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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22036, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957321

RESUMO

Studies about the effects of metabolically healthy obesity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) have yielded conflicting results. These heterogeneous results could be due to the limited usefulness of BMI in measuring general adiposity, as body mass index (BMI) does not accurately reflect body composition. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of body shape on CVD outcomes across different obesity phenotypes, and to provide an explanation for the heterogeneous effects of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype on CVD.We analyzed data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a population-based cohort study conducted between 2001 and 2012. We divided the participants into 4 groups: metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO), MHO, metabolically unhealthy non-obese (MUNO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). To assess body shape, we calculated the z-score of the log-transformed a body shape index (LBSIZ). We computed Pearson correlation coefficients to examine the association of LBSIZ with muscle mass index, percentage of total fat mass (%Total FM), and percentage of abdominal fat mass (%Abdominal FM). We also used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate the effect of LBSIZ on CVD events according to the obesity phenotypes.A total of 9460 participants were assessed in this study. The incidence of CVD was 8.53 cases per 1000 person-year. LBSIZ showed strong positive correlation with %Total FM and %Abdominal FM, but negative correlation with muscle mass index. In Cox regression, MHO individuals did not show increased risk of CVD compared with MHNO individuals (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-1.73). However, MHO individuals in the 3rd (HR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.28-4.51) and 4th (HR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.99-6.74) quarters of LBSIZ showed significantly higher risk of CVD compared with MHNO individuals in the 1st quarter of LBSIZ. Moreover, LBSIZ showed a linear relationship with CVD among MHO individuals.While the MHO individuals showed similar CVD risk to the MHNO individuals, CVD risk increases with LBSIZ among the MHO individuals. LBSIZ appears to be a useful measure for CVD risk assessment in clinical practice and epidemiologic studies, especially for MHO patients.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Obesidade Metabolicamente Benigna/epidemiologia , Obesidade Metabolicamente Benigna/patologia , Adiposidade , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21460, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756167

RESUMO

Volume status is a key parameter for cardiovascular-related mortality in dialysis patients. Although N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), myeloperoxidase, copeptin, and pro-adrenomedullin have been reported as volume markers, the relationship between body fluid status and volume markers in dialysis patients is uncertain. Therefore, we investigated the utility of volume status biomarkers based on body composition monitor (BCM) analyses.We enrolled pre-dialysis, hemodialysis (HD), and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and age- and gender-matched healthy Korean individuals (N = 80). BCM and transthoracic echocardiography were performed and NT-proBNP, myeloperoxidase, copeptin, and pro-adrenomedullin concentrations were measured. Relative hydration status (ΔHS, %) was defined in terms of the hydration status-to-extracellular water ratio with a cutoff of 15%, and hyperhydrated status was defined as ΔHS > 15%.Although there were no significant differences in total body water, extracellular water, or intracellular water among groups, mean amount of volume overload and hyperhydrated status were significantly higher in HD and PD patients compared with control and pre-dialysis patients. Mean amount of volume overload and hyperhydrated status were also significantly associated with higher NT-proBNP and pro-adrenomedullin levels in HD and PD patients, although not with myeloperoxidase or copeptin levels. Furthermore, they were significantly associated with cardiac markers (left ventricular mass index, ejection fraction, and left atrial diameter) in HD and PD patients compared with those in the control and pre-dialysis groups.On the basis of increased plasma NT-proBNP and pro-adrenomedullin concentrations, we might be able to make predictions regarding the volume overload status of dialysis patients, and thereby reduce cardiovascular-related mortality through appropriate early volume control.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Adrenomedulina/sangue , Adulto , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diálise/métodos , Diálise/tendências , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Diálise Peritoneal/estatística & dados numéricos , Peroxidase/sangue , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Orv Hetil ; 161(35): 1466-1474, 2020 08.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822325

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Health is an important motivation for the consumption of both organic and functional foods. Organic food contains fewer pesticide residues and statistically more selected health-related compounds such as polyphenols in plant products and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and meat products. Recent studies suggest that the gut-liver axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, so probiotics could be a therapeutic tool. Comparing the health effects of yoghurt from organic origin with so-called conventional yoghurt is difficult, because there is no biomarker that would signal the difference with good specificity and sensitivity. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate numerous biomarkers to evaluate the difference between yoghurt from conventional and organic origin and their health effects in NAFLD. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We performed a prospective, cohort study consisting of 37 (age = 51.73 ± 11.82, male = 21, female = 16) patients with NAFLD at the 2nd Department of Internal Medicine of the Semmelweis University, Budapest. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography and the exclusion of other etiololgy. The patients were examined also with shear wave elastography to evaluate the hepatic fibrosis stage. We divided the patients randomly into two groups. The patients consumed individually daily 300 grams of yoghurt from organic (n = 21) or conventional (n = 16) origin for 8 weeks. We collected 37 routine laboratory data, measured 4 cytokines, 3 markers of the redox-homeostasis and 14 body composition values before, after, and 12 weeks after the yoghurt consumption. RESULTS: We found a mild elevation of vitamin D and a minimal reduction of LDL after the yoghurt consumption, but in the other 35 routine laboratory data there was no statistical difference. Adiponectin and leptin levels were elevated after the yoghurt consumption in the "conventional group". In contrast, we found significant decrease of adiponectin levels in the "organic group" after the treatment. Only the adiponectin tendency was different in the two groups. The induced free radical content was also statistically lower after the yoghurt consumption. In the body composition measurements, there were no significant differences. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that adiponectin could be a possible biomarker to evaluate the effectiveness of probiotic treatment in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our work can serve as a basis for future studies investigating relationships between organic yoghurt consumption and health outcomes. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(35): 1466-1474.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Iogurte/microbiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Alimentos Orgânicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237887, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817652

