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1.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 62, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach, usually adopted for weight loss, that restricts daily carbohydrates under 30 g/day. KD showed contradictory results on sport performance, whilst no data are available on team sports. We sought to investigate the influence of a KD on different parameters in semi-professional soccer players. METHODS: Subjects were randomly assigned to a iso-protein (1.8 g/Kg body weight/day) ketogenic diet (KD) or western diet (WD) for 30 days. Body weight and body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), cross sectional area (CSA) and isometric muscle strength of quadriceps, counter movement jump (CMJ) and yoyo intermittent recovery test time were measured. RESULTS: There was a significantly higher decrease of body fat (p = 0.0359), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (p = 0.0018), waist circumference (p = 0.0185) and extra-cellular water (p = 0.0060) in KD compared to WD group. Lean soft tissue, quadriceps muscle area, maximal strength and REE showed no changes in both groups. RER decreased significantly in KD (p = 0.0008). Yo-yo intermittent test improved significantly (p < 0.0001) in both groups without significant differences between groups. CMJ significantly improved (p = 0.0021) only in KD. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study investigating the effects of a KD on semi-professional soccer players. In our study KD athletes lost fat mass without any detrimental effects on strength, power and muscle mass. When the goal is a rapid weight reduction in such athletes, the use of a KD should be taken into account. TRIAL REGISTRATION: registered retrospectively on Clinical Trial registration number NCT04078971 .


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Dieta Cetogênica , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adulto , Atletas , Dieta Ocidental , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247284, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468527

RESUMO

A ninety days nutritional trial was directed to explore the effects of dietary chromium on body composition, gut enzyme activity and physiological status of Cirrhinus mrigala by using G & NG corn. Six experimental diets were prepared by using different levels of chromium chloride hexahydrate (0, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg, each with G & NG corn). For this experimental trial, 480 fingerlings, irrespective of sex were distributed in six aquariums each with replicate. Results revealed that gelatinized corn along with increasing level of Cr2Cl3.6H2O have a positive impact upon body composition of fish. Hematology was positively correlated with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation in gelatinized corn. Amylase gut enzyme also showed significant (P<0.05) increase in group fed with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplemented diet (G corn). However, corn with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation did not revealed any significant impact on gut protease enzyme activity. From these results it can be concluded that both chromium chloride hexahydrate and gelatinized corn in fish feed are very beneficial to improve body composition, enzymes activity and physiological health status of fish.


Assuntos
Cromo , Cyprinidae , Carboidratos da Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal , Dieta
3.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(3): 373-377, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the use of a mobile physical activity application and its influence on body composition and sleep quality in overweight children. METHODS: Prospective study with 37 patients from the Child and Adolescent Obesity Clinic at Unicamp Hospital das Clínicas, between 2018 and 2019. Anamnesis and anthropometry were performed. We oriented the use of the application for six weeks, five days/week for ten minutes. RESULTS: Among 37 patients, 28 (mean age 10.7±2.0 years, 50% boys) used the application. The average use of the application ranged from 1.93±2.18 to 3.25±1.84 times/week, with a peak in the second week and a progressive decrease during follow-up. The paired t-test showed, on average, lean mass (t (27)=-2.91), weight (t (27)=-3.11) and height (t (27)=-3.79). After using the application, these were higher than before (all p<0.05). There was a significant difference in the proportion of children who presented difficulty sleeping (χ2 (1)=5.143) and insomnia (χ2 (1)=4.167). CONCLUSIONS: There was an improvement in sleep quality and an increase in lean mass, but no significant changes in BMI z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 451, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535850

