareness and public health behavioral changes significantly acted as partial mediators in this relationship. Therefore, a better understanding of the effects of the use of social media interventions on public health protection against COVID-19 while taking public health awareness and behavioral changes into account as mediators should be helpful when developing any health promotion strategy plan. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the use of social media platforms can positively influence awareness of public health behavioral changes and public protection against COVID-19. Public health authorities may use social media platforms as an effective tool to increase public health awareness through dissemination of brief messages to targeted populations. However, more research is needed to validate how social media channels can be used to improve health knowledge and adoption of healthy behaviors in a cross-cultural context.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Mídias Sociais/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral , Projetos de Pesquisa
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236344, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735559

RESUMO

Self-harm and mental health are inter-related issues that substantially contribute to the global burden of disease. However, measurement of these issues at the population level is problematic. Statistics on suicide can be captured in national cause of death data collected as part of the coroner's review process, however, there is a significant time-lag in the availability of such data, and by definition, these sources do not include non-fatal incidents. Although survey, emergency department, and hospitalisation data present alternative information sources to measure self-harm, such data do not include the richness of information available at the point of incident. This paper describes the mental health and self-harm modules within the National Ambulance Surveillance System (NASS), a unique Australian system for monitoring and mapping mental health and self-harm. Data are sourced from paramedic electronic patient care records provided by Australian state and territory-based ambulance services. A team of specialised research assistants use a purpose-built system to manually scrutinise and code these records. Specific details of each incident are coded, including mental health symptoms and relevant risk indicators, as well as the type, intent, and method of self-harm. NASS provides almost 90 output variables related to self-harm (i.e., type of behaviour, self-injurious intent, and method) and mental health (e.g., mental health symptoms) in the 24 hours preceding each attendance, as well as demographics, temporal and geospatial characteristics, clinical outcomes, co-occurring substance use, and self-reported medical and psychiatric history. NASS provides internationally unique data on self-harm and mental health, with direct implications for translational research, public policy, and clinical practice. This methodology could be replicated in other countries with universal ambulance service provision to inform health policy and service planning.


Assuntos
Ambulâncias/normas , Morbidade , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Conduta Expectante/normas , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/normas , Austrália/epidemiologia , Codificação Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Auxiliares de Emergência/normas , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Saúde Mental , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/patologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/prevenção & controle
9.
Health Psychol ; 39(9): 736-744, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients are nonadherent to cardiovascular medications despite their known benefits for lowering risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. Research suggests that greater cardiac-related fear of recurrence (FoR) may be associated with higher nonadherence to cardiovascular medications and avoidance of physical activity. We aim to test the effect of an intervention that targets FoR as a potentially modifiable mechanism underlying nonadherence to recommended health behaviors among patients with suspected ACS. METHOD: The INFORM trial ("INvestigating Fear Of Recurrence as a modifiable Mechanism of behavior change to improve medication adherence in acute coronary syndrome patients") is a double-blind, parallel-group randomized clinical trial. It compares an 8-session, at-home, electronic tablet-delivered, cognitive bias modification training (CBMT) intervention with a sham control. Patients who experience high perceived threat at the time of presentation to the emergency department (ED) with a suspected ACS are enrolled and randomized within 6 weeks of their ED visit. The primary outcome, FoR, is measured by the adapted Concerns about Recurrent ACS Scale. The trial also tests the intervention's effect on a potential mechanism of health behavior change that is inversely correlated with fear: an expansive future time perspective. Additional outcomes include electronically measured adherence to a cardiovascular medication and self-reported physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: This study takes a mechanistic approach to addressing the dangerous problem of poor health behaviors after ACS. The trial will test whether targeting FoR or future time perspective by CBMT is a promising approach to improving nonadherence after ACS. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237564, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention of overweight during early childhood seems promising. