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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4450, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895379

RESUMO

Hollow multishelled structures (HoMSs), with relatively isolated cavities and hierarchal pores in the shells, are structurally similar to cells. Functionally inspired by the different transmission forms in living cells, we studied the mass transport process in HoMSs in detail. In the present work, after introducing the antibacterial agent methylisothiazolinone (MIT) as model molecules into HoMSs, we discover three sequential release stages, i.e., burst release, sustained release and stimulus-responsive release, in one system. The triple-shelled structure can provide a long sterility period in a bacteria-rich environment that is nearly 8 times longer than that of the pure antimicrobial agent under the same conditions. More importantly, the HoMS system provides a smart responsive release mechanism that can be triggered by environmental changes. All these advantages could be attributed to chemical diffusion- and physical barrier-driven temporally-spatially ordered drug release, providing a route for the design of intelligent nanomaterials.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Difusão , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microesferas , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/farmacocinética
2.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 67(2): 199-201, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745631
3.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 67(2): 199-201, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892535
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4615, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934241

RESUMO

Integration of the unique advantages of the fields of drug discovery and drug delivery is invaluable for the advancement of drug development. Here we propose a self-delivering one-component new-chemical-entity nanomedicine (ONN) strategy to improve cancer therapy through incorporation of the self-assembly principle into drug design. A lysosomotropic detergent (MSDH) and an autophagy inhibitor (Lys05) are hybridised to develop bisaminoquinoline derivatives that can intrinsically form nanoassemblies. The selected BAQ12 and BAQ13 ONNs are highly effective in inducing lysosomal disruption, lysosomal dysfunction and autophagy blockade and exhibit 30-fold higher antiproliferative activity than hydroxychloroquine used in clinical trials. These single-drug nanoparticles demonstrate excellent pharmacokinetic and toxicological profiles and dramatic antitumour efficacy in vivo. In addition, they are able to encapsulate and deliver additional drugs to tumour sites and are thus promising agents for autophagy inhibition-based combination therapy. Given their transdisciplinary advantages, these BAQ ONNs have enormous potential to improve cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Aminoquinolinas/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanomedicina/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Aminoquinolinas/administração & dosagem , Aminoquinolinas/farmacocinética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Humanos , Nanomedicina/instrumentação , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
Mo Med ; 117(4): 362-369, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848274

RESUMO

Recently, Missouri has followed an overall upward trend in opioid overdose deaths. In 2018, Missouri was the state with the largest absolute and percentage increase in opioid-related overdose fatality rates per capita over the previous year (18.3% and 3.1/100,000). This increase occurred despite an overall decrease in U.S. opioid-related death rates in the same period. This report identifies illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) (and analogues) as the drug most responsible for this rise in opioid deaths in Missouri, with stimulant overdoses (primarily from methamphetamine) in second place. Within Missouri, we find the areas where opioid deaths are highest: St. Louis and the city's fringe areas, following the national trend for high rates in fringe areas. Based on reports from CDC Wonder data, county medical examiners, law enforcement agencies, and drug addiction prevention agencies, we conclude that IMF and related synthetic opioids arriving from China are primarily responsible for fatal narcotic overdoses in Missouri. Despite the COVID-19 disruption of fentanyl manufacturing and distribution centers in and around Wuhan, China early in the pandemic, preliminary 2020 data from medical examiners' offices show an upswing in opioid deaths, an indicator that Chinese fentanyl producers have restored the supply chain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Tráfico de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fentanila/efeitos adversos , Epidemia de Opioides/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , China , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Missouri/epidemiologia , Medicamentos Sintéticos
6.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 129, 2020 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hand sanitisers are urgently needed in the time of COVID-19, and as a result of shortages, some people have resorted to making their own formulations, including the repurposing of distilleries. We wish to highlight the importance of those producing hand sanitisers to avoid methylated spirits containing methanol and to follow WHO recommended formulations. METHODS: We explore and discuss reports of methanol toxicity through ingestion and transdermal absorption. We discuss the WHO formulations and explain the rationale behind the chosen ingredients. SHORT CONCLUSION: We advise those producing hand sanitisers to follow WHO recommended formulations, and advise those producing hand sanitisers using methylated spirits, to avoid formulations which contain methanol.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Metanol/farmacologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfetantes/normas , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Composição de Medicamentos , Etanol/química , Desinfecção das Mãos/instrumentação , Humanos , Metanol/química , Metanol/toxicidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(6): 225, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761294

