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1.
J Anim Sci ; 97(9): 3669-3683, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350997

RESUMO

Swine industry breeding goals are mostly directed towards meat quality and carcass traits due to their high economic value. Yet, studies on meat quality and carcass traits including both phenotypic and genotypic information remain limited, particularly in commercial crossbred swine. The objectives of this study were to estimate the heritabilities for different carcass composition traits and meat quality traits and to estimate the genetic and phenotypic correlations between meat quality, carcass composition, and growth traits in 2 large commercial swine populations: The Maschhoffs LLC (TML) and Smithfield Premium Genetics (SPG), using genotypes and phenotypes data. The TML data set consists of 1,254 crossbred pigs genotyped with 60K SNP chip and phenotyped for meat quality, carcass composition, and growth traits. The SPG population included over 35,000 crossbred pigs phenotyped for meat quality, carcass composition, and growth traits. For TML data sets, the model included fixed effects of dam line, contemporary group (CG), gender, as well as random additive genetic effect and pen nested within CG. For the SPG data set, fixed effects included parity, gender, and CG, as well as random additive genetic effect and harvest group. Analyses were conducted using BLUPF90 suite of programs. Univariate and bivariate analyses were implemented to estimate heritabilities and correlations among traits. Primal yield traits were uniquely created in this study. Heritabilities [high posterior density interval] of meat quality traits ranged from 0.08 [0.03, 0.16] for pH and 0.08 [0.03, 0.1] for Minolta b* to 0.27 [0.22, 0.32] for marbling score, except intramuscular fat with the highest estimate of 0.52 [0.40, 0.62]. Heritabilities of primal yield traits were higher than that of primal weight traits and ranged from 0.17 [0.13, 0.25] for butt yield to 0.45 [0.36, 0.55] for ham yield. The genetic correlations of meat quality and carcass composition traits with growth traits ranged from moderate to high in both directions. High genetic correlations were observed for male and female for all traits except pH. The genetic parameter estimates of this study indicate that a multitrait approach should be considered for selection programs aimed at meat quality and carcass composition in commercial swine populations.


Assuntos
Carne Vermelha/normas , Suínos/genética , Animais , Composição Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Paridade/genética , Fenótipo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/fisiologia
2.
J Anim Sci ; 97(6): 2329-2341, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100112

RESUMO

Having access to early predictions of both the genetic merit and expected phenotypic performance of an individual or its progeny can contribute to more informed decision-making. The objective here was to evaluate the usefulness of routinely available subjectively scored linear conformation information on live animals to predict genetic merit for primal carcass cut yields of their relatives. Data on 6 muscular and 6 skeletal traits on 43,078 live animals were used; the weights of up to 14 primal cuts plus 3 groups of primal cuts of 31,827 cattle were also used. Genetic correlations between the linear scores and the primal cut weights were estimated using sire linear mixed models; correlations were estimated with or without phenotypic adjustment of the primal cut weights to a constant carcass weight. The genetic correlations between each of the muscular and skeletal linear type traits with each of the primal cut weights (not adjusted for carcass weight) were all positive with the exception of the correlations between both chest width and pelvic length with cuberoll. On average, the muscular type traits were more strongly correlated (on average 0.42) with the primal cut weights than the skeletal traits (on average 0.35). Moreover, the average of the genetic correlations between each of the 6 muscular traits with all 8 hindquarter traits was, on average, 10% to 18% stronger than the average of the genetic correlations between the same muscular traits with all 5 forequarter primal cuts. When adjusted for differences in carcass weight, the correlations between all linear scores and the carcass traits regressed to zero or became negative. The skeletal traits were, in general, weakly genetically correlated with the primal cuts adjusted to a common carcass weight. The average of the genetic correlation between the muscular type traits and the primal cuts adjusted for differences in carcass weight was only 0.09 with only 13 of the 84 pairwise correlations being stronger than 0.30; the genetic correlation between silverside with the muscular traits was all stronger than 0.30, whereas the majority of the muscular traits had a correlation stronger than 0.30 with the topside primal cut. In fact, the average of the genetic correlations between the topside and silverside cuts with all the muscular traits was 0.50 and 0.42, respectively, with none of the correlations being negative.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/genética , Bovinos/fisiologia , Carne Vermelha/análise , Matadouros , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo
3.
J Anim Sci ; 97(6): 2450-2459, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100117