RESUMO

The effects of High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) on body composition and the relationship of the latter with performance are not well defined. In this work we investigated, by means of Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry, the relative proportions of fat-, lean soft tissue-, and mineral mass in CrossFit® (CF, a popular mode of HIFT) participants (n = 24; age, 28.2 ± 3.39 y; BMI, 25.3 ± 2.04 kg/m2) with at least 1 year of CF training experience and weekly amount of training > 10 h/w (n = 13; Higher Training, HT) or < 10 h/w (n = 11; Lower Training, LT) as well as age- matched and BMI-matched physically active controls (CHT, CLT). Performance was assessed in the "Fran" workout. Data were analyzed by one-way or repeated measures ANOVA where needed. Association between variables was assessed with the Pearson's correlation coefficient r. Partial correlation was used where needed. Results showed that HT performed better than LT in the "Fran" (P < 0.001) and they had higher whole-body bone mineral density (P = 0.026) and higher lean soft mass (P = 0.002), and borderline lower percent fat mass (P = 0.050). The main difference between CF participants (HT, LT) and their respective controls (CHT, CLT) was a lower adiposity in the former. In CF participants, performance positively correlated with appendicular lean soft tissue mass (P = 0.030). It can be concluded that, in CF participants, a higher amount of weekly training improves most notably lean body mass and increases performance in association with increased skeletal muscle mass. CF participation is especially effective in reducing fat mass vs. age- and BMI-matched physically active controls.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Tecido Adiposo , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Braço/fisiologia , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Capilares/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236266, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726351

RESUMO

The aim of this study was an evaluation of the musculoskeletal system in women and men with Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH). The study included 87 participants- 40 with Generalized Joint Hypermobility (aged 21.2 ±1.8 years) and 47 (aged 21.0 ±1.3 years) in the control group (CG). The study included the Beighton score, the measurements of body composition, muscle flexibility (Straight Leg Raise test, Popliteal Angle test, Modified Thomas Test), and the measurements of muscle strength and muscle power. T-test and Mann-Whitney U Test were applied to assess the differences between independent groups. The study showed that there were no significant differences (p>.05) in the assessed body composition and the muscle flexibility between both women and men with GJH and the participants in the CG. Under isokinetic conditions for the non-dominant lower extremity, men from the CG received significantly higher (p = .02) flexion peak torque at 180°/s angular velocity. Women from the CG received a statistically significantly lower (p = .04) F/E ratio at 180°/s velocity. Under isometric conditions for both women and men with GJH, there were no statistically significant differences (p>.05) in the maximum torques in knee extension and flexion compared to the CG. For women and men with GJH, the maximum power in the lower extremities and jumping ability were not significantly different (p>.05) compared to the CG participants. The body composition, muscle flexibility, muscle strength, and muscle power of adults with Generalized Joint Hypermobility did not differ compared to healthy participants. The fact that there are no differences does not exclude the efficacy of strength training in increasing levels of muscle strength and its impact on body posture and proprioception or coordination.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Articular/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Instabilidade Articular/epidemiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 456-464, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: obesity is a chronic disease associated with inadequate eating habits and reduced levels of physical activity. Because of obesity, the risk for comorbidities is increased, especially for cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, and increased pro-inflammatory factors. The aim of the present investigation was to analyze potential correlations between pro/anti-inflammatory adipokines, glycemic index, and other markers of diet quality using a metabolic profile in women undergoing interdisciplinary weight loss therapy. METHODS: thirty-two women with obesity were enrolled in a 12-week program of interdisciplinary therapy combining a clinical, nutritional, and physical exercise approach. Body composition, quality of diet, metabolic profile, and pro/anti-inflammatory adipokines were analyzed. RESULTS: the therapy showed to be effective in reducing body weight (from 93.16 ± 16.96 to 88.36 ± 16.23; p = 0.0000001), body mass index (from 34.01 ± 4.00 to 32.29 ± 3.96; p = 0.0000001), and body fat (from 38.25 ± 5.05 to 36.13 ± 5; p = 0.0000001). There was also an improvement in lipid profile, including total cholesterol (from 196.16 ± 34.78 to 183.53 ± 43.15; p = 0.001), non-HDL-cholesterol (from 142 ± 30.05 to 1333.69 ± 35.41; p = 0.01), VLDL-cholesterol (from 27.13 ± 12.4 to 22.06 ± 8.55; p = 0.002), triglycerides (from 135.88 ± 61.21 to 110.75 ± 43.09; p = 0.002) and glucose metabolism, including glucose (from 97.13 ± 10.43 to 92.6 ± 6.6; p = 0.004), and insulin (from 13.05 ± 5.54 to 11.29 ± 4.85; p = 0.03). As for food intake, there was a decrease in calorie consumption (from 1991.45 ± 677.78 to 1468.88 ± 390.56; p = 0.002), carbohydrates (from 50.37 ± 6 to 47.04 ± 8.67; p = 0.04), lipids (from 31.83 ± 5.53 to 30.37 ± 7.04; p = 0.3), and glycemic load (from 80.53 ± 39.88 to 54.79 ± 23.69; p = 0.02), and an increased consumption of proteins (from 18.3 ± 2.39 to 22.89 ± 4.9; p = 0.002). Positive correlations were demonstrated between insulin concentration and waist circumference (r = 0.82; p = 0.003); leptin and body fat and abdominal circumference (r = 0.74; p = 0.01); and LDL-cholesterol fraction and total cholesterol consumption (r = 0.69; p = 0.027). Negative correlations were demonstrated between leptin and monosaturated fat consumption (r = -0.71; p = 0.02); and adiponectin and liver enzyme GGT levels (r = -0.65; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: interdisciplinary therapy had positive effects on inflammatory state, mediated by leptin, adiponectin, and quality of diet. Our findings suggest the effectiveness and clinical relevance of the interdisciplinary clinical therapy applied for obesity