RESUMO

In the race for a safe and effective vaccine against coronavirus disease (COVID)-19, pharmaceutical formulation science plays a critical role throughout the development, manufacturing, distribution, and vaccination phases. The proper choice of the type of vaccine, carrier or vector, adjuvant, excipients, dosage form, and route of administration can directly impact not only the immune responses induced and the resultant efficacy against COVID-19, but also the logistics of manufacturing, storing and distributing the vaccine, and mass vaccination. In this review, we described the COVID-19 vaccines that are currently tested in clinical trials and provided in-depth insight into the various types of vaccines, their compositions, advantages, and potential limitations. We also addressed how challenges in vaccine distribution and administration may be alleviated by applying vaccine-stabilization strategies and the use of specific mucosal immune response-inducing, non-invasive routes of administration, which must be considered early in the development process.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/farmacologia , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/química
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4265, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848154

RESUMO

Retinoids regulate a wide spectrum of cellular functions from the embryo throughout adulthood, including cell differentiation, metabolic regulation, and inflammation. These traits make retinoids very attractive molecules for medical purposes. In light of some of the physicochemical limitations of retinoids, the development of drug delivery systems offers several advantages for clinical translation of retinoid-based therapies, including improved solubilization, prolonged circulation, reduced toxicity, sustained release, and improved efficacy. In this Review, we discuss advances in preclinical and clinical tests regarding retinoid formulations, specifically the ones based in natural retinoids, evaluated in the context of regenerative medicine, brain, cancer, skin, and immune diseases. Advantages and limitations of retinoid formulations, as well as prospects to push the field forward, will be presented.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Retinoides/administração & dosagem , Animais , Encefalopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/tendências , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Regenerativa/tendências , Retinoides/química , Retinoides/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5389-5403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801695

RESUMO

Hypothesis: Developing oral formulations to enable effective release of poorly water-soluble drugs like progesterone is a major challenge in pharmaceutics. Coaxial electrospray can generate drug-loaded nanoparticles of strategic compositions and configurations to enhance physiological dissolution and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drug progesterone. Experiments: Six formulations comprising nanoparticles encapsulating progesterone in different poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) matrix configurations and compositions were fabricated and characterized in terms of morphology, molecular crystallinity, drug encapsulation efficiency and release behavior. Findings: A protocol of fabrication conditions to achieve 100% drug encapsulation efficiency in nanoparticles was developed. Scanning electron microscopy shows smooth and spherical morphology of 472.1±54.8 to 588.0±92.1 nm in diameter. Multiphoton Airyscan super-resolution confocal microscopy revealed core-shell nanoparticle configuration. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed presence of PLGA and progesterone in all formulations. Diffractometry indicated amorphous state of the encapsulated drug. UV-vis spectroscopy showed drug release increased with hydrophilic copolymer glycolide ratio while core-shell formulations with progesterone co-dissolved in PLGA core exhibited enhanced release over five hours at 79.9±1.4% and 70.7±3.5% for LA:GA 50:50 and 75:25 in comparison with pure progesterone without polymer matrix in the core at 67.0±1.7% and 57.5±2.8%, respectively. Computational modeling showed good agreement with the experimental drug release behavior in vitro.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Progesterona/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Água/química , Difração de Raios X
10.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(6): 226, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761293

