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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(36): 14748-14765, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490778

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need for platform technologies enabling rapid development of vaccines for emerging viral diseases. The current vaccines target the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and thus far have shown tremendous efficacy. However, the need for cold-chain distribution, a prime-boost administration schedule, and the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs) call for diligence in novel SARS-CoV-2 vaccine approaches. We studied 13 peptide epitopes from SARS-CoV-2 and identified three neutralizing epitopes that are highly conserved among the VOCs. Monovalent and trivalent COVID-19 vaccine candidates were formulated by chemical conjugation of the peptide epitopes to cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) nanoparticles and virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from bacteriophage Qß. Efficacy of this approach was validated first using soluble vaccine candidates as solo or trivalent mixtures and subcutaneous prime-boost injection. The high thermal stability of our vaccine candidates allowed for formulation into single-dose injectable slow-release polymer implants, manufactured by melt extrusion, as well as microneedle (MN) patches, obtained through casting into micromolds, for prime-boost self-administration. Immunization of mice yielded high titers of antibodies against the target epitope and S protein, and data confirms that antibodies block receptor binding and neutralize SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 against infection of human cells. We present a nanotechnology vaccine platform that is stable outside the cold-chain and can be formulated into delivery devices enabling single administration or self-administration. CPMV or Qß VLPs could be stockpiled, and epitopes exchanged to target new mutants or emergent diseases as the need arises.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Vacinas de Subunidades/metabolismo , Animais , Comovirus , Simulação por Computador , Composição de Medicamentos , Epitopos/química , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/química , Peptídeos/química , Vacinação , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/química
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502086

RESUMO

In recent years, enzymes have risen as promising therapeutic tools for different pathologies, from metabolic deficiencies, such as fibrosis conditions, ocular pathologies or joint problems, to cancer or cardiovascular diseases. Treatments based on the catalytic activity of enzymes are able to convert a wide range of target molecules to restore the correct physiological metabolism. These treatments present several advantages compared to established therapeutic approaches thanks to their affinity and specificity properties. However, enzymes present some challenges, such as short in vivo half-life, lack of targeted action and, in particular, patient immune system reaction against the enzyme. For this reason, it is important to monitor serum immune response during treatment. This can be achieved by conventional techniques (ELISA) but also by new promising tools such as microarrays. These assays have gained popularity due to their high-throughput analysis capacity, their simplicity, and their potential to monitor the immune response of patients during enzyme therapies. In this growing field, research is still ongoing to solve current health problems such as COVID-19. Currently, promising therapeutic alternatives using the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are being studied to treat COVID-19.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Enzimática/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Estabilidade Enzimática , Terapia Enzimática/história , Terapia Enzimática/tendências , Meia-Vida , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361853

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds and thiamine may serve as therapies against oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative diseases. However, it is important to note that these components show high instability under changing conditions. The study's aim was to determine the impact of the thiamine concentration (hydrochloride-TH and pyrophosphate-TP; in the range 0.02 to 20 mg/100 g on the indices of the chelating properties and reducing power, and free radicals scavenging indices of EGCG, EGC, ECG and caffeine added from 0.04 to 6.0 mg/100 g. Our research confirmed that higher concentrations of TH and TP can exhibit significant activity against the test antioxidant indices of all components. When above 5.0 mg/100 g of thiamine was used, the radical scavenging abilities of the compound decreased in the following order: EGCG > ECG > EGC > caffeine. The highest correlation was found for the concentration of thiamine pyrophosphate to 20.0 mg/100 g and EGCG. Knowledge of the impact of factors associated with the concentration of both EGCG, EGC, ECG or caffeine and thiamine on their activity could carry weight in regulating the quality supplemented foods, especially of nutrition support for people of all ages were oral, enteral tube feeding and parenteral nutrition).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Cafeína/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Flavonoides/química , Tiamina/química
4.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 3313-3330, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366663