INTRODUCCIÓN: la obesidad es una enfermedad crónica asociada con hábitos alimentarios inadecuados y niveles reducidos de actividad física. Debido a la obesidad, el riesgo de comorbilidad aumenta, especialmente el de las enfermedades cardiovasculares, la resistencia a la insulina y el aumento de los factores proinflamatorios. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue analizar las posibles correlaciones entre las adipocinas pro/antiinflamatorias, el índice glucémico y otros marcadores de calidad de la dieta con el perfil metabólico en mujeres sometidas a terapia interdisciplinaria para perder peso. MÉTODOS: treinta y dos mujeres con obesidad participaron en 12 semanas de terapia interdisciplinaria en la que se combinaron los enfoques clínico, nutricional y de ejercicio físico. Se analizaron la composición corporal, la calidad de la dieta, el perfil metabólico y las adipocinas pro/antiinflamatorias. RESULTADOS: la terapia demostró ser efectiva para reducir el peso corporal (de 93,16 ± 16,96 a 88,36 ± 16,23; p = 0,0000001), el índice de masa corporal (de 34,01 ± 4,00 a 32,29 ± 3,96; p = 0,0000001) y la grasa corporal (de 38,25 ± 5,05 a 36,13 ± 5,00; p = 0,0000001). También hubo una mejora del perfil lipídico, incluidos el colesterol total (de 196,16 ± 34,78 a 183,53 ± 43,15; p = 0,001), el colesterol no HDL (de 142,00 ± 30,05 a 1333,69 ± 35,41; p = 0,01), el VLDL-colesterol (de 27,13 ± 12,4 a 22,06 ± 8,55; p = 0,002), y el metabolismo de la glucosa, incluyendo la glucosa (de 97,13 ± 10,43 a 92,6 ± 6,6; p = 0,004) y la insulina (de 13,05 ± 5,54 a 11,29 ± 4,85; p = 0,03). En cuanto a la ingesta de alimentos, hubo disminución en el consumo de calorías (de 1991,45 ± 677,78 a 1468,88 ± 390,56; p = 0,002), carbohidratos (de 50,37 ± 6,00 a 47,04 ± 8,67; p = 0,04), lípidos (de 31,83 ± 5,53 a 30,37 ± 7,04; p = 0,3) y carga glucémica (de 80,53 ± 39,88 a 54,79 ± 23,69; p = 0,02), y aumento del consumo de proteínas (de 18,3 ± 2,39 a 22,89 ± 4,90; p = 0,002). Se demostraron correlaciones positivas entre la concentración de insulina y la circunferencia de la cintura (r = 0,82; p = 0,003); la leptina, la grasa corporal y la circunferencia abdominal (r = 0,74; p = 0,01), y la fracción de colesterol LDL y el consumo total de colesterol (r = 0,69; p = 0,027). Se demostraron correlaciones negativas entre la leptina y el consumo de grasa monosaturada (r = -0,71; p = 0,02), y la adiponectina y la enzima hepática GGT (r = -0,65; p = 0,04). CONCLUSIONES: la terapia interdisciplinaria tuvo efectos positivos sobre el estado inflamatorio, mediado por la leptina, la adiponectina, y la calidad de la dieta. Nuestros hallazgos sugieren la efectividad y la relevancia clínica de la terapia clínica interdisciplinaria aplicada a la obesidad


