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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3695-3704, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602941

RESUMO

Aconitums,represented by Aconite Radix,Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Aconiti Kusnezoffh Folium,is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine with a long medicinal history in China. They possess the significant toxicity and therapeutic effects simultaneously. Their potent effects of rescuing from dying,curing rheumatism,anti-inflammation,and analgesia make Aconitums highly regarded by physicians and pharmacists of various dynasties. However,countless poisoning cases caused by an irrational use of Aconitums were reported. In case of improper application and exceeding the therapeutic window,the acute cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity would be caused,seriously threatening health and even life of the users. Therefore,the clinical application of Aconitums is limited to some extent. To avoid its toxicity and ensure the safety of medicinal use,Aconitums is usually used in a form of its processed products instead of the crude herbs,or combined with some other traditional Chinese medicines in a normal prescription. A proper processing and compatibility method can detoxicate its severe toxicity,reduce the adverse reactions,and also significantly broaden the indications and application range of Aconitums. This provides a guarantee for the secondary exploitation and utilization of Aconitums. In this paper,the traditional processing methods of Aconitums,along with the modern advancement were reviewed,and the mechanisms of detoxification by processing and compatibility were also illuminated. The physical detoxification mode and chemical detoxification mode were found as two main detoxification ways for Aconitums. In particular,the detoxification by hydrolysis,ion-pair,and saponification were three main means. The mechanisms illustrated in this paper can be a reference to the development of modern processing method and a guidance for appropriate use of Aconitums in clinical application.


Assuntos
Aconitum/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Aconitum/toxicidade , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 3035-3041, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602850

RESUMO

The taste is the key to the research and design for formulation prescription of traditional Chinese medicine buccal tablets( TCMBTs). TCMBTs are dissolved in the oral cavity in parallel with the release of the drug,providing a sufficient " time window" for the perception of various basic taste,tactile and retention. The overall taste is the result of competitive inhibition,comprehensive superposition and dynamic change of multiple tastes. Traditional evaluation methods rely mostly on recalled experience score,difficult to reflect the dynamic changes of taste for buccal tablets. Therefore,it is urgent to establish a new optimized model for taste evaluation and formulation prescription according to the formulation characteristics of TCMBTs. To this end,this paper proposed for the first time to construct a research method for the optimal formulation of TCMBTs based on temporal dominant description of sensations combined with multivariate statistical analysis: the sensory test of volunteers was carried out by temporal dominant description analysis method,and elements separation was conducted for the time and taste in the process of inclusion to form a temporal dominant descriptive score of multi-time points and multi-sensory attributes. Finally,the optimal formulation was obtained by multivariate statistical analysis. Taking the formulation prescription of Compound Caoshanhu Buccal Tablets as an example,the research ideas of this method were explained,and the optimal formulation prescription was obtained as follows,Glabrous Sarcandra Extract of 20. 0 g,mannitol of 24. 0 g,microcrystalline cellulose of 12. 0 g,aspartame of 1. 0%,menthol of 0. 7%,and menthol oil of 0. 7%. This study provides a new method for the taste evaluation and formulation research of TCMBTs,providing a new idea for the fine manufacturing and innovative development of TCM buccal tablets in the new era.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos , Comprimidos , Paladar , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Sensação , Solubilidade
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11498-11507, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544455

RESUMO

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) possess superior antioxidant properties and nutritious value, however, low bioavailability and stability limit their applications. Here, we developed a novel method to encapsulate PA dimers successfully into horse spleen apoferritin (apoHSF) using a disassembly/reassembly method based on pH change. The PA-HSF nanoparticles were characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, circular dichroism, and high-performance liquid chromatography. One apoferritin cage could approximately encapsulate 25.6 molecules of the PA dimer. The results showed that the encapsulation of the PA dimers protected it from the damage of oxidants and temperature below room temperature would be an appropriate condition for HSF-578 solution storage. Moreover, HepG2 cell monolayer absorption and adhesion analyses indicated that the PA dimers encapsulated within apoHSF cages were more efficient in transport. In addition, it was indicated that the PA-HSF nanoparticles had higher cellular antioxidant activity. The novel strategy provided in this study indicates that the protein cage structures like ferritin have potential to be applied in the field of food nutrition.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoferritinas/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Proantocianidinas/química , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Transporte Biológico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dimerização , Células Hep G2 , Cavalos , Humanos
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11066-11076, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508948

