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1.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(10): 751-757, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594173

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of body composition (BC) in gout patients and its clinical significance. Methods: Consecutive gout patients were recruited between August 2017 and December 2018. Demographic information, clinical characteristics and comorbidities were collected. BC was assessed by bioelectric impedance analysis including body fat percentage (BF%), trunk and limb BF%, appendicular skeletal muscle index. Overfat was defined by BF% ≥25% for male and ≥35% for female. The association between BC and serum uric acid (sUA) was evaluated by multiple linear regression. Results: A total of 362 gout patients were recruited with median age 38 (30, 52) years, 96.1% (348/362) were male. Mean sUA was (551±133) µmol/L. The mean BF% was (25.8±6.4)% with 53.6%(194/362) patients overfat. Male gout patients with overfat showed more affected joints [4(2, 6) vs. 2(2, 5)], higher sUA [(576±126)µmol/L vs. (523±134) µmol/L], higher prevalence of dyslipidemia [70.1%(131/187) vs. 54.0%(87/161)], metabolic syndrome [60.8%(118/187) vs. 28.0%(47/161)], fatty liver [58.2%(113/187) vs. 35.1%(59/161)] and hypertension [44.4%(83/187) vs. 25.5%(41/161)] than male patients with normal fat (all P<0.05). Their BF%, trunk BF% and limb BF% were positively correlated with the numbers of affected joints, sUA, metabolic syndrome, fatty liver, and hypertension, respectively (r=0.154-0.435, all P<0.05). Multivariable linear regression suggested that BF% (ß=4.29, P=0.020) and trunk BF% (ß=9.11, P=0.007), but not limb BF%, were positively correlated with sUA. Conclusion: Overfat is very common in gout patients. The proportion of trunk fat in male patients is positively correlated with sUA. When assessing obesity in gout patients clinically, body composition analysis should be performed simultaneously.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Gota/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gota/sangue , Gota/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Prevalência
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17509, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626108

RESUMO

To research the possible role of Tai Chi in preventing cardiovascular disease and improving cardiopulmonary function in adults with obesity aged 50 years and older.Between 2007 and 2012, 120 adults with obesity, aged 50 years and older, were divided into a Tai Chi group and a control group, with 60 participants in each group. The 2 groups were evaluated for weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, blood pressure (BP), body mass index, and incidence of chronic disease during follow-up monitoring.Two- and 6-year follow-up showed that the average BP in the Tai Chi group along with either the systolic or diastolic pressure decreased significantly compared to those in the control group (P < .001). Waist and hip circumference, weight, and body mass index in the Tai Chi group were significantly reduced compared to those in the control group (P < .001). The cardiopulmonary function of the control group and the Tai Chi group changed, with the cardiac index significantly higher in the Tai Chi group than in the control group (P < .05). The Tai Chi group had significantly higher levels of lung function, including vital capacity, maximal oxygen uptake, and total expiratory time, than the control group. The total incidence of complications and mortality in the Tai Chi group were much lower than those in the control group (P < .001). The incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in the Tai Chi group (16.67%) was lower than that in the control group (38.33%).Tai Chi is not only a suitable exercise for elderly people with obesity, but it can also help to regulate BP, improve heart and lung function in these individuals, as well as reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases, helping to improve their quality of life.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Tai Ji/métodos , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(10): e8122, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531523