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the performance and carcass of lambs of different genotypes through univariate and multivariate analysis. Intact male lambs of the Berganês (BG), Berganês x Santa Inês (BSI), and Berganês x Dorper (BD) genotypes and the control group Dorper x Santa Inês (DSI) were used. Eight lambs of each genotype were used, aged between 4 and 5 months, with an average initial weight of 27.52 ± 3.79 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design. Data were tested by analyzing variance, followed by Tukey's test and principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Slaughter body and average daily gain were higher for BD and BG than BSI (P < 0.05). On the other hand, BSI, BD, and DSI showed higher cold carcass yield than BG (P < 0.05). Lower cooling losses (CL) and more excellent conformation were observed in DSI (P < 0.05). BD showed a higher carcass compactness index (CCI), and DSI showed a higher leg compactness index (LCI) (P < 0.05). PCA produced seven components explaining 83.59% of total data variability. Based on the discriminant analysis, LCI, CL, CCI, and conformation showed greater power to distinguish the genotypes, with a high index of the lambs' classification to their respective genotypes. The crossbreeding improved carcass yield and reduced cooling weight loss. The Berganês ecotype and its crossbreeds have performance and carcass traits compatible with the DSI genotype. According to the DA, heterogeneity was found between the Berganês ecotype and its crossbreeds, with CL, LCI CCI, and conformation showing greater discrimination power.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Cadáver , Genótipo , Hibridização Genética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Ovinos
5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444975

RESUMO

This review evaluated the effects of milk-based protein supplementation on resistance training (RT)-induced gains in lean body mass or fat free mass (LBM/FFM) and muscle strength for older adults. A systematic search of PubMed, Scopus and EBSCOhost/SPORTDiscus was conducted. Eligibility criteria: Randomized controlled trials comparing all types of milk-based protein supplements with control supplements for the training older adults at mean age ≥ 60 y. Twenty studies were included in the qualitative synthesis, whilst seventeen studies were included in the quantitative synthesis. A dose of 10-15 g of milk protein supplementation was sufficient to augment RT-induced LBM/FFM. Intriguingly, four out of five studies show negative effect of whey protein supplementation at the same dose range (or even higher) compared with control supplementation (-0.49 kg, 95% CI: -0.69, -0.29, I2 = 14%, Z = 4.82, p < 0.001). For milk-based protein supplementation, RT-induced improvements in muscle strength were observed only when the protein doses ≥22 g (+0.66 kg, 95% CI: 0.07, 1.25, I2 = 0%, Z = 2.18, p = 0.03). Conclusion: Milk protein is superior to whey protein in enhancing RT-induced LBM/FFM gains for older adults. Optimal daily protein intake can dilute the protein supplementation effect.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Proteínas do Leite/farmacologia , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Treinamento de Força , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia
6.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 332, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that relative handgrip strength, handgrip measure divided by body mass index (BMI), affects the future onset of diabetes and prediabetes. However, fat free mass (FFM) has been suggested to adjust for this effect better than BMI. In this study, we examined applicability of models that adjusted handgrip-diabetes relationship with either BMI or FFM. RESULTS: Of 1940 participants (56.2% male, average (SD) age, 57.2 [11.2] years), 267 (13.8%) had diabetes (DM) and 912 (47.0%) had prediabetes (pre-DM). The average handgrip measure for men was 40.0 kg (tertile measures, 37.4 kg and 42.5 kg) and for women 24.2 kg (tertile measures, 22.6 kg and 25.7 kg). Among both sexes, the percentage of people unaffected by DM or pre-DM was highest in the strong handgrip group and lowest in the weak handgrip group. Analysis using binary logistic models showed that an increase in handgrip measure was associated with a decrease in the chance of having either pre-DM or DM. This effect was detected by both BMI models and FFM models, even after adjustment for medical and lifestyle factors. Either or both should be used depending on the research aims, setting and methods.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Estado Pré-Diabético , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445008