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the parenting-based BBOFT+ overweight prevention program on child BMI, child health behavior and parenting behavior among 0-36 month old children. BBOFT+ is an acronym for the key healthy lifestyle behaviors that are targeted in the BBOFT+ intervention: breastfeeding (B), daily breakfast (B), daily going outdoors (O), limiting sweet beverages (in Dutch, F) and minimal TV or computer time (T), complemented with healthy sleep behavior and improvement of parenting skills (+). METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial in newborn children visiting well-baby clinics, comparing the BBOFT+ intervention (N = 901) with care as usual (CAU) (N = 1094). In both groups, parents received regular well-child visits (±11 visits in the first 3 years). In the intervention group, care was supplemented with the BBOFT+ program, which focuses on improving parenting skills from birth onwards to increase healthy behavior. Questionnaires were filled in at child's age 2-4 weeks, 6, 14 and 36 months. In multivariate analyses we corrected for child's birthweight, age, ethnic background, mother's educational level and BMI. RESULTS: No differences were found in weight status at 36 months between intervention and control group children. At 6 months, BBOFT+ parents reported their child drinking less sweet beverages than control parents (48% vs 54%;p = .027), and going outdoors daily with their child less often (57% vs 62%;p = .03). At 14 months, more BBOFT+ parents than control parents reported to have breastfed for six months or longer (32% vs 29%;p = .022). At 36 months, more BBOFT+ parents than control parents reported their child going outside daily (78% vs 72%;p = .011) and having less TV/computer time on week- (38% vs 46%;p = .001) and weekend days (48% vs 56%;p = .002). Also, BBOFT+ parents reported having more parental control than control parents (3.92 vs 3.89;p = .02). No significant differences were found for daily breakfast, sleep duration and parenting practices in adjusted analyses. CONCLUSION: The BBOFT+ overweight prevention program showed small improvements in parent-reported child health behaviors, compared to care as usual; no effect was observed on child BMI. The identified modifiable elements are potentially relevant for interventions that aim to prevent overweight.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Educação não Profissionalizante/métodos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Poder Familiar , Adulto , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Países Baixos , Visita a Consultório Médico , Relações Pais-Filho , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(7): e18338, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite many advantages of web-based health behavior interventions such as wide accessibility or low costs, these interventions are often accompanied by high attrition rates, particularly in usage under real-life conditions. It would therefore be helpful to implement strategies such as the use of financial incentives to motivate program participation and increase adherence. OBJECTIVE: This naturalistic study examined real-life usage data of a 12-week web-based physical activity (PA) intervention (Fitness Coach) among insurants who participated in an additional incentive program (incentive group) and those who did not (nonincentive group). Users in the incentive group had the perspective of receiving €30 (about US $33) cash back at the end of the intervention. METHODS: Registration and real-life usage data as part of routine data management and evaluation of the Fitness Coach were analyzed between September 2016 and June 2018. Depending on the duration of use and the weekly recording of tasks, 4 adherence groups (low, occasional, strong, and complete adherence) were defined. Demographic characteristics were collected by a self-reported questionnaire at registration. We analyzed baseline predictors and moderators of complete adherence such as participation in the program, age, gender, and BMI using binary logistic regressions. RESULTS: A total of 18,613 eligible persons registered for the intervention. Of these, 15,482 users chose to participate in the incentive program (incentive group): mean age 42.4 (SD 14.4) years, mean BMI 24.5 (SD 4.0) kg/m2, median (IQR) BMI 23.8 (21.7-26.4) kg/m2; 65.12% (10,082/15,482) female; and 3131 users decided not to use the incentive program (nonincentive group): mean age 40.7 (SD 13.4) years, mean BMI 26.2 (SD 5.0) kg/m2, median BMI 25.3 (IQR 22.6-28.7) kg/m2; 72.18% (2260/3131) female. At the end of the intervention, participants in the incentive program group showed 4.8 times higher complete adherence rates than those in the nonincentive program group (39.2% vs 8.1%), also yielding significantly higher odds to complete the intervention (odds ratio [OR] 12.638) for the incentive program group. Gender significantly moderated the effect with men in the incentive group showing higher odds to be completely adherent than women overall and men in the nonincentive group (OR 1.761). Furthermore, older age and male gender were significant predictors of complete adherence for all participants, whereas BMI did not predict intervention completion. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first naturalistic study in the field of web-based PA interventions that shows the potential of even small financial incentives to increase program adherence. Male users, in particular, seem to be strongly motivated by incentives to complete the intervention. Based on these findings, health care providers can use differentiated incentive systems to increase regular participation in web-based PA interventions.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Intervenção Baseada em Internet/tendências , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e19995, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since January 2020, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) swept over China and then the world, causing a global public health crisis. People's adoption of preventive and intervening behaviors is critical in curbing the spread of the virus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate Chinese people's adoption of health behaviors in responding to COVID-19 and to identify key determinants for their engagement. METHODS: An anonymous online questionnaire was distributed in early February 2020 among Mainland Chinese (18 years or older) to examine their engagement in preventive behaviors (eg, frequent handwashing, wearing masks, staying at home) and intervening behaviors (eg, advising family to wash hands frequently), and to explore potential determinants for their adoption of these health behaviors. RESULTS: Out of 2949 participants, 55.3% (n=1629) reported frequent engagement in preventive health behaviors, and over 84% (n=2493) performed at least one intervening health behavior. Greater engagement in preventive behaviors was found among participants who received higher education, were married, reported fewer barriers and greater benefits of engagement, reported greater self-efficacy and emotional support, had greater patient-centered communication before, had a greater media literacy level, and had greater new media and traditional media use for COVID-19 news. Greater engagement in intervening behaviors was observed among participants who were married, had lower income, reported greater benefits of health behaviors, had greater patient-centered communication before, had a lower media literacy level, and had a greater new media and traditional media use for COVID-19 news. CONCLUSIONS: Participants' engagement in coronavirus-related preventive and intervening behaviors was overall high, and the associations varied across demographic and psychosocial variables. Hence, customized health interventions that address the determinants for health behaviors are needed to improve people's adherence to coronavirus-related behavior guidelines.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234600, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609763

