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1.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(2): 313-325, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035571

RESUMO

Each year increasing numbers of people participate in a wider variety of athletic endeavors. Unlike previous generations, many patients remain in these activities later into their lives, some well beyond retirement. As the population ages and their activities continue, they are subject to injury of various forms affecting all aspects of their bodies.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Atividades de Lazer , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Traumatismos em Atletas/classificação , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde/fisiologia , Humanos , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800913

RESUMO

We analyzed data from the National School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) carried out in Brazil in 2015 (n = 102,072 adolescents) to estimate how much of the individual variance in the prevalence of health behaviors is attributable to the school level. Multilevel logistic regression models were calculated to estimate the variance partitional coefficient (VPC) of the use of drugs, intake of unhealthy food, leisure physical activity and weight-related behaviors. The between-schools variance was significant in all tested models. The highest VPCs were observed when the use of drugs was analyzed (15%-20% of the total variance of smoking and use of illegal drugs). Lower, but still significant, values were observed in the other outcomes. The school context plays an important role in the adolescents' health and should be considered in the design of public policies and actions in public health.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Setor Privado , Setor Público , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Rev. salud pública Parag ; 9(2): [P29-P34], Dic 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1047052

RESUMO

Introducción: En Paraguay, la epidemia del VIH se encuentra concentrada en población clave. La ruta principal de transmisión de las infecciones de transmisión del VIH y la Sífilis es la sexual. Las mujeres trabajadoras sexuales (MTS) presentan riesgo incrementado debido a su trabajo sexual y sus comportamientos de riesgo. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de VIH/Sífilis y el comportamiento de riesgo de la población de mujeres trabajadoras sexuales en seis regiones sanitarias del país durante el año 2017. Material y Métodos: El diseño del estudio fue observacional, corte transversal. La metodología utilizada para la selección de la muestra fue la de TLS (muestreo tiempo-ubicación). Se utilizaron pruebas rápidas como tamizaje inicial en todas las mujeres que ingresaron al estudio y a la vez se aplicó un instrumento para los comportamientos de riesgo. Resultados: Ingresaron 643 MTS, la edad media fue de 27 años, donde el 50% tenían entre 22 y 34 años. El 88.11% (585) realizaba el trabajo sexual en locales (prostíbulos, saunas, salón de masajes y departamentos) y el 11.89% (58) en paradas en las calles. La prevalencia del VIH fue de 1.34% (CI95% 0.513.48) y de Sífilis 8.59% (CI95% 5.78-12.59). El uso de condón en la última relación con el cliente fue de 96.02% y del 25.78% con la pareja estable en la última relación sexual. El consumo de drogas en los últimos 6 meses por más de 25 días fue de 10.78% (44/643) para la cocaína. El 54.17% de las MTS encuestadas se consideraron en igual riesgo de adquirir el VIH en comparación con el resto de las personas. Conclusión: La prevalencia de VIH fue baja y de Sífilis elevada en MTS. Se observó bajo porcentaje de uso de condón con la pareja estable, alto consumo de drogas y baja percepción de riesgo. Es importante considerar estos aspectos en el momento de planificar las intervenciones en MTS: parejas, drogas y percepción de riesgo para que se pueda lograr la eficiencia de las mismas. Palabras clave: Seroprevalencia de VIH; Serodiagnóstico de la Sífilis; Grupos de Riesgo; Paraguay