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare changes in bone mineral density (BMD) over a 6 month follow up (period of weight regain) in overweight, postmenopausal women having previously completed a 6 month weight loss (WL) intervention with and without aerobic exercise (AEX). Women (BMI > 25 kg/m2) underwent VO2max and DEXA scans at baseline, after 6 months of WL or AEX + WL, and at 12 months ad libitum follow up. Both groups lost ~9% body weight from 0 to 6 months and regained ~2% from 6 to 12 months, while losing ~4% of appendicular lean mass (ALM) across the 12-month study duration. VO2max increased 10% from 0 to 6 months and declined 12% from 6 to 12 months for AEX + WL, with no changes for WL. Total body (p < 0.01) and total femur (p = 0.03) BMD decreased similar between groups across time (combined groups: 0-6 months: total body: -1.2% and total femur: -1.2%; 6-12 months: total body: -0.26% and total femur: -0.09%). Less ALM loss and greater VO2max increases during the WL phase were associated with attenuated BMD loss at various anatomical sites during periods of weight regain (6-12 months) p's < 0.05). Results suggest that BMD loss may continue following WL, despite weight regain. Further, this study adds to the literature by suggesting that preventing declines in muscle quality and function during WL may attenuate the loss of BMD during weight regain. Future studies are needed to identify mechanisms underlying WL-induced bone loss so that effective practices can be designed to minimize the loss of BMD during WL and weight maintenance in older women.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Dieta Saudável , Terapia por Exercício , Sobrepeso/terapia , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Baltimore , Composição Corporal , Restrição Calórica , Feminino , Humanos , Corrida Moderada , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Aptidão Física , Pós-Menopausa , Treinamento de Força , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Caminhada
8.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 313, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemoradiation with capecitabine followed by surgery is standard care for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Severe diarrhea is considered a dose-limiting toxicity of adding capecitabine to radiation therapy. The aim of this study was to describe the risk factors and the impact of body composition on severe diarrhea in patients with LARC during preoperative chemoradiation with capecitabine. METHODS: A single centre retrospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary referral centre. All patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation with capecitabine for LARC from 2009 to 2015 were included. Patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer who received chemoradiation for the first time were included as well. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for severe diarrhea. RESULTS: A total of 746 patients were included. Median age was 64 years (interquartile range 57-71) and 477 patients (64%) were male. All patients received a radiation dosage of 25 × 2 Gy during a period of five weeks with either concomitant capecitabine administered on radiation days or continuously during radiotherapy. In this cohort 70 patients (9%) developed severe diarrhea. In multivariable logistic regression analyses female sex (OR: 4.42, 95% CI 2.54-7.91) and age ≥ 65 (OR: 3.25, 95% CI 1.85-5.87) were the only risk factors for severe diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: Female patients and patients aged sixty-five or older had an increased risk of developing severe diarrhea during preoperative chemoradiation therapy with capecitabine. No relation was found between body composition and severe diarrhea.


Assuntos
Fluoruracila , Neoplasias Retais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Composição Corporal , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Georgian Med News ; (315): 94-98, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365432

RESUMO

Evaluation of body composition is important in countries of different populations and morbidities. One of the groups of morbidity consists of patients with chronic heart failure, where the body fat mass as well as fat-free mass and several other parameters are likely to have an impact on severity and/or outcome of the disease and patient's quality of life. The purpose of the study was to analyze the parameters of body composition in patients with chronic heart failure. Study included 86 patients, fit for the purpose of the study, and 30 practically healthy individuals. Body mass and other measurement data (height, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, anthropometric measurements) were evaluated. Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) was analyzed by BIA 450, BIODYNAMICS (USA) in accordance with standard procedures that are widely accepted. Fat free mass (FFM) was determined by the BIA method. This index was also calculated by prediction equation based on BIA and anthropometric parameters: FFM (kg) = 11.78 + (0.499 x H2/R) + (0.134 x Weight) + (3.449 x gender), where H stands for height in cm, R represents resistance in Ω, Weight is measured in kg and "gender" equals to 0 for females and 1 - for males (3). FFMI equals to the ratio of FFM (kg) to the square of the height; Ratio of FMI - FM (kg) to the square of the height. Study showed that in both patients' and control groups, underweight, as well as overweight individuals are present; also, in both groups, obesity, as BMI category, is most common. Groups (patients vs control) differed in Reactance and FFM (kg) (P<0.009). There was no statistically significant difference between male subgroups of patient and control groups; Valid differences in resistance, lean body mass and fat free mass (kg) were observed between female subgroups. Analysis of body composition characteristics in patients with chronic heart failure revealed that functional classes of heart failure differ in several BIA data, including resistance, Lean body mass (kg) and Fat Free Mass (%).