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assess how people perceive the risks of coronavirus infection, whether people take preventive measures, and which pre-outbreak factors contribute to the perceived risks and measures taken, such as pre-outbreak respiratory problems, heart problems, diabetes, anxiety and depression symptoms, loneliness, age, gender, marital and employment status and education level. METHODS: Data were collected in the longitudinal LISS panel, based on a random sample of the Dutch population. The coronavirus survey started on March 2, and the data collection ended on March 17 2020. Data were linked with surveys on health and social integration conducted at the end of 2019 (Nstudy sample = 3,540). RESULTS: About 15% perceived the risk of infection as high, and 11% the risk becoming ill when infected. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed the following. Older age-groups perceived the risk for coronavirus infection as lower (all adjusted Odd Ratio's [aOR] ≤ .070). In total, 43.8% had taken preventive measures, especially females (aOR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.26-1.70). Those with lower education levels less often used preventive measures (aOR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.45-0.67). Those with pre-outbreak respiratory problems (aOR = 2.75, 95% CI = 2.11-3.57), heart problems (aOR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.34-2.92) and diabetes (aOR = 3.12, 95% CI = 2.02-4.82) perceived the risk becoming ill when infected as higher than others. However, respondents with pre-outbreak respiratory problems and diabetes did not more often take preventive measures. CONCLUSIONS: Vulnerable patients more often recognize that they are at risk becoming ill when infected by the coronavirus, but many do not take preventive measures. Interventions to stimulate the use of preventive measures should pay additional attention to physically vulnerable patients, males and those with lower education levels.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(7): e17351, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the last few decades, preventing the development of cardiovascular disease has become a mainstay for reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It has been suggested that interventions should focus more on committed approaches of self-care, such as electronic health techniques. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide evidence to understand the financial consequences of implementing the "Do Cardiac Health: Advanced New Generation Ecosystem" (Do CHANGE 2) intervention, which was evaluated in a multisite randomized controlled trial to change the health behavior of patients with cardiovascular disease. METHODS: The cost-effectiveness analysis of the Do CHANGE 2 intervention was performed with the Monitoring and Assessment Framework for the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing tool, based on a Markov model of five health states. The following two types of costs were considered for both study groups: (1) health care costs (ie, costs associated with the time spent by health care professionals on service provision, including consultations, and associated unplanned hospitalizations, etc) and (2) societal costs (ie, costs attributed to the time spent by patients and informal caregivers on care activities). RESULTS: The Do CHANGE 2 intervention was less costly in Spain (incremental cost was -€2514.90) and more costly in the Netherlands and Taiwan (incremental costs were €1373.59 and €1062.54, respectively). Compared with treatment as usual, the effectiveness of the Do CHANGE 2 program in terms of an increase in quality-adjusted life-year gains was slightly higher in the Netherlands and lower in Spain and Taiwan. CONCLUSIONS: In general, we found that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio strongly varied depending on the country where the intervention was applied. The Do CHANGE 2 intervention showed a positive cost-effectiveness ratio only when implemented in Spain, indicating that it saved financial costs in relation to the effect of the intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03178305; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03178305.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Intervenção Baseada em Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ecossistema , Eletrônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Qual Life Res ; 29(11): 3031-3041, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562195

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The long-term impact of primary care behavior change programs on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical activity (PA) level is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in HRQoL and PA among participants after a 3-month behavior change intervention at Norwegian healthy life center (HLCs) and at a 15-month follow-up. Furthermore, we aimed to study associations between changes in PA and HRQoL. METHODS: We followed 524 adult participants (18-83 years), recruited from 32 HLCs in August 2016-January 2018, who provided data on HRQoL (SF-36) and PA (ActiGraph accelerometers) 12 months after a 3-month behavior change intervention. Changes in HRQoL and PA between baseline, 3-month and 15-month follow-ups, and associations between changes in PA and HRQoL were analyzed by linear mixed models. RESULTS: All HRQoL dimensions improved from baseline to 3-month follow-up, and the improvements maintained at 15-month follow-up (mean 3.1-13.1 points, p < 0.001). PA increased from baseline to 3 months (mean 418 steps/day, p < 0.001), but declined from 3 to 15 months (mean - 371 steps/day, p < 0.001). We observed positive associations between changes in PA and HRQoL (0.84-3.23 points per 1000 steps/day, p < 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Twelve months after completing a 3-month HLC intervention we found improved HRQoL, but not PA level. Still, there were positive associations between PA and HRQoL over this period, indicating that participants increasing their PA were more likely to improve their HRQoL.