Introduction: The HIV epidemic in Paraguay is concentrated in key population. The main route of HIV and Syphilis infections transmission is sexual. Female sex workers (FSW) have increased risk due to their sex work and risk behaviors. Objective: To determine the HIV/Syphilis prevalence and risk behavior in the population of female sex workers in six health regions from the country during 2017. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The methodology used for the selection of the sample was the TLS (time-location sampling). Rapid tests were used as initial screening of all women who entered the study and at the same time an instrument for risk behaviors was applied. Results: Of 643 FSW enrolled, the average age was 27 years, where 50% were between 22 and 34 years old. 88.11% (585) performed sex work in premises (brothels, saunas, massage parlors and departments) and 11.89% (58) at street. The HIV prevalence was 1.34% (95% CI 0.513.48) and 8.59% Syphilis (95% CI 5.78-12.59). Condom use in the last relationship with the client was 96.02% and 25.78% with the stable partner in the last sexual relationship. 54.17% of the FSW surveyed were considered at equal risk of acquiring HIV compared to the rest of the people. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV was low and Syphilis was high in MTS. A low percentage of condom use was observed with the stable partner, high drug use and low risk perception. It is important to consider these aspects when planning interventions in MTS: couples, drugs and low risk perception so that their efficiency can be achieved. Keywords: HIV seroprevalence; Serodiagnostic of Syphilis; Risk Groups; Paraguay


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Trabalho Sexual , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis , Prevalência , HIV/imunologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde
4.
Rev. salud pública Parag ; 9(2): [P35-P40], Dic 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1047056

RESUMO

Introducción: El hecho de reiniciar la vida sexual después del parto, constituye una fuente de tensión y/o estrés emocional en algunas mujeres, que pueden llegar a ocasionar conflictos a largo plazo en la vida de pareja, en gran medida influenciados, por los cambios físicos y emocionales que se producen. Objetivo: Describir las prácticas sexuales y anticoncepción de las puérperas de un hospital de tercer nivel de atención de Paraguay durante el 2017. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo, de corte transversal, con muestreo probabilístico de casos consecutivos, que tuvo como muestra 84 mujeres del Hospital Regional de Coronel Oviedo, 2017. Resultados: Fueron incluidas 84 mujeres, el porcentaje que reanudó la práctica sexual coital en el posparto fue de 42.86%(n=36), siendo el tiempo promedio de 8 ± 5.68 semanas; el 64.29%(n=54) admitió haber realizado la práctica sexual no coital, en un tiempo de inicio de 2 ± 2.96 semanas. Los principales motivos de la práctica sexual coital fueron por deseo y confort personal 47%(n=17) y petición de la pareja 33%(n=12), las razones por las cuales no reiniciaron fueron por miedo a sentir dolor 30%(n=25) y por temor a un nuevo embarazo 20%(n=20). De las mujeres que realizaron la práctica sexual no coital el 87%(n=47) practicaba solo besos y caricias con intención erótica. La mayoría utilizó como método anticonceptivo en la reanudación el inyectable hormonal trimestral 38%(n=14). El 44.05%(n=37) utilizó como método anticonceptivo moderno el inyectable hormonal trimestral. Conclusión: Las prácticas sexuales y anticoncepción de las puérperas del Hospital Regional de Coronel Oviedo durante el mes de octubre del año 2017 fueron: menos de la mitad de las mujeres reanudó la práctica sexual coital en un tiempo promedio de 8 semanas, por deseo y confort personal; mientras el reinició de las prácticas sexuales no coitales fue mayor que la mitad, en un tiempo de 2 semanas. El principal método anticonceptivo moderno utilizado fue el inyectable hormonal trimestral. Palabras clave: Periodo Posparto, Anticonceptivos, Conducta Sexual.


