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1.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 6347-6353, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the significance of immunonutritional and physical index in the assessment of risk associated with pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) in the elderly. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study enrolled 92 patients who underwent PD. They were divided into 2 groups: Group A included patients 79 years and younger (n=79) and Group B patients 80 years and older (n=13). Among 37 patients, physical function and body composition were also evaluated. RESULTS: Significantly higher neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, lower prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and controlling nutritional score were observed in Group B. Muscle strength and walking ability were significantly impaired in Group B, although there was no significant difference in body composition. Age was not correlated with the incidence of postoperative complications, overall survival or recurrence-free survival by univariate and multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: PD is justified for the elderly, with acceptable morbidity and prognosis. However, immunonutritional status and physical function are significantly impaired; thus, appropriate case selection and active nutritional support are required for the elderly.


Assuntos
Limitação da Mobilidade , Força Muscular , Estado Nutricional , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Composição Corporal , Comorbidade , Neoplasias Duodenais/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/citologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Albumina Sérica/análise
2.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(10): 751-757, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594173

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of body composition (BC) in gout patients and its clinical significance. Methods: Consecutive gout patients were recruited between August 2017 and December 2018. Demographic information, clinical characteristics and comorbidities were collected. BC was assessed by bioelectric impedance analysis including body fat percentage (BF%), trunk and limb BF%, appendicular skeletal muscle index. Overfat was defined by BF% ≥25% for male and ≥35% for female. The association between BC and serum uric acid (sUA) was evaluated by multiple linear regression. Results: A total of 362 gout patients were recruited with median age 38 (30, 52) years, 96.1% (348/362) were male. Mean sUA was (551±133) µmol/L. The mean BF% was (25.8±6.4)% with 53.6%(194/362) patients overfat. Male gout patients with overfat showed more affected joints [4(2, 6) vs. 2(2, 5)], higher sUA [(576±126)µmol/L vs. (523±134) µmol/L], higher prevalence of dyslipidemia [70.1%(131/187) vs. 54.0%(87/161)], metabolic syndrome [60.8%(118/187) vs. 28.0%(47/161)], fatty liver [58.2%(113/187) vs. 35.1%(59/161)] and hypertension [44.4%(83/187) vs. 25.5%(41/161)] than male patients with normal fat (all P<0.05). Their BF%, trunk BF% and limb BF% were positively correlated with the numbers of affected joints, sUA, metabolic syndrome, fatty liver, and hypertension, respectively (r=0.154-0.435, all P<0.05). Multivariable linear regression suggested that BF% (ß=4.29, P=0.020) and trunk BF% (ß=9.11, P=0.007), but not limb BF%, were positively correlated with sUA. Conclusion: Overfat is very common in gout patients. The proportion of trunk fat in male patients is positively correlated with sUA. When assessing obesity in gout patients clinically, body composition analysis should be performed simultaneously.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Gota/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gota/sangue , Gota/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Prevalência
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17509, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626108

