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1.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 77(4): 585-599, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089978

RESUMO

Essential oils extracted from the leaves of Libyan Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and Miswak (Salvadora persica L.) were evaluated for their acaricidal and repellent effects on Ixodes ricinus L. nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae) using a bioassay based on an 'open filter paper method'. Rosmarinus officinalis leaf essential oil diluted to 0.5 and 1 µl/cm2 in acetone exhibited, respectively, 20 and 100% tick mortality after about 5 h of exposure. A total of 50 and 95% of I. ricinus nymphs were killed by direct contact with the oil when exposed to lethal concentrations (LC) of 0.7 µl/cm2 (LC50) and 0.95 µl/cm2 (LC95), respectively. The LC50 (0.5 µl/cm2) was reached before the end of the first 24 h of exposure time (ET), as tick mortality at 24 h was 60%. Salvadora persica leaf essential oil at 1 µl/cm2 showed a significant repellency effect against I. ricinus nymphs at 1.5 h ET. A 95% repellency was observed at a repellent concentration (RC95) of 1 µl/cm2 of S. persica, but no significant mortality was recorded at this dose of S. persica oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed that the main monoterpenes in both oils were 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, and ß-pinene, although in markedly different proportions. These results suggest that essential oils have substantial potential as alternative approaches for I. ricinus tick control.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Ixodes , Óleos Voláteis , Rosmarinus/química , Salvadoraceae/química , Animais , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Eucaliptol/análise , Líbia , Monoterpenos/análise , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/análise
2.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 102(6): 848-853, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989280

RESUMO

In this study, the detection power of a gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for procymidone and chlorflurenol was significantly enhanced using switchable solvent liquid phase microextraction (SS-LPME) as a preconcentration tool. This was achieved by a comprehensive optimization of significant parameters to the SS-LPME method such as switchable solvent amount, concentration and amount of sodium hydroxide, pH effect and mixing effect. The optimum experimental conditions obtained were used to determine analytical figures of merit for the analytes. The limits of detection obtained were 0.44 and 2.9 ng/mL for procymidone and chlorflurenol, respectively. The optimum method was applied to water sampled from an irrigation canal and two wastewater samples. The samples were spiked at two concentrations and the percent recovery results obtained ranged between 86 and 115% for both analytes. The recovery results together with the low standard deviations recorded validated the method as accurate and precise.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Fluorenos/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Irrigação Agrícola , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/química , Fluorenos/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Solventes/química , Água/química
3.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 172: 120-125, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035093

RESUMO

Ferula ovina (Boiss.) Boiss is one of the most important endemic medicinal plants in Iran, which has three main terpenoid compounds including ferutinin, stylosin and tschimgine. Ferutinin is the strongest natural phytoestrogen that has agonistic activity on estrogen receptors, particularly α-receptors. To determine the amount of ferutinin in F. ovina roots, we firstly used HPLC-UV method. In the HPLC method, the resolution of ferutinin from the two other compounds, stylosin and tshimgine, was poor. Therefore, we decided to use qHNMR method for simultaneous quantification of ferutinin, stylosin and tshimgine in the plant roots. Quantitative 1H-NMR (qHNMR) was carried out based on the relative ratio of signal integration of each compound [(H-1 for tschimgine (δH 4.94-5.03), OCH3 for stylosin (δH 3.8), and H-9 for ferutinin (δH 5.58)] to certain amount of the internal standard dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2). The qHNMR method showed good precision (intra-day RSD ≤ 2.31%, inter-day RSD ≤ 2.72%), linearity (in the ranges of 1.3-10.41, 1.2-9.7 and 1.1-9.02 mg/mL with correlation coefficients at 0.9991), repeatability (RSD ≤ 2.99%) and stability (RSD ≤ 2.4%) for the quantification of the compounds. This work confirmed that qHNMR represents a feasible alternative to high-performance liquid chromatography based methods for simultaneous quantification of ingredients in plant extracts.


Assuntos
Ferula/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Benzoatos/análise , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Cicloeptanos/análise , Composição de Medicamentos/normas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Monoterpenos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/normas , Raízes de Plantas/química , Controle de Qualidade , Sesquiterpenos/análise
4.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027274

RESUMO

The chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils isolated from the leaves of Siparuna aspera, Siparuna macrotepala, Piper leticianum, Piper augustum and the rhizome of Hedychium coronarium were evaluated. These species are used medicinally in different ways by the Amazonian communities that live near the Kutukú mountain range. Chemical studies revealed that the main components for the two Siparuna species were germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, α-pinene, δ-cadinene, δ-elemene, α-copaene and ß-caryophyllene; for the two Piper species ß-caryophyllene, germacrene D, α-(E,E)-farnesene, ß-elemene, bicyclogermacrene, δ-cadinene and for H. coronarium 1,8-cineole, ß-pinene, α-pinene and α-terpineol. The antioxidant activity of all essential oils was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), photochemiluminescence (PCL) quantitative assays, and DPPH and ABTS bioautographic profiles, with different results for each of them. Antimicrobial activity studies were carried out on three yeasts, six Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria, by means of the disc diffusion method. The essential oil of H. coronarium showed the most relevant results on L. grayi, K. oxytoca and S. mutans, P. augustum and P. leticianum on S. mutans. An antibacterial bioautographic test for H. coronarium was also carried out and highlighted the potential activity of terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/análise , Zingiberaceae/química , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Cicloexenos/análise , Cicloexenos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoterpenos/análise , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Floresta Úmida , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 654: 1158-1166, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841390