RESUMO

The electrospinning of nanofibers (NFs) of cinnamaldehyde inclusion complexes (ICs) with two different hydroxypropylated cyclodextrins (CDs), hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HP-ß-CD) and hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin (HP-γ-CD), was successfully performed in order to produce cinnamaldehyde/CD-IC NFs without using an additional polymer matrix. The inclusion complexation between cinnamaldehyde and hydroxypropylated CDs was studied by computational molecular modeling, and the results suggested that HP-ß-CD and HP-γ-CD can be inclusion complexed with cinnamaldehyde at 1:1 and 2:1 (cinnamaldehyde/CD) molar ratios. Additionally, molecular modeling and phase solubility studies showed that water solubility of cinnamaldehyde dramatically increases with cyclodextrin inclusion complex (CD-IC) formation. The HP-ß-CD has shown slightly stronger binding with cinnamaldehyde when compared to HP-γ-CD for cinnamaldehyde/CD-IC. Although cinnamaldehyde is a highly volatile compound, it was effectively preserved with high loading by the cinnamaldehyde/CD-IC NFs. It was also observed that cinnamaldehyde has shown much higher temperature stability in cinnamaldehyde/CD-IC NFs compared to uncomplexed cinnamaldehyde because of the inclusion complexation state of cinnamaldehyde within the hydroxypropylated CD cavity. Moreover, cinnamaldehyde still has kept its antibacterial activity in cinnamaldehyde/CD-IC NF samples when tested against Escherichia coli. In addition, cinnamaldehyde/CD-IC NF mats were fast-dissolving in water, even though pure cinnamaldehyde has a water-insoluble nature. In brief, self-standing nanofibrous mats of electrospun cinnamaldehyde/CD-IC NFs are potentially applicable in food, oral-care, healthcare, and pharmaceutics because of their fast-dissolving character, enhanced water solubility, stability at elevated temperature, and promising antibacterial activity.


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Acroleína/química , Acroleína/farmacologia , Ciclodextrinas/química , Composição de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nanofibras/química , Solubilidade , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10904-10912, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508953

RESUMO

High-order multiple emulsions are of great interest in both fundamental research and industrial applications as vehicles for their encapsulation capability of actives. In this work, we report a hierarchically multicompartmental highly stable triple emulsion by emulsifying and assembling of natural Quillaja saponin. Water-in-oil-in-(oil-in-water) (W2/O2/(O1/W1)) triple emulsion indicates that the compartmented system consisted of surfaced saponin-coated nanodroplets (SNDs) and dispersed oil globules, which in turn contained smaller aqueous droplets. The effects of formulation parameters, including lipophilic emulsifier content, oil fraction, and SND concentration, on the formation of multiple emulsions were systematically investigated. The assembly into fibrillar network of SNDs at the outer oil-water interface effectively protected the triple emulsion droplets against flocculation and coalescence, and strongly prevented the osmotic-driven water diffusion between the internal water droplets and the external water phase, thus contributing to superior stability during 180 days storage. All of these characteristics make the multicompartmentalized emulsions suitable to co-encapsulate a hydrophilic bioactive (gardenia blue) and two hydrophobic bioactives (eapsanthin and curcumin) in a single emulsion droplet hierarchically for the segregation and protection of multiple cargos. This approach offers a promising route toward accessing the next generation of functional deliveries and encapsulation strategies.