RESUMO

One hundred ninety-one Angus steers (age = 546 d ± 33.5; BW = 36.4 kg ± 4.2), sired by bulls divergently selected for feed efficiency over a 3-yr period, were used to compare growth, efficiency, body composition, and carcass characteristics. Selected Angus sires were either high (Hi) or low (Lo) for residual average daily gain (RADG) expected progeny differences (EPDs) and either high (Hi) or low (AVG; breed average) for marbling (MARB) EPDs. Steer weight and body composition, via ultrasound, were measured at weaning (205 d) and at 1 yr (365 d) of age. Steers entered the feedlot at 454 d of age and completed a 70-d GROWSAFE BEEF System evaluation to determine DMI, ADG, and residual feed intake (RFI). Steers were then slaughtered as they reached a backfat thickness of 1.3 cm. Carcasses were chilled for 48 h at 2 °C, ribbed, and USDA yield and quality grade data were collected. The right side of the carcass was fabricated and primal and subprimal weights were collected. A 2.5-cm longissimus steak was removed, vacuum-packaged, aged for 14 d, and frozen for slice shear force determination. Additionally, a 1.3-cm longissimus steak was removed from year 3 steers for proximate analysis. The GLM procedure of SAS was used and the main effects of RADG and MARB and their interaction were tested by the error term, SIRE(RADG*MARB). Year was evaluated as a replicate. Weight, ultrasound backfat, and REA were increased (P ≤ 0.05) at weaning in the Hi compared with AVG MARB steers. Feed efficiency, measured by RFI, was improved (P = 0.05) in the Hi RADG steers compared with Lo RADG steers. Slaughter weight and HCW were heavier (P ≤ 0.03) in the Hi RADG steers compared with Lo RADG steers. An interaction (P = 0.05) between RADG and MARB selection was found for marbling score, steers selected for Lo RADG and Hi MARB had greater marbling scores than all other groups. Longissimus proximate composition from year 3 showed that lipid content was greater (P < 0.01) in the Hi MARB and Lo RADG groups compared with the AVG MARB and Hi RADG groups, respectively. These findings suggest that selection using RADG or MARB EPDs has minimal impact on carcass yield. However, positive selection pressure placed on these breeding values can potentially improve efficiency and carcass quality. Lastly, it appears that improvements in feed efficiency can be obtained without negatively affecting beef carcass merit, especially USDA quality grade.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Carne/normas , Ganho de Peso/genética , Animais , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Bovinos/genética , Masculino , Seleção Genética
4.
Anim Sci J ; 90(7): 808-817, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083796

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to estimate genetic associations between alternative somatic cell count (SCC) traits and milk yield, composition and udder type traits in Italian Jersey cows. Alternative SCC traits were test-day (TD) somatic cell score (SCS) averaged over early lactation (SCS_150), standard deviation of SCS of the entire lactation (SCS_SD), a binary trait indicating absence or presence of at least one TD SCC >400,000 cells/ml in the lactation (Infection) and the ratio of the number of TD SCC >400,000 cells/ml to total number of TD in the lactation (Severity). Heritabilities of SCC traits, including lactation-mean SCS (SCS_LM), ranged from 0.038 to 0.136. Genetic correlations between SCC traits were moderate to strong, with very few exceptions. Unfavourable genetic associations between milk yield and SCS_SD and Infection indicated that high-producing cows were more susceptible to variation in SCC than low-producing animals. Cows with deep udders, loose attachments, weak ligaments and long teats were more susceptible to an increase of SCC in milk. Overall, results suggest that alternative SCC traits can be exploited to improve cow's resistance to mastitis in Italian Jersey breed.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/genética , Constituição Corporal/genética , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/fisiologia , Contagem de Células , Estudos de Associação Genética , Lactação/genética , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/patologia , Leite/citologia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Mastite
5.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2769-2779, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056704