RESUMO

Ultrasound-measured inferior vena cava (IVC) and abdominal aorta (Ao)-associated parameters have been used to predict volume status for decades, yet research focusing on the impact of individual physical characteristics, including gender, height/weight, body surface area (BSA), and age, assessed simultaneously on those parameters in Chinese children is lacking. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of individual characteristics on maximum IVC diameter (IVCmax), Ao, and IVCmax/Ao in healthy Chinese children. From September to December 2015, 200 healthy children from 1 to 13 years of age were enrolled. IVCmax and Ao diameters were measured by 2D ultrasound. We found that age (years), height (cm), weight (kg), waist circumference (cm), and BSA (m2) were positively correlated with IVCmax and Ao. Multivariate linear regression showed that age was the only independent variable for IVCmax (mm) in female children, height was the only independent variable for IVCmax in male children, and age was the only independent variable for Ao in both females and males. IVCmax/Ao was not significantly influenced by the subjects' characteristics. In conclusion, IVCmax and Ao were more susceptible to subjects' characteristics than IVCmax/Ao. IVCmax/Ao could be a reliable and practical parameter in Chinese children as it was independent of age, height, and weight.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Veia Cava Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Aorta Abdominal/fisiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Veia Cava Inferior/fisiologia
4.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 42, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity have been adversely associated with longevity in dogs but there is scarce knowledge on the relation between body composition and lifespan. We aimed to investigate the effects of body composition, and within-dog changes over time, on survival in adult Labradors using a prospective cohort study design. The dogs had a median age of 6.5 years at study start and were kept in similar housing and management conditions throughout. The effects of the various predictors, including the effect of individual monthly-recorded change in body weight as a time varying covariate, were evaluated using survival analysis. RESULTS: All dogs were followed to end-of-life; median age at end-of-life was 14.0 years. Body composition was measured annually with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometer (DEXA) scans between 6.2 and 17.0  years. All 39 dogs had DEXA recorded at 8, 9 and 10 years of age. During the study the mean (± SD) percent of fat (PF) and lean mass (PL) was 32.8 (± 5.6) and 64.2 (± 5.5) %, respectively, with a mean lean:fat ratio (LFR) of 2.1 (± 0.6); body weight (BW) varied from 17.5 to 44.0 kg with a mean BW change of 9.9 kg (± 3.0). There was increased hazard of dying for every kg increase in BW at 10 years of age; for each additional kg of BW at 10 years, dogs had a 19% higher hazard (HR = 1.19, P = 0.004). For the change in both lean mass (LM) and LFR variables, it was protective to have a higher lean and/or lower fat mass (FM) at 10 years of age compared to 8 years of age, although the HR for change in LM was very close to 1.0. For age at study start, older dogs had an increased hazard. There was no observed effect for the potential confounders sex, coat colour and height at shoulders, or of the time-varying covariate. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that even rather late-life control efforts on body weight and the relationship between lean and fat mass may influence survival in dogs. Such "windows of opportunity" can be used to develop healthcare strategies that would help promote an increased healthspan in dogs.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Cães/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Estudos Longitudinais , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
Br J Sports Med ; 53(14): 879-885, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151938

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine the relationship between cycling (particularly commuter cycling) and risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including body composition, blood lipids and cardiorespiratory fitness. This study differed from our recent (Part 1) systematic review in that risk factors for CVD were analysed as continuous variables rather than being present or absent. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We searched four databases (Web of Science, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus and Scopus). All quantitative studies, published until August 2017, were included when a general population was investigated, cycling was assessed either in total or as a transportation mode, and CVD risk factors were reported. METHODS: We analysed body composition, physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), blood lipids and blood pressure (BP). Skinfold, waist circumference and body mass index were analysed and prioritised in that order when more than one measure were available. PA included measures of counts per minutes, moderate-to-vigorous PA or minutes per week. CRF included results of maximal tests with or without expired air or submaximal test. For blood lipids and BP, separate analyses were run for low-density and high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, total cholesterol, systolic BP and diastolic BP. Studies were excluded when reporting dichotomous outcomes or when cycling and walking were combined. Heterogeneity was investigated using I2. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included; the majority reported commuter cycling. In total, we included 5775 cyclists and 39 273 non-cyclists. Cyclists had more favourable risk factor levels in body composition -0.08 (95% CI -0.13 to -0.04), PA 0.13 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.20), CRF 0.28 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.35) and blood lipids compared with non-cyclists. There was no sex difference in risk reduction. CONCLUSION/IMPLICATION: Cycling mitigated the risk factor profile for CVD. A strength of this systematic review is that all the risk factors were analysed as continuous variables. These data provide evidence for practitioners, stakeholders, policy-makers and city planners to accommodate and promote cycling. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016052421.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(2): 135-140, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241289