RESUMO

To research the possible role of Tai Chi in preventing cardiovascular disease and improving cardiopulmonary function in adults with obesity aged 50 years and older.Between 2007 and 2012, 120 adults with obesity, aged 50 years and older, were divided into a Tai Chi group and a control group, with 60 participants in each group. The 2 groups were evaluated for weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, blood pressure (BP), body mass index, and incidence of chronic disease during follow-up monitoring.Two- and 6-year follow-up showed that the average BP in the Tai Chi group along with either the systolic or diastolic pressure decreased significantly compared to those in the control group (P < .001). Waist and hip circumference, weight, and body mass index in the Tai Chi group were significantly reduced compared to those in the control group (P < .001). The cardiopulmonary function of the control group and the Tai Chi group changed, with the cardiac index significantly higher in the Tai Chi group than in the control group (P < .05). The Tai Chi group had significantly higher levels of lung function, including vital capacity, maximal oxygen uptake, and total expiratory time, than the control group. The total incidence of complications and mortality in the Tai Chi group were much lower than those in the control group (P < .001). The incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in the Tai Chi group (16.67%) was lower than that in the control group (38.33%).Tai Chi is not only a suitable exercise for elderly people with obesity, but it can also help to regulate BP, improve heart and lung function in these individuals, as well as reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases, helping to improve their quality of life.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Tai Ji/métodos , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 43, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare nutritional intakes against recommended values as well as between the perceived intake and needs of female lacrosse players. METHODS: Twenty female NCAA Division II lacrosse players (20.0 ± 1.7 yrs., 169.7 ± 6.4 cm; 69.9 ± 10.7 kg; 27.5 ± 3.3% fat) completed a four-day monitoring period during in-season. Athletes were outfitted with an activity monitor over four consecutive days and completed four-day food records to assess total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and dietary intake. Body composition was assessed and used to calculate recommended dietary intakes. Actual intake was self-reported using a commercially available food tracking program (MyFitnessPal©, USA). Daily average values were calculated for total and relative energy, protein, carbohydrate, and fat intake. These values were then compared to published nutritional recommendations established by the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Appropriate pairwise comparisons were made depending on the normality of the distribution. RESULTS: Athletes ate significantly less than recommended values for energy, carbohydrates and protein. (p < 0.001). Significant discrepancies (p < 0.001) were also observed between perceptions of intake versus actual intake. CONCLUSIONS: Athletes significantly underestimated perceived intake of dietary fat and carbohydrate when compared to perceived needs. Massive standard deviations and ranges were observed, suggesting that some athletes lack a basic understanding of their daily needs. Results from this data suggest that collegiate athletes lack appropriate understanding of basic nutrition needs and could benefit from basic nutrition education as it pertains to their health and performance.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Necessidades Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Esportes com Raquete , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Atletas , Metabolismo Basal , Composição Corporal , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(4): 573-576, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the optimum cut-off of body fat percentage among Chinese adult people according to current BMI cut-off, and compare with WHO standard of body fat percentage. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey included plenty of hospitals throughout the country from September to December 2017, a total of 46618 residents' body composition data. BMI and BF% were measured by biological impedance analysis, took BMI established by WGOC as reference standard, and ROC curve analysis was used to determine the optimum BF% cut-off. Comparison between optimum cut-off and WHO standard was made by relevance rate, sensitivity, specificity and kappa index. Partial correlation, curve estimation and regression model were used to discuss the relationship between BMI and BF%. RESULTS: The average BMI and BF% was(24. 07±3. 16) and(21. 57±9. 16)% in males, and(23. 76±3. 38) and(27. 65±9. 94)% in females. The optimum BF% cut-off to evaluate obesity were 27. 4% in males, and 34. 3% in females. Compared with WHO standard, the optimum BF% cut-off above had a lower relevance rate and sensitivity, and a higher specificity and consistency. There was a statistical difference between BMI and BF% method when diagnosing obesity(P<0. 05). The partial correlation index r=0. 637, and curvilinear model was much suitable than linear model. CONCLUSION: Compared with BMI, BF% had poor accuracy and consistency to predict obesity. BMI method may cause more people to escape diagnosis, especially in aging males.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Composição Corporal , Sobrepeso , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade
6.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 98(4): 51-55, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513150

RESUMO

The study shows the results of assessing the trophic status with the help of bioelectrical impedance in 78 patients with mandibular fractures. Deviations from ideal body weight were found in 47% of cases, body weight deficit in 24% of patients, risk to nutritional insufficiency, increase in fat mass in 23% of cases. The average values of the lean mass were lower than their physiological norm. The tendency to a more pronounced deviation of body composition indicators from the norm may be a marker of the inadequacy of the patient's individual response to therapy. For each patient it is necessary to carry out rehabilitation measures aimed at correcting body weight, increasing muscle tissue, basic metabolism which will prevent the progression of weight loss and the development of complications. The use of adequate nutrition and physiotherapy increases the effectiveness of complex treatment, effectively helps the normalization of somatic conditions, has an important impact on the favorable outcome of the underlying disease, affects the motivational component of physical activity with the formation of adequate approaches to a healthy lifestyle.


