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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5): 167-173, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539331

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Experiencing violence, especially multiple types of violence, can have a negative impact on youths' development. These experiences increase the risk for future violence and other health problems associated with the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescents and adults. METHODS: Data from the 2019 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to determine the prevalence of high school students' self-reported experiences with physical fighting, being threatened with a weapon, physical dating violence, sexual violence, and bullying. Logistic regression models adjusting for sex, grade, and race/ethnicity were used to test the strength of associations between experiencing multiple forms of violence and 16 self-reported health risk behaviors and conditions. RESULTS: Approximately one half of students (44.3%) experienced at least one type of violence; more than one in seven (15.6%) experienced two or more types during the preceding 12 months. Experiencing multiple types of violence was significantly more prevalent among females than among males and among students identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual or not sure of their sexual identity than among heterosexual students. Experiencing violence was significantly associated with higher prevalence of all examined health risks and conditions. Relative to youths with no violence experiences, adjusted health risk and condition prevalence estimates were up to seven times higher among those experiencing two types of violence and up to 21 times higher among those experiencing three or more types of violence. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Many youths experience multiple types of violence, with potentially lifelong health impacts. Violence is preventable using proven approaches that address individual, family, and environmental risks. Prioritizing violence prevention is strategic to promoting adolescent and adult health.


Assuntos
Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546344

RESUMO

Tobacco and cannabis use, alcohol consumption and inactivity are health risk behaviors (HRB) of crucial importance for health and wellbeing. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on university students' engagement in HRB has yet received limited attention. We investigated whether HRB changed during the COVID-19 pandemic, assessed factors associated with change and profiles of HRB changes in university students. A web-based survey was conducted in May 2020, including 5021 students of four German universities (69% female, the mean age of 24.4 years (SD = 5.1)). Sixty-one percent of students reported consuming alcohol, 45.8% binge drinking, 44% inactivity, 19.4% smoking and 10.8% cannabis use. While smoking and cannabis use remained unchanged during the COVID-19 pandemic, 24.4% reported a decrease in binge drinking while 5.4% reported an increase. Changes to physical activity were most frequently reported, with 30.6% reporting an increase and 19.3% reporting a decrease in vigorous physical activity. Being female, younger age, being bored, not having a trusted person and depressive symptoms were factors associated with a change in HRB. Five substance use behavior profiles were identified, which also remained fairly unchanged. Efforts to promote student health and wellbeing continue to be required, also in times of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Pandemias , Estudantes , Adulto , Bebedeira , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Appl Gerontol ; 40(3): 263-267, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554720

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has produced considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, and older adults are at especially high risk for developing severe COVID-19. A cohort study of driving behavior from January 1, 2019, to April 25, 2019, and January 1, 2020, to April 25, 2020, was conducted. We hypothesized that older adults would reduce the number of days driving and number of trips/day they make after COVID-19 case acceleration. Data from 214 adults aged 66.5 to 92.8 years were used. Women comprised 47.6% of the sample and 15.4% were African American. Participants reduced the proportion of days driven during the pandemic (.673 vs. .382 [p < .001]) compared with same period the year before (.695 vs. .749). Trips/day showed a similar decline (p < .001). Participants also took shorter trips (p = .02), drove slower (p < .001), had fewer speeding incidents (p < .001), and had different trip destinations (p < .001). These results indicate that older adults reduce their driving behavior when faced with a pandemic.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde/fisiologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estados Unidos
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e045529, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514584

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The current COVID-19 pandemic has increased the need for populational adherence to measures for the prevention and control of respiratory infectious diseases. However, their effectiveness depends on the population's preventive behaviour, which may be divergent from public policies. Therefore, this study aims to summarise and evaluate the evidence on barriers and facilitators to populational adherence to prevention and control measures in COVID-19 and other respiratory infectious diseases. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search on MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO for studies focusing on adults receiving protective behaviour recommendations to combat COVID-19 and other respiratory infectious diseases. The searches will be carried out from database's inception to the present. We will include studies that use qualitative methods in their data collection and analysis and studies that use mixed methods if they include any qualitative methods of analysis. Studies published in English, Portuguese and Spanish will be included. Two review authors will independently screen the studies for inclusion and extract data. We will assess the quality of the included studies using the Critical Skills Appraisal Programme tool. For the assessment of the confidence in the synthesised findings, we will use the GRADE-Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research. Data analysis will be conducted using the best-fit framework approach based on adapted dimensions from the Health Belief Model and the Behaviour Change Wheel. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study will be conducted on published evidence, and thus, no ethical approval is required. The findings of this rapid qualitative evidence synthesis will be disseminated to academic audiences, health policy-makers and the general population. We will publish the results in peer-reviewed journals, present our findings in conferences, and disseminate results via social media. We also aim to present the research findings in plain language and disseminate the knowledge to the general population to increase public interest. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020205750.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Barreiras de Comunicação , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , /epidemiologia , /psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Percepção Social
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401574