RESUMO

The acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has spread across the world, resulting in a pandemic COVID-19 which is a human zoonotic disease that is caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV) strain thought to have originated in wild or captive bats in the initial COVID outbreak region. The global COVID-19 outbreak started in Guangdong Province, China's southernmost province. The global response to the COVID-19 pandemic has been hampered by the sheer number of infected people, many of whom need intensive care before succumbing to the disease. The epidemic is being handled by a combination of disease control by public health interventions and compassionate treatment for those who have been impacted. There is no clear anti-COVID-19 medication available at this time. However, the need to find medications that can turn the tide has led to the development of a number of investigational drugs as potential candidates for improving outcomes, especially in the severely and critically ill. Although many of these adjunctive medications are still being studied in clinical trials, professional organizations have attempted to define the circumstances in which their use is deemed off-label or compassionate. It is important to remind readers that new information about COVID-19's clinical features, treatment options, and outcomes is released on a regular basis. The mainstay of treatment remains optimized supportive care, and the therapeutic effectiveness of the subsequent agents is still being studied.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Portadores de Fármacos , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Modelos Moleculares , Animais , Antivirais/química , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Nanopartículas , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Vacinação
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445587

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, long acting injectable (LAI) depots of polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) or polylactic acid (PLA) based microspheres have been developed for controlled drug delivery to reduce dosing frequency and to improve the therapeutic effects. Biopharmaceuticals such as proteins and peptides are encapsulated in the microspheres to increase their bioavailability and provide a long release period (days or months) with constant drug plasma concentration. The biodegradable and biocompatible properties of PLGA/PLA polymers, including but not limited to molecular weight, end group, lactide to glycolide ratio, and minor manufacturing changes, could greatly affect the quality attributes of microsphere formulations such as release profile, size, encapsulation efficiency, and bioactivity of biopharmaceuticals. Besides, the encapsulated proteins/peptides are susceptible to harsh processing conditions associated with microsphere fabrication methods, including exposure to organic solvent, shear stress, and temperature fluctuations. The protein/peptide containing LAI microspheres in clinical use is typically prepared by double emulsion, coacervation, and spray drying techniques. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the formulation attributes and conventional manufacturing techniques of LAI microspheres that are currently in clinical use for protein/peptides. Furthermore, the physicochemical characteristics of the microsphere formulations are deliberated.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Microesferas , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Poliésteres/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Proteínas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Proteínas/química
6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 38979-38989, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433249

RESUMO

Chronic infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa pose severe threats to human health. Traditional antibiotic therapy has lost its total supremacy in this battle. Here, nanoplatforms activated by the clinical microenvironment are developed to treat P. aeruginosa infection on the basis of dynamic borate ester bonds. In this design, the nanoplatforms expose targeted groups for bacterial capture after activation by an acidic infection microenvironment, resulting in directional transport delivery of the payload to bacteria. Subsequently, the production of hyperpyrexia and reactive oxygen species enhances antibacterial efficacy without systemic toxicity. Such a formulation with a diameter less than 200 nm can eliminate biofilm up to 75%, downregulate the level of cytokines, and finally promote lung repair. Collectively, the biomimetic design with phototherapy killing capability has the potential to be an alternative strategy against chronic infections caused by P. aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Verde de Indocianina/química , Nanocápsulas/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Polímeros/química , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/radioterapia , Células A549 , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Verde de Indocianina/farmacologia , Raios Infravermelhos , Masculino , Metacrilatos/química , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361650

RESUMO

In this work, an innovative, flow-through, double-beam, photometric detector with direct injection of the reagents (double-DID) was used for the first time for the determination of iron in pharmaceuticals. For stable measurement of the absorbance, double paired emission-detection LED diodes and a log ratio precision amplifier have been applied. The detector was integrated with the system of solenoid micro-pumps. The micro-pumps helped to reduce the number of reagents used and are responsible for precise solution dispensing and propelling. The flow system is characterized by a high level of automation. The total iron was determined as a Fe(II) with photometric detection using 1,10-phenanthroline as a complexing agent. The optimum conditions of the propose analytical procedure were established and the method was validated. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 1 to 30 mg L-1. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.5 mg L-1. The throughput of the method was 90 samples/hour. The repeatability of the method expressed as the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 2% (n = 10). The method was characterized by very low consumption of reagents and samples (20 µL each) and a small amount of waste produced (about 540 µL per analysis). The proposed flow method was successfully applied for determination of iron in pharmaceutical products. The results were in good agreement with those obtained using the manual UV-Vis spectrophotometry and with values claimed by the manufacturers. The flow system worked very stably and was insensitive to bubbles appearing in the system.