RESUMO

The ability to alter the morphology of cattle towards greater yields of higher value primal cuts has the potential to increase the value of animals at slaughter. Using weight records of 14 primal cuts from 31,827 cattle, the objective of the present study was to quantify the extent of genetic variability in these primal cuts; also of interest was the degree of genetic variability in the primal cuts adjusted to a common carcass weight. Variance components were estimated for each primal cut using animal linear mixed models. The coefficient of genetic variation in the different primal cuts ranged from 0.05 (bavette) to 0.10 (eye of round) with a mean coefficient of genetic variation of 0.07. When phenotypically adjusted to a common carcass weight, the coefficient of genetic variation of the primal cuts was lesser ranging from 0.02 to 0.07 with a mean of 0.04. The heritability of the 14 primal cuts ranged from 0.14 (bavette) to 0.75 (topside) with a mean heritability across all cuts of 0.48; the heritability estimates reduced, and ranged from 0.12 (bavette) to 0.56 (topside), when differences in carcass weight were accounted for in the statistical model. Genetic correlations between each primal cut and carcass weight were all ≥0.77; genetic correlations between each primal cut and carcass conformation score were, on average, 0.59 but when adjusted to a common carcass weight, the correlations weakened to, on average, 0.27. The genetic correlations among all 14 primal cut weights was, on average, strong (mean correlation of 0.72 with all correlations being ≥0.37); when adjusted to a common carcass weight, the mean of the genetic correlations among all primal cuts was 0.10. The ability of estimated breeding values for a selection of primal cuts to stratify animals phenotypically on the respective cut weight was demonstrated; the weight of the rump, striploin, and fillet of animals estimated to be in the top 25% genetically for the respective cut, were 10 to 24%, 12 to 24%, and 7 to 17% heavier than the weight of cuts from animals predicted to be in the worst 25% genetically for that cut. Significant exploitable genetic variability in primal carcass cuts was clearly evident even when adjusted to a common carcass weight. The high heritability of many of the primal cuts infers that large datasets are not actually required to achieve high accuracy of selection once the structure of the data and the number of progeny per sire is adequate.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/genética , Bovinos/fisiologia , Carne Vermelha/análise , Matadouros , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Fenótipo
6.
J Anim Sci ; 97(6): 2644-2657, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959518

RESUMO

Sequencing technology, especially next-generation RNA sequencing, has greatly facilitated the identification and annotation of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). In mammals, a large number of lncRNAs have been identified, which regulate various biological processes. An increasing number of lncRNAs have been identified which could function as key regulators of adipogenesis (adipocyte formation), a key step of the development of adipose tissue. Because proper adipose tissue development is a key factor affecting animal growth efficiency, lean/fat ratio, and meat quality, summarizing the roles and recent advances of lncRNAs in adipogenesis is needed in order to develop strategies to effectively manage fat deposition. In this review, we updated lncRNAs contributed to the regulation of adipogenesis, focusing on their roles in fat development of farm animals.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade/genética , Animais Domésticos/genética , Carne/normas , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Adipócitos/fisiologia , Animais , Composição Corporal/genética , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Células-Tronco/fisiologia
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(7): 1877-1882, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963403

RESUMO

Sirtuin 4 (SIRT4) belongs to the mitochondrial sirtuin class of NAD+-dependent protein deacylases. This gene plays an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism, cellular growth, and metabolism in mammals. Here, potential polymorphisms were sought in the bovine SIRT4 gene, and the relationships between the detected polymorphisms and carcass quality in Qinchuan cattle were assessed. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the promoter region of the SIRT4 gene from the sequencing results of 452 individual cattle. A total of 8 different haplotypes were identified. Of these, the 3 most frequently observed haplotypes had frequencies of 35.0% (-CTG-), 18.3% (-CTA-), and 12.9% (-CCG-). The frequencies of g.-311C > T, g.-771C > T, and g.-1022G > A conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all the samples (chi-square test, P < 0.05). The association analysis indicated that these 3 polymorphisms were significantly associated with subcutaneous fat depth and intramuscular fat content (at P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Interestingly, the Hap1/2 (-CAG-CAA-) diplotype was more highly associated with desirable ultrasound than other haplotype combinations.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/genética , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Bovinos/genética , Haplótipos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sirtuínas/metabolismo , Ultrassonografia , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Sirtuínas/genética
8.
Meat Sci ; 154: 69-74, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004942