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Qualidade de Vida , Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360094

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to assess the impact of changes in daily physical activity during the blockade (March 2020-February 2021) on the mass and segmental composition of the body of young people. Material and research methods: In total, 120 people from the sports and medical university aged 19.8 (±0.8) years, average height 173.2 (±9.2) cm, body mass 66.1 (±12.8), and BMI 19.2 (±5.9) kg/m2. The research was carried out in two stages. The total and segmental body mass of the respondents and the change in physical activity during the pandemic were assessed twice (December 2019, February 2021). There was a statistically significant increase in body mass in men, an increase in total fat mass in women, and statistically significant changes in the distribution of fat mass in both sexes. Conclusions: In the studied group, there was a change in the forms of physical activity from strength and group activity to endurance activity (running forms, cycling.) and individual activity. The subjects showed a statistically significant increase in body fat, regardless of gender, and in the upper limbs in men.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Corrida , Adolescente , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes
11.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371981

RESUMO

With energy intake restriction and exercise remaining the key diet and lifestyle approaches to weight loss, this is not without potential negative implications for body composition, metabolic health, and quality and quantity of life. Ideally, weight loss should be derived almost exclusively from the fat mass compartment as this is the main driver of metabolic disease, however, several studies have shown that there is an accompanying loss of tissue from the fat-free compartment, especially skeletal muscle. Population groups including post-menopausal women, the elderly, those with metabolic disease and athletes may be particularly at risk of skeletal muscle loss when following a weight management programme. Research studies that have addressed this issue across a range of population groups are reviewed with a focus upon the contribution of resistance and endurance forms of exercise and a higher intake dietary protein above the current guideline of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day. While findings can be contradictory, overall, the consensus appears that fat-free and skeletal muscle masses can be preserved, albeit to varying degrees by including both forms of exercise (but especially resistance forms) in the weight management intervention. Equally, higher intakes of protein can protect loss of these body compartments, acting either separately or synergistically with exercise. Elderly individuals in particular may benefit most from this approach. Thus, the evidence supports the recommendations for intakes of protein above the current guidelines of 0.8 g/kg body weight/d for the healthy elderly population to also be incorporated into the dietary prescription for weight management in this age group.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora/efeitos adversos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atrofia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Programas de Redução de Peso
12.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: (1) To determine the contribution of diet, time spent outdoors, and habitual physical activity (PA) on vitamin D status in men with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to physical activity matched controls (TDC) without neurological impairment; (2) to determine the role of vitamin D on musculoskeletal health, morphology, and function in men with CP compared to TDC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison study where 24 active, ambulant men with CP aged 21.0 ± 1.4 years (Gross Motor Function Classification Score (I-II) and 24 healthy TDC aged 25.3 ± 3.1 years completed in vivo assessment of musculoskeletal health, including: vastus lateralis anatomical cross-sectional area (VL ACSA), isometric knee extension maximal voluntary contraction (KE iMVC), 10 m sprint, vertical jumps (VJ), and radius and tibia bone ultrasound (US) Tus and Zus scores. Assessments of vitamin D status through venous samples of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone, dietary vitamin D intake from food diary, and total sun exposure via questionnaire were also taken. RESULTS: Men with CP had 40.5% weaker KE iMVC, 23.7% smaller VL ACSA, 22.2% lower VJ, 14.6% lower KE iMVC/VL ACSA ratio, 22.4% lower KE iMVC/body mass (BM) ratio, and 25.1% lower KE iMVC/lean body mass (LBM) ratio (all p < 0.05). Radius Tus and Zus scores were 1.75 and 1.57 standard deviations lower than TDC, respectively (p < 0.05), whereas neither tibia Tus nor Zus scores showed any difference compared to TDC (p > 0.05). The 25(OH)D was not different between groups, and 90.9% of men with CP and 91.7% of TDC had low 25(OH)D levels when compared to current UK recommendations. The 25(OH)D was positively associated with KE iMVC/LBM ratio in men with CP (r = 0.500, p = 0.020) but not in TDC (r = 0.281, p = 0.104). CONCLUSION: Musculoskeletal outcomes in men with CP were lower than TDC, and despite there being no difference in levels of 25(OH)D between the groups, 25 (OH)D was associated with strength (KE iMVC/LBM) in the CP group but not TDC. The findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency can accentuate some of the condition-specific impairments to musculoskeletal outcomes.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/fisiopatologia , Vitamina D/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria , Composição Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Registros de Dieta , Avaliação da Deficiência , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Luz Solar , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371989