Assuntos
Impedância Elétrica , Fraturas Mandibulares , Estado Nutricional , Composição Corporal , Exercício , Humanos , Fraturas Mandibulares/complicações
7.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(10): e8122, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531523

RESUMO

Ultrasound-measured inferior vena cava (IVC) and abdominal aorta (Ao)-associated parameters have been used to predict volume status for decades, yet research focusing on the impact of individual physical characteristics, including gender, height/weight, body surface area (BSA), and age, assessed simultaneously on those parameters in Chinese children is lacking. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of individual characteristics on maximum IVC diameter (IVCmax), Ao, and IVCmax/Ao in healthy Chinese children. From September to December 2015, 200 healthy children from 1 to 13 years of age were enrolled. IVCmax and Ao diameters were measured by 2D ultrasound. We found that age (years), height (cm), weight (kg), waist circumference (cm), and BSA (m2) were positively correlated with IVCmax and Ao. Multivariate linear regression showed that age was the only independent variable for IVCmax (mm) in female children, height was the only independent variable for IVCmax in male children, and age was the only independent variable for Ao in both females and males. IVCmax/Ao was not significantly influenced by the subjects' characteristics. In conclusion, IVCmax and Ao were more susceptible to subjects' characteristics than IVCmax/Ao. IVCmax/Ao could be a reliable and practical parameter in Chinese children as it was independent of age, height, and weight.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Veia Cava Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Aorta Abdominal/fisiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Veia Cava Inferior/fisiologia
8.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 42, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity have been adversely associated with longevity in dogs but there is scarce knowledge on the relation between body composition and lifespan. We aimed to investigate the effects of body composition, and within-dog changes over time, on survival in adult Labradors using a prospective cohort study design. The dogs had a median age of 6.5 years at study start and were kept in similar housing and management conditions throughout. The effects of the various predictors, including the effect of individual monthly-recorded change in body weight as a time varying covariate, were evaluated using survival analysis. RESULTS: All dogs were followed to end-of-life; median age at end-of-life was 14.0 years. Body composition was measured annually with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometer (DEXA) scans between 6.2 and 17.0  years. All 39 dogs had DEXA recorded at 8, 9 and 10 years of age. During the study the mean (± SD) percent of fat (PF) and lean mass (PL) was 32.8 (± 5.6) and 64.2 (± 5.5) %, respectively, with a mean lean:fat ratio (LFR) of 2.1 (± 0.6); body weight (BW) varied from 17.5 to 44.0 kg with a mean BW change of 9.9 kg (± 3.0). There was increased hazard of dying for every kg increase in BW at 10 years of age; for each additional kg of BW at 10 years, dogs had a 19% higher hazard (HR = 1.19, P = 0.004). For the change in both lean mass (LM) and LFR variables, it was protective to have a higher lean and/or lower fat mass (FM) at 10 years of age compared to 8 years of age, although the HR for change in LM was very close to 1.0. For age at study start, older dogs had an increased hazard. There was no observed effect for the potential confounders sex, coat colour and height at shoulders, or of the time-varying covariate. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that even rather late-life control efforts on body weight and the relationship between lean and fat mass may influence survival in dogs. Such "windows of opportunity" can be used to develop healthcare strategies that would help promote an increased healthspan in dogs.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Cães/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Estudos Longitudinais , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 36, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variations in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) are associated with obesity; however, it is unclear if changes in energy intake affect the adaptive response to caloric restriction in those with risk variants. The three FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1421085, rs17817449 and rs9939609, are in strong linkage disequilibrium. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the role of these FTO SNPs vis-à-vis the effects of a 4-week hypocaloric diet on body composition in exercise-trained men and women. Two salivary biomarkers that associate with energy expenditure were also assessed (cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase, sAA). METHODS: Forty-seven exercise-trained men (n = 11) and women (n = 36) (mean ± SD: age 32 ± 9 years; height 169 ± 8 cm, body mass index 24.5 ± 2.9 kg/m2, hours of aerobic training per week 4.9 ± 3.8, hours of weight training per week 3.9 ± 2.4, years of training experience 13.4 ± 7.0) completed a 4-week hypocaloric diet (i.e., decrease total calories by ~ 20-25% while maintaining a protein intake of ~ 2.0 g/kg/d). Subjects were instructed to maintain the same training regimen and to decrease energy intake via carbohydrate and/or fat restriction during the treatment period. Body composition was assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Model: Hologic Horizon W; Hologic Inc., Danbury CT USA). Total body water was determined via a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance (BIA) device (InBody 770). Saliva samples were collected pre and post intervention in order to genotype the participants as well as to determine the concentrations of cortisol and sAA. RESULTS: Of the 47 subjects, 15 were of normal risk for obesity whereas 32 were carriers of the FTO gene risk alleles. Subjects were grouped based on their genotype for the three FTO SNPs (i.e., rs1421085, rs17817449 and rs9939609) due to their strong linkage disequilibrium. We have classified those with the normal obesity risk as "non-risk allele" versus those that carry the "risk allele" (i.e., both heterozygous and homozygous). Both groups experienced a significant decrease in total energy intake (p < 0.01); non-risk allele: pre kcal 2081 ± 618, post kcal 1703 ± 495; risk allele: pre kcal 1886 ± 515, post kcal 1502 ± 366). Both groups lost a significant amount of body weight (p < 0.01); however, there was no difference between groups for the change (post minus pre) in each group (risk allele change: - 1.0 ± 1.2 kg, non-risk allele change: - 1.2 ± 1.4 kg). Additionally, both groups lost a significant amount of fat mass (p < 0.01) with no differences between groups for the change in fat mass (risk allele change for fat mass: 1.1 ± 0.7 kg, non-risk allele change - 0.9 ± 0.4 kg). There were no significant changes in either group for fat free mass or total body water. The change in salivary alpha-amylase or cortisol was not different between groups. CONCLUSIONS: In the short-term (i.e., 4 weeks), exercise-trained men and women consuming a hypocaloric diet that is relatively high in protein experience similar changes in body composition due exclusively to a decrement in fat mass and independent of FTO allele status. Therefore, weight and fat loss on a hypocaloric diet is, at least in the short-term, unaffected by the FTO gene.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Restrição Calórica , Exercício , Adulto , Alelos , Composição Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 39, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ), a water-soluble quercetin, has been shown to intensify muscle hypertrophy in mice. We investigated the effect of EMIQ in supplementary protein powder on athlete body composition. METHODS: Forty Japanese males who played American football (age: 19.8 ± 1.4 years; body height: 174.1 ± 6.0 cm; body mass: 75.5 ± 10.7 kg) were assigned to a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of parallel group. Participants received either EMIQ in whey protein (EW, n = 19) or contrast whey protein (W, n = 20) 6 days per week over 4 months. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Markers of oxidative stress, derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP), were assessed using a free radical analytical system. Data were analyzed using a univariate and repeated measures general model statistics. RESULTS: After 4 months, changes in lower limb fat-free mass and muscle mass were significantly greater in the EW group than in the W group (mean change ±95% CI; W: 324.1 ± 284.3, EW: 950.3 ± 473.2, p = 0.031, W: 255.7 ± 288.6, EW: 930.9 ± 471.5, p = 0.021, respectively). Moreover, the EW group exhibited a significantly higher BAP/d-ROMs ratio, antioxidation index, than the W group after 4 months (mean change ± SD; W: 8.8 ± 1.1, EW: 10.3 ± 2.8; p = 0.028). No significant differences in body mass, lean body mass, fat mass, or lower limb fat mass were observed between the groups. CONCLUSION: Ingestion of EMIQ in supplementary protein powder for 4 months exerts antioxidant effects and increases muscle mass among American football players. TRIAL REGISTRATION: University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registry, UMIN000036036 . Retrospectively registered in 2019.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Atletas , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Futebol Americano , Humanos , Masculino , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adulto Jovem
11.
Postgrad Med ; 131(7): 453-460, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469966