Assuntos
Análise de Injeção de Fluxo/métodos , Ferro/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Fotometria/métodos
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 38959-38968, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379404

RESUMO

Chemotherapy continues to be the most commonly applied strategy for cancer. Despite the impressive clinical success obtained with several drugs, increasing numbers of (multi)drug-resistant tumors are reported. To overcome this shortcoming, novel drug candidates and delivery systems are urgently needed. Herein, a therapeutic copper polypyridine complex encapsulated in natural nanocarrier apoferritin is reported. The generated nanoparticles showed higher cytotoxicity toward various (drug-resistant) cancer cell lines than noncancerous cells. The study of the mechanism revealed that the compound triggers cell autophagy-dependent apoptosis. Promisingly, upon injection of the nanodrug conjugate into the bloodstream of a mouse model bearing a multidrug-resistant colon tumor, a strong tumor growth inhibition effect was observed. To date, this is the first study describing the encapsulation of a copper complex in apoferritin that acts by autophagy-dependent apoptosis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Apoferritinas/química , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cobre/química , Nanocápsulas/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoferritinas/metabolismo , Morte Celular Autofágica/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neoplasias Experimentais
9.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361740

RESUMO

There is a challenging need for the development of new alternative nanostructures that can allow the coupling and/or encapsulation of therapeutic/diagnostic molecules while reducing their toxicity and improving their circulation and in-vivo targeting. Among the new materials using natural building blocks, peptides have attracted significant interest because of their simple structure, relative chemical and physical stability, diversity of sequences and forms, their easy functionalization with (bio)molecules and the possibility of synthesizing them in large quantities. A number of them have the ability to self-assemble into nanotubes, -spheres, -vesicles or -rods under mild conditions, which opens up new applications in biology and nanomedicine due to their intrinsic biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as their surface chemical reactivity via amino- and carboxyl groups. In order to obtain nanostructures suitable for biomedical applications, the structure, size, shape and surface chemistry of these nanoplatforms must be optimized. These properties depend directly on the nature and sequence of the amino acids that constitute them. It is therefore essential to control the order in which the amino acids are introduced during the synthesis of short peptide chains and to evaluate their in-vitro and in-vivo physico-chemical properties before testing them for biomedical applications. This review therefore focuses on the synthesis, functionalization and characterization of peptide sequences that can self-assemble to form nanostructures. The synthesis in batch or with new continuous flow and microflow techniques will be described and compared in terms of amino acids sequence, purification processes, functionalization or encapsulation of targeting ligands, imaging probes as well as therapeutic molecules. Their chemical and biological characterization will be presented to evaluate their purity, toxicity, biocompatibility and biodistribution, and some therapeutic properties in vitro and in vivo. Finally, their main applications in the biomedical field will be presented so as to highlight their importance and advantages over classical nanostructures.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/síntese química , Portadores de Fármacos/síntese química , Nanoestruturas/química , Peptídeos/síntese química , Técnicas de Síntese em Fase Sólida/métodos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacocinética , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Peptídeos/farmacocinética , Distribuição Tecidual
10.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361743