RESUMO

Approximately 40% of compounds in clinical drug development suffer from solubility and bioavailability challenges. Evidence from literature demonstrates the growing interest to utilize flavonoids as potential compounds owing to their widespread therapeutic utility in various ailments. Nobiletin (NOB), one such dietary polymethoxylated flavonoid found in citrus fruits, has multiple pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory. It is useful in cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, obesity, and Alzheimer's disease. Although preclinical studies demonstrate the therapeutic utility of NOB, it suffers from serious biopharmaceutical limitations such as low aqueous solubility (below 1 µg/ml), poor permeability across biological barriers, and low bioavailability. To overcome these biopharmaceutical challenges associated with NOB, the use of advanced formulations and nanotechnology-based strategies appears to be a promising approach to potentiate its therapeutic action. Multiple reviews cover the various therapeutic benefits of NOB in various diseases; however, there is an absence of a comprehensive review that focuses on the formulation development strategies of NOB. The purpose of this review is to provide a concise perspective on NOB as a candidate molecule for formulation development. The manuscript covers various aspects related to NOB, such as its chemistry, physicochemical properties, and pharmacological effects. This is also a thorough review of various formulation development strategies with advances made in the past years to improve the solubility, bioavailability, and therapeutic efficacy of NOB. The review also contains information related to toxicity and patents involving NOB and its formulation.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Flavonas/química , Nanotecnologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Flavonas/farmacocinética , Humanos , Solubilidade
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817618

RESUMO

DESS is a formulation widely used to preserve DNA in biological tissue samples. Although it contains three ingredients, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium chloride (NaCl), it is frequently referred to as a DMSO-based preservative. The effectiveness of DESS has been confirmed for a variety of taxa and tissues, however, to our knowledge, the contributions of each component of DESS to DNA preservation have not been evaluated. To address this question, we stored tissues of three aquatic taxa, Mytilus edulis (blue mussel), Faxonius virilis (virile crayfish) and Alitta virens (clam worm) in DESS, each component of DESS individually and solutions containing all combinations of two components of DESS. After storage at room temperature for intervals ranging from one day to six months, we extracted DNA from each tissue and measured the percentage of high molecular weight (HMW) DNA recovered (%R) and normalized HMW DNA yield (nY). Here, HMW DNA is defined as fragments >10 kb. For comparison, we also measured the %R and nY of HMW DNA from extracts of fresh tissues and those stored in 95% EtOH over the same time intervals. We found that in cases where DESS performed most effectively (yielding ≥ 20%R of HMW DNA), all solutions containing EDTA were as or more effective than DESS. Conversely, in cases where DESS performed more poorly, none of the six DESS-variant storage solutions provided better protection of HMW DNA than DESS. Moreover, for all taxa and storage intervals longer than one day, tissues stored in solutions containing DMSO alone, NaCl alone or DMSO and NaCl in combination resulted in %R and nY of HMW DNA significantly lower than those of fresh tissues. These results indicate that for the taxa, solutions and time intervals examined, only EDTA contributed directly to preservation of high molecular weight DNA.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Ácido Edético/química , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Preservação de Tecido/métodos , Animais , Composição de Medicamentos , Peso Molecular
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236063, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756567

RESUMO

The primary objective of this research was to extract the essential information needed for setting atomization break up models, specifically, the Linear Instability Sheet Atomization (LISA) breakup model, and alternative hollow cone models. A secondary objective was to gain visualization and insight into the atomization break up mechanism caused by the effects of viscosity and surface tension on primary break-up, sheet disintegration, ligament and droplet formation. High speed imaging was used to capture the near-nozzle characteristics for water and drug formulations. This demonstrated more rapid atomization for lower viscosities. Image processing was used to analyze the near-nozzle spray characteristics during the primary break-up of the liquid sheet into ligament formation. Edges of the liquid sheet, spray break-up length, break-up radius, cone angle and dispersion angle were obtained. Spray characteristics pertinent for primary breakup modelling were determined from high speed imaging of multiple spray actuations. The results have established input data for computational modelling involving parametrical analysis of nasal drug delivery.