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the main part of the total body energy expenditure. The value of BMR is individual and depends on a lot of factors. The goal of the research was to discover the influence of anthropometric parameters, age and gender, on changes of the BMR values. METHODS: A total of 177 individuals of Czech Caucasian origin from South Moravia (BMI 27.3 ± 7.88 kg/m2) aged 18-55 (117 women, 60 men) were included in the study. Selected anthropometric characteristics were measured using a stadiometer (SECA 213) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (Inbody 230). BMR was measured by indirect calorimetry (Cortex Metalyzer 3B). The measured values were statistically evaluated by the regression analysis and least square method (LSM). RESULTS: From the following results that the factors that influence the BMR value statistically significantly (p < 0.05) are: age, gender, body mass index, total body water, and percent of body fat. CONCLUSION: Body fat and age have both an indirect impact on the basal metabolic rate of the Czech population in working age. However, BMI and the total body water were discovered to have a direct influence on the BMR.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria , Calorimetria Indireta , República Tcheca , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 141: 43-53, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228648

RESUMO

Weight loss and depletion of nutritional status are frequent presentation hallmarks in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Decline in muscle mass is a major component in weight loss and may have both a prognostic and predictive value for survival and treatment-related toxicities. Recent findings suggest that weight and skeletal muscle mass gain during treatment may represent surrogate markers for outcome in advanced NSCLC patients. Herein we present an in-depth view of the impact of nutritional status derangements on NSCLC patients' outcome, focusing on lean body mass variations during disease course. We explored the impact of malnutrition with a major attention on novel treatment options. We reviewed molecular, metabolic and immunological mechanisms underlying muscle-wasting condition, which may exhibit a meaningful targeting potential. Incorporating a specialized and accurate body composition assessment into a comprehensive, patient-centered and tailored intervention will facilitate the achievement of nutritional goals and optimal care for lung cancer patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/complicações , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/diagnóstico , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Prognóstico
8.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4419, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare tissue composition, total and regional bone mineral content and bone mineral density, static hand grip and knee joint isokinetic strength between amateur soccer players and Control Group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Air displacement plethysmography was used to estimate body volume and, in turn, density. Body composition, bone mineral content and bone mineral density were assessed for the whole body and at standardized regions using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Static grip strength was assessed with an adjustable dynamometer, and peak torque derived from isokinetic strength dynamometer (concentric muscular knee actions at 60°/s). Magnitude of the differences between groups was examined using d-Cohen. RESULTS: Compared to healthy active adults, soccer players showed larger values of whole body bone mineral content (+651g; d=1.60; p<0.01). In addition, differences between groups were large for whole body bone mineral density (d=1.20 to 1.90; p<0.01): lumbar spine, i.e. L1-L4 (+19.4%), upper limbs (+8.6%) and lower limbs (+16.8%). Soccer players attained larger mean values in strength test given by static hand grip protocol (+5.6kg, d=0.99; p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Soccer adequately regulates body composition and is associated better bone health parameters (bone mineral content and density at whole-body and at particular sites exposed to mechanical loadings).


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Masculino , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Pletismografia/métodos , Valores de Referência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(7): 1737-1744, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136545