RESUMO

While investigating the possible synergistic effect of the conventional anticancer therapies, which, taken individually, are often ineffective against critical tumors, such as central nervous system (CNS) ones, the design of a theranostic nanovector able to carry and deliver chemotherapy drugs and magnetic hyperthermic agents to the target radiosensitizers (oxygen) was pursued. Alongside the original formulation of polymeric biodegradable oxygen-loaded nanostructures, their properties were fine-tuned to optimize their ability to conjugate therapeutic doses of drugs (doxorubicin) or antitumoral natural substances (curcumin). Oxygen-loaded nanostructures (diameter = 251 ± 13 nm, ζ potential = -29 ± 5 mV) were finally decorated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, diameter = 18 ± 3 nm, ζ potential = 14 ± 4 mV), producing stable, effective and non-agglomerating magnetic nanovectors (diameter = 279 ± 17 nm, ζ potential = -18 ± 7 mV), which could potentially target the tumoral tissues under magnetic driving and are monitorable either by US or MRI imaging.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Radiossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Nanomedicina Teranóstica/métodos , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Meios de Contraste/síntese química , Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/farmacologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/química , Doxorrubicina/química , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Cinética , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/ultraestrutura , Oxigênio/química , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Radiossensibilizantes/síntese química
11.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 69(8): 747-759, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334518

RESUMO

The particles of phenytoin (Phe), a poorly water-soluble model drug, were bead-milled alone or co-milled with a hydrophilic waxy additive using an ultra cryo-milling technique in liquid nitrogen (LN2) to improve its dissolution properties. However, the micronized drug particles adhered and aggregated, resulting in poor handling in manufacturing processes such as blending or tableting. To improve the dissolution profile and powder properties of the drug simultaneously, the milled products were secondarily processed together with larger spherical particles by mechanical powder processing. These secondary products were composite particles with a core-shell structure, with fine drug particles adhered and deposited on the core, based on order mixing theory. As a core, three types/sizes of spherical pharmaceutical excipient particles were applied. The resultant composite particles produced much faster release profiles than just milled or co-milled mixtures. In addition, the composite particles showed good micromeritic properties depending on the size of the core particles. These results indicate that the ultra cryo-milling and subsequent dry composite mixing is a potential approach for developing drug particles with improved dissolution.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/química , Fenitoína/química , Química Farmacêutica , Composição de Medicamentos , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós , Solubilidade
12.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443508

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chemotherapy with anti-cancer drugs is considered the most common approach for killing cancer cells in the human body. However, some barriers such as toxicity and side effects would limit its usage. In this regard, nano-based drug delivery systems have emerged as cost-effective and efficient for sustained and targeted drug delivery. Nanotubes such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) and boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT) are promising nanocarriers that provide the cargo with a large inner volume for encapsulation. However, understanding the insertion process of the anti-cancer drugs into the nanotubes and demonstrating drug-nanotube interactions starts with theoretical analysis. METHODS: First, interactions parameters of the atoms of 5-FU were quantified from the DREIDING force field. Second, the storage capacity of BNNT (8,8) was simulated to count the number of drugs 5-FU encapsulated inside the cavity of the nanotubes. In terms of the encapsulation process of the one drug 5-FU into nanotubes, it was clarified that the drug 5-FU was more rapidly adsorbed into the cavity of the BNNT compared with the CNT due to the higher van der Waals (vdW) interaction energy between the drug and the BNNT. RESULTS: The obtained values of free energy confirmed that the encapsulation process of the drug inside the CNT and BNNT occurred spontaneously with the free energies of -14 and -25 kcal·mol-1, respectively. DISCUSSION: However, the lower value of the free energy in the system containing the BNNT unraveled more stability of the encapsulated drug inside the cavity of the BNNT comparing the system having CNT. The encapsulation of Fluorouracil (5-FU) anti-cancer chemotherapy drug (commercial name: Adrucil®) into CNT (8,8) and BNNT (8,8) with the length of 20 Å in an aqueous solution was discussed herein applying molecular dynamics (MD) simulation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Compostos de Boro/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Fluoruracila/química , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Termodinâmica
13.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 166: 105979, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425232