RESUMO

Currently, one of the main public health problems among children and adolescents is poor adherence to healthy habits, leading to increasingly high rates of obesity and the comorbidities that accompany obesity. Early interventions are necessary, and among them, the use of gamification can be an effective method. The objective was to analyse the effect of game-based interventions (gamification) for improving nutritional habits, knowledge, and changes in body composition. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed in CINAHL, EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, and Scopus databases, following the PRISMA recommendations. There was no restriction by year of publication or language. Only randomized controlled trials were included. Twenty-three articles were found. After the intervention, the consumption of fruit and vegetables increased, as well as the knowledge on healthy food groups. The means difference showed a higher nutritional knowledge score in the intervention group 95% CI 0.88 (0.05-1.75). No significant effect of gamification was found for body mass index z-score. Gamification could be an effective method to improve nutritional knowledge about healthier nutritional habits. Promoting the development of effective educational tools to support learning related to nutrition is necessary in order to avoid and prevent chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Composição Corporal , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle
14.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(8): 1006-1010, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445841

RESUMO

To explore the mode of"one-day outpatient"based continuous management and examine its feasibility and preliminary effects for improving menopausal syndrome and mood among menopausal women.Clinical intervention study was conducted in Obstetrics and Gynecology Center of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from May 2020 to May 2021.The continuous management mode of "one-day outpatient service" for menopause was constructed in terms of multidisciplinary resources, including offline "one-day outpatient" health education, online 7-week group continuous intervention on "healthy lifestyle" and offline half-day focus group interview. Pre-and post-scores of the modified Kupperman scale and the positive/negative emotional scale (PANAS) were measured to compare the status of menopausal syndrome and emotional experience of Seventy-eight female participants (40-60 years old), meanwhile, before and after comparison of the blood lipid and body composition indexes of participants were also performed. Paired t test or Wilcoxon signed rank test were used.Results show that the pre-and post Kupperman scores were 14.65±8.51 vs 10.26±5.83 (t=-5.59, P<0.01), and the positive emotional scores (pre- 28.53±5.85 vs post- 30.13±6.30) were improved (t=2.59, P=0.012) and negative emotional scores [pre- 20.5(10) vs post- 17.0(7)] were decreased (Z=-5.09, P<0.01). The triglyceride level of participants declined from (1.27±0.54) mmol/L to (1.09±0.38) mmol/L (t=-2.45, P<0.05). In addition, the body mass index(pre- 22.52±2.34 vs post- 22.06±2.22), percentage of body fat (pre- 31.72±6.22 vs post- 30.91±6.52)and Visceral fat area(pre- 83.96±30.26 vs post- 79.66±29.71) were all improved (t=-3.58,t=-2.57,t=-2.59, P<0.05). Therefore,the mode of"one-day outpatient"based continuous management can effectively improve menopausal syndrome and adverse mood, reduce patients' blood lipid, improve the body composition, and maybe contribute to the prevention of long-term chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Menopausa , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Science ; 373(6556): 808-812, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385400