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Leptina/administração & dosagem , Adiponectina/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adipocinas/administração & dosagem , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Comportamento Alimentar , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Peso Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Composição Corporal/fisiologia
7.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 506-513, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193858

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: evaluar hábitos alimentarios, estilo de vida, composición corporal y prevalencia del síndrome metabólico en mujeres menopáusicas según su índice de masa corporal. MÉTODOS: estudio transversal (2011-2018) en una cohorte de mujeres menopáusicas residentes en Mallorca (n = 555) clasificadas según su índice de masa corporal (IMC): < 27,0, 27,0-29,9 y ≥ 30 kg/m2. Se evaluaron hábitos alimentarios, tóxicos y de estilo de vida, antecedentes de lactancia materna y de obesidad (en la infancia, tiempo de evolución y antecedentes familiares). Se realizó análisis de composición corporal por bioimpedancia eléctrica y se extrajo sangre en ayunas para los siguientes parámetros: glucosa, triglicéridos, colesterol total, colesterol-LDL y colesterol-HDL. RESULTADOS: la prevalencia de sobrepeso de grado II fue 26,8 % y de obesidad, del 46,5 %. La prevalencia de síndrome metabólico fue 41,4 %. Los antecedentes familiares de obesidad, obesidad en la infancia y el tiempo de evolución (≥ 15 años con obesidad) fueron mayores en mujeres obesas. La práctica de actividad física regular fue deficiente (el 63 % de las mujeres con actividad física nula y el 33 %, escasa). Las mujeres obesas presentaron una prevalencia mayor de síndrome metabólico (55,8 %) y valores mayores de IMC, circunferencia abdominal, masa grasa, grasa visceral, obesidad abdominal, tensión arterial, glucosa y triglicéridos en sangre, y valores menores de c-HDL. CONCLUSIONES: las mujeres menopáusicas estudiadas muestran hábitos dietéticos inadecuados, estilo de vida sedentario y una prevalencia elevada de obesidad y síndrome metabólico. Los factores que se asocian a dicha prevalencia son antecedentes familiares de obesidad, obesidad en la infancia, tiempo de evolución de la obesidad, sedentarismo, obesidad abdominal y localización visceral de la grasa


OBJECTIVE: to assess eating habits, lifestyle, body composition and prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in menopausal women evaluated according to body mass index. METHODS: cross-sectional study (2011-2018) in a cohort of menopausal women living in Mallorca (n = 555) classified according to body mass index (BMI) : < 27.0, 27.0-29.9 and ≥ 30 kg/m2. Eating habits, toxic and lifestyle, history of breastfeeding and obesity (in childhood, time of evolution and family history) were evaluated. A body composition analysis was performed by electrical bioimpedance and fasting blood was taken for the following parameters: glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. RESULTS: the prevalence of overweight grade II was 26.8 % and of obesity 46.5 %. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 41.4 %. A family history of obesity, childhood obesity and the time of evolution (≥ 15 years with obesity) were higher in obese women. The practice of regular physical activity was low (63 % of women with null and 33 % scarce physical activity). Obese women had a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (55.8 %) and higher values of BMI, abdominal circumference, fat mass, visceral fat, abdominal obesity, blood pressure, glucose and triglycerides in blood, but lower values of HDL-c. CONCLUSIONS: the studied cohort of menopausal women showed inadequate dietary habits, sedentary lifestyle and a high prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The factors associated with this prevalence are family history of obesity, childhood obesity, time of evolution of obesity, sedentary lifestyle, abdominal obesity and visceral location of fat


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Obesidade Abdominal/dietoterapia , Estudos Transversais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estilo de Vida , Comportamento Sedentário , Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Antropometria
8.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 514-523, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193859

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: se evidencia un aumento cada vez mayor de la preocupación debido a valores alarmantes en condición física y composición corporal, que sitúan a los escolares en unos parámetros de riesgo en lo relativo a la salud física. Numerosas investigaciones relacionan la actividad física con la mejora en la condición física y la composición corporal. OBJETIVO: analizar los efectos de un programa de ejercicio interválico de intensidad moderada-vigorosa sobre indicadores de condición física (fuerza isométrica manual en ambas manos, fuerza explosiva del tren inferior, velocidad-agilidad y capacidad aeróbica) y de composición corporal (índice de masa corporal, % de grasa corporal, perímetro de cintura e índice cintura/altura), referentes todos ellos para la salud en escolares de 11 y 12 años. MÉTODOS: se desarrolla una intervención en la que participó un grupo experimental y otro control con 28 escolares cada uno de ellos. Transcurrió a lo largo de 7 semanas, con sesiones de 30 minutos totales antes del inicio de la actividad académica, 3 días por semana. Se realizaron diferentes juegos interválicos, con una intensidad moderada-vigorosa (70-80 % de la frecuencia cardíaca máxima). El registro en condición física y composición corporal se realizó a través de la batería ALPHA. RESULTADOS: mejoras significativas en fuerza isométrica con ambas manos y una reducción significativa del perímetro de cintura e índice cintura/altura. CONCLUSIÓN: los resultados muestran mejoras significativas en indicadores de condición física y composición corporal; sin embargo, se precisa de una intervención de mayor duración para conocer si las otras mejoras logradas en los indicadores analizados consiguen ser significativas con el transcurso del tiempo