RESUMO

Nanocrystal formulations of the BCS class II agomelatine, were developed by wet media milling. The most suitable stabilizer was identified and effects of process and formulation variables on the nanocrystal size and ζ-potential were evaluated employing a Box-Behnken experimental design. The optimized nanosuspensions were dried and subsequently evaluated for redispersibility and physicochemical properties. Computational simulation of solid state properties was applied to rationalize crystal fracture. It was found that low viscosity hydroxypropylcellulose with sodium dodecyl sulfate is the most suitable stabilizer. Stabilizer concentration exerts a statistically significant effect on particle size, which depends on the mill's rotation speed. The milling process induces a polymorphic transition to form II, which could affect size reduction kinetics. The solidified nanosuspensions' redispersibility is deteriorating progressively with storage time, with only minor differences between drying methods, retaining enhanced dissolution rate. Crystal lattice simulations suggest high mechanical anisotropy of form I crystals, which could be an additional reason for fast particle size reduction prior to the polymorphic transformation. Wet media milling, combined with a suitable drying method, can be an efficient technique for the production of stable nanocrystals of agomelatine. Particle informatics methods can enhance our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for agomelatine's nanocomminution.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Nanopartículas , Acetamidas , Composição de Medicamentos , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade , Suspensões
14.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443412

RESUMO

Palmarosa essential oil (PEO) is an alternative to synthetic fungicides to control the contamination by food-deteriorating fungi, such as Aspergillus nomius. Nonetheless, the low long-term stability and volatility hamper its utilization. Thus, this study aimed to develop nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) containing PEO to improve its stability and consequently prolong the activity against A. nomius. A mixture design was applied to find the best preparation conditions for antifungal activity. The characterization analyses included size measurements, zeta potential (ζ-potential), entrapment efficiency (EE), and antifungal activity (by inhibition of mycelial growth (IMG) and/or in situ test (pre-contaminated Brazil nuts) tests). The nanocarriers presented particle sizes smaller than 300 nm, homogeneous size distribution, ζ-potential of -25.19 to -41.81 mV, and EE between 73.6 and 100%. The formulations F5 and F10 showed the highest IMG value (98.75%). Based on the regression model, three optimized formulations (OFs) were tested for antifungal activity (IMG and in situ test), which showed 100% of inhibition and prevented the deterioration of Brazil nuts by A. nomius. The preliminary stability test showed the maintenance of antifungal activity and physicochemical characteristics for 90 days. These results suggest a promising system as a biofungicide against A. nomius.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cymbopogon/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bertholletia/microbiologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Eletricidade Estática
15.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443424

RESUMO

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on the middle infrared region (ATR-FTIR-MIR) proved to be a convenient and reliable technique to evaluate foods' quality and authenticity. Plants' essential oils are bioactive mixtures used as such or in different oily or microencapsulated formulations, beneficial to human health. Six essential oils (thyme, oregano, juniperus, tea tree, clove, and cinnamon) were introduced in three oily formulations (Biomicin, Biomicin Forte, and Biomicin urinary) and these formulations were microencapsulated on fructose and maltodextrin matrices. To study their stability, the microencapsulated powders were kept under light irradiation for 14 days at 25 °C or introduced in biopolymer capsules. All variants were analysed by ATR-FTIR-MIR, recording wavenumbers and peak intensities (3600-650 cm-1). The data were processed by Unscrambler and Metaboanalyst software, with specific algorithms (PCA, PLSDA, heatmaps, and random forest analysis). The results demonstrated that ATR-FTIR-MIR can be successfully applied for fingerprinting and finding essential oil biomarkers as well as to recognize this pattern in final microencapsulated food supplements. This study offers an improved ATR-FTIR-MIR procedure coupled with an adequate chemometric analysis and accurate data interpretation, to be applied for the evaluation of authenticity, quality, traceability, and stability during storage of essential oils incorporated in different matrices.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Composição de Medicamentos , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Análise Discriminante , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
16.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361774