RESUMO

Total daily energy expenditure ("total expenditure") reflects daily energy needs and is a critical variable in human health and physiology, but its trajectory over the life course is poorly studied. We analyzed a large, diverse database of total expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method for males and females aged 8 days to 95 years. Total expenditure increased with fat-free mass in a power-law manner, with four distinct life stages. Fat-free mass-adjusted expenditure accelerates rapidly in neonates to ~50% above adult values at ~1 year; declines slowly to adult levels by ~20 years; remains stable in adulthood (20 to 60 years), even during pregnancy; then declines in older adults. These changes shed light on human development and aging and should help shape nutrition and health strategies across the life span.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Metabolismo Energético , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Metabolismo Basal , Composição Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 715, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knee pain is studied mostly in older age groups, although in young adults it may be an indicator of future impaired musculoskeletal health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between knee pain and thigh muscle strength in young adult women and to explore the associations between muscle strength, body composition, physical activity and knee pain. METHODS: The PEAK-25 cohort consists of women aged 25 at baseline (N=1064). At the 10-year follow-up n=728 attended for DXA-measured body composition and muscle strength assessment and n=797 answered the questionnaire on health and lifestyle. Independent samples t-test was used to compare women with and without knee pain, Spearman correlation was used to test the longitudinal association between strength and knee pain. RESULTS: Knee pain was reported by one third of the women at follow-up (n=260, 33%), although physical activity levels were similar in those with and without pain (high level 50 vs 45 % (p= 0.18). Body composition differed, however. Women with knee pain had higher BMI (25.6 vs 24.1), fat mass index (9.2 vs 8.2) and % total body fat mass (34.7 vs 33.2). Simultaneously, they had lower % lean mass (total body 61.5 vs 62.8; legs 20.6 vs 21.0) and lower thigh muscle strength (extensors 184.9 vs 196.8, flexors 96.6 vs 100.9, p<0.05), but slightly higher hamstrings-to -quadriceps ratio (0.53 vs 0.51, p=0.04). Muscle strength at baseline weakly correlated with knee pain at follow-up (extensor rs= -0.04; flexor -0.02, p>0.2). Overweight women had higher absolute thigh muscle strength, but lower weight-adjusted strength than normal weight women (p<0.001). Leg lean mass explained 26-34% of the variation in muscle strength and adjustment for physical activity level had little effect. CONCLUSION: Knee pain is already common among women in their mid-thirties. Lower thigh muscle strength in the mid-twenties was not associated with future knee pain, however women with knee pain tended to have lower thigh muscle strength and a body composition of higher body fat combined with lower lean mass. Maintaining a healthy body composition and adequate thigh muscle strength may be beneficial for knee joint health.


Assuntos
Articulação do Joelho , Força Muscular , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor
17.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(9): 595-605, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral and ectopic fat are key drivers of adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in obesity. We aimed to evaluate the effects of injectable liraglutide 3·0 mg daily on body fat distribution in adults with overweight or obesity without type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 4, single centre trial, we enrolled community-dwelling adults, recruited from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, with BMI of at least 30 kg/m2 or BMI of at least 27 kg/m2 with metabolic syndrome but without diabetes and randomly assigned them, in a 1:1 ratio, to 40 weeks of treatment with once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide 3·0 mg or placebo, in addition to a 500 kcal deficient diet and guideline-recommended physical activity counselling. The primary endpoint was percentage reduction in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measured with MRI. All randomly assigned participants with a follow-up imaging assessment were included in efficacy analyses and all participants who received at least one dose of study drug were included in the safety analyses. The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03038620. FINDINGS: Between July 20, 2017 and Feb 21, 2020 from 235 participants assessed for eligibility, 185 participants were randomly assigned (n=92 liraglutide, n=93 placebo) and 128 (n=73 liraglutide, n=55 placebo) were included in the final analysis (92% female participants, 37% Black participants, 24% Hispanic participants, mean age 50·2 years (SD 9·4), mean BMI 37·7 kg/m2). Mean change in VAT over median 36·2 weeks was -12·49% (SD 9·3%) with liraglutide compared with -1·63% (SD 12·3%) with placebo, estimated treatment difference -10·86% (95% CI -6·97 to -14·75, p<0·0001). Effects seemed consistent across subgroups of age, sex, race-ethnicity, BMI, and baseline prediabetes. The most frequently reported adverse events were gastrointestinal-related (43 [47%] of 92 with liraglutide and 12 [13%] of 93 with placebo) and upper respiratory tract infections (10 [11%] of 92 with liraglutide and 14 [15%] of 93 with placebo). INTERPRETATION: In adults with overweight or obesity at high cardiovascular disease risk, once-daily liraglutide 3·0 mg plus lifestyle intervention significantly lowered visceral adipose tissue over 40 weeks of treatment. Visceral fat reduction may be one mechanism to explain the benefits seen on cardiovascular outcomes in previous trials with liraglutide among patients with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: NovoNordisk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Liraglutida/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444895