INTRODUCTION: there is growing evidence of concern for values in terms of physical condition and body composition that place school children being at risk in physical health. Numerous investigations relate physical activity with improvement in physical condition and body composition. OBJECTIVE: to analyze the effects of a sub-maximal intensity interval exercise program on physical condition (upper body isometric strength in both hands, lower body explosive strength, velocity-agility and cardiorespiratory fitness) and body composition (body mass index, % of body fat, waist circumference and waist/height index), all of them related to health, in schoolchildren of 11 and 12 years. METHODS: an intervention was developed in which an experimental group participated and another control group with 28 schoolchildren each. The study developped over 8 weeks, with sessions of total 30 minutes before the start of the academic activity 3 days per week. Different intervallic games were made with motor, cognitive and coordination challenges; with a moderate-vigorous intensity (70 %-80 % of maximum heart rate). The registration in physical condition and body composition was made through the ALPHA Battery. RESULTS: significant improvements in isometric strength in both hands and a reduction in waist circumference and waist/height were found. CONCLUSIONS: the results show significant improvements in indicators of fitness and fatness, however, it requires a long-term intervention to know if the other improvements achieved in the analyzed indicators are significant over time


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Valor Nutritivo , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Relação Cintura-Quadril/métodos
9.
Life Sci ; 256: 117920, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522571

RESUMO

AIM: We investigated the effects of high-intensity interval and continuous short-term exercise on body composition and cardiac function after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in obese rats. METHODS: Rats fed with a standard chow diet (SC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks underwent systolic blood pressure (SBP), glycemia and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analyses. Then, animals fed with HFD were subdivided into three groups: sedentary (HFD-SED); moderate-intensity continuous training (HFD-MICT); and high-intensity interval training (HFD-HIIT). Exercised groups underwent four isocaloric aerobic exercise sessions, in which HFD-MICT maintained the intensity continuously and HFD-HIIT alternated it. After exercise sessions, all groups underwent global IRI and myocardial infarct size (IS) was determined histologically. Fat and muscle mass were weighted, and protein levels involved in muscle metabolism were assessed in skeletal muscle. RESULTS: HFD-fed versus SC-fed rats reduced lean body mass by 31% (P < 0.001), while SBP, glycemia and body fat percentage were increased by 10% (P = 0.04), 30% (P = 0.006) and 54% (P < 0.001); respectively. HFD-induced muscle atrophy was restored in exercised groups, as only HFD-SED presented lower gastrocnemius (32%; P = 0.001) and quadriceps mass (62%; P < 0.001) than SC. PGC1-α expression was 2.7-fold higher in HFD-HIIT versus HFD-SED (P = 0.04), whereas HFD-HIIT and HFD-MICT exhibited 1.7-fold increase in p-mTORSer2481 levels compared to HFD-SED (P = 0.04). Although no difference was detected among groups for IS (P = 0.30), only HFD-HIIT preserved left-ventricle developed pressure after IRI (+0.7 mmHg; P = 0.9). SIGNIFICANCE: Short-term exercise, continuous or HIIT, restored HFD-induced muscle atrophy and increased mTOR expression, but only HIIT maintained myocardial contractility following IRI in obese animals.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sarcopenia/etiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233796, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rugby union match demands are complex, requiring the development of multiple physical qualities concurrently. Quantifying the physical qualities of age grade rugby union players is vital for practitioners to support athlete preparation and long-term development. AIM: This systematic review aimed to identify the methods used to quantify the physical qualities of male age grade (≤ Under-20) rugby union players, present the normative values for physical qualities, and compare physical qualities between age grades and positions. METHODS: Electronic databases were systematically reviewed from the earliest record to November 2019 using key words relating to sex, age, sport and physical testing. RESULTS: Forty-two studies evaluated the physical qualities of age grade rugby union players. Seventy-five tests were used to quantify body composition, muscular strength, muscular power, linear speed, change of direction ability, aerobic capacity and anaerobic endurance. Thirty-one studies met the eligibility criteria to present the physical qualities. Physical qualities differentiate between age groups below Under-16, while differences in older age groups (Under-16 to Under-20) are not clear. Positional differences are present with forwards possessing greater height, body mass, body fat percentage and strength while backs are faster and have greater aerobic capacities. CONCLUSIONS: A wide variety of tests are used to assess physical qualities limiting between study comparisons. Although differences in older age grades are unclear, older age groups (Under-19-20) generally performed better in physical tests. Positional differences are associated with match demands where forwards are exposed to less running but a greater number of collisions. Practitioners can use the results from this review to evaluate the physical qualities of age grade rugby union players to enhance training prescription, goal setting and player development. Future research should consider the use of national standardised testing batteries due to the inconsistency in testing methods and small samples limiting the reporting of positional differences.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(3): 314-320, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations between objectively assessed sedentary behavior (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and body composition variables among a representative sample of Brazilian adults. METHODS: Using an accelerometer, SB and MVPA were monitored for at least 5 days in 524 participants (261 men; age, 18-65 years). Each minute epoch was classified as sedentary or spent in light, moderate, or vigorous physical activity (LPA, MPA, and VPA, respectively). The measured body composition variables included abdominal perimeter (AP) and neck circumference (NC). RESULTS: Men accumulated significantly more min/day of MPA (37.82 versus 27.28), VPA (1.10 versus 0.31), MVPA (39.02 versus 27.61), and steps/day (14,978 versus 13,443) than women (p<.001). In men, MPA, VPA, MVPA, and steps/day were negatively associated with AP (p<.05) independently of SB. Only VPA was significantly associated with NC (ß= 0.113; p=.002). In women, only SB was significantly associated with AP (ß= 0.003; p=.031). There were no significant associations between physical activity intensities and body composition in women. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings on the unequal association of physical activity with body composition variables between sexes can help inform future intervention strategies in Brasil.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antropometria , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(7): 1245-1253, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475048