Assuntos
Sprays Nasais , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Administração Intranasal , Aerossóis/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Tensão Superficial , Viscosidade , Água/química
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3858, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737343

RESUMO

Checkpoint blockade therapy has provided noteworthy benefits in multiple cancers in recent years; however, its clinical benefits remain confined to 10-40% of patients with extremely high costs. Here, we design an ultrafast, low-temperature, and universal self-assembly route to integrate immunology-associated large molecules into metal-organic-framework (MOF)-gated mesoporous silica (MS) as cancer vaccines. Core MS nanoparticles, acting as an intrinsic immunopotentiator, provide the niche, void, and space to accommodate antigens, soluble immunopotentiators, and so on, whereas the MOF gatekeeper protects the interiors from robust and off-target release. A combination of MOF-gated MS cancer vaccines with systemic programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) blockade therapy generates synergistic effects that potentiate antitumour immunity and reduce the effective dose of an anti-PD-1 antibody to as low as 1/10 of that for PD-1 blockade monotherapy in E.G7-OVA tumour-bearing mice, with eliciting the robust adaptive OVA-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, reversing the immunosuppressive pathway and inducing durable tumour suppression.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/farmacologia , Linfoma/terapia , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/administração & dosagem , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/química , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfoma/imunologia , Linfoma/mortalidade , Linfoma/patologia , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/síntese química , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nanopartículas/química , Ovalbumina/administração & dosagem , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Dióxido de Silício/química , Análise de Sobrevida , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(6): 225, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696899

RESUMO

In the race for a safe and effective vaccine against coronavirus disease (COVID)-19, pharmaceutical formulation science plays a critical role throughout the development, manufacturing, distribution, and vaccination phases. The proper choice of the type of vaccine, carrier or vector, adjuvant, excipients, dosage form, and route of administration can directly impact not only the immune responses induced and the resultant efficacy against COVID-19, but also the logistics of manufacturing, storing and distributing the vaccine, and mass vaccination. In this review, we described the COVID-19 vaccines that are currently tested in clinical trials and provided in-depth insight into the various types of vaccines, their compositions, advantages, and potential limitations. We also addressed how challenges in vaccine distribution and administration may be alleviated by applying vaccine-stabilization strategies and the use of specific mucosal immune response-inducing, non-invasive routes of administration, which must be considered early in the development process.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/farmacologia , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/química
15.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 129, 2020 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hand sanitisers are urgently needed in the time of COVID-19, and as a result of shortages, some people have resorted to making their own formulations, including the repurposing of distilleries. We wish to highlight the importance of those producing hand sanitisers to avoid methylated spirits containing methanol and to follow WHO recommended formulations. METHODS: We explore and discuss reports of methanol toxicity through ingestion and transdermal absorption. We discuss the WHO formulations and explain the rationale behind the chosen ingredients. SHORT CONCLUSION: We advise those producing hand sanitisers to follow WHO recommended formulations, and advise those producing hand sanitisers using methylated spirits, to avoid formulations which contain methanol.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Metanol/farmacologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfetantes/normas , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Composição de Medicamentos , Etanol/química , Desinfecção das Mãos/instrumentação , Humanos , Metanol/química , Metanol/toxicidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst ; 37(3): 205-227, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749138

RESUMO

In this review, we describe the advances in oral drug delivery approaches for taxanes for successful therapeutic outcome. Taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel) have unwanted pharmacokinetic profiles when they are given in their current dosage forms. Taxanes have low bioavailability, are extensively metabolized by CYP3A, and have a high affinity for P-glycoprotein. Regardless of dosage schedule, the overall docetaxel or paclitaxel dose that a patient can tolerate at a given interval remains similar. Currently, there are no commercially available oral taxane nanoformulations, and there are still several challenges to overcome. Nano-based formulations may offer the best solutions to problems involving the safety and effectiveness of taxane delivery. Thus, further research is necessary before such taxane nanoformulations can be manufactured for clinical use.