RESUMO

The aim of study was to estimate genotype frequencies of the polymorphism in the intron 12 of CAST gene of growing lambs, and to evaluate associations between the CAST genotype and carcass and meat traits. A total number of 317 rams representing the synthetic BCP (163) and SCP (154) meaty lines were genotyped by the RFLP/MspI/NcoI/Hin6I. Three genotypes including "aa", "ae" and "ac" with most frequencies of 0.48, 0.27 and 0.19, were observed in whole population. Lambs with the "aa" CAST genotype showed the highest muscle percentage and the lowest fat percentage in the hind legs. On the other hand, the loins of rams with "ac" genotype had the highest intramuscular fat content, indicative of beneficial health-related properties and technological usefulness. However, differences between CAST genotype stated for the sensory properties, texture and thawing and cooking losses of the meat were insignificant. Breeding efforts aimed at the improvement of lamb meat quality should prioritize the selection of the "ac" genotype.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Carne Vermelha/análise , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Cruzamento , Culinária , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Polimorfismo Genético , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
9.
J Appl Genet ; 60(2): 199-207, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997664

RESUMO

Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) regulates many key developmental processes during vertebrate limb development, fat formation, and skeletal tissue regeneration. Current whole genome sequencing data have identified a copy number variation mapping to bovine Sonic Hedgehog gene (SHH-CNV). The object of this study was to characterize the SHH-CNV distributions in 648 individuals from 11 Chinese cattle populations and further to investigate the associations of the copy number changes with gene expression and cattle growth traits. The SHH-CNV showed a high variance within Chinese indigenous yellow cattle. Compared to yak and dairy cattle, the beef cattle like Luxi and Xianan breed had significantly higher median copy numbers, suggesting the diversity of SHH-CNV in beef cattle selections. The negative correlation of SHH-CNV with SHH transcriptional level in adult adipose tissue (P < 0.01) indicated the dosage effects of SHH-CNV related to bovine fat formation. Association analysis of SHH-CNV and body size traits was conducted in five breeds. The results revealed that the copy number gain type of SHH-CNV exhibited significantly better chest depth in 24 months old Qinchuan cattle, and better body weight, body length, and chest girth in 18 months old Nanyang cattle, whereas the normal copy number had superior chest girth and body weight in adult Jinnan cattle (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In summary, this research uncovered meaningful effects of SHH-CNV on gene expression and cattle phenotypic traits, indicating its potential applications for genetic improvement of beef cattle.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Animais , Composição Corporal/genética , Tamanho Corporal , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos , China , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Carne Vermelha
10.
J Anim Sci ; 97(3): 1066-1075, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821333

RESUMO

This study evaluated the use of molecular breeding values (MBVs) for carcass traits to sort steers into quality grid and lean meat yield (LMY) groups. A discovery set of 2,609 animals with genotypes and carcass phenotypes was used to predict MBVs for LMY and marbling score (MBS) for 299 Angus, 181 Charolais, and 638 Kinsella Composite steers using genomic best linear unbiased prediction. Steers were sorted in silico into four MBV groups namely Quality (with MBVs greater than the mean for LMY and MBS), Lean (with MBVs greater than the mean for LMY but less than or equal to the mean for MBS), Marbling (with MBVs greater than the mean for MBS but less than or equal to the mean for LMY), and Other (with MBVs lower than the mean for LMY and MBS). Carcass phenotypes on the steers were then collected at slaughter and evaluated for consistency with the assigned MBV groups using descriptive statistics and least square analysis. Accuracy of MBV predictions was assessed by Pearson's correlation between predicted MBV and adjusted phenotype divided by the square root of trait heritability. Genomic breed compositions were predicted for all steers to correct for possible population stratification and breed effects in the test model. The number of steers that met the expected carcass outcome was counted to produce actual percentages for each MBV group. Results showed that on average, Quality and Marbling groups had greater back-fat and more marbling across the three populations while Lean group had leaner carcasses. Carcass weights were similar across MBV groups. Within MBV groups, decreases in variability were observed for most traits suggesting improvement in carcass uniformity. Greater than 70% of the steers in Quality, Lean, and Marbling groups met the Quality Grid and Y1-LMY target for Angus and Charolais but not for Kinsella composite. The accuracy of MBV prediction ranged from 0.43 to 0.59 indicating that up to 35% of the observed carcass trait variability can be predicted, which suggests utility of MBV as a marker-assisted management tool to sort feeder cattle into uniform carcass endpoint groups under similar environmental and management conditions. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the performance of feeder cattle sorted based on MBV and managed for different carcass endpoints as well as the cost-benefit implications for feedlot operations.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/genética , Bovinos/genética , Genômica , Carne Vermelha/normas , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Genótipo , Masculino , Fenótipo
11.
Poult Sci ; 98(7): 3029-3039, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815686