RESUMO

Dinyer, TK, Byrd, MT, Garver, MJ, Rickard, AJ, Miller, WM, Burns, S, Clasey, JL, and Bergstrom, HC. Low-load vs. high-load resistance training to failure on one repetition maximum strength and body composition in untrained women. J Strength Cond Res 33(7): 1737-1744, 2019-This study examined the effects of resistance training (RT) to failure at low and high loads on one repetition maximum (1RM) strength and body composition (bone- and fat-free mass [BFFM] and percent body fat [%BF]) in untrained women. Twenty-three untrained women (age: 21.2 ± 2.2 years; height: 167.1 ± 5.7 cm; body mass: 62.3 ± 16.2 kg) completed a 12-week RT to failure intervention at a low (30% 1RM) (n = 11) or high (80% 1RM) (n = 12) load. On weeks 1, 5, and 12, subjects completed 1RM testing for 4 different exercises (leg extension [LE], seated military press [SMP], leg curl [LC], and lat pull down [LPD]) and a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan to assess body composition. During weeks 2-4 and 6-7, the subjects completed 2 sets to failure for each exercise. During weeks 8-11, the subjects completed 3 sets to failure for each exercise. The 1RM strength increased from week 1 to week 5 (LE: 18 ± 16%; SMP: 9 ± 11%; LC: 12 ± 22%; LPD: 13 ± 9%), week 1 to week 12 (LE: 32 ± 24%; SMP: 17 ± 14%; LC: 23 ± 26%; LPD: 25 ± 13%), and week 5 to week 12 (LE: 11 ± 9%; SMP: 7 ± 9%; LC: 10 ± 7%; LPD: 11 ± 11%) in each exercise, with no significant differences between groups. There were no significant changes in BFFM (p = 0.241) or %BF (p = 0.740) for either group. Resistance training to failure at 30% 1RM and 80% 1RM resulted in similar increases in 1RM strength, but no change in BFFM or %BF. Untrained women can increase 1RM strength during RT at low and high loads, if repetitions are taken to failure.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Absorciometria de Fóton , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 152: 156-165, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102684

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effect of a single and 15 units of high-intensity circuit training (HICT) programme on glucose metabolism, myokines' response and selected genes' expression in women. METHODS: Thirty-three, non-active women (mean age: 38 ±â€¯12) were split into a HICT (n = 20) or a control group (CON, n = 13). The training protocol included three circuits of nine exercises with own body weight as a workload performed 3 times a week for five weeks. The CON group performed HICT twice. Blood samples were taken before, 1 h and 24 h after the first and last unit to determine IGF-1, myostatin, irisin, decorin, HSP27, interleukin-15 concentrations using the ELISA immunoenzymatic method. To evaluate HSPB1, TNF-α and DCN mRNA, real-time PCR was used. Pre- and post-intervention, the oral glucose test and body composition assessment were completed. RESULTS: The following parameters tended to decrease after the 5-week HICT program: insulin and HOMA-IR Training diminished insulin/IGF-1 ratio (51% CI: -63% to -34%) and induced the drop of myostatin concentration but significantly only among middle-aged women and at baseline insulin resistance. CONCLUSION: Obtained data revealed that HICT improved an insulin sensitivity and diminished myostatin concentration among older, insulin-resistant women with lower baseline physical capacity.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Exercícios em Circuitos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Glicemia/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Exercícios em Circuitos/métodos , Decorina/genética , Decorina/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miostatina/genética , Miostatina/metabolismo , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Anim Sci ; 97(6): 2450-2459, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100117