Assuntos
Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacocinética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Docetaxel/química , Docetaxel/farmacocinética , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/química , Micelas , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Paclitaxel/química , Paclitaxel/farmacocinética
17.
Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst ; 37(3): 229-269, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749139

RESUMO

Nanostructured drug delivery formulations have lately gained enormous attention, contributing to their systematic development. Issuance of quality by design (QbD) guidelines by ICH, FDA, and other federal agencies, in this regard, has notably influenced the overall development of drug products, enabling holistic product and process understanding. Owing to the applicability of QbD paradigms, a science lately christened as formulation by design (FbD) has been dedicated exclusively to QbD-enabled drug product development. Consisting of the principal elements of design of experiments (DoE), quality risk management (QRM), and QbD-enabled product comprehension as the fundamental tools in the implementation of FbD, a variety of drug nanocargos have been successfully developed with FbD paradigms and reported in the literature. FbD aims to produce novel and advanced systems utilizing nominal resources of development time, work effort, and money. A systematic FbD approach envisions the entire developmental path through pivotal milestones of risk assessment, factor screening and optimization (both using appropriate experimental designs), multivariate statistical and optimum search tools, along with response surface modeling, usually employing suitable computer software. The design space is one of the fundamental elements of FbD providing the most sought-after regulatory flexibility to pharma companies, postapproval. The present paper provides a bird's eye view of the fundamental aspects of FbD terminology, methodology, and applications in the development of a wide range of nanocargos, as well as a discussion of trends from both technological and regulatory perspectives.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Desenho de Fármacos , Nanoestruturas/química , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Controle de Qualidade
18.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4763-4778, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753865

RESUMO

Introduction: Methotrexate exhibits poor cutaneous bioavailability and systemic side effects on topical administration, so there is an unmet need for a novel carrier and its optimized therapy. Methotrexate-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (MTXNLCs) were formulated and characterized to determine in vitro drug release and evaluate the role of MTXNLC gel in the topical treatment of psoriasis. Methods: A solvent diffusion technique was employed to prepare MTXNLCs, which was optimized using 32 full factorial designs. The mean diameter and surface morphology of MTXNLCs was evaluated. The crystallinity of lyophilized MTXNLCs was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). MTXNLCs were integrated in 1% w/w Carbopol 934 P gel base, and in vitro skin deposition studies in human cadaver skin (HCS) were carried out. Results: The optimized MTXNLCs were rod-shaped, with an average particle size of 253 ± 8.65 nm, a zeta potential of -26.4±0.86 mV, and EE of 54.00±1.49%. DSC and XRD data confirmed the formation of NLCs. Significantly higher deposition of MTX was found in HCS from MTXNLC gel (71.52 ±1.13%) as compared to MTX plain gel (38.48±0.96%). In vivo studies demonstrated significant improvement in therapeutic response and reduction in local side effects with MTXNLCs-loaded gel in the topical treatment of psoriasis. Anti-psoriatic efficacy of MTXNLCs 100 ug/cm2 compared with plain MTX gel was evaluated using imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis in BALB/c mice. The topical application of MTXNLCs to the mouse ear resulted in a significant reduction of psoriatic area and severity index, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 and IMQ-induced histopathological alterations in mouse ear samples. Conclusion: Developed formulation of MTXNLC gel demonstrated better anti-psoriatic activity and also displayed prolonged and sustained release effect, which shows that it can be a promising alternative to existing MTX formulation for the treatment of psoriasis.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos , Géis/química , Imiquimode/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lipídeos/química , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Nanoestruturas/química , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Cutânea , Administração Tópica , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho do Órgão , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0232435, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649677