RESUMO

Polyphenols play a therapeutic role in vascular diseases, acting in inherent illness-associate conditions such as inflammation, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and oxidative stress, as demonstrated by clinical trials and epidemiological surveys. The main polyphenol cardioprotective mechanisms rely on increased nitric oxide, decreased asymmetric dimethylarginine levels, upregulation of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes via the Nrf2-ARE pathway and anti-inflammatory action through the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB and PPAR-γ receptor. However, poor polyphenol bioavailability and extensive metabolization restrict their applicability. Polyphenols carried by nanoparticles circumvent these limitations providing controlled release and better solubility, chemical protection, and target achievement. Nano-encapsulate polyphenols loaded in food grade polymers and lipids appear to be safe, gaining resistance in the enteric route for intestinal absorption, in which the mucoadhesiveness ensures their increased uptake, achieving high systemic levels in non-metabolized forms. Nano-capsules confer a gradual release to these compounds, as well as longer half-lives and cell and whole organism permanence, reinforcing their effectiveness, as demonstrated in pre-clinical trials, enabling their application as an adjuvant therapy against cardiovascular diseases. Polyphenol entrapment in nanoparticles should be encouraged in nutraceutical manufacturing for the fortification of foods and beverages. This study discusses pre-clinical trials evaluating how nano-encapsulate polyphenols following oral administration can aid in cardiovascular performance.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Elementos de Resposta Antioxidante , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Arginina/antagonistas & inibidores , Arginina/metabolismo , Cardiotônicos/química , Cardiotônicos/farmacocinética , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Portadores de Fármacos , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/genética , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/fisiopatologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/genética , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Nanocápsulas/administração & dosagem , Nanocápsulas/química , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Transdução de Sinais
17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 39066-39075, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387079

RESUMO

A controlled release formulation based on silica microcapsules is an ideal selection to improve both the effective utilization and duration of pesticides to decrease ecological damage. Herein, a simple and green method for preparing double-shelled microcapsules was developed using a newly prepared quaternary ammonium ionic liquid (IL) as the functional additive to entrap avermectin (Ave) in mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSNs) and tannic acid-Cu (TA-Cu) complex as the sealing agent to form the core-shell structure (Ave-IL@MSN@TA-Cu). The obtained microcapsules with an average size of 538 nm had pH-responsive release property and good stability in soil. The half-life of microcapsules (34.66 days) was 3 times that of Ave emulsifiable concentrate (EC) (11.55 days) in a test soil, which illustrated that microcapsules could protect Ave from rapid degradation by microorganisms by releasing TA, copper, and quaternary ammonium in the soil. Ave-IL@MSN@TA-Cu microcapsules had better nematicidal activity and antibacterial activity than Ave EC due to the synergistic effect of Ave, IL, and copper incorporated in the microcapsules. Pot experiments showed that the control efficacy of microcapsules was 87.10% against Meloidogyne incognita, which is better than that of Ave EC (41.94%) at the concentration of 1.0 mg/plant by the root-irrigation method after 60 days of treatment owing to the extended duration of Ave in microcapsules. The simple and green method for the preparation of double-shelled microcapsules based on natural quaternary ammonium IL would have tremendous potential for the extensive development of controlled release pesticide formulations.


Assuntos
Cápsulas/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Praguicidas/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cobre/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Química Verde , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Ivermectina/química , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Porosidade , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/química , Solubilidade , Taninos/química , Fatores de Tempo
18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 38969-38978, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399054

RESUMO

Controlling the microstructure of materials by means of phase separation is a versatile tool for optimizing material properties. Phase separation has been exploited to fabricate intricate microstructures in many fields including cell biology, tissue engineering, optics, and electronics. The aim of this study was to use phase separation to tailor the spatial location of drugs and thereby generate release profiles of drug payload over periods ranging from 1 week to months by exploiting different mechanisms: polymer degradation, polymer diluent dissolution, and control of microstructure. To achieve this, we used drop-on-demand inkjet three-dimensional (3D) printing. We predicted the microstructure resulting from phase separation using high-throughput screening combined with a model based on the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter and were able to show that drug release from 3D-printed objects can be predicted from observations based on single drops of mixtures. We demonstrated for the first time that inkjet 3D printing yields controllable phase separation using picoliter droplets of blended photoreactive oligomers/monomers. This new understanding gives us hierarchical compositional control, from droplet to device, allowing release to be "dialled up" without manipulation of device geometry. We exemplify this approach by fabricating a biodegradable, long-term, multiactive drug delivery subdermal implant ("polyimplant") for combination therapy and personalized treatment of coronary heart disease. This is an important advance for implants that need to be delivered by cannula, where the shape is highly constrained and thus the usual geometrical freedoms associated with 3D printing cannot be easily exploited, which brings a hitherto unseen level of understanding to emergent material properties of 3D printing.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Doença das Coronárias/tratamento farmacológico , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Excipientes/química , Indóis/química , Polímeros/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Dioxanos/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Metacrilatos/química , Transição de Fase , Poliésteres/química , Impressão Tridimensional , Pirrolidinonas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360250