RESUMO

One hundred ninety-one Angus steers (age = 546 d ± 33.5; BW = 36.4 kg ± 4.2), sired by bulls divergently selected for feed efficiency over a 3-yr period, were used to compare growth, efficiency, body composition, and carcass characteristics. Selected Angus sires were either high (Hi) or low (Lo) for residual average daily gain (RADG) expected progeny differences (EPDs) and either high (Hi) or low (AVG; breed average) for marbling (MARB) EPDs. Steer weight and body composition, via ultrasound, were measured at weaning (205 d) and at 1 yr (365 d) of age. Steers entered the feedlot at 454 d of age and completed a 70-d GROWSAFE BEEF System evaluation to determine DMI, ADG, and residual feed intake (RFI). Steers were then slaughtered as they reached a backfat thickness of 1.3 cm. Carcasses were chilled for 48 h at 2 °C, ribbed, and USDA yield and quality grade data were collected. The right side of the carcass was fabricated and primal and subprimal weights were collected. A 2.5-cm longissimus steak was removed, vacuum-packaged, aged for 14 d, and frozen for slice shear force determination. Additionally, a 1.3-cm longissimus steak was removed from year 3 steers for proximate analysis. The GLM procedure of SAS was used and the main effects of RADG and MARB and their interaction were tested by the error term, SIRE(RADG*MARB). Year was evaluated as a replicate. Weight, ultrasound backfat, and REA were increased (P ≤ 0.05) at weaning in the Hi compared with AVG MARB steers. Feed efficiency, measured by RFI, was improved (P = 0.05) in the Hi RADG steers compared with Lo RADG steers. Slaughter weight and HCW were heavier (P ≤ 0.03) in the Hi RADG steers compared with Lo RADG steers. An interaction (P = 0.05) between RADG and MARB selection was found for marbling score, steers selected for Lo RADG and Hi MARB had greater marbling scores than all other groups. Longissimus proximate composition from year 3 showed that lipid content was greater (P < 0.01) in the Hi MARB and Lo RADG groups compared with the AVG MARB and Hi RADG groups, respectively. These findings suggest that selection using RADG or MARB EPDs has minimal impact on carcass yield. However, positive selection pressure placed on these breeding values can potentially improve efficiency and carcass quality. Lastly, it appears that improvements in feed efficiency can be obtained without negatively affecting beef carcass merit, especially USDA quality grade.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Carne/normas , Ganho de Peso/genética , Animais , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Bovinos/genética , Masculino , Seleção Genética
12.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(4): 358-368, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish percentile curves for measures and indices of body composition by age and sex and compare them with data from other ethnic groups. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based study with adults aged 20-59 years (n = 689). Percentile curves adjusted by a third degree polynomial function were constructed for skeletal mass index (SMI), fat mass index, body fat, and load-capacity metabolic indices (LCMI) based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). RESULTS: SMIweight and SMIBMI showed decline from the third decade of life in both sexes, whereas SMIheight was not able to identify lean mass loss over the ages studied. There was a slight drop at the end of the fifth decade (50-59 years) in men. Among Americans and Chinese, the 50th percentile curve of SMIheight showed an earlier decline. The estimates of adiposity and LCMI curves peaked between 40-49 years and Americans and Chinese maintained an upward curve throughout adulthood. CONCLUSION: The data and curves showed that the SMI adjusted for BMI and body weight were more adequate in detecting the decline of lean mass in adults due to aging. In contrast, SMIheight had a positive correlation with age and its curve increased throughout the evaluated age groups. The results contribute to the evaluation to the nutritional status of adults and to the prevention and treatment of outcomes related to adiposity and deficit lean mass.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estatura/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Gráficos de Crescimento , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(9)2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083445

RESUMO

The bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method is widely used to predict percent body fat (PBF). However, it requires four to eight electrodes, and it takes a few minutes to accurately obtain the measurement results. In this study, we propose a faster and more accurate method that utilizes a small dry electrode-based wearable device, which predicts whole-body impedance using only upper-body impedance values. Such a small electrode-based device typically needs a long measurement time due to increased parasitic resistance, and its accuracy varies by measurement posture. To minimize these variations, we designed a sensing system that only utilizes contact with the wrist and index fingers. The measurement time was also reduced to five seconds by an effective parameter calibration network. Finally, we implemented a deep neural network-based algorithm to predict the PBF value by the measurement of the upper-body impedance and lower-body anthropometric data as auxiliary input features. The experiments were performed with 163 amateur athletes who exercised regularly. The performance of the proposed system was compared with those of two commercial systems that were designed to measure body composition using either a whole-body or upper-body impedance value. The results showed that the correlation coefficient ( r 2 ) value was improved by about 9%, and the standard error of estimate (SEE) was reduced by 28%.