RESUMO

To track unknown sources and sinks of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inside forest canopies we measured diel cycles of VOC exchanges in a temperate maritime forest at the branch, stem and ground level with special focus on the chiral signatures of pinenes. All compartments released day and night α- and ß-pinene as major compounds. In addition, strong light dependent emissions of ocimene and linalool from branches occurred during hot summer days. In all compartments the overall emission strength of pinenes varied from day to day spanning 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. The highest pinene emissions from ground and stem were observed during high moisture conditions. Despite this variability stem emissions consistently expressed a different chiral composition than branch emissions, the former containing a much larger fraction of (-)-enantiomers than the latter. Pinene emissions from dead needle litter and soil were mostly enriched in (-)-enantiomers, while the chiral signatures of the ambient air inside the forest showed mostly intermediate levels compared to the emission signatures. These findings suggest that different organ-specific pinene producing enzymes exist in Maritime pine, and indicate that emissions from ground and stem compartments essentially contribute to the canopy VOC flux. Overall the results open new perspectives to explore chirality as a possible marker to recognize shifts in the contributions of different VOC sources present within forest ecosystems and to explain observed temporal changes in the chiral signature of pinenes in the atmosphere.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Monoterpenos/análise , Pinus , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Atmosfera , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos
6.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(2): 292-295, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29495887

RESUMO

The chemical composition of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Anacyclus monanthos subsp. cyrtolepidioides (Pomel) Humphries (Asteraceae) growing in a semi-arid region of Algeria was investigated for the first time. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and fully characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 97 compounds were identified. The essential oil was found to be rich in trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (9.8 ± 2.0%), (E)-ß-farnesene (7.4 ± 1.5%), germacrene D (6.9 ± 1.3%) and myristicin (4.8 ± 0.8%).


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Argélia , Compostos de Benzil/análise , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Dioxolanos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Pirogalol/análogos & derivados , Pirogalol/análise , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/química
7.
Planta Med ; 85(3): 185-194, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30440078

RESUMO

The growing demand and commercial value of black pepper (Piper nigrum) has resulted in considerable interest in developing suitable and cost-effective methods for chemical characterization and quality evaluation purposes. In the current study, an extensive set of oil samples (n = 23) that were extracted by steam distillation from black pepper seeds was investigated to compare the chemical profiles of samples originating from nine major producing countries, as well as to identify potential chemical markers for quality evaluation. The twenty-two most abundant volatile compounds, mainly terpenes, in these oils were determined by conventional GC/MS analysis. Principal component analysis with this set of data revealed distinct clusters for samples that originated from China and Malaysia. Relatively low concentrations of sabinene (< 0.2%) and high concentrations of 3-carene (10.9 - 21.1%) were observed in these samples, respectively, compared to oil samples from other countries. The enantiomeric distributions of key terpene markers, viz., ß-pinene, sabinene, limonene, and terpinen-4-ol, were determined by chiral GC/MS analysis. Interestingly, for these four monoterpenes, levo-isomers were found to be predominant, emphasizing the highly conserved enzymatic processes occurring in P. nigrum. Moreover, consistent enantiomeric ratios ((-) isomer/(+) isomer) of 92.2 ± 3.0% for ß-pinene, 94.8 ± 2.8% for sabinene, 60.7 ± 1.1% for limonene, and 78.3 ± 1.3% for terpinen-4-ol were observed, independent of geographical location. These results demonstrate the potential of using stereospecific compositions as chiral signatures for establishing the authenticity and quality of black pepper oil.


Assuntos
Piper nigrum/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Terpenos/análise , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limoneno/análise , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/normas , Estereoisomerismo
8.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(7): 970-979, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27046790

RESUMO

In the present study, the chemical composition of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Anthemis secundiramea Biv. subsp. secundiramea L. collected in Sicily was evaluated by GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of A. secundiramea were (Z)-lyratyl acetate (14.6%), (Z)-chrysanthenyl acetate (9.9%), (Z)-chrysanthenol (8.7%) and (E)-chrysanthenyl acetate (7.7%). The comparing with other studied oils of genus Anthemis belonging to the same clade is discussed. Antibacterial and antifungal activities against some micro-organisms infesting historical art craft, were also determined.


Assuntos
Anthemis/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arte , Asteraceae/química , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sicília
9.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(10): 1482-1485, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29252004

RESUMO

The chemical constituents of the essential oils hydrodistilled from rhizome parts of Hedychium greenii W.W. Sm. and Hedychium gracile Roxb, of family Zingiberaceae, growing in India, were analysed for the first time by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. A total of 30 and 29 components representing 99.62 and 96.74% of the total oil were identified in the essential oils of H. greenii and H. gracile, respectively. The major components of H. greenii were bornyl acetate (31.32%), α-pinene (14.49%), camphene (12.81%) and limonene (10.55%), whereas H. gracile was dominated by ß-pinene (25.24%), γ-terpinene (24.62%), terpinen-4-ol (14.87%) and 1,8-cineole (7.51%). Essential oils were assessed for antioxidant potential using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. H. greenii oil exhibited stronger antioxidant potential as compared to H. gracile oil and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Thus, H. greenii rhizome oil has the potential to be used as an alternative source of antioxidant.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Zingiberaceae/química , Antioxidantes/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Índia , Monoterpenos/análise , Rizoma/química , Terpenos/análise
10.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(8): 1227-1232, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781296

RESUMO

In present work, the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from dried flowering aerial parts of Teucrium hircanicum L. (Labiatae) originated from ten wild populations in Iran was analyzed by a GC-FID and GC