RESUMO

The college years provide an important window of opportunity for the implementation of preventive efforts, especially with respect to smoking, problematic drinking, and obesity. Targeting of individuals at high risk of adopting those health behaviors might increase the effectiveness of those efforts, yet little is known about possible criteria for targeting and their ability to predict the adoption of risky health behaviors. Human capital theory predicts that more risk-averse individuals are more likely to invest in their health capital and should therefore be less likely to engage in risky health behaviors. Building on this theoretical prediction, this study uses a simple one-item measure of risk attitude and examines its ability to predict the Alameda Seven health behaviors in a sample of college students in the Republic of Korea. Unlike previous research, it also controls for personality traits and cognitive ability. Experimental data were gathered and analyzed using regression analysis. The risk measure predicted the probability of smoking and reporting higher stress levels, with no correlations found for the other health behaviors, suggesting that replication studies using larger samples should be carried out to analyze if these findings persist.


Assuntos
Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(1)2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374208

RESUMO

To safely protect workplaces and the workforce during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, a scalable integrated sensing solution is required in order to offer real-time situational awareness and early warnings for decision-makers. However, an information-based solution for industry reopening is ineffective when the necessary operational information is locked up in disparate real-time data silos. There is a lot of ongoing effort to combat the COVID-19 pandemic using different combinations of low-cost, location-based contact tracing, and sensing technologies. These ad hoc Internet of Things (IoT) solutions for COVID-19 were developed using different data models and protocols without an interoperable way to interconnect these heterogeneous systems and exchange data on people and place interactions. This research aims to design and develop an interoperable Internet of COVID-19 Things (IoCT) architecture that is able to exchange, aggregate, and reuse disparate IoT sensor data sources in order for informed decisions to be made after understanding the real-time risks in workplaces based on person-to-place interactions. The IoCT architecture is based on the Sensor Web paradigm that connects various Things, Sensors, and Datastreams with an indoor geospatial data model. This paper presents a study of what, to the best of our knowledge, is the first real-world integrated implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) and IndoorGML standards to calculate the risk of COVID-19 online using a workplace reopening case study. The proposed IoCT offers a new open standard-based information model, architecture, methodologies, and software tools that enable the interoperability of disparate COVID-19 monitoring systems with finer spatial-temporal granularity. A workplace cleaning use case was developed in order to demonstrate the capabilities of this proposed IoCT architecture. The implemented IoCT architecture included proximity-based contact tracing, people density sensors, a COVID-19 risky behavior monitoring system, and the contextual building geospatial data.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/normas , Internet das Coisas/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho/normas , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Padrões de Referência , Software/normas
8.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e44520, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1123445

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar condições clínicas e comportamentos de risco à saúde de pessoas em situação de rua. Método: estudo transversal, realizado em duas instituições de referência para pessoas em situação de rua na região nordeste do Brasil. Aplicouse um roteiro de entrevista referente a variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e comportamentos vulneráveis ao adoecer para 100 participantes. Utilizou-se o teste Qui Quadrado e ANOVA. Resultados: o tipo de parceiro sexual influência na presença de sintomas de infecção sexualmente transmissível, a presença de sintomatologia relacionada à infecção sexualmente transmissível do parceiro influência na sintomatologia do próprio indivíduo, o etilismo influência na prática de sexo com usuário de drogas, a prática de sexo em troca de dinheiro apresenta correlação com a violência física, o sexo oral influência na presença de sintoma de infecção sexualmente transmissível. Conclusão: pessoas em situação de rua apresentam condições e comportamentos que potencializam o adoecimento.