Assuntos
Curcumina/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Quillaja/química , Saponinas/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Glucosídeos/química , Óleos/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Água/química
6.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(9): 915-920, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474729

RESUMO

Controlling drug crystallization is one of the important issues in pre-formulation study. In recent years, advanced approaches including the use of tailor-made additives have gathered considerable attention to control crystallization behavior of drugs. This review focuses on the use of hydrophilic cyclodextrins (CDs) as additives for controlling drug crystallization. CDs affect the crystallization of drugs in solution and in solid state based on a host-guest interaction. For example, 2,6-di-O-methyl-ß-CD and 2-hydroxybutyl-ß-CD suppressed solution-mediated transition of drugs during crystallization by the host-guest interaction; as a result, metastable forms selectively precipitated in solution. The use of CDs in crystal engineering provided an opportunity for the detection of a new polymorph by changing the crystallization pathway. It was also possible to modify crystal morphology (i.e., crystal habit) by selective suppression of crystal growth on a certain direction based on the host-gust interaction. For solid formulation, stable amorphous drug/CDs complex under humid conditions was prepared using two different CDs. An overview of some recent progress in the use of CDs in crystal engineering and in amorphous formulation is described in this review.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Acetoexamida/química , Aspirina/química , Cristalização , Composição de Medicamentos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
7.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(9): 921-928, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474730

RESUMO

We studied the possibility of using ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) as an excipient to create an amorphous composite that can be administered to animals in preclinical studies of experimental drugs. Three UDCA-based amorphous samples composed of nifedipine (NIF), indomethacin (IND), and naproxen (NAP) were found by screening. The UDCA-based formulations were adjudged amorphous by solid-state analysis using X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, amorphous samples of NIF-UDCA, IND-UDCA, and NAP-UDCA did not crystallize while in 1% methyl cellulose (MC) solution for 120 min, although an amorphous solid dispersion of NIF-poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) crystallized rapidly. The low hygroscopicity of UDCA helps NIF maintain an amorphous state in 1% MC solution. The UDCA-based amorphous composites can be administered as suspended formulations to animals in preclinical studies.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Indometacina/química , Naproxeno/química , Nifedipino/química , Solubilidade
8.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(9): 929-934, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474731

RESUMO

We investigated the water contents in commercial semi-solid preparations used for pressure ulcer (PU) treatment using near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS) and compared the results with those measured using the Karl Fischer (KF) method. The aim of this study was to determine a standard method and select the appropriate topical preparation with the optimal moisture for PU treatment. The water absorption properties of bases and formulations were evaluated with a time-dependent factor using Transwell as the model membrane. KF and NIRS were applicable as measurement methods of the water content in semi-solid formulations. NIRS was shown to be a useful, simple, nondestructive tool that is more advantageous than the KF method. The water absorption characteristics tested using Transwell revealed that the rate of and capacity for water absorption are determined not only by the absorption ability of the polymer base but also by other factors, such as the osmotic pressure exerted by additives. KF and NIR measurements can be used to choose external skin preparations to control the amount of water in PU treatment.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Água/química , Administração Tópica , Glicerol/química , Humanos , Pomadas/química , Pomadas/uso terapêutico , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Lesão por Pressão/tratamento farmacológico , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
9.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(9): 992-999, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474738

RESUMO

A three-dimensional (3D) printer is a powerful tool that can be used to enhance personalized medicine. A fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer can fabricate 3D objects with different internal structures that provides the opportunity to introduce one or more specific functionalities. In this study, zero-order sustained-release floating tablet was fabricated using FDM 3D printer. Filaments comprising poorly water-soluble weak base drug, itraconazole (ITZ) and polymers (hydroxypropyl cellulose and polyvinylpyrrolidone) were prepared, and tablets with a hollow structure and different outside shell thicknesses were fabricated. In the 3D printed tablets, ITZ existed as an amorphous state and its solubility improved markedly. As the outside shell thickness of the tablet increased, drug release was delayed and floating time was prolonged. In the tablets with 0.5 mm of the upper and bottom layer thickness and 1.5 mm of the side layer thickness, holes were not formed in the tablets during the dissolution test, and the tablets floated for a long period (540 min) and showed nearly zero-order drug release for 720 min. These findings may be useful for improving the bioavailability of several drugs by effective absorption from the upper small intestine, with floating gastric retention system.