Introduction: The fact of restarting the sexual life after childbirth constitutes a source of tension and / or emotional stress in some women, which can lead to long-term conflicts in the life of a couple, largely influenced by physical changes and Emotional that occur. Objective: Describe the sexual practices and contraception of the puerperal women of a third level hospital in Paraguay during 2017. Methodology: Descriptive, cross-sectional study, with probabilistic sampling of consecutive cases, which showed 84 women from the Regional Hospital of Coronel Oviedo, 2017. Results: 84 women were included, the percentage that resumed sexual intercourse was 42.86% (n = 36), the average time being 8 ± 5.68 weeks; 64.29% (n = 54) admitted to having performed non-coital sexual practice, at a time of onset of 2 ± 2.96 weeks. The main reasons for sexual intercourse were due to desire and personal comfort 47% (n = 17) and request of the couple 33% (n = 12), the reasons why they did not restart were for fear of feeling pain 30% (n= 25) and for fear of a new pregnancy 20% (n = 20). Of the women who performed non-coital sexual practice, 87% (n = 47) practiced only kisses and caresses with erotic intent. The majority used the 38% quarterly hormonal injection as a contraceptive method for resumption (n = 14). 44.05% (n = 37) used the quarterly hormonal injection as a modern contraceptive method. Conclusion: The sexual practices and contraception of the puerperal women of the Regional Hospital of Coronel Oviedo during the month of October 2017 were: less than half of the women resumed sexual intercourse in an average time of 8 weeks, for desire and comfort personal; while the restart of non-coital sexual practices was greater than half, in a time of 2 weeks. The main modern contraceptive method used was the quarterly hormonal injection. Keywords: Postpartum Period, Contraceptive Agents, Sexual Behavior.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Período Pós-Parto , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Anticoncepção , Hospitais
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(44): 999-1005, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697656

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adverse childhood experiences, such as violence victimization, substance misuse in the household, or witnessing intimate partner violence, have been linked to leading causes of adult morbidity and mortality. Therefore, reducing adverse childhood experiences is critical to avoiding multiple negative health and socioeconomic outcomes in adulthood. METHODS: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were collected from 25 states that included state-added adverse childhood experience items during 2015-2017. Outcomes were self-reported status for coronary heart disease, stroke, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer (excluding skin cancer), kidney disease, diabetes, depression, overweight or obesity, current smoking, heavy drinking, less than high school completion, unemployment, and lack of health insurance. Logistic regression modeling adjusting for age group, race/ethnicity, and sex was used to calculate population attributable fractions representing the potential reduction in outcomes associated with preventing adverse childhood experiences. RESULTS: Nearly one in six adults in the study population (15.6%) reported four or more types of adverse childhood experiences. Adverse childhood experiences were significantly associated with poorer health outcomes, health risk behaviors, and socioeconomic challenges. Potential percentage reductions in the number of observed cases as indicated by population attributable fractions ranged from 1.7% for overweight or obesity to 23.9% for heavy drinking, 27.0% for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 44.1% for depression. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Efforts that prevent adverse childhood experiences could also potentially prevent adult chronic conditions, depression, health risk behaviors, and negative socioeconomic outcomes. States can use comprehensive public health approaches derived from the best available evidence to prevent childhood adversity before it begins. By creating the conditions for healthy communities and focusing on primary prevention, it is possible to reduce risk for adverse childhood experiences while also mitigating consequences for those already affected by these experiences.


Assuntos
Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(5): 567-573, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the main prevention methods against skin cancer is the use of sunscreen; however, incidence of this disease has not declined despite prevention campaigns. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the prevalence of non-use of sunscreen and its associated factors. METHOD: A population-based cross-sectional study with individuals aged 18 years or over living in the urban area. Conducted between April and July of 2016. Participants were interviewed about socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral questions. Non-use of sunscreen was considered as the outcome. For multivariate analysis, Poisson regression with robust adjustment for variance was used. RESULTS: Among the 1300 participants, prevalence of non-use of sunscreen was 38.2% (95% CI: 34.6-41.8). The variables independently associated with the outcome were male sex, older age, brown or black skin color, lower income, fewer years of education, no physical activity in leisure time, no medical consultations in the last year, and self-perception of health as regular or poor. STUDY LIMITATIONS: The prevalence may be underestimated by reports of more use of sunscreen than actually used, which could increase the figure in the outcome. CONCLUSION: It was estimated that about four out of ten adults and elderly do not use sunscreen in this sample. Prevention strategies are needed to advance health policy and ensure that sun protection options are easily accessible.