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to compare P33 (Polish Pekin), P8 (Danish Pekin), and P9 ducks (French Pekin) for body weight, dressing percentage, carcass composition, and selected meat quality traits. A total of 180 ducks, 30 males and 30 females of each strain, were kept indoors on deep litter and fed complete commercial diets ad libitum. At the end of 8 wk, the ducks were weighed and 7 males and 7 females of each strain (42 birds in total) were slaughtered and dissected. The pH and electrical conductivity of breast and leg muscles were determined 24 h postmortem. After dissection, samples of breast and leg muscles were collected to determine of selected meat quality characteristics. At the age of 8 wk, P8 ducks had significantly higher body weight and carcass weight compared to P9 and P33 birds. The carcasses of P8 ducks contained significantly more breast muscles compared to the carcasses of P9 birds. The proportion of abdominal fat was higher in P8 and P9 ducks than in P33 ducks. Regardless of the genetic origin, males had a significantly lower percentage of breast muscles and a higher proportion of neck in the carcass compared to females. P33, P8, and P9 ducks exhibited significant differences in the sodium and magnesium content of breast muscles and in the sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium content of leg muscles. Male breast muscles contained more sodium, and their leg muscles had a lower potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and iron content compared to females. The breast and leg muscles of P9 ducks exhibited lower electrical conductivity (EC24) compared to P8 and P33 ducks, while the breast muscles of P9 ducks had a significantly higher cooking loss. The strains of ducks under study differed in lightness (L*) and redness (a*), and in hardness, chewiness and gumminess of pectoralis major muscle. Females showed higher hardness and chewiness of breast muscles compared to males.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/genética , Patos/genética , Carne/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cor , Culinária , Condutividade Elétrica , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/química , Fenótipo , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
J Anim Breed Genet ; 136(3): 190-198, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779225

RESUMO

Variances caused by the differential expression of paternally and maternally imprinted genes controlling carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle were estimated in this study. Data on marbling score (BMS), carcass weight, rib thickness, rib-eye area (REA) and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) were collected from a total of 13,115 feedlot steers and heifers in a commercial population. A sire-maternal grandsire model was used to analyse the data, and then, imprinting parameters were derived by replacing the genetic effect of the dam with the effect of the maternal grandsire in the imprinting model to calculate the genetic parameter estimates. The proportions of the total genetic variance attributable to imprinted genes ranged from 8.7% (SFT) to 35.2% (BMS). The remarkably large imprinting variance of BMS was mainly contributed by maternally expressed inheritance because the maternal contribution of the trait was much larger than that of the paternal trait. The parent-of-origin effect originating from maternal gene expression was also observed for REA. The results suggested the existence of genomic imprinting effects on the traits of the Japanese Black cattle. Hence, the parent-of-origin effect should be considered for the genetic evaluation of Japanese Black cattle in breeding programmes.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/genética , Carne , Modelos Genéticos , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Feminino , Variação Genética , Masculino , Fenótipo
13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 276-287, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721968

RESUMO

Background: Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass. Objectives: To determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci. Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age2, and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms). Results: Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in separate loci, including one novel LM locus (TNRC6B), were successfully replicated in an additional 47,227 individuals from 29 cohorts. Based on the strengths of the associations in Model 1 vs Model 3, we divided the LM loci into those with an effect on both lean mass and fat mass in the same direction and refer to those as "sumo wrestler" loci (FTO and MC4R). In contrast, loci with an impact specifically on LM were termed "body builder" loci (VCAN and ADAMTSL3). Using existing available genome-wide association study databases, LM increasing alleles of SNPs in sumo wrestler loci were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, whereas LM increasing alleles of SNPs in "body builder" loci were associated with metabolic protection. Conclusions: In conclusion, we identified one novel LM locus (TNRC6B). Our results suggest that a genetically determined increase in lean mass might exert either harmful or protective effects on metabolic traits, depending on its relation to fat mass.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/genética , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Impedância Elétrica , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Versicanas/genética , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735526