Assuntos
Itraconazol/química , Impressão Tridimensional , Comprimidos/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Composição de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Cinética , Polímeros/química , Solubilidade , Difração de Raios X
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6231-6247, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496683

RESUMO

Purpose: A palmitoylated prodrug of emtricitabine (FTC) was synthesized to extend the drug's half-life, antiretroviral activities and biodistribution. Methods: A modified FTC prodrug (MFTC) was synthesized by palmitoyl chloride esterification. MFTC's chemical structure was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance. The created hydrophobic prodrug nanocrystals were encased into a poloxamer surfactant and the pharmacokinetics (PK), biodistribution and antiretroviral activities of the nanoformulation (NMFTC) were assessed. The conversion of MFTC to FTC triphosphates was evaluated. Results: MFTC coated with poloxamer formed stable nanocrystals (NMFTC). NMFTC demonstrated an average particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of 350 nm, 0.24 and -20 mV, respectively. Drug encapsulation efficiency was 90%. NMFTC was readily taken up by human monocyte-derived macrophages yielding readily detected intracellular FTC triphosphates and an extended PK profile. Conclusion: NMFTC shows improved antiretroviral activities over native FTC. This is coordinate with its extended apparent half-life. The work represents an incremental advance in the development of a long-acting FTC formulation.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos , Emtricitabina/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Animais , Antirretrovirais/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Emtricitabina/sangue , Emtricitabina/síntese química , Emtricitabina/química , Humanos , Cinética , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Pró-Fármacos/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6339-6356, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496690

RESUMO

Objective: The rational combination of immunotherapy with standard chemotherapy shows synergistic clinical activities in cancer treatment. In the present study, an oral powder formulation of pemetrexed (PMX) was developed to enhance intestinal membrane permeability and investigate its application in metronomic chemotherapy in combination with immunotherapy. Methods: PMX was ionically complexed with a bile acid derivative (Nα-deoxycholyl-l-lysyl-methylester; DCK) as a permeation enhancer and mixed with dispersing agents, such as poloxamer 188 (P188) and Labrasol, to form an amorphous oral powder formulation of PMX/DCK (PMX/DCK-OP). Results: The apparent permeability (Papp) of PMX/DCK-OP across a Caco-2 cell monolayer was 2.46- and 8.26-fold greater than that of PMX/DCK and free PMX, respectively, which may have been due to the specific interaction of DCK with bile acid transporters, as well as the alteration of membrane fluidity due to Labrasol and P188. Furthermore, inhibition of bile acid transporters by actinomycin D in Caco-2 cell monolayers decreased the Papp of PMX/DCK-OP by 75.4%, suggesting a predominant role of bile acid transporters in the intestinal absorption of PMX/DCK-OP. In addition, caveola/lipid raft-dependent endocytosis, macropinocytosis, passive diffusion, and paracellular transport mechanisms significantly influenced the permeation of PMX/DCK-OP through the intestinal membrane. Therefore, the oral bioavailability of PMX/DCK-OP in rats was 19.8%±6.93%, which was 294% higher than that of oral PMX. Moreover, an in vivo anticancer efficacy study in B16F10 cell-bearing mice treated with a combination of oral PMX/DCK-OP and intraperitoneal anti-PD1 exhibited significant suppression of tumor growth, and the tumor volume was maximally inhibited by 2.03- and 3.16-fold compared to the oral PMX/DCK-OP and control groups, respectively. Conclusion: These findings indicated the therapeutic potential of a combination of low-dose oral chemotherapy and immunotherapy for synergistic anticancer efficacy.


Assuntos
Ácido Desoxicólico/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pemetrexede/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/sangue , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/química , Humanos , Íons , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Lisina/química , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pemetrexede/administração & dosagem , Pemetrexede/sangue , Pemetrexede/farmacocinética , Permeabilidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 6439-6450, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496696