RESUMO

(1) Background: Early childhood malnutrition may result in increased fat mass (FM) among school-aged children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We explored whether South African children with shorter stature have greater overall and abdominal FM compared to normal stature children. (2) Methods: Baseline assessments of body composition and weight were determined among school-aged children enrolled in a randomized controlled trial in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Multiple linear regression models tested associations of children's height and degree of stunting with FM, fat free mass (FFM), truncal fat mass (TrFM), and truncal fat free mass (TrFFM) overall and by sex. (3) Results: A total of 1287 children (619 girls, 668 boys) were assessed at baseline. Reduced child height was associated with higher FM and lower FFM and TrFFM, but these associations were reversed with increases in height. Girls classified as mildly or moderately/severely stunted had higher FM and TrFM but lower FFM and TrFFM, while no association was found for boys. (4) Conclusions: Our study suggests that efforts to reduce the non-communicable disease burden in LMICs should target growth-impaired children who may have greater overall FM and greater abdominal FM.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Composição Corporal , Estatura , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Tecido Adiposo , Criança , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia
19.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 109, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433463

RESUMO

While studies suggest potential influences of childhood adversities on obesity development in adulthood, less is known about the short-term association in children. We examined the association between a wide range of life events experienced in the first ten years of life (including maltreatment and milder adversities) and body composition in 5333 ten-year old Dutch children. In structured interviews, mothers retrospectively reported on their children's experience of 24 events. BMI was calculated, and fat mass index and fat free mass index were determined by dual-x-ray absorptiometry scanning. Linear regressions showed that, unadjusted, a higher number of life events was associated with higher BMI and body composition. However, associations attenuated to non-significance after adjustment for covariates. Similar findings were observed for maltreatment and milder life events. Thus, the number of experienced life events was not associated with body composition in middle childhood. Rather, other factors, like socioeconomic conditions, accounted for the relationship between life events and weight development in children.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444250

RESUMO

Fat mass and fat-free mass have become useful clinical indices in determining healthy growth and physical development during critical periods of childhood and adolescence; however, despite a wide range of nutritional surveillance its study is limited by a lack of reference data. The purpose of this study was to establish sex-specific and age-specific standards for fat mass and fat-free mass in a large sample of Croatian children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, we collected data from 12,678 participants aged 11 to 18 years old (mean age ± standard deviation (SD): 14.17 ± 2.25 years; height 164.56 ± 11.31 cm; weight: 57.45 ± 13.73 kg; body mass index: 21.24 ± 3.67 kg/m2; 53% girls). Fat mass and fat-free mass were measured three times by bioelectrical impedance. The Lambda, Mu and Sigma methods were used to create percentile charts for fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat mass and fat-free mass divided by height2). Sex and age differences were calculated using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc comparisons. Boys had lower FMI (from 2.66 to 3.89) and higher FFMI values (from 16.90 to 17.80) in all age groups, compared to girls (for FMI from 2.79 to 5.17 and for FFMI from 14.50 to 14.90, p < 0.001). In boys, FMI slightly declined until the age of 14, after which an increase from the age of 15 to 18 was observed. In girls, FMI gradually increased from the age of 11 to 18 (p < 0.001). In general, FFMI increased by age in boys [F(7,5440) = 52.674, p < 0.001], while girls had more stable FFMI across all age groups [F(7,7222) = 2.728, p = 0.057]. The newly established sex-specific and age-specific reference data could be used for national surveillance and to screen for children and adolescents with high FMI and low FFMI.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Padrões de Referência
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