RESUMO

Three artificially selected duck populations (AS), higher lean meat ratios (LTPD), higher fat ratios (FTPD) and higher quality meat (CMD), have been developed in China, providing excellent populations for investigation of artificial selection effects. However, the genetic signatures of artificial selection are unclear. In this study, we sequenced the genome sequences of these three artificially selected populations and their ancestral population (mallard, M). We then compared the genome sequences between AS and M and between LTPD and FTPD using integrated strategies such as anchoring scaffolds to pseudo-chromosomes, mutation detection, selective screening, GO analysis, qRT-PCR, and protein multiple sequences alignment to uncover genetic signatures of selection. We anchored duck scaffolds to pseudo-chromosomes and obtained 28 pseudo-chromosomes, accounting for 84% of duck genome in length. Totally 78 and 99 genes were found to be under selection between AS and M and between LTPD and FTPD. Genes under selection between AS and M mainly involved in pigmentation and heart rates, while genes under selection between LTPD and FTPD involved in muscle development and fat deposition. A heart rate regulator (HCN1), the strongest selected gene between AS and M, harbored a GC deletion in AS and displayed higher mRNA expression level in M than in AS. IGF2R, a regulator of skeletal muscle mass, was found to be under selection between FTPD and LTPD. We also found two nonsynonymous substitutions in IGF2R, which might lead to higher IGF2R mRNA expression level in FTPD than LTPD, indicating the two nonsynonymous substitutions might play a key role for the regulation of duck skeletal muscle mass. Taken together, these results of this study provide valuable insight for the genetic basis of duck artificial selection.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Composição Corporal/genética , Patos/genética , Genoma , Carne , Seleção Genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Cruzamento/métodos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Frequência Cardíaca/genética , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/genética , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/metabolismo , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Receptor IGF Tipo 2/genética , Receptor IGF Tipo 2/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
15.
J Anim Sci ; 97(4): 1501-1512, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785187

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to quantify the genetic and non-genetic contributors to variability in both carcass dressing percentage and dressing difference (i.e., the difference between carcass weight and live weight immediately prior to slaughter) in young animals and cows. The datasets contained 18,479 young animals from 653 herds, and 2,887 cows from 665 herds. Live weight records within 7 d of slaughter and associated carcass weight were available for all animals. Association analyses were undertaken using linear mixed models with fixed effects for the model of young animals consisting of animal breed, days between the date of last recorded live weight and slaughter date, heterosis and recombination loss coefficients, dam parity, a 3-way interaction between whether the animal originated in a dairy or beef herd, animal sex, and age at slaughter, as well as a 2-way interaction between calendar year of slaughter and month of slaughter; contemporary group was included as a random effect. Fixed effects in the cow model were cow breed, the number of days between the date of last recorded live weight and slaughter date, heterosis and recombination loss coefficients, the number of days postcalving, parity of the cow, and a 2-way interaction between calendar year of slaughter and month of slaughter; contemporary group was included as a random effect. The mean dressing percentage (phenotypic standard deviation in parentheses) and dressing difference in young animals were 55.86% (3.21%) and 280.03 kg (41.44 kg), respectively. Steers had the heaviest dressing difference at 34.18 and 60.44 kg heavier than a 16-mo old bull and 22-mo old heifer, respectively. Dressing difference for 30-mo old Simmental steers (breed with heaviest dressing difference) was 41.66 kg heavier than 30-mo old Belgian Blue steers (breed with lightest dressing difference). The heritability of dressing percentage (0.48) and dressing difference (0.35) in young animals was relatively similar to each other, in contrast to dressing percentage (0.08) in cows which was considerably lower than dressing difference (0.28). Considerable genetic variability existed in dressing difference amongst young animals (genetic standard deviation of 15.03 kg), despite the near unity genetic correlation (0.93) between carcass weight and live weight. This therefore indicates that genetic selection for increased saleable product can be achieved by selecting for increased carcass weight while concurrently selecting for lighter animals although the opportunity is limited by the strong part-whole relationships that exists between carcass weight, live weight, and dressing difference.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Variação Genética , Carne Vermelha/análise , Seleção Genética , Animais , Composição Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Vigor Híbrido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Paridade , Fenótipo , Gravidez
16.
Meat Sci ; 151: 4-17, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658164