RESUMO

Background and purpose: The essential oil derived from clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum) has been used as a chemopreventive agent in Ayurvedic medicine. The antiviral, antibacterial, and anticancer properties of its chemo-skeleton have motivated this study to explore its efficacy in pharmaceutics. Methods: Nanoscale-based emulsions were prepared by employing a spontaneous emulsification technique through self-assembly using varying concentrations of Tween 20 and Tween 80 surfactants. Their physicochemical properties and stability were studied in order to choose an optimum formulation which was clear and stable. The cytotoxicity of the stable oil-based emulsion system was evaluated using MTT assay, colony formation assay, and Annexin V-FITC assay against the thyroid cancer cell line (HTh-7). Results: All three methods verified apoptosis and reduction in cancer cell proliferation, making the formulation a promising candidate as an alternative cancer drug. The oil-based emulsion system was also tested for its antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus. Membrane permeability studies proved its efficacy to permeate through cell membrane, thereby increasing the leakage of cytoplasmic contents. Conclusion: Many current treatments for cancers are aggressive yet ineffective. This study positions the clove bud-based nanoscale emulsion as a suitable candidate for further in vivo studies and trials as a cancer drug.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Syzygium/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição de Medicamentos , Emulsões , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Tensoativos/química , Viscosidade
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10587-10594, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497957

RESUMO

Inefficient usage and overdosage of conventional pesticide formulations has resulted in large economic losses and environmental pollution due to their poor water solubility and weak adhesion to foliage. In order to develop a green and efficient pesticide formulation, a kind of alkyd resin (AR) based on vegetable oil was first synthesized and used to fabricate the lambda-cyhalothrin/AR (LC/AR) nanoemulsion via in situ phase inverse emulsification, and its properties were then investigated. Results showed that the particle size of the LC/AR nanoemulsion was 50-150 nm with maximum LC loading capacity of as much as 40.9 wt %, high encapsulation efficiency >90%, and great stability in multiple environments. The LC/AR nanoemulsion exhibited better controlled release characteristics compared with LC commercial formulations, and a stronger adhesion on the foliage of the resulted nanoemulsion was also observed, which was attributed to low surface tension and strong interactions with foliar surfaces.


Assuntos
Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Nitrilos/química , Praguicidas/química , Piretrinas/química , Emulsões/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade
15.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 23(5): 399-402, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513539

RESUMO

Water is the most abundant substance on earth, covering about 70% of the earth's surface. Life is dependent upon water and the water cycles involved. In pharmaceutical compounding, water is the most widely used excipient employed as a solubilizing agent and as a vehicle; it is also used medicinally. With the variety in dosage forms, there are different types of waters that are used, some with specific uses and some more general. For the different types or categories of water, there are different methods of preparation, different characteristics, and different properties that can be used as an advantage in compounding. This article describes the different categories of waters, their use, preparation, characteristics, and water chemistry in general.


Assuntos
Excipientes , Água , Composição de Medicamentos/normas
16.
Pharm Res ; 36(11): 153, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482243

RESUMO

The purpose of this review is to discuss the challenges associated with the development of nanoparticle-based quality drug products in adhering to the principles of quality by design (QbD) and defining appropriate quality parameters towards successful product development. With the advent of nanotechnology into the pharmaceutical field, the novel field of nanomedicine was born. Due to their unique properties in terms of size, conformation and targeted delivery, nanomedicines are able to overcome many drawbacks of conventional medicine. As nano-sized formulations have made their way into more and more therapies, it has became clear that these very unique properties create hurdles for nanomedicines in successfully traversing the regulatory pathways and there is a need to develop nanomedicines in a more controlled and consistent fashion. The elements of a QbD methodology explained in this review enable the development of nano-based formulations in a way that maximizes the possibility of success. The identification of critical quality attributes (CQA) of the drug product and its intermediates are discussed in detail with a focus on nanomaterial-based formulations. In conclusion, QbD and the identification and specification of CQAs at its core are critical to the design, development and growth of nanomaterials in pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Nanocápsulas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Animais , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Nanomedicina , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 23(5): 422-427, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513542