RESUMO

Anxiety disorders (AD) are the most common mental conditions affecting an estimated 40 million adults in the United States. Amiloride, a diuretic agent, has shown efficacy in reducing anxious responses in preclinical models by inhibiting the acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC). By delivering amiloride via nasal route, rapid onset of action can be achieved due to direct "nose-to-brain" access. Therefore, this study reports the formulation, physical, chemical, and microbiological stability of an extemporaneously prepared amiloride 2 mg/mL nasal spray. The amiloride nasal spray was prepared by adding 100 mg of amiloride hydrochloride to 50 mL of sterile water for injection in a sterile reagent bottle. A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated. Forced-degradation studies were performed to confirm the ability of the HPLC method to identify the degradation products from amiloride distinctively. The physical stability of the amiloride nasal spray was assessed by pH, clarity, and viscosity assessments. For chemical stability studies, samples of nasal sprays stored at room temperature were collected at time-points 0, 3 hr., 24 hr., and 7 days and were assayed in triplicate using the stability-indicating HPLC method. Microbiological stability of the nasal spray solution was evaluated for up to 7 days based on the sterility test outlined in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) chapter 71. The stability-indicating HPLC method identified the degradation products of amiloride without interference from amiloride. All tested solutions retained over 90% of the initial amiloride concentration for the 7-day study period. There were no changes in color, pH, and viscosity in any sample. The nasal spray solutions were sterile for up to 7 days in all samples tested. An extemporaneously prepared nasal spray solution of amiloride hydrochloride (2 mg/mL) was physically, chemically, and microbiologically stable for 7 days when stored at room temperature.


Assuntos
Amilorida/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Sprays Nasais , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Armazenamento de Medicamentos
20.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(6): 776-785, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with low-grade upper tract urothelial cancer are treated by radical nephroureterectomy. We aimed to assess the safety and activity of a non-surgical treatment using instillation of UGN-101, a mitomycin-containing reverse thermal gel. METHODS: In this open-label, single-arm, phase 3 trial, participants were recruited from 24 academic sites in the USA and Israel. Patients (aged ≥18 years) with primary or recurrent biopsy-proven, low-grade upper tract urothelial cancer (measuring 5-15 mm in maximum diameter) and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of less than 3 (Karnofsky Performance Status score >40) were registered to receive six instillations of once-weekly UGN-101 (mitomycin 4 mg per mL; dosed according to volume of patient's renal pelvis and calyces, maximum 60 mg per instillation) via retrograde catheter to the renal pelvis and calyces. All patients had a planned primary disease evaluation 4-6 weeks after the completion of initial therapy, in which the primary outcome of complete response was assessed, defined as negative 3-month ureteroscopic evaluation, negative cytology, and negative for-cause biopsy. Activity (complete response, expected to occur in >15% of patients) and safety were assessed by the investigator in all patients who received at least one dose of UGN-101. Data presented are from the data cutoff on May 22, 2019. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02793128. FINDINGS: Between April 6, 2017, and Nov 26, 2018, 71 (96%) of 74 enrolled patients received at least one dose of UGN-101. 42 (59%, 95% CI 47-71; p<0·0001) patients had a complete response at the primary disease evaluation visit. The median follow-up for patients with a complete response was 11·0 months (IQR 5·1-12·4). The most frequently reported all-cause adverse events were ureteric stenosis in 31 (44%) of 71 patients, urinary tract infection in 23 (32%), haematuria in 22 (31%), flank pain in 21 (30%), and nausea in 17 (24%). 19 (27%) of 71 patients had study drug-related or procedure-related serious adverse events. No deaths were regarded as related to treatment. INTERPRETATION: Primary chemoablation of low-grade upper tract urothelial cancer with intracavitary UGN-101 results in clinically significant disease eradication and might offer a kidney-sparing treatment alternative for these patients. FUNDING: UroGen Pharma.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Portadores de Fármacos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Mitomicina/administração & dosagem , Urotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma/patologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrogéis , Israel , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitomicina/efeitos adversos , Gradação de Tumores , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Urotélio/patologia
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