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the first intron and c.*1232G>A position of the MSTN gene and analyze associations between the detected alleles/genotypes and carcass, meat quality, and biometric traits in Colored Polish Merino sheep. We analyzed 44 traits using the MIXED procedure of the SAS software. Five alleles (MSTN-A, MSTN-B, MSTN-C, MSTN-E and MSTN-E1) were detected. Significant genotypic effects were detected with regard to chest depth (live lamb) and fat depth over ribs, drip loss, subjective meat flavor and color, whereas significant allelic effects were found for chest depth (live lamb), pre-slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, cold carcass dressing out, leg depth (carcass), eye of loin width and area, intramuscular fat (IMF) content, water-holding capacity, and subjective meat tenderness, flavor and color. The results suggest MSTN gene polymorphisms may be considered a genetic marker of carcass quality, meat quality, and biometric traits in sheep.


Assuntos
Miostatina/genética , Carne Vermelha/análise , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Composição Corporal/genética , Cor , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/anatomia & histologia
17.
Diabetes ; 68(3): 543-555, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617219

RESUMO

Defects in hepatic lipid metabolism cause nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance, and these pathologies are closely linked. Regulation of lipid droplet metabolism is central to the control of intracellular fatty acid fluxes, and perilipin 5 (PLIN5) is important in this process. We examined the role of PLIN5 on hepatic lipid metabolism and systemic glycemic control using liver-specific Plin5-deficient mice (Plin5LKO ). Hepatocytes isolated from Plin5LKO mice exhibited marked changes in lipid metabolism characterized by decreased fatty acid uptake and storage, decreased fatty acid oxidation that was associated with reduced contact between lipid droplets and mitochondria, and reduced triglyceride secretion. With consumption of a high-fat diet, Plin5LKO mice accumulated intrahepatic triglyceride, without significant changes in inflammation, ceramide or diglyceride contents, endoplasmic reticulum stress, or autophagy. Instead, livers of Plin5LKO mice exhibited activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, impaired insulin signal transduction, and insulin resistance, which impaired systemic insulin action and glycemic control. Re-expression of Plin5 in the livers of Plin5LKO mice reversed these effects. Together, we show that Plin5 is an important modulator of intrahepatic lipid metabolism and suggest that the increased Plin5 expression that occurs with overnutrition may play an important role in preventing hepatic insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Perilipina-5/metabolismo , Animais , Composição Corporal/genética , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Immunoblotting , Imuno-Histoquímica , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Oxirredução , Perilipina-5/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210760, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629707

RESUMO

Calcium (Ca) intakes may affect cardiovascular disease risk by altering body composition (body weight and fat) and serum lipid profile, but results have been inconsistent and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The effects of dietary Ca on body composition and lipid metabolism were examined in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed high-fat, high-energy diets containing (g/kg) low (0.75Ca, 0.86 ± 0.05; 2Ca, 2.26 ± 0.02), normal (5Ca, 5.55 ± 0.08) or high (10Ca, 11.03 ± 0.17; 20Ca, 21.79 ± 0.15) Ca for 10 weeks. Rats fed the lowest Ca diet (0.75Ca) had lower (p < 0.05) body weight and fat mass compared to other groups. Rats fed the high Ca diets had lower serum total and LDL cholesterol compared to rats fed normal or low Ca. Liver total cholesterol was lower in rats fed high compared to low Ca. In general, liver mRNA expression of genes involved in cholesterol uptake from the circulation (Ldlr), cholesterol synthesis (Hmgcr and Hmgcs1), fatty acid oxidation (Cpt2) and cholesterol esterification (Acat2) were higher in rats fed higher Ca. Apparent digestibility of total trans, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids was lower in rats fed the high compared to the low Ca diets, with the largest effects seen on trans and saturated fatty acids. Fecal excretion of cholesterol and total bile acids was highest in rats fed the highest Ca diet (20Ca). The results suggest little effect of dietary Ca on body composition unless Ca intakes are very low. Decreased bile acid reabsorption and reduced absorption of neutral sterols and saturated and trans fatty acids may contribute to the better serum lipid profile in rats fed higher Ca.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/genética , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Insulina/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipogênese/genética , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Minerais/sangue , Minerais/urina , Tamanho do Órgão , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Esteróis/metabolismo
19.
Animal ; 13(4): 694-701, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071915