RESUMO

This study, conducted in a centralized cytotoxic drug preparation unit, analyzes the effectiveness of two closed system drug transfer devices (CSTDs) in reducing leakage during antineoplastic drug compounding. Wipe/pad samplings inside and outside the preparation area were taken during surveillance programs from 2016 to 2021. All samples were analyzed for gemcitabine (GEM) contamination. In 2016, the presence of GEM in some samples and the contamination of the operators' gloves in the absence of apparent drug spilling suggested unsealed preparation systems. In subsequent monitoring, GEM was also evaluated in the vial access device and in the access port system to the intravenous therapy bag of TexiumTM/SmartSiteTM and Equashield® II devices after the reconstitution and preparation steps of the drug. The next checks highlighted GEM dispersion after compounding using TexiumTM/SmartSiteTM, with positive samples ranging from 9 to 23%. In contrast, gemcitabine was not present at detectable levels in the Equashield® II system in all of the evaluated samples. The Equashield® II closed system seems effectively able to eliminate spills and leakage during gemcitabine compounding. Since drugs with different viscosities can have different effects on CSTDs, Equashield® II needs to be considered with other antineoplastic drugs during a structured surveillance program.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Exposição Ocupacional , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Antineoplásicos/análise , Composição de Medicamentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Equipamentos de Proteção
20.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Curcumin, a natural polyphenol and the principal bioactive compound in Curcuma longa, was reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic and anti-rheumatic activity. Curcumin is not only considered for preventive, but also for therapeutic, purposes in cancer therapy, which requires a killing effect on cancer cells. A drawback, however, is the low bioavailability of curcumin due to its insolubility in water. To circumvent this limitation, curcumin was administered in different water-soluble formulations, including liposomes or embedded into nanoscaled micelles. The high uptake rate of micellar curcumin makes it attractive also for cancer therapeutic strategies. Native curcumin solubilised in organic solvent was previously shown to be cytotoxic and bears a genotoxic potential. Corresponding studies with micellar curcumin are lacking. METHODS: We compared the cytotoxic and genotoxic activity of native curcumin solubilised in ethanol (Cur-E) with curcumin embedded in micells (Cur-M). We measured cell death by MTT assays, apoptosis, necrosis by flow cytometry, senolysis by MTT and C12FDG and genotoxicity by FPG-alkaline and neutral singe-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). RESULTS: Using a variety of primary and established cell lines, we show that Cur-E and Cur-M reduce the viability in all cell types in the same dose range. Cur-E and Cur-M induced dose-dependently apoptosis, but did not exhibit senolytic activity. In the cytotoxic dose range, Cur-E and Cur-M were positive in the alkaline and the neutral comet assay. Genotoxic effects vanished upon removal of curcumin, indicating efficient and complete repair of DNA damage. For inducing cell death, which was measured 48 h after the onset of treatment, permanent exposure was required while 60 min pulse-treatment was ineffective. In all assays, Cur-E and Cur-M were equally active, and the concentration above which significant cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were observed was 10 µM. Micelles not containing curcumin were completely inactive. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that micellar curcumin has the same cytotoxicity and genotoxicity profile as native curcumin. The effective concentration on different cell lines, including primary cells, was far above the curcumin concentration that can be achieved systemically in vivo, which leads us to conclude that native curcumin and curcumin administered as food supplement in a micellar formulation at the ADI level are not cytotoxic/genotoxic, indicating a wide margin of safety.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio Cometa , Curcumina/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Composição de Medicamentos , Etanol/química , Humanos , Lipossomos , Micelas , Necrose , Medição de Risco , Solubilidade , Solventes/química
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