Objective: to examine the clinical conditions and health risk behavior of homeless people. Method: this cross-sectional study was conducted at two referral centers for homeless people in northeast Brazil. Information on sociodemographic and clinical variables, and vulnerable behaviors when falling ill was elicited from 100 participants by scripted interviews. Chi-Square and Anova tests were used. Results: type of sexual partner influenced the presence of symptoms of sexually-transmitted infection; the presence of symptoms related to the partner's sexually-transmitted infections influenced the participant's symptomatology; alcoholism influenced the practice of sex with drug users; sex in exchange for money correlated with physical violence; and oral sex influenced the presence of a sexually-transmitted infection symptom. Conclusion: people on the street display conditions and behaviors that potentiate illness.


Objetivo: examinar las condiciones clínicas y el comportamiento de riesgo para la salud de las personas sin hogar. Método: este estudio transversal se realizó en dos centros de referencia para personas sin hogar en el noreste de Brasil. La información sobre las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas, y los comportamientos vulnerables cuando se enferma se obtuvo de 100 participantes mediante entrevistas con guión. Se utilizaron pruebas de Chi-Cuadrado y Anova. Resultados: el tipo de pareja sexual influyó en la presencia de síntomas de infección de transmisión sexual; la presencia de síntomas relacionados con las infecciones de transmisión sexual de la pareja influyó en la sintomatología del participante; el alcoholismo influyó en la práctica del sexo con consumidores de drogas; sexo a cambio de dinero correlacionado con violencia física; y el sexo oral influyó en la presencia de un síntoma de infección de transmisión sexual. Conclusión: las personas en la calle exhiben condiciones y comportamientos que potencian la enfermedad.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Nível de Saúde , Vulnerabilidade em Saúde , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Comportamento Sexual , Brasil , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Abuso Físico
9.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(4): 251-259, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This paper explores education-, income- and occupational class-related inequalities in risky health behaviours including into models all three factors together as well as their interactions, which has not been undertaken by previous studies analysing socioeconomic status (SES) related differences in risky health behaviours. METHODS: Our data source is the special module "Social Inequalities in Health" included into the European Social Survey Round 7 (ESS R7) and conducted in 20 European countries. We run nine separate multilevel binomial logistic regression analyses for all the risky health behaviours with all our independent and control variables including country as the second level random intercept. Into all the models we also included interaction terms to consider possible moderating effects of separate independent variables. RESULTS: Education and income emerged as factors most consistently related to risky health behaviours, but occupational class differences were also found to be significant: eating vegetables or salad less than once a day and being daily smoker is positively related to lower SES as measured by all three indicators; eating fruits less than once a day is related to lower income and occupational class, while drinking alcohol at least several times a week is positively related to higher education and higher income; being physically active for less than 3 days per week is positively related to lower education; patterns of heavy smoking and binge drinking are inconsistently related to SES variables. We also found considerable regional variation, especially in fruit and vegetable consumption, being physically active and alcohol consumption patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Without careful theoretical consideration linking SES and risky health behaviours, education, income and occupational class cannot substitute each other in the study of SES-related differences of health behaviours, as assumed in the larger part of research on the subject.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333746

RESUMO

Religiosity and spirituality have been considered to be protective factors of adolescent health-risk behavior (HRB). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between adolescents' HRB and their religiosity, taking into account their parents' faith and their own participation in church activities. A nationally representative sample (n = 13377, 13.5 ± 1.7 years, 49.1% boys) of Czech adolescents participated in the 2018 Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study. We measured religious attendance (RA), faith importance (FI) (both of respondents and their parents), participation in church activities and adolescent HRB (tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use and early sexual intercourse). We found that neither RA nor FI of participants or their parents had a significant effect on adolescents' HRB. Compared to attending respondents who participate in church activities (AP), non-attending respondents who participate in church activities were more likely to report smoking and early sexual intercourse, with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 3.14 (1.54-6.39) to 3.82 (1.99-7.35). Compared to AP, non-attending respondents who did not participate in church activities were more likely to report early sexual intercourse, with OR = 1.90 (1.14-3.17). Thus, our findings show that RA does not protect adolescents from HRB; they suggest that RA protects adolescents from HRB only in combination with participation in church activities.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Religião , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Espiritualidade
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348792