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver fat reduction in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) over 3 months and the maintenance of improvements over 12 months. METHODS: Forty-two participants with CAD were randomized to three sessions/week of either 4 × 4-minute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or 40 minutes of usual care moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) for a 4-week supervised cardiac rehabilitation program, followed by three home-based sessions/week for 11 months. Liver fat (as intrahepatic lipid) and VAT were measured via magnetic resonance techniques. Data are mean change (95% CI). RESULTS: HIIT and MICT significantly reduced VAT over 3 months (-350 [-548 to -153] cm3 vs. -456 [-634 to -278] cm3 ; time × group effect: P = 0.421), with further improvement over 12 months (-545 [-818 to -271] cm3 vs. -521 [-784 to -258] cm3 ; time × group effect: P = 0.577) and no differences between groups. Both groups improved liver fat over 3 months, with HIIT tending to show greater reduction than MICT (-2.8% [-4.0% to -1.6%] vs. -1.4% [-2.4% to -0.4%]; time × group effect: P = 0.077). After 12 months, improvements were maintained to a similar degree. Higher exercise intensity predicted liver fat reduction (ß = -0.3 [-0.7 to 0.0]; P = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: HIIT and MICT reduced VAT over 3 and 12 months. For liver fat, HIIT tended to provide a slightly greater reduction compared with MICT. These findings support HIIT as a beneficial adjunct or alternative to MICT for reducing visceral and liver fat in patients with CAD.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Idoso , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cooperação do Paciente , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560531