Assuntos
Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 86, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the co-occurrence of the major risk factors for chronic diseases in adults (18-59 years old) and older people (≥ 60 years old) living in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with population-based data from 35,448 adults and 18,726 older people collected in the Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (System of Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey - Vigitel) in 2015. The prevalence of each of the five risk factors (smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, alcohol and unhealthy diet) was estimated, as well as their co-occurrence for the different possible combinations, according to socioeconomic and health self-assessment variables. The independent associations were verified via multinomial logistic regression to obtain the estimates of the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: At least two risk factors were present in 38.5% of the adults and 37.0% of the older participants. The male adults and older participants who did not have private health insurance and classified their health as average or poor/very poor were more likely to have two or more concurrent risk behaviors. The greater chance of co-occurrence of smoking and alcohol abuse in adults (adjusted OR = 3.52) and older people (adjusted OR = 2.94) stands out. CONCLUSIONS: The subgroups with increased risk of developing multiple unhealthy behaviors and the most prevalent behaviors were identified. These findings are expected to contribute to the better targeting of health promotion and preventive care. It is worth noting that, for the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits, macro-social and inter-sectoral policies are more effective.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1359, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-related behaviours such as physical inactivity, low fruit and vegetable intake, smoking, alcohol use, and inadequate sleep are significant predictors of adverse health outcomes. Health promotion strategies often focus on one behavior, though research suggests health-related behaviours tend to co-occur. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationships between health-related behaviours in the Canadian adult population. METHODS: Data from cycles 3 (2012-2013) and 4 (2014-2015) of the Canadian Health Measures Survey were pooled to describe health-related behaviours (current smoking status, high-risk alcohol use, fruit and vegetable intake, inadequate sleep, and physical activity) among adults according to sex, age group, household education, and income adequacy. Logistic regression was used to test for relationships between health-related behaviours. RESULTS: Findings indicated that adverse health-related behaviours co-occur frequently, with approximately half of Canadians reporting two or more adverse health-related behaviours. Overall, Canadian men were more likely to report adverse health-related behaviours compared to women, with the exception of inadequate sleep. Smoking status, fruit and vegetable intake, sleep and physical activity exhibited an income and education gradient. Sex-based patterns in grouping of behaviours were present such that adverse health-related behaviours were associated with current smoking among men and with high-risk alcohol use among women. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that health-related behaviours should be considered in both isolation and combination when designing intervention strategies. Sex-specific patterns of how these behaviours co-occur must also be taken into account.


Assuntos
Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Frutas , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Distribuição por Sexo , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
10.
Epidemiol Health ; 41: e2019042, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623423

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of health-risk behaviors, alone and in combination, on health outcomes. METHODS: This study used sample cohort data provided by the National Health Insurance Service focusing on the use of hospital services, direct medical expenses, length of stay, and re-entry rate according to health-risk behaviors. A frequency analysis and the chi-square test were used to investigate associations between the demographic characteristics of study subjects and their health-risk behaviors. The strength of the association of each factor was calculated as the odds ratio in a crossover analysis. RESULTS: Obesity had the largest effect, especially in combination with smoking and drinking. In particular, significant associations were shown with the duration of hospitalization and direct medical expenses. After adjustment for sex, age, economic status, and pre-existing medical conditions, the duration of hospitalization was 7.37 times longer and that of medical expenses was 5.18 times higher in the obese group relative to the non-obese group. Drinking showed a statistically significant association with the number of days of hospitalization. After adjusting for the control variables, the number of hospital days was 1.24 longer in the drinking group than in the non-drinking group. CONCLUSIONS: An analysis of combinations of health risk factors showed obesity had the largest effect.