RESUMO

Emerging adulthood is a transitional life stage with increased probability of risky and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours that are known to have strong links with premature mortality and morbidity. Wellbeing, as a positive subjective experience, is identified as a factor that encourages self-care and may steer individuals away from risky lifestyle behaviours. Investigating wellbeing-behaviour links in the emerging adult population may increase understanding of the factors that lead to, and ways to prevent, engagement in risky behaviours. This study examines the association between flourishing, that is, the experience of both high hedonic and eudaimonic wellbeing, and a broad range of risky and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours among emerging adults in Australia. A cross-sectional survey of 1155 emerging adults aged 18-25 years measured wellbeing, socio-demographics, and six groups of lifestyle behaviours surrounding substance use, physical activity, diet, sex, sun protection, and driving. Bivariate and multivariate statistics were used to analyse the data. The findings revealed that flourishing was negatively associated with more dangerous types of risk behaviours, such as driving under the influence of drugs, and positively associated with self-care behaviours, such as healthier dietary behaviour and sun protection. If enabling emerging adults to flourish can contribute to reduced engagement in risky/unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, then promoting it is an important goal for health promotion efforts not only because flourishing is desirable in its own right, but also to bring about sustainable change in behaviour. Further research is needed to inform the designs of such interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2030806, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355675

RESUMO

Importance: There have been concerns that HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may be associated with increases in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) because of subsequent reductions in condom use and/or increases in sexual partners. Objective: To determine trends in STI test positivity among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) before and after the start of HIV PrEP. Design, Setting, and Participants: A before-after analysis was conducted using a subcohort of a single-group PrEP implementation study cohort in New South Wales, Australia (Expanded PreEP Implementation in Communities in New South Wales [EPIC-NSW]), from up to 1 year before enrollment if after January 1, 2015, and up to 2 years after enrollment and before December 31, 2018. STI testing data were extracted from a network of 54 sexual health clinics and 6 primary health care clinics Australia-wide, using software to deidentify, encrypt, and anonymously link participants between clinics. A cohort of MSM dispensed PrEP for the first time during the study, with 2 or more STI tests in the prior year and who tested during follow-up, were included from the EPIC-NSW cohort of HIV-negative participants with high-risk sexual behavior. Data analysis was performed from June to December 2019. Exposures: Participants were dispensed coformulated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) and emtricitabine (200 mg) as HIV PrEP. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was STI, measured using test positivity, defined as the proportion of participants testing positive for an STI at least once per quarter of follow-up. Outcomes were calculated for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea by site of infection (anorectal, pharyngeal, urethral, or any) and for syphilis. Results: Of the EPIC-NSW cohort of 9709 MSM, 2404 were included in the before-after analysis. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 36 (10.4) years, and 1192 (50%) were Australia-born. STI positivity was 52% in the year after PrEP (23.3% per quarter; 95% CI, 22.5%-24.2% per quarter) with no significant trend (mean rate ratio [RR] increase of 1.01 per quarter [95% CI, 0.99-1.02]; P = .29), compared with 50% positivity in the year prior to PrEP (20.0% per quarter [95% CI, 19.04%-20.95% per quarter]; RR for overall STI positivity, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.10-1.24]; P < .001), with an increase in quarterly STI positivity (mean RR of 1.08 per quarter, or an 8% increase per quarter [95% CI, 1.05-1.11]; P < .001; RR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.90-0.96]; P < .001). Findings were similar when stratified by specific STIs and anatomical site. Conclusions and Relevance: STI rates were high but stable among high-risk MSM while taking PrEP, compared with a high but increasing trend in STI positivity before commencing PrEP. These findings suggest the importance of considering trends in STIs when describing how PrEP use may be associated with STI incidence.