RESUMO

Medicating animals poses unique challenges that are often best dealt with via compounding. Pharmacists receive compounding training while in pharmacy school, but this training is not veterinary specific. Pharmacists are expected to have enough knowledge to properly verify prescriptions that are received at their practice site while keeping with the most up-to-date guidelines related to animal and human health. Whether pharmacists have the proper training to verify and/or compound veterinary specific medications is unknown. A self-administered survey was distributed electronically to 4,550 email addresses on record with the American College of Veterinary Pharmacists, the International Academy of Compounding Pharmacists, and the Society of Veterinary Hospital Pharmacists. The survey asked questions about regulations and standards associated with the use of prescription or compounded medications. Of the 4,550 distributed surveys, 153 were received, for a 3.4% response rate. Of the responses received, only 131 were used in the final data analysis. Most respondents correctly answered the assessment question regarding the ability to compound backordered, commercially available products. A majority of respondents incorrectly answered the question regarding the proper flavoring for a medication for a ferret. Those with more training perceived themselves to have a higher level of skill (r = 0.41, P<0.001). Similarly, those with formal veterinary training had better scores on Question 4 of the assessment questions, which requires knowledge of feline toxicities (P=0.029). The most common compounded medications dispensed in practice by pharmacists are methimazole, metronidazole, and gabapentin. Pharmacists mostly recognized that compounding backordered, commercially available products is permitted. Formal training improves familiarity with current compounding rules, regulations, and best practices. Formal training in veterinary pharmacy and veterinary compounding should be promoted and encouraged. Efforts should also be made at improving pharmacists' understanding of both veterinary and compounding laws and regulations.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácias , Drogas Veterinárias , Animais , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 23(5): 358-364, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513533

RESUMO

For many people, companion animals are family members and partners in life. The diagnosis of a life-threatening illness in a beloved pet can present challenges for the patient and cause stress and grief for its owner. A successful therapeutic outcome often requires the use of commercially manufactured medications that are not produced in the doses or dosage forms tolerated by veterinary patients or are unavailable to, unaffordable for, and/or inaccessible by owners. In those cases, the use of customized compounded preparations is often the best option. In this report, we describe the successful use of 2 compounds (cyclophosphamide and piroxicam) to treat an aggressive peripheral nerve sheath tumor in an older male dog. Formulations for those medications are provided.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Doenças do Cão , Neoplasias da Bainha Neural , Piroxicam/farmacologia , Animais , Cães , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 23(5): 393-396, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513538

RESUMO

The July-August 2019 issue of the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding includes part 1 of a 3-part article on the topic of excipients used in nonsterile compounding. This article, which discusses dosage form design and excipients related to appearance, palatability, flavoring, sweetening, and coloring, represents part 2 of this 3-part series. Part 3 will discuss preservatives used in nonsterile preparations. The topics presented in part 2 are very important for patient compliance. The colors, flavors, sweetening, appearance, and other dosage form characteristics can often be modified to enhance compliance by the patient, which can aid in therapeutic effectiveness.


Assuntos
Excipientes , Aromatizantes , Administração Tópica , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Conservantes Farmacêuticos
20.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 23(5): 428-433, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513543

RESUMO

Compounding for veterinarians is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but day-to-day regulation is deferred to the state authorities. Veterinarians must meet certain standards when prescribing or dispensing a compounded medication. Veterinarians are expected to maintain current knowledge of the benefit of compounded preparations and prescribe and dispense in keeping with the best evidence related to animal and human health. Whether veterinarians recognize or adhere to these standards is unknown. A self-administered survey was distributed electronically to 30,000 email addresses on record with the Veterinary International Network. The survey asked questions about the regulations and standards associated with the use of or prescription of compounded medications. Of the distributed surveys, 1,520 survey responses were received, for a 5.1% response rate. All surveys were included in the final analysis. Respondents with a higher training level in compounding had a greater perceived skill level regarding compounding of medications (r = 0.26, P<0.0001). Similarly, respondents with a higher training level had a greater knowledge of state laws and regulations (r = 0.14, P<0.0001). Those with formal training had better scores on the assessment questions than those with informal or no training (P=0.01). Approximately one-third of the respondents felt that they were not knowledgeable at all about compounding rules and regulations. The most common compounded medications used in practice by veterinarians are methimazole, metronidazole, and doxycycline. Veterinarians mostly recognized that compounding backordered, commercially available products is permitted. Formal training improves familiarity with compounding rules, regulations, and current practices. Therefore, efforts should be directed at improving veterinary knowledge of laws and regulations surrounding the practice of compounding medications.


Assuntos
Metronidazol/farmacologia , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Composição de Medicamentos/normas , Humanos , Metronidazol/química , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration/normas
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