RESUMO

Menopause is a natural period resulting from the decrease in hormonal activity of the ovaries. Growing hormonal deficiencies and changes in the body influence a variety of functions in women, leading to depression and decreased quality of life. The relationship between body composition, the severity of depressive and climacteric symptoms and the quality of life of women with type 2 diabetes and healthy women in the perimenopausal period was studied. Statistically significant differences were observed between the study and control groups regarding all body composition parameters except for protein and the content of torso soft tissues (p < 0.05). In both the study and control groups, resulting symptoms were significantly correlated with numerous body composition parameters (e.g., body mass, fat tissue mass, minerals, abdominal circumference), while symptoms of depression were significantly correlated with similar parameters only in the control group. A statistically relevant relationship was observed between the study and control groups with respect to quality of life in certain domains. The quality of life of women suffering from type 2 diabetes was worse compared with healthy women. Analysis of body composition showed significant differences between healthy women and those with type 2 diabetes. Healthy women showed a tendency to establish a link between body composition and depressiveness.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Perimenopausa/fisiologia , Perimenopausa/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Psicologia
14.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(10): 4613-4625, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer patients have the second highest malnutrition prevalence, when compared with other oncological patients. They experience significant weight loss before diagnosis, during and after treatment, and even during the first year of follow-up. However, the prognostic value of weight loss depends on body mass index, and this may be associated with low skeletal muscle mass, masking its loss. Thus, weight loss itself poorly predicts outcome in head and neck cancer patients when compared with depleted skeletal muscle mass, illustrating the inadequacy of body mass index as an accurate method to reflect nutritional status. A synthesis is needed of the body composition changes occurring in head and neck cancer patients during treatment, as well as of the methods to assess it. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this scoping review is to examine and map the body composition changes in head and neck cancer patients under oncological treatment with curative intent. A further objective is to determine which methods are used to assess body composition in these patients. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Types of participants: The current review considered head and neck cancer patients, aged 18 years or older. CONCEPT: This scoping review considered all studies that focused on the body composition changes. CONTEXT: This scoping review considered the studies that evaluated the body composition changes in the context of treatment with curative intent. Surgical treatment approach was excluded to avoid excess heterogeneity in the data. Types of sources: This scoping review considered only published studies, with abstract available. SEARCH STRATEGY: A three-step search strategy was undertaken. This review was limited to studies published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese during 2000-2019. DATA EXTRACTION: The data extracted included author(s)/year of publication, aims and purpose of the study, sample size, study design, type of treatment, measurement points and component(s) of body composition evaluated, body composition assessment methods, and main results/findings. PRESENTATION OF RESULTS: Head and neck cancer patients suffer from serious loss of lean body mass, skeletal muscle, or free fat mass, after treatment compared with baseline. Further, nutritional deterioration is evident and occurs up to 8-12 months after treatment. Bioelectrical impedance analysis is one of the body composition assessment tools that has the great advantage for being available on a regular basis for assessment of body composition in head and neck cancer patients. However, it cannot be recommended for clinical decision making until further validation. CONCLUSION: Head and neck cancer patients experience a significant depletion of lean body mass, fat-free mass, and skeletal muscle, accompanied by body fat mass, while undergoing (chemo)radiotherapy. This can be demonstrated either by triceps skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, or computed tomography. This loss has a remarkable impact on their survival, on their quality of life, and on the risk for post-operative complications and may result in a reduced response to cancer treatment. Thus, body composition assessment should become an integral component of the care of head and neck cancer patients, beyond weight and body mass index, and should be carried out at different times throughout treatment.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/complicações , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233134, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of concurrent exercise order for improving endurance and resistance adaptations remains unclear, particularly when sessions are performed a few hours apart. We investigated the effects of concurrent training (in alternate orders, separated by ~3 hours) on endurance and resistance training adaptations, compared to resistance-only training. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine healthy, moderately-active men (mean ± SD; age 24.5 ± 4.7 y; body mass 74.9 ± 10.8 kg; height 179.7 ± 6.5 cm) performed either resistance-only training (RT, n = 9), or same-day concurrent training whereby high-intensity interval training was performed either 3 hours before (HIIT+RT, n = 10) or after resistance training (RT+HIIT, n = 10), for 3 d.wk-1 over 9 weeks. Training-induced changes in leg press 1-repetition maximal (1-RM) strength, countermovement jump (CMJ) performance, body composition, peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), aerobic power ([Formula: see text]), and lactate threshold ([Formula: see text]) were assessed before, and after both 5 and 9 weeks of training. RESULTS: After 9 weeks, all training groups increased leg press 1-RM (~24-28%) and total lean mass (~3-4%), with no clear differences between groups. Both concurrent groups elicited similar small-to-moderate improvements in all markers of aerobic fitness ([Formula: see text] ~8-9%; [Formula: see text] ~16-20%; [Formula: see text] ~14-15%). RT improved CMJ displacement (mean ± SD, 5.3 ± 6.3%), velocity (2.2 ± 2.7%), force (absolute: 10.1 ± 10.1%), and power (absolute: 9.8 ± 7.6%; relative: 6.0 ± 6.6%). HIIT+RT elicited comparable improvements in CMJ velocity only (2.2 ± 2.7%). Compared to RT, RT+HIIT attenuated CMJ displacement (mean difference ± 90%CI, -5.1 ± 4.3%), force (absolute: -8.2 ± 7.1%) and power (absolute: -6.0 ± 4.7%). Only RT+HIIT reduced absolute fat mass (mean ± SD, -11.0 ± 11.7%). CONCLUSIONS: In moderately-active males, concurrent training, regardless of the exercise order, presents a viable strategy to improve lower-body maximal strength and total lean mass comparably to resistance-only training, whilst also improving indices of aerobic fitness. However, improvements in CMJ displacement, force, and power were attenuated when RT was performed before HIIT, and as such, exercise order may be an important consideration when designing training programs in which the goal is to improve lower-body power.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Adulto , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia
16.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(9): 610-615, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353880

RESUMO

The phase angle is used to evaluate nutritional status and is an indicator of cellular health. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition are strong indicators of health during adolescence. We aimed to evaluate if body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness have an association with phase angle among adolescents. 203 girls and 220 boys (12.8±1.3 years) were evaluated. Peak height velocity, percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, cardiorespiratory fitness, and phase angle measurements were collected. Linear regression adjusted by peak height velocity was used to verify if predictor variables were associated with phase angle among adolescents. Phase angle showed correlation with fat-free mass (girls: r=0.42 and boys: r=0.37); with percent fat mass (girls: r=0.23); and with cardiorespiratory fitness (boys: r=0.19). Linear regression showed that percentage fat mass (in girls) and cardiorespiratory fitness (in boys) had an effect of 11 and 17% in phase angle, respectively, while fat-free mass had an effect of 22 and 26% in phase angle for girls and boys, respectively. Changes in phase angle seem to be more associated with the percentage fat mass in girls, cardiorespiratory fitness in boys, and fat-free mass in both when controlled by peak height velocity.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Pregas Cutâneas
17.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(9): 561-573, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375184