Assuntos
Antropometria/métodos , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Eletrodos , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
14.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 32(2): e1434, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is prevalent before liver transplantation, and it is considered to be a risk factor for morbidity/mortality. After liver transplantation, some authors suggest that sarcopenia remains, and as patients gain weight as fat, they reach sarcopenic obesity status. AIM: Prospectively to assess changes in body composition, prevalence and associated factors with respect to sarcopenia, obesity and sarcopenic obesity after transplantation. METHODS: Patients were evaluated at two different times for body composition, 4.0±3.2y and 7.6±3.1y after transplantation. Body composition data were obtained using bioelectrical impedance. The fat-free mass index and fat mass index were calculated, and the patients were classified into the following categories: sarcopenic; obesity; sarcopenic obesity. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients were evaluated (52.6±13.3years; 57.0% male). The fat-free mass index decreased (17.9±2.5 to 17.5±3.5 kg/m2), fat mass index increased (8.5±3.5 to 9.0±4.0; p<0.05), prevalence of sarcopenia (19.0 to 22.0%), obesity (32.0 to 37.0%) and sarcopenic obesity (0 to 2.0%) also increased, although not significantly. The female gender was associated with sarcopenia. CONCLUSION: The fat increased over the years after surgery and the lean mass decreased, although not significantly. Sarcopenia and obesity were present after transplantation; however, sarcopenic obesity was not a reality observed in these patients.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
15.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(2): 221-230, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095171

RESUMO

This review analyzes the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on muscle and cardiovascular fitness and body composition in teenagers. A search was carried out in international databases, finding 145 papers and selecting five for analysis. In all the reviewed manuscripts, peak oxygen uptake improved after HIIT. In the three manuscripts that measured muscle strength, it also increased. We conclude that HIIT improves muscle strength and cardiovascular fitness in school age children. A 12 weeks protocol with three 12-minute sessions per week would be ideal.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Adolescente , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia
16.
Pituitary ; 22(3): 261-269, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929220

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health problem with an increasing incidence in the last years. Relatively few cases are fatal; most individuals will survive and, in the long-term, the sequalae of TBI will include neuroendocrine dysfunctions with a much higher frequency than previously suspected. Patients who develop hypopituitarism after TBI present manifestations due to the number of deficient hormones, severity of hormonal deficiency, and the duration of hypopituitarism without diagnosis and treatment. The clinical spectrum of hypopituitarism is very large and many signs and symptoms of TBI survivors such as fatigue, concentration difficulties, depressive symptoms are nonspecific and overlap with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and variably severe hypopituitarism related to brain damage remaining undiagnosed. This can explain why the diagnosis of hypopituitarism is often missed or delayed after this condition with potentially serious and hazardous consequences for the affected patients. Moreover, clinical experience cumulatively suggests that TBI-associated hypopituitarism is associated with poor recovery and worse outcome, since post-traumatic hypopituitarism is independently associated with cognitive impairment, poor quality of life, abnormal body composition, and adverse metabolic profile. In the present review, the current data related to clinical consequences of pituitary dysfunction after TBI in adult patients and therapeutic approaches are reported.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Hipopituitarismo/etiologia , Hipopituitarismo/fisiopatologia , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipopituitarismo/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 6187616, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31032354

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability and construct validity of the Polish adaptation of the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) physical activity questionnaire among the elderly. The sample included 104 volunteers, 75 women (age = 71.0 ± 5.0 years) and 29 men (age = 75.1 ± 6.6 years). To assess the reliability of the Polish version of the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire, measurements were conducted by one-week test-retest. The construct validity of the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire was evaluated using accelerometers. Criterion validation was verified by self-reported measurements (health self-assessment, life satisfaction, and wellbeing) and body composition analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficients of the one-week test-retest ranged from 0.79 to 0.85. Significant Pearson's correlations were found between caloric expenditure measured by accelerometer and CHAMPS caloric expenditure in all listed physical activities (r = 0.33) and caloric expenditure in at least moderate intensity physical activities (r = 0.37) of the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire. Moderate and greater intensity physical activities of CHAMPS measure were significantly related to total bone mass, health self-assessment, life satisfaction as a whole, and personal wellbeing (r ranged from 0.26 to 0.34). The findings of the study allow us to conclude that the Polish version of the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire has acceptable reliability and validity to assess physical activity of older adults.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício , Promoção da Saúde , Saúde Pública , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934655