RESUMO

Selection for beef traits in Italian dual-purpose breeds is often carried out using growth and in vivo conformation recorded on young, performance tested bulls and muscularity traits scored during routinely linear type evaluation on primiparous cows. In this context, the knowledge of the genetic structure of traits obtained in different sexes and at different times is necessary for a proper selection plan. This study aimed to estimate, in the local dual-purpose Rendena breed, the genetic relationships between muscularity linear type traits from primiparous cows, the same traits scored on candidate young bulls, and the performance test traits recorded in candidate young bulls. Type traits included: front (chest and shoulder), back (loins and rump); thigh, buttocks side and rear views (two traits). Performance test traits were: average daily gain; EUROP fleshiness evaluation; and dressing percentage. Muscularity linear type traits were recorded on 11 992 first parity cows, and the muscularity type traits were scored on 957 candidate young bulls. Heritability estimates obtained for muscularity traits were moderate in young bulls (on average 0.326), about 16% higher than in primiparous cows. The average heritability for performance test traits in young bulls resulted 0.342. Moderate to strong genetic correlations were found between performance test and muscularity type traits collected in young bulls (from 0.500 between front (chest and shoulder) and average daily gain to 0.955 between thigh, buttocks side view and in vivo dressing percentage). The genetic relationships obtained between muscularity linear type traits of primiparous cows and performance traits of young bulls were variable (from a null correlation between front (chest and shoulder) and average daily gain to 0.822 between thigh, buttocks rear view and dressing percentage), with an average genetic correlation of 0.532. Generally, the traits measured during performance testing in young bulls were favourably correlated with muscularity traits evaluated on primiparous cows, indicating a common selection pathway.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/genética , Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Bovinos/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Carne/normas , Modelos Genéticos , Paridade , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Ganho de Peso/genética
20.
Animal ; 13(4): 784-789, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30152305

RESUMO

A divergent selection experiment on litter size variability (high and low lines) was performed in rabbits over seven generations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlated responses to selection in body condition and fat reserves mobilisation. Litter size variability was estimated as phenotypic variance of litter size within female after correcting for the year-season and the parity-lactation status effects. A total of 226 females were used in this study, of which 158 females were used to measure body condition and energy mobilisation. Body condition was measured as BW and perirenal fat thickness. Females were stimulated with the adrenergic isoproterenol. Mobilisation capacity of fat reserves was measured by the lipolytic potential, defined as the increment in non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) levels from basal concentration until adrenergic stimulation at mating, delivery and 10 days after delivery of the second reproductive cycle. Females were classified as survivor or non-survivor when they were culled for sanitary reasons or died before the third kindling. Data were analysed using Bayesian methodology. Survivor females presented higher BW than the non-survivor females at delivery (238 g, P=1.00) and 10 days after delivery (276 g, P=1.00). They also showed higher perirenal fat thickness at 10 days after delivery (0.62 mm, P=1.00). At delivery, basal NEFA levels was lower in survivor than non-survivor females (-0.18 mmol/l, P=1.00), but their lipolytic potential (∆NEFA) was higher (0.08 mmol/l, P=0.94). Body weight was similar between lines in survivor females. Perirenal fat thickness was lower in the high line than in the low line at delivery (-0.23 mm, P=0.90) and 10 days after delivery (-0.28 mm, P=0.92). The high line exhibited higher NEFA (0.10 mmol/l, P=0.93) and lower ∆NEFA (-0.08 mmol/l, P=0.92) than the low line at delivery. The low line showed a favourable correlated response to selection on body condition and fat reserves mobilisation. In conclusion, the low line selected for litter size variability seems to adapt better to adverse conditions, as it has a greater capacity to mobilise energy reserves at delivery than the high line. Females that adequately manage their body reserves and perform energy mobilisation correctly have a lower risk of dying or being culled.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/genética , Coelhos/fisiologia , Seleção Genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Composição Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal , Cruzamento , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados , Feminino , Gravidez , Coelhos/genética , Estações do Ano
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