RESUMO

In the past decade, active video games (AVGs) have started to find their way into communities, schools, and homes as a possible solution to promote physical activity (PA) and prevent childhood obesity. However, the evidence regarding its effectiveness on body composition and objectively measured PA in youth remains inconclusive. Thus, a systematic review on this topic is needed. This review synthesizes effects of AVGs on body composition and PA in youth. The initial search yielded 260 articles from 10 databases and 18 randomized-controlled trials were included after evaluating against eligibility and removing duplicates. Overall, AVGs showed positive effects in improving body composition and PA in overweight/obese youth as compared to the control conditions with only 2 studies displaying neutral effects on these outcomes as compared to traditional PA or comparison programs. For healthy youth, more than half of the studies (n = 10) demonstrated neutral effects of AVGs on these outcomes whereas only 6 yielded positive effects compared to the control conditions. Further, one study indicated that the control condition observed greater improvement in body composition compared with an AVG intervention in healthy youth. In summary, AVGs are deemed a promising addition to promote PA and health among overweight/obese youth with the goal of fighting childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Jogos de Vídeo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Humanos
18.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(2): 180-186, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to examine the body composition of adult male ultra-trail runners (UTR) according to their level of participation (regional UTR-R, vs. national UTR-N). METHODS: The sample was composed of 44 adult male UTR (aged 36.5±7.2 years; UTR-R: n=25; UTR-N: n=19). Body composition was assessed by air displacement plethysmography, bioelectrical impedance, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In addition, the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was applied. A comparison between the groups was performed using independent samples t-test. RESULTS: Significant differences between groups contrasting in the competitive level were found for chronological age (in years; UTR-R: 38.8±8.2 vs. UTR-N: 33.5±4.1); body density (in L.kg-1; UTR-R: 1.062±0.015 vs. UTR-N: 1.074±0.009); and fat mass (in kg; UTR-R: 12.7±6.8 vs. UTR-N: 7.6±2.7). CONCLUSION: UTR-N were younger, presented higher values for body density, and had less fat mass, although no significant differences were found for fat-free mass. The current study evidenced the profile of long-distance runners and the need for weight management programs to regulate body composition.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Antropometria , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Masculino , Pletismografia/métodos , Valores de Referência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(5): 733-742, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the comparability between air displacement plethysmography (ADP), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) methods for body composition assessment and their correlations with physical performance in rugby players. METHODS: Nineteen male elite players participated in the study. ADP, DXA, and BIA were used to assess fat-mass and fat-free mass. Physical performance was assessed by means of Carminatti's test of peak velocity (PVTCAR), countermovement jump (CMJ), sprint speed (10 and 30-m), and match performance analyses (sprinting, distance covered, and high-intensity running). RESULTS: BIA overestimated fat-mass (13±41%; r2=0.60) and underestimated fat-free mass (-1±7%; r2=0.66) compared to ADP (P=0.001). BIA underestimated fat-mass (-28±3%; r2=0.92) and overestimated fat-free mass (10±5%; r2=0.87) compared to DXA (P<0.001). ADP underestimated fat-mass (-36±37%; r2=0.69) and overestimated fat-free mass (11±8%; r2=0.52) compared to DXA (P<0.001). Fat-mass measured by ADP, DXA, and BIA negatively correlated with PVTCAR (r2≥0.49), height and peak power from CMJ (r2≥0.30), sprinting ability (r2≥0.65), and match performance variables (r2≥0.30). CONCLUSIONS: As long as one considers that ADP and BIA underestimated fat-mass and overestimated fat-free mass compared to DXA, the methods can be used to estimate body composition, particularly to track body fat-mass changes, which negatively influence several physical capacities determinant to rugby performance. The limitations of the methods should be borne in mind when assessing the body composition of rugby athletes.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Pletismografia de Impedância/métodos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Masculino , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(6): 1129-1140, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The relationship between adipocyte size and ad libitum energy intake has not been previously examined. This study hypothesized an inverse relationship between adipocyte size and daily energy intake (DEI). METHODS: Seventy healthy adults (39 men and 31 women; BMI 30.0 [SD 6.3]) underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and subcutaneous fat biopsies from the abdomen and thigh. Osmium-fixed adipocytes were sized with a Coulter counter. Volunteers self-selected food from a vending machine paradigm as the only source of energy intake over 3 days as inpatients. Volunteers also had 24-hour respiratory quotient (RQ) measured in a whole-room indirect calorimeter. RESULTS: In women, the large cell peak diameter of the thigh depot was greater than that of the abdominal depot (Δ = +15.8 µm; P < 0.0001). In women, thigh peak diameter was inversely associated with DEI (ß = -264.7 kcal/d per 10-µm difference; P = 0.03) after adjusting for demographics and body composition. The thigh peak diameter in women was associated with 24-hour RQ (r = -0.47, P = 0.04) after adjusting for demographics, body composition, and 24-hour energy balance. These associations did not extend to men or the abdominal depot. CONCLUSIONS: In women, thigh adipocyte size was associated with reduced DEI and 24-hour RQ, indicating a special role for thigh fat in women. This depot-specific sexual dimorphism indicates common regulation of energy intake and adipocyte size in the thigh region of women.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/patologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Coxa da Perna/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa Respiratória , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto Jovem
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