Assuntos
Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Obesidade/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
11.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190005, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576981

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High level of HIV/AIDS knowledge is required for an effective adoption of preventive strategies. OBJECTIVE: To assess HIV/AIDS knowledge among men who have sex with men (MSM) in 12 Brazilian cities. METHODS: Respondent-Driven Sampling method was used for recruitment. HIV/AIDS knowledge was assessed by Item Response Theory. Difficulty and discrimination parameters were estimated, and the knowledge score was categorized in three levels: high, medium, and low. Logistic regression was used for analysis. RESULTS: Among 4,176 MSM, the proportion of high level of knowledge was 23.7%. The following variables were positively associated with high knowledge (p < 0.05): age 25+ years old, 12+ years of schooling, white skin color, having health insurance, having suffered discrimination due to sexual orientation, having had a syphilis test, and having received educational material in the previous 12 months. Exchanging sex for money was negatively associated. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of only 23.7% of high HIV/AIDS knowledge was low. We should note that the only potential source of knowledge acquisition associated with high level of knowledge was receiving educational materials. Our study indicates the need for expansion of public prevention policies focused on MSM and with more effective communication strategies, including the development of knowledge that involves motivation and abilities for a safer behavior.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190009, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576985

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Knowledge about risky sexual behavior among young people has been widely acknowledged as a key tool to controlling the spread of HIV. This article aimed at presenting the risk behavior of Brazilian Army conscripts toward HIV infection according to the country's geographic regions. . METHOD: We collected data from 37,282 conscripts, aged 17 to 22, during enlistment in the Brazilian Army in 2016. The prevalence of HIV infection, both self-reported and measured through laboratory results, and risk behavior factors were estimated by region. RESULTS: 75% of the sample of conscripts reported to have already started sexual activity, and the average age of their sexual initiation was 15. Condom use varied according to the type of sexual relationship, being lower among steady partners and greater among less stable relationships. HIV prevalence assessed by laboratory tests was 0.12% across the country and the highest prevalence was observed in the North region (0.24%). Alcohol and illicit drug usage was higher in the South region. DISCUSSION: The study allowed the observation of risk behavior monitoring for HIV infection among young Brazilians. Lower condom usage among steady partners may be contributing to an increase in the number of HIV-infected individuals. CONCLUSION: Results suggest the need to intensify prevention campaigns to disseminate safe sex practices among young people, in addition to the expansion of testing offer to this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/etiologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Geografia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1173-1179, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1022199

RESUMO

Objetivo: Descrever o conhecimento, o comportamento e as práticas em relação ao câncer de próstata em adultos. Métodos: Estudo quantitativo, realizado com 130 homens. A coleta de dados ocorreu no primeiro semestre de 2015, por meio do Modelo de Crenças em Saúde. Resultados: Embora relatem conhecimento sobre o câncer, 30% realizam a dosagem do Antígeno Prostático Específico e 17,6% o exame de toque retal anualmente. A maioria percebe a susceptibilidade e a severidade do câncer e acredita que é capaz de fazer algo por si mesmo, beneficiando-se com esses cuidados. Quanto às barreiras, 16,9% apresentaram comportamento não preventivo. Conclusão: O medo da dor, a vergonha e a falta de coragem para realizar o exame constituem barreiras a esses indivíduos. A equipe de saúde deve oportunizar abordagens considerando esses aspectos, utilizando estratégias que ampliem o acesso dos homens ao serviço de saúde e estimulem a prática do autocuidado


Objective: The study's purpose has benn to describe the knowledge, behavior and health practices regarding the prostate cancer in adults. Methods: It is a cross-sectional and descriptive study with a quantitative approach, which had 130 participating men. Data collection took place from March to April 2015, using the Health Belief Model. Results: Although they report having knowledge about cancer, only 30% had done the prostate-specific antigen dosage and 17.6% the rectal examination annually. Most comprehend the susceptibility and severity of this cancer, and believe that they are capable of doing something for themselves and benefiting from such care. Regarding the barriers, 16.9% had non-preventive behavior. Conclusion: Fear of pain, shame, and lack of courage to take the exam are barriers to these individuals. The health team should opportunistically approach these aspects by using strategies that increase men's access to health care and encourage self-care practices