Assuntos
Emtricitabina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
13.
Ars pharm ; 61(4): 215-222, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195234

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Conocer y relacionar las tendencias de búsqueda de información sobre Emtricitabina/Tenofovir y las prácticas sexuales de riesgo (chemsex). MÉTODO: Estudio ecológico de los volúmenes de búsqueda relativo (VBR) obtenidos de la consulta directa a la herramienta «Google Trends», utilizando los Temas de búsqueda «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir» y «Chemsex», y «Truvada» como Término de Búsqueda. El periodo de búsqueda fue del 1 de enero de 2004 al 31 de diciembre de 2019. Fecha de consulta 16 de enero de 2020. RESULTADOS: El VBR = 100, máximo, se alcanzó en julio de 2012 para «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir», siendo la relación entre los términos de 100/97/10. La asociación entre «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir» y «Truvada» fue muy alta (R = 0,99; p < 0,001). Y las medias de los VBR para «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir» y «Chemsex» de 25,68 y 14,41 respectivamente. La evolución temporal del término «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir» fue lineal (R2 = 0,62; p < 0,001), mientras que para «Chemsex» se obtuvo creciente con ajuste exponencial (R2 = 0,54; p < 0,001). La correlación existente entre los VBR de los dos términos analizados mostró asociación directa significativa (R = 0,69; p < 0,001). CONCLUSIONES: Los hitos observados en el VBR coincidieron con momentos relacionados con eventos destacados. Se probó un crecimiento, a lo largo del tiempo, en la búsqueda de información tanto sobre los Temas Emtricitabina/Tenofovir como sobre "chemsex". Igualmente, se probó la relación entre ambos Temas. Estas conclusiones podrían estar relacionadas con el aumento de las prácticas sexuales de riesgo


OBJECTIVE: To know and relate the trends of searches for information about «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir» and risky sexual behaviour (chemsex). METHOD: Ecological study of relative search volumes (RSV) obtained from the direct search for the tool «Google Trends», using the Searching Issues «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir» and «Chemsex», and «Truvada» like Searching Term. The searching period was from 1 january 2004 to 31 december 2019. Consultation date 16 january 2020. RESULTS: RSV = 100, maximum, was reached in july 2012 by «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir», being the relationship between terms: 100/97/10. The association between «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir» and «Truvada» was rather high (R = 0.99; p < 0,001). And the averages of RSV of «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir» and «Chemsex» were 25.68 and 14.41 respectively. The temporal progress of the term «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir» was linear (R2 = 0.62; p < 0.001), meanwhile for «Chemsex» was increased with exponential adjustment (R2 = 0.54; p < 0.001). The existent correlation between the RSV of the two analyzed terms showed significant direct association (R = 0.69; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The observed milestones in the RSV coincide with moments associated with relevant events. A growth was proved along the time, in the search for information for the Themes Emtricitabina/tenofovir as well as for "chemsex". Likewise, the relation between both Themes was proved. These conclusions could be connected with the increase of the risky sexual behaviour


Assuntos
Ferramenta de Busca/tendências , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Emtricitabina , Tenofovir , Sexo sem Proteção , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Ferramenta de Busca/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Tempo , Fatores de Risco
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(45): e23094, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157982

RESUMO

To identify the prevalence of chronic disease and behavior risk factors of adverse pregnancy outcome for pre-pregnancy couples in Hunan province, China.A retrospective study including cross-sectional datas from the Free Pre-pregnancy Health Check (FPHC) surveillance system of Hunan, China in 2019 was conducted. Microsoft Excel 2010 was used for preliminary data analysis. The fowllowing descriptive analysis, t-tests, and Chi-Squared tests were carried out using SPSS 25.0.Among 419,971 couples, 182,450 (21.72%) individuals were older than 35 years, 257,471(69.48%) couples planned to have a second or additional child and 114,892 (27.36%) individuals had a history of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The mean number of risk factors of adverse pregnancy outcome was higher in males than that in females (2.17 per male vs 1.92 per female). The prevalence/proportions of hypertension, increased psychological pressure, high alanine transaminase or creatinine, smoking, passive smoke exposure, alcohol use, and exposure to environmental risk factors were higher in males than that in females (2.43% vs 1.35%, 0.68% vs 0.54%, 12.80% vs 5.93%, 2.52% vs 1.47%, 27.70% vs 0.24%, 10.94% vs 3.58%, 15.62% vs 1.07%, and 1.46% vs 1.15%, respectively). The proportion of females with an abnormal cervix was 3.35%, and the proportion of males with abnormal wrapping was 1.90%. The prevalence/proportions of anemia and work-related pressure or social tensions were higher in females than that in males (5.53% vs 0.51%, 15.39% vs 13.61%, and 8.22% vs 7.88%, respectively).History of adverse pregnancy outcomes and age olderthan 35 years were important risk factors for pre-pregnancy couples in Hunan province. The mean number of risk factors was higher in males than that in females. Hypertension, increased psychological pressure, high alanine transaminase and creatinine levels, smoking, passive smoke exposure, alcohol use, and exposure to dangerous environmental factors were the major risk factors for males. Anemia, work-related pressure and social tensions were the major risk factors for females.