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Health Psychol ; 39(10): 863-878, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis of studies examining the determinants of behaviors performed by parents to promote the health of their child, termed "parent-for-child health behaviors," based on an extended theory of planned behavior. Specifically, the study aimed to meta-analyze correlations among theory of planned behavior constructs, planning, and past behavior, and use them to test theory predictions and effects of salient moderators. METHOD: A systematic search identified 46 studies that provided correlations between at least one theory construct and intention or behavior for parent-for-child behaviors. Theory predictions were tested using meta-analytic structural equation modeling. Studies were also coded for candidate moderators of model effects: child age, sample type, time lag between measures of theory constructs and parent-for-child health behavior, study quality, and behavior type, and the proposed model was estimated at each level of the moderator. RESULTS: Results supported theory predictions with attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control predicting parent-for-child health behavior participation mediated by intention. Perceived behavioral control and planning also directly predicted behavior, and planning partially mediated effects of intention on behavior. Model effects held when controlling for past behavior, supporting the sufficiency of the theory in this behavioral domain. Few moderator effects were found on relations between theory constructs. CONCLUSION: Findings identified the social cognition determinants of parent-for-child health behaviors, and highlight the potential processes by which they relate to behavior. The current model signposts potentially modifiable targets for behavioral interventions aimed at fostering parental participation in behaviors that promote the health of their children. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e15099, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a result of demographic changes, the number of people aged 60 years and older has been increasing steadily. Therefore, older adults have become more important as a target group for health communication efforts. Various studies show that online health information sources have gained importance among younger adults, but we know little about the health-related internet use of senior citizens in general and in particular about the variables explaining their online health-related information-seeking behavior. Media use studies indicate that in addition to sociodemographic variables, lifestyle factors might play a role in this context. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine older people's health-related internet use. Our study focused on the explanatory potential of lifestyle types over and above sociodemographic variables to predict older adults' internet use for health information. METHODS: A telephone survey was conducted with a random sample of German adults aged 60 years and older (n=701) that was quota-allocated by gender, age, educational status, and degree of urbanity of their place of residence. RESULTS: The results revealed that participants used the internet infrequently (mean 1.82 [SD 1.07]), and medical personnel (mean 2.89 [SD 1.11]), family and friends (mean 2.86 [SD 1.21]), and health brochures (mean 2.85 [SD 1.21]) were their main sources of health information. A hierarchical cluster analysis based on values, interests, and leisure time activities revealed three different lifestyle types for adults aged over 60 years: the Sociable Adventurer, the Average Family Person, and the Uninterested Inactive. After adding these types as second-step predictors in a hierarchical regression model with sociodemographic variables (step 1), the explained variance increased significantly (R2=.02, P=.001), indicating that the Average Family Person and the Sociable Adventurer use the internet more often for health information than the Uninterested Inactive, over and above their sociodemographic attributes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the internet still plays only a minor role in the health information-seeking behavior of older German adults. Nevertheless, there are subgroups including younger, more active, down-to-earth and family-oriented males that may be reached with online health information. Our findings suggest that lifestyle types should be taken into account when predicting health-related internet use behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Comportamento de Busca de Informação/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10487, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591555

RESUMO

This study examined the prevalence of non-smoking norms in England and their associations with motivation to stop smoking, quit attempts, and cessation. Data were from a representative cross-sectional survey of 1,521 adults (301 combustible tobacco smokers). Descriptive non-smoking norms were endorsed, with just 16% of adults (12% of smokers) believing smoking was uncommon. Injunctive non-smoking norms were more prevalent, with 60-77% of adults (17-48% of smokers) viewing smoking as something of which others disapproved. Personal non-smoking norms were also prevalent among all adults (73% indicated they would prefer to live with a non-smoker) but not smokers (69% had no preference). Smokers who endorsed stronger descriptive non-smoking norms had increased odds of reporting high motivation to stop smoking (ORadj = 1.63, 95%CI 1.06-2.52). Female (but not male) past-year smokers who endorsed stronger injunctive (ORadj = 2.19, 95%CI 1.41-3.42) and personal (ORadj = 1.90, 95%CI 1.29-2.82) non-smoking norms had increased odds of having made a past-year quit attempt. In conclusion, perceived descriptive non-smoking norms are not held by the majority of adults in England. Injunctive and personal non-smoking norms are prevalent among all adults but lower among smokers. There is some evidence that smokers - in particular, women - who endorse stronger non-smoking norms are more likely to be motivated to stop smoking and to make a quit attempt.