Objetivo: Describir el conocimiento, el comportamiento y las prácticas en relación al cáncer de próstata en adultos. Métodos: Estudio cuantitativo, realizado con 130 hombres. La recolección de datos ocurrió entre marzo a abril de 2015, a través del Modelo de Creencias en Salud. Resultados: Aunque reportan conocimiento sobre el cáncer, el 30% realiza la dosificación del Antígeno Prostático y el 17,6% el examen de tacto anual. La mayoría percibe la susceptibilidad y la severidad del cáncer y cree que es capaz de hacer algo por sí mismo y beneficiarse con esos cuidados. En cuanto a las barreras, el 16,9% presentó comportamiento no preventivo. Conclusión: El miedo al dolor, la vergüenza y la falta de coraje para realizar el examen constituyen barreras a esos individuos. El equipo de salud debe oportunizar enfoques considerando estos aspectos, utilizando estrategias que amplíen el acceso al servicio de salud y estimulen la práctica del autocuidado


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Neoplasias da Próstata , Autocuidado , Saúde do Homem , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Brasil , Antígeno Prostático Específico/uso terapêutico , Pesquisa Comportamental , Exame Retal Digital/psicologia
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1240, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family carers provide significant support to people with a mental illness; yet may experience poor mental and physical health themselves. Among limited research addressing the physical health of carers, studies of carers of people with dementia and young people with psychosis suggest increased risk of chronic diseases in conjunction with higher levels of potentially modifiable lifestyle risk behaviours. This exploratory study, conducted with carers of people with various mental illnesses, aimed to determine: carer prevalence of health risk behaviours (inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, inadequate physical activity, harmful alcohol consumption, and tobacco smoking); interest in changing 'at risk' behaviours; and potential associations of socio-demographic characteristics with risk status and interest in change. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among family carers of people with a mental illness (N = 144) residing in New South Wales, Australia. Analyses explored risk behaviour prevalence and interest in change, and associations with socio-demographic variables. RESULTS: Inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption was most prevalent (74.8%), followed by engaging in inadequate amounts of physical activity (57.6%); harmful alcohol consumption (36.3%) and smoking (11.8%). The majority of carers were interested in improving 'at risk' behaviours (56.3-89.2%), with the exception of alcohol consumption (41.5%). Previously or never married participants were more likely to consume inadequate amounts of fruits and/or vegetables compared to those married or cohabiting (Odds Ratio [OR]: 4.1, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.3-12.9, p = .02). Carers in the workforce were more likely to be engaging in inadequate physical activity (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.2-5.7, p = .02); and male participants were more likely to engage in harmful alcohol consumption (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.1-7.9, p = .03). Working carers were approximately five times more likely to report interest in improving their alcohol consumption (OR: 5.1, 95% CI: 1.3-20.5, p = .02) compared to those not currently in the workforce. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest high engagement in health risk behaviours among carers of people with a mental illness, particularly with regards to harmful alcohol consumption. Findings suggest a need to develop and implement chronic disease prevention strategies. Further research with larger representative samples is needed to confirm findings.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(9): 925-928, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474075

RESUMO

Objective: To identify the status and risky factors of anal sexual intention in casual sex behavior in Zhejiang province. Methods: Stratified cluster sampling was conducted among college students in 13 colleges in 11 cities between October to November, 2018. 482 students were enrolled who self-reported "heterosexuality "and" ever had casual sex behavior". A self-designed network questionnaire was complimented containing basic information, knowledge of HIV, sexual behavior. Chi-square test was used to compared the difference of anal sex intention between different characteristic. The multivariate logistic regression methods was used to analyze the influence factors. Results: Among 482 students, the age was (20±1.442) years old. And 87.3% (421) were male and 29.0% (140) were from other province. The rate of anal sex intention were 19.4% (94/482) in total, with the rates of 38.1% (24/63) and 14.4% (53/367) in students with sexual number more than 5 and less than 5 (P<0.001), separately. Compared with students searching casual sexual partner with non-internet access (17.0%, 16/201), students searching sexual partner with internet access had higher risk of anal sex practice (27.8%, 78/281) (P<0.001). The rate of anal sex practice among students reporting "ever had casual sex after drinking "and" never had casual sex after drinking" were 30.5% (64/210) and 9.4% (25/266) (P<0.001). The multivariate logistic regression results revealed that compared with students searching casual sexual partner with non-internet access and reporting "never had casual sex after drinking", subjects searching sexual partner with internet access(OR (95%CI)=2.65 (1.34-5.23)) and "ever had casual sex after drinking" OR (95%CI)=3.02 (1.65-5.33) were more likely had higher risk of anal sex practice. Conclusion: Heterosexual college students in Zhejiang Province tend to have anal intercourse with causal sexual partners. Searching for causal sexual partners on internet or mobile phone dating software and having temporary sexual behavior after drinking were correlated factors.