RESUMO

Objectives: Recent evidence suggests an association between functional capacity and cognitive function, at least in older adults. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between cognitive function, functional capacity, isokinetic leg strength, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), sleep quality, body fat, handgrip strength, and fatigue among a sample of MS patients. Methods: Fifty-one relapsing-remitting MS patients (age: 38.4 ± 7.1 yrs; 30 females) were recruited and agreed to participate in this study. Cognitive function was assessed by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Functional capacity was examined using various functional tests commonly used in MS patients. Maximal voluntary unilateral leg strength was assessed using isokinetic dynamometer. Isometric handgrip strength was assessed by a dynamometer. Total body and visceral fat levels were assessed via bioelectrical impedance analyzers. Finally, the patients' HRQOL, sleep quality, and fatigue levels were evaluated using specific questionnaires. Results: A significant association was found between the PASAT score and the performance score in various functional capacity tests (p < 0.050). On the other hand, a weak but statistically significant association was found between the PASAT score and isokinetic strength of knee extensors (r = 0.319, p = 0.022) and knee flexors (r = 0.354 p = 0.011). Poor sleep quality was associated with lower performance in all the functional capacity tests examined (p < 0.05) whilst was negatively associated with the PASAT score (r = -0.334, p = 0.017). The multivariate regression analysis revealed that the performance on the TUG test was a significant predictor of cognitive function. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, functional capacity was found to be associated with both impaired cognitive performance and low HRQOL in MS patients. In addition, an association between sleep quality and cognitive performance was revealed, confirming existing literature. Functional capacity as assessed by the TUG test emerged as the best predictor of cognitive function.


Assuntos
Cognição , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Tecido Adiposo , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Impedância Elétrica , Fadiga/psicologia , Feminino , Músculos Isquiotibiais , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Perna (Membro) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/psicologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Músculo Quadríceps , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Teste de Caminhada
12.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(4): 417-426, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations among visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), body fat percentage (%), and android/gynoid ratio (A/G ratio) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and verify if the parameters representative of visceral obesity correlate with and exhibit the same frequency as body composition variables; anthropometric indices; and metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included 94 women with PCOS. Hormonal, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters were analyzed in all women. Free androgen index (FAI) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), as well as LAP, VAI, and anthropometric indices, were calculated. The regions of interest (ROIs) in body composition and body composition indices were evaluated using a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Overall, 32 variables were selected as markers of body fat distribution. RESULTS: Among the 32 markers evaluated, 29 correlated with LAP, whereas 25 correlated with VAI, 19 with body fat (%), and 30 with A/G ratio. Additionally, some markers correlated with the four adiposity indices evaluated: ROIs, except for total mass and leg fat (%); body composition (body mass index, waist circumference, and hip circumference) indices; fasting insulin; and C-reactive protein. CONCLUSION: LAP and VAI may be sensitive measures for screening and preventing metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in PCOS, with LAP being more sensitive than VAI, and the A/G ratio may be more sensitive than body fat percentage.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Composição Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Produto da Acumulação Lipídica , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 25-34, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468383

RESUMO

Most studies of taurine on athletic performance have been conducted at acute and high doses in rodents. These doses and duration of administration are not reasonable for normal human life. Thus, it is not valid to extrapolate these animal results to people. Dose and duration that mimic human use of taurine in normal life can help to clarify the taurine effect in humans. This study investigated whether long-term, low-dose taurine (2% taurine drinking water for 25 weeks), similar to normal taurine intake in humans, can affect endurance exercise and body composition. Twenty ICR mice were divided into two groups. The control group received normal drinking water, and the taurine treated group received 2% taurine drinking water for 25 weeks. The mice were evaluated for body composition by mass and for physical strength by treadmill exhaustion and suspension tests. The supply of chronic 2% taurine drinking water has a slight effect on weight gain. In body composition analysis, a slight increase in body weight was due to an increase in muscle mass, not an increase in body fat. However, taurine ingestion did not increase endurance exercise. In conclusion, these results indirectly suggest that acute, high-dose taurine treatment is better than long-term, low-dose treatment to increase athletic performance.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Força Muscular , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Teste de Esforço , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Condicionamento Físico Animal
14.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(10): 619-624, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365945