RESUMO

A low fat mass is associated with a good running performance. This study explores whether modifications in body composition predicted changes in running speed. We included people who underwent several measurements of body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis between 1999 and 2016, at the "Course de l'Escalade", taking place yearly in Geneva. Body composition was reported as a fat-free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI). Running distances (men: 7.2 km; women: 4.8 km) and running times were used to calculate speed in km/h. We performed multivariate linear mixed regression models to determine whether modifications of body mass index, FFMI, FMI or the combination of FFMI and FMI predicted changes in running speed. The study population included 377 women (1419 observations) and 509 men (2161 observations). Changes in running speed were best predicted by the combination of FFMI and FMI. Running speed improved with a reduction of FMI in both sexes (women: ß -0.31; 95% CI -0.35 to -0.27, p < 0.001. men: ß -0.43; 95% CI -0.48 to -0.39, p < 0.001) and a reduction of FFMI in men (ß -0.20; 95% CI -0.26 to -0.15, p < 0.001). Adjusted for body composition, the decline in running performance occurred from 50 years onward, but appeared earlier with a body mass, FFMI or FMI above the median value at baseline. Changes of running speed are determined mostly by changes in FMI. The decline in running performance occurs from 50 years onward but appears earlier in people with a high body mass index, FFMI or FMI at baseline.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur J Radiol ; 113: 158-164, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marrow fat accumulates in diabetic conditions but remains elusive. The published works on the relationships between marrow fat phenotypes and glucose homeostasis are controversial. PURPOSE: To detect the association of insulin resistance with marrow adiposity in postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) using chemical shift-encoded water-fat MRI. METHODS: We measured vertebral proton density fat fraction (PDFF) by 3T-MRI in 75 newly diagnosed T2D and 20 nondiabetic postmenopausal women. Bone mineral density (BMD), whole body fat mass and lean mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). RESULTS: Lumbar spine PDFF was higher in women with T2D (65.9 ± 6.8%) than those without diabetes (59.5 ± 6.1%, P = 0.009). There was a consistent inverse association between the vertebral PDFF and BMD. PDFF had a positive association with glycated hemoglobin and HOMA-IR but not with fasting plasma glucose and insulin. PDFF was significantly increased, and BMD was decreased in a linear trend from the lowest (<1.90) to highest (≥2.77) HOMA-IR quartile. Multivariate linear regression analyses revealed a positive association between log-transformed HOMA-IR and PDFF after adjustment for multiple covariates (ß = 0.382, P < 0.001). The positive association of HOMA-IR with PDFF remained robust when total body lean mass and fat mass, BMD was entered into the multivariate regression model, respectively (ß = 0.293 and ß = 0.251, respectively; all P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated HOMA-IR was linked to higher marrow fat fraction in postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed T2D independently of body compositions.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Doenças da Medula Óssea/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Água Corporal/fisiologia , Medula Óssea/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia
20.
Gait Posture ; 70: 355-360, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bone fatigue resistance and more generally the ability to dissipate the stress sustained in dynamic tasks are partly affected by tissue properties. Men and women demonstrate substantial differences in body composition. RESEARCH QUESTION: To assess whether gender, as a function of body composition, affects impact-related parameters in running. METHODS: A qualitative study has been conducted. Twelve females and eighteen males performed four 2-min running trials at 2.8 m∙s-1, 3.3 m∙s-1, 3.9 m∙s-1, and 4.4 m∙s-1 while recording axial and transverse tibial acceleration. Peak acceleration and power spectral density within the impact-related frequency range (vibration content) were measured. Bone mineral content, fat mass, lean mass, and muscle mass were assessed using an impedance meter. Two-way (gender × speed) ANOVAs were computed. Multiple linear regressions were then used to assess the magnitude of the effect of body composition indicators on impact-related parameters. RESULTS: Significant gender and speed effects were observed. Females and high running speeds were associated with greater peak acceleration and vibration content at the tibia. Small interactions were observed between muscle mass and axial peak acceleration and vibration content, and between bone mineral content and transverse peak acceleration and vibration content, and axial vibration content. SIGNIFICANCE: Women demonstrated greater mechanical stress than men during running. High mechanical stress was associated with low bone mineral content and muscle mass. These findings may have implications in the prevention and management of bone overuse injuries in runners.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Pé/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Tíbia/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Corrida/lesões , Fatores Sexuais
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