Assuntos
Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Heterossexualidade , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1101, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual behaviors reflect the degree of exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), especially in people in sexually active stages, such as youths. Hill tribe people have their own cultures, beliefs and lifestyles related to their behaviors, including sexual behaviors, which may lead to HIV, HBV, and HCV infections, especially among youths. The study aimed to examine sexual behaviors and assess the seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, and HCV among hill tribe youths. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. The participants were recruited from 60 randomly selected hill tribe villages in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. A validated questionnaire and 5 mL blood specimens were used to collect data. Data were collected by a self-reporting method. Rapid immunochromatographic tests were used to detect hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus antibody-I and- II (anti-HIV-1 and -2). Chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used to detect the associations between variables. RESULTS: A total of 1325 participants were recruited for the analysis. The majority were females (60.5%) and aged 15-17 years (58.9%). A total of 14.5% smoked, 22.4% drank alcohol, 14.2% were tattooed, and 61.4% had their ears pierced. Among the 30.3% who had sexual experience, 42.0% experienced one-night stands, 26.9% had sexual contact with a prostitute within 1 year prior to the study, 18.9% used alcohol prior to having sexual intercourse, and 15.7% had been tested for HIV/AIDS previously. Among males, 11.5% were males who had sex with males (MSM), and 4.6% were bisexual. Among females, 83.0% were females who had sex with males, and 5.0% were females who had sex with females. Different sexes and tribes were found to have significantly different risk behaviors and sexual behaviors, such as overall males having a greater proportion of sexual experience than females, and Lahu, Akha and Hmong had a higher proportion of sexual experience, having sexual experience with one-night stands, and having sexual experience with a prostitute 1 year prior to the study than others. Among the 836 obtained blood samples, none were positive for anti-HIV-I and -II, 6.4% were positive for anti-HBs, 1.9% were positive for HBsAg, and 0.2% were positive for anti-HCV. CONCLUSION: Hill tribe youths in Thailand are at risk of STIs such as HBV and HCV infections according to their risk behaviors and sexual behaviors, which differ between sexes and tribes. Effective behavioral interventions should be promoted among hill tribe youths to minimize the risk for these diseases in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Grupos Populacionais/psicologia , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-2/imunologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/sangue , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(32): 693-697, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415490