RESUMO

Based on the high financial and logistical costs associated with the assessment of body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), this study determined which field method has the best correlation with DXA data, and developed an equation to estimate fat-free mass (FFM) using the field anthropometric data in international soccer players. A total of 17 international soccer players participated in this study. DXA values provided a criterion measure of FFM. Correlation coefficients, biases, limits of agreement, and differences were used as validity measures, and regression analyses were used to develop the prediction equation. All field methods used to obtain FFM data showed positive correlations (r from 0.90-0.96) with DXA. Only the equation developed by Deurenberg et al. [6] showed no differences from DXA with a low bias. The main strength of this study was providing a valid and accurate equation to estimate FFM specifically in international soccer players.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Atletas , Composição Corporal , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Pregas Cutâneas , Futebol
15.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(10): 639-644, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378863

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects induced by 8 weeks of two high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols, 10-20-30 and 30-30 concepts, characterized by significantly different training volume and intensity, on physiological parameters, running performance, body composition and psychophysiological stress of recreational divided into two groups: the 10-20-30 group performed two 10-20-30 sessions/wk and one continuous training (CT)/wk, whilst the 30-30 group performed two 30-30 sessions/wk and one CT session/wk. VO2max, 1 km time, maximal aerobic speed (MAS), and body composition were evaluated before and after intervention. Internal load was measured through rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Both groups significantly improved running performance (1 km time: p=0.04; MAS: p=0.000001), aerobic fitness (VO2max: p=0.000002) and body composition (lean mass (kg) p=0.0001; fat mass (%) p=0.00005). RPE resulted significantly lower in the 10-20-30 group than in 30-30 group (10-20-30: 13.36±0.28; 30-30:15.55±0.21; p=0.0002). Thus, the 10-20-30 group improved physiological parameters, performance and body composition, similar to 30-30 with significantly lower RPE values. These results suggest that in recreational runners the 10-20-30 training is effective in improving aerobic fitness and performance, with a lower subjective perception of effort, thus enhancing individual compliance and adherence to the prescribed training program.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Carga de Trabalho
16.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(11): 739-743, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437860

RESUMO

This study examined the relationship between PhA and short-term maximal intensity efforts in soccer players, and was conducted in 99 male soccer players, ages 19-36 years. Bioelectrical impedance was used to assess body fat, fat free mass (FFM) and PhA (phase angle). Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) was used to evaluate physical performance. Food consumption was assessed through the 24-hour dietary recall method. Pearson correlation and multiple regressions were used for statistical analysis. Phase angle exhibited a positive relationship with maximum power (ß=0.66; P<0.001), even after adjustment for the co-variables FFM and body fat (ß=0.52; P=0.02). Phase angle was inversely related with fatigue index (ß=- 0.61; P=0.04), even after adjusting for FFM (ß=- 0.70; P=0.020). Our results indicated that independently of FFM and body fat, PhA was inversely associated with fatigue index and positively related with maximum power, revealing the PhA appeared as a valid predictor of fatigue.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Impedância Elétrica , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Humanos , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(4): 355-361, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012343