Assuntos
Motivação/fisiologia , não Fumantes/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e16002, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social media are an increasingly commonly used platform for delivering health promotion interventions. Although recent research has focused on the effectiveness of social media interventions for health promotion, very little is known about the optimal content within such interventions, and the active ingredients to promote health behavior change using social media are not clear. Identifying which behavior change techniques (BCTs) are reported may help to clarify the content of interventions using a generalizable terminology that may facilitate future intervention development. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify which BCTs are reported in social media interventions for promoting health behavior change in adults. METHODS: We included 71 studies conducted with adult participants (aged ≥18 years) and for which social media intervention was considered interactive in a Cochrane review of the effectiveness of such interventions. We developed a coding manual informed by the Behavior Change Technique Taxonomy version 1 (BCTTv1) to identify BCTs in the included studies. We identified BCTs in all study arms (including control) and described BCTs in the group and self-directed components of studies. We characterized the dose of delivery for each BCT by low and high intensity. We used descriptive analyses to characterize the reported BCTs. RESULTS: Our data consisted of 71 studies published from 2001 to 2017, mainly conducted in high-income countries (n=65). Most studies (n=31) used tailored, interactive websites to deliver the intervention; Facebook was the most used mainstream platform. In developing our coding manual, we adapted some BCTTv1 instructions to better capture unique nuances of how BCTs were operationalized in social media with respect to likes, retweets, smiles, congratulations, and badges. Social support (unspecified), instruction on how to perform the behavior, and credible source were most frequently identified BCTs in intervention arms of studies and group-delivery settings, whereas instruction on how to perform the behavior was most commonly applied in self-directed components of studies, control arms, and individual participant settings. Instruction on how to perform the behavior was also the most frequently reported BCT in both intervention and control arms simultaneously. Instruction on how to perform the behavior, social support (unspecified), self-monitoring of behavior, information about health consequences, and credible source were identified in the top 5 BCTs delivered with the highest intensity. CONCLUSIONS: This study within a review provides a detailed description of the BCTs and their dose to promote behavior change in web-based, interactive social media interventions. Clarifying active ingredients in social media interventions and the intensity of their delivery may help to develop future interventions that can more clearly build upon the existing evidence.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Mídias Sociais/normas , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Humanos
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(6): e17640, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both body mass index (BMI) and the perceived importance of health have received a lot of attention, but few studies have fully investigated the interaction of their effects on health behaviors. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the effects of BMI and the perceived importance of health on health behaviors (patterns of eating, sleeping, and exercising) among college students in Taiwan. METHODS: A survey was conducted with 334 students to assess their perception of the importance of health (using indicators) and their health behavior (using the Health Behaviors Scale). Respondent BMI was calculated from self-reported body weight and height. Descriptive statistical analysis, independent t test analysis, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and one-way ANOVA were conducted. RESULTS: The results showed a significant difference between genders in health behaviors among college students (eating: t332=2.17, P=.03; exercise: t332=5.57, P<.001; sleep: t332=2.58, P=.01). Moreover, there was an interaction between BMI and perception (of the importance of health) for exercise behaviors (F2,328=3.50, P=.03), but not for eating behaviors (F2,328=0.12, P=.89) or sleep behaviors (F2,328=1.64, P=.20). CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes, for the first time, the interaction of BMI and the perceived importance of health on health behaviors. The perception of health was found to have a significant effect on exercise behaviors. Thus, the perception of health plays a significant role in the exercise behaviors of college students in Taiwan. This finding provides researchers, policy makers, and practitioners with evidence, and consequently, opportunities for focusing on preventive actions. The findings suggest that increasing the importance of health in the perception of college students, should be the focus of efforts to help students exercise more regularly.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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