Assuntos
Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(11): 1255-1260, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147926

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the relationship between multiple health-risk behaviors and emotional and behavioral problems in preschool children. Method: From October to November 2017, 27 987 children aged 3 to 6 years from 109 kindergartens of 11 cities from Hubei, Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were selected by using the cluster sampling method. Finally, 27 200 valid questionnaires were collected. A questionnaire was used to investigate the demographic characteristics, video time and outdoor activities, eating behavior, sleep time, emotional and behavioral problems of parents and children. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to quantify the association between multiple health-risk behaviors and emotional and behavioral problems. Results: Emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, total difficulties and prosocial behavior abnormalities were detected in 9.5% (2 587), 9.5% (2 590), 18.2% (4 958), 24.5% (6 670), 11.2% (3 058) and 10.2% (2 770), respectively. Three groups of low, medium and high scores of multiple health-risk behaviors were accounted for 30.6% (8 316), 60.9% (16 568) and 8.5% (2 316), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression model analysis showed that after controlling for the confounding factors, compared with those in the low score group, preschool children in the middle and high score groups had higher risks of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, total difficulties and prosocial behavior (all P values<0.05). Conclusion: Health-risk behaviors are associated with the emotional and behavioral problems of preschool children.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Comportamento Problema , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Assunção de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(10)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037063

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented public health crisis. It is becoming increasingly clear that people's behavioural responses in the USA during this fast-changing pandemic are associated with their preferred media sources. The polarisation of US media has been reflected in politically motivated messaging around the coronavirus by some media outlets, such as Fox News. This resulted in different messaging around the risks of infection and behavioural changes necessary to mitigate that risk. This study determined if COVID-related behaviours differed according to trust in left-leaning or right-leaning media and how differences changed over the first several months of the pandemic. METHODS: Using the nationally representative Understanding America Study COVID-19 panel, we examine preventive and risky behaviours related to infection from COVID-19 over the period from 10 March to 9 June for people with trust in different media sources: one left-leaning, CNN and another right-leaning, Fox News. People's media preferences are categorised into three groups: (1) those who trust CNN more than Fox News; (2) those who have equal or no preferences and (3) those who trust Fox News more than CNN. RESULTS: Results showed that compared with those who trust CNN more than Fox news, people who trust Fox News more than CNN engaged in fewer preventive behaviours and more risky behaviours related to COVID-19. Out of five preventive and five risky behaviours examined, people who trust Fox News more than CNN practised an average of 3.41 preventive behaviours and 1.25 risky behaviours, while those who trust CNN more than Fox News engaged in an average of 3.85 preventive and 0.94 risky behaviours, from late March to June. The difference between these two groups widened in the month of May (p≤0.01), even after controlling for access to professional information and overall diversity of information sources. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that behavioural responses were divided along media bias lines. In such a highly partisan environment, false information can be easily disseminated, and health messaging, which is one of the few effective ways to slowdown the spread of the virus in the absence of a vaccine, is being damaged by politically biased and economically focused narratives. During a public health crisis, media should reduce their partisan stance on health information, and the health messaging from neutral and professional sources based on scientific findings should be better promoted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Confiança/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 61, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus pandemic has transformed and continues to transform and affect the daily lives of communities worldwide, particularly due to the lockdown restrictions. Therefore, this study was designed to understand the changes in dietary and lifestyle behaviours that are major determinants of health during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online questionnaire using a convenience sample of 415 adults living in Kuwait (age range 18-73 years). RESULTS: The rate of skipping breakfast remained consistent, with a slight increase during the pandemic. Lunch remained the main reported meal before and during COVID-19. Compared to before COVID-19, people were much more likely have a late-night snack or meal during COVID-19 (OR = 3.57 (95% CI 1.79-7.26), p < 0.001). Moreover, there was a drastic decrease in the frequency of fast-food consumption during COVID-19, up to 82% reported not consuming fast food (p < 0.001). There was a significant increase in the percentage of participants who had their main meal freshly made (OR = 59.18 (95% CI 6.55-1400.76), p = 0.001). Regarding food group patterns, no significant differences were found before and during the pandemic in terms of the weekly frequency of consumption, except in the case of fish and seafood. There were no remarkable changes in beverage consumption habits among participants before and during the pandemic, except for Americano coffee and fresh juice. Furthermore, there was a great reduction in physical activity and an increase in the amount of screen time and sedentary behaviours. A notable increase was detected in day-time sleep and a decrease in night-time sleep among participants. CONCLUSION: In general, this study indicates some changes in daily life, including changes in some eating practices, physical activity and sleeping habits during the pandemic. It is important that the government considers the need for nutrition education programmes and campaigns, particularly during this critical period of the pandemic in Kuwait.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Tempo de Tela , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200092, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking (BD) among young Brazilians. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from the 2013 National Health Survey. The sample consisted of 7,823 young people aged between 18 and 24 years. The outcome was BD: four or more doses on one occasion for women and five doses or more for men. Sociodemographic, health and behavioral explanatory variables were considered. Binary Logistic Regression was used, with estimation of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: The prevalence of BD among young Brazilians was 17%, with regional differences. The associated factors with a higher chance of BD were: 21 and 24 years old (OR = 1.35; 95%CI 1.08 - 1.70); employed (OR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.61); report tiredness (OR = 1.53; 95%CI 1.19 - 1.97) and currently smoking (OR = 4.10; 95%CI 2.95 - 5.70). Women (OR = 0.43; 95%CI 0.34 - 0.54) and participating in religious activities (OR = 0.67; 95%CI 0.53 - 0.84) were associated with a lower chance of BD. CONCLUSIONS: A national study evaluating the profile of young Brazilians who present episodes of binge drinking is important to favor the implementation of public prevention policies aimed at this specific population.