RESUMO

Depression and hypertension are highly prevalent among elderly people. Although the relationship between these conditions is well recognized, however, the factors that may influence such association are not clearly understood. Objective: To analyze the association between depression and hypertension in community-dwelling elders. Methods: Two-hundred and thirty-one community-dwelling elders provided information regarding the following variables: sex, age, ethnicity, smoking habit, physical activity level (PA), body mass index (BMI) and diabetes mellitus (DM). These variables can potentially influence depression and hypertension, as well as its relationship. Screening for depression was made using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The presence of hypertension was defined based on self-reported data and/or the use of antihypertensive drugs. The logistic regression technique was applied, using hypertension as the dependent variable and depressive state as a predictive variable. Logistic regression was applied with and without adjustment for the potential intervening variables. Results: The prevalence of depressive state and hypertension in the studied population was 14% and 59%, respectively. The association between depression and hypertension without adjustments was not significant (odds ratio [OR] = 2.28, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 0.98 - 5.32; p = 0.06). However, after adjusting for PA, BMI and DM, the strength of association between depression and hypertension significantly increased (OR = 3.08, 95%CI = 1.12 - 8.46; p = 0.03). Conclusion: The association between depression and hypertension in the elderly is directly influenced by PA, BMI and DM. This finding may guide strategies to increase the adherence to a healthier lifestyle


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Depressão , Diabetes Mellitus , Vida Independente , Hipertensão , Atividade Motora , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Fumar , Índice de Massa Corporal , Prevalência , Análise Estatística , Obesidade
19.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(10): 645-649, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342479

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate total, regional, and throwing versus non-throwing arm body composition measures across the 4 major positions of NCAA Division I female softball players using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (n=128). Total and regional total mass (TM), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and visceral adipose tissue were measured. Athletes were separated into: pitchers (n=32), catchers (n=13), outfielders (n=39), and infielders (n=44). ANOVA and Tukey's HSD assessed total and regional differences between positions. Although no significant total or regional LM differences were observed across positions, outfielders had significantly (p=0.006-0.047) lower total-body, arm, and trunk TM and FM, leg FM, and leg BMC in comparison to pitchers. The throwing arm had significantly (p<0.0001-0.018) greater LM, BMD, and BMC than the non-throwing arm for all positions. Notably, there were minimal body composition differences among softball positions, with the primary differences being that pitchers had larger total and regional fat values than outfielders. The throwing arm of all positions had greater LM, BMD, and BMC than the non-throwing arm. These values can be used by coaches and trainers as descriptive DXA data for collegiate softball players.


Assuntos
Braço/anatomia & histologia , Atletas , Beisebol , Composição Corporal , Absorciometria de Fóton , Tecido Adiposo , Densidade Óssea , Feminino , Humanos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(7): 1229-1237, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adiponectin is an adipokine with oxidative, anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects in several peripheral tissues; however, circulating adiponectin expression is reduced in cardio-metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether regular physical activity mediates circulating adiponectin concentrations at baseline in an obese population. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-one obese participants were divided into 6 groups according to gender, physical activity (PA), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis: A and B) obese PA females (N.=28) and males (N.=33); C and D) obese non-PA females (N.=40) and males (N.=40); E and F) obese non-PA females (N.=40) and males (N.=40) with T2DM. Serum adiponectin, IL-15 and IL-15Rα, blood glucose/lipid profile, and body composition were measured. RESULTS: Circulating adiponectin increased in PA participants compared to non-PA (ANOVA, P=0.001), finding higher concentrations in females compared to males (P<0.001), particularly in the PA group (P=0.005). Serum adiponectin was associated with age (R2=0.068), body mass (R2=-0.108), waist circumference (WC) (R2=-0.122), LDL (R2=-0.045), triglycerides (R2=-0.043), and serum IL-15Rα (R2=-0.243), as well as fat mass in females (R2=0.098), and WC in males (R2=0.112). CONCLUSIONS: Circulating adiponectin increased in obese PA participants (≥180 min/week) compared to non-PA counterparts, indicating that physical activity may mediate baseline adiponectin levels irrespective of the fat mass regulatory effect. The inverse relationship found between serum adiponectin and IL-15Rα may support the regulative role of the IL-15/IL-15Rα complex on this adipokine at baseline.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Exercício/fisiologia , Interleucina-15/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações
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