RESUMO

An estimated 45 million U.S. residents enjoy the benefits of contact lens wear, but many of them might be at increased risk for complications stemming from improper wear and care behaviors (1). One of the most serious complications of contact lens wear is a corneal infection known as microbial keratitis, which can sometimes result in reduced vision or blindness (2). In 2014, 50% of contact lens wearers reported ever sleeping in contact lenses, and 55% reported topping off* their contact lens solutions (3), which put them at greater risk for a contact lens-related eye infection (2,4). Data on communication between eye care providers and contact lens wearers on contact lens wear and care recommendations are limited. Two surveys were conducted to better understand and assess contact lens education about nine recommendations: the first assessed contact lens wearer experiences regarding recommendations received from eye care providers during their most recent appointment; the second evaluated provider-reported practices for communicating contact lens wear and care recommendations to their patients. One third (32.9%) of contact lens wearers aged ≥18 years recalled never hearing any lens wear and care recommendations. Fewer than half (47.9%) recalled hearing their provider recommend not sleeping in lenses at their last visit, and 19.8% recalled being told to avoid topping off their contact lens solution. A majority of providers reported sharing recommendations always or most of the time at initial visits, regular checkups, and complication-related visits. Providers reported sharing nearly all recommendations more frequently at initial and complication-related visits than at regular checkups. Of the nine recommendations for safe contact lens wear and care, eye care providers at regular checkups most often recommend complying with the recommended lens replacement schedules (85% of regular visits), not sleeping in lenses (79.0% of regular visits), and not topping off solutions (64.4% of regular visits). Eye care providers play an important role in the health of their contact lens-wearing patients and can share health communication messages with their patients to help educate them about healthy wear and care habits. These findings can assist in the creation of health communication messages to help encourage eye care providers to communicate more effectively with their patients.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Comunicação em Saúde , Rememoração Mental , Oftalmologistas/psicologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Lentes de Contato/efeitos adversos , Infecções Oculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sex Reprod Healthc ; 21: 67-74, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the associations between sexual orientation of young people and their health and risk behaviours in Thailand and Sweden, and to explore similarities and differences between the countries. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using data from the Life and Health - Young surveys in Thailand and Sweden. Three different statistical analyses were used to examine the associations of the variables. RESULTS: In total, 3869 students aged 16-18 years old were included: 1488 Thai students and 2381 Swedish students. Significantly more Thai (20%) than Swedish (9%) students identified themselves as bisexual, homosexual or unsure (p < .001). Bivariate analysis showed that, in Thailand, self-harm was more often reported by the homosexual, unsure, and bisexual groups than by the heterosexual group (p = .005). In Sweden, early sexual debut was more often reported by the unsure, bisexual, and homosexual groups than by the heterosexual group (p = .033). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that homosexual and unsure sexual orientations were significantly associated with self-harm (p < .05) among Thai students. Unsure sexual orientation was significantly associated with early sexual debut (p = .04) among Swedish students. Multiple correspondence analysis indicated that sexual orientation was associated with health and risk behaviours, and varied by different subcategories of students' backgrounds such as country, sexual orientation, family structure and adult support. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual minority young people reported more risk behaviours and poorer health than their heterosexual counterparts. The findings are useful for policy programmes on sexual and reproductive health and rights of young people.


Assuntos
Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Sexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Bissexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Heterossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Apoio Social , Suécia/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1178, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a key risk factor for developing a long-term condition and a leading cause of mortality globally. The limited evidence associated with interventions that currently target obesity-related behaviours demand new approaches to tackle this problem. Given the evidence that social ties are implicated in the gaining and reduction of weight, the use of social networks in interventions is potentially a novel and useful means of tackling this health issue. There is a specific gap in the literature regarding what and how social network properties and processes together with environmental and individual factors influence the adoption of positive and negative obesity-related behaviours in adults. METHODS: To address this gap in developing an integrated and holistic conceptual approach, a critical interpretative synthesis was undertaken following a line of argument synthesis as an analytical strategy. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were included. The data-driven themes meso-micro network processes, contextual and individual factors, and types of ties and properties were identified individually as components and causes of different health scenarios. Nevertheless, these drivers do not act on their own. As a consequence, developing multi-agent coalitions considering cross-level influences between the data-driven themes are two mechanisms that are created to understand more in-depth how social networks and the environment influence the adoption of obesity-related behaviours. These two new constructs point to a dynamic multilevel set of influences between multiple constructs, developing scenarios where positive and negative health results are identified. CONCLUSIONS: This critical interpretative synthesis offers a new means of exploring the application of social network properties and mechanisms in the 'obesity' field. The synthesizing argument created during the analysis process might be considered by health policy-makers, who might need to contemplate the wider open system of socially connected individuals and harness these forces to design new interventions where social networks and other contextual and individual factors operate together in a complex multilevel environment influencing obesity-related behaviours and practices.


Assuntos
Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Obesidade/psicologia , Rede Social , Adulto , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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