Assuntos
Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e22596, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk and crisis communication plays an essential role in public health emergency responses. The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered spontaneous and intensive media attention, which has affected people's adoption of personal preventive measures and their mental health. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between exposure to COVID-19-specific information and mental health (depression and sleep quality) and self-reported compliance with personal preventive measures (face mask wearing and hand sanitizing). We also tested whether these associations were moderated by thoughtful consideration of the veracity of the information to which people were exposed. METHODS: A cross-sectional, closed web-based survey was conducted among a sample of 3035 factory workers at the beginning of work resumption following the COVID-19 outbreak in Shenzhen, China. A stratified two-stage cluster sampling design was used for recruitment. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used for the analyses. RESULTS: The prevalence of probable moderate-to-severe depression was 170/3035 (5.6%), while that of good or excellent sleep quality was 2110/3035 (69.5%). The prevalence of self-reported consistent face mask wearing in public places was 2903/3035 (95.7%), while that of sanitizing hands every time after returning from public spaces or touching public installations was 2151/3035 (70.9%). Of the 3035 respondents, 1013 to 1638 (33.3% to 54.0%) reported >1 hour of daily exposure to COVID-19-specific information through web-based media and television. After controlling for significant background variables, higher information exposure via television and via newspapers and magazines was associated with better sleep quality and higher compliance with hand sanitizing. Higher exposure via unofficial web-based media was associated with higher compliance with hand sanitizing but was also associated with higher depressive symptoms. In contrast, higher exposure through face-to-face communication was associated with higher depressive symptoms, worse sleep quality, and lower compliance with hand sanitizing. Exposure to information about positive outcomes for patients with COVID-19, development of vaccines and effective treatments, and heroic stories about frontline health care workers were associated with both better mental health and higher compliance with preventive measures. Higher overall information exposure was associated with higher depressive symptoms among participants who were less likely to carefully consider the veracity of the information to which they were exposed; it was also associated with better sleep quality among people who reported more thoughtful consideration of information veracity. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides empirical evidence of how the amount, sources, and contents of information to which people were exposed influenced their mental health and compliance with personal preventive measures at the initial phase of work resumption in China. Thoughtful consideration of information quality was found to play an important moderating role. Our findings may inform strategic risk communication by government and public health authorities during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Desinfecção das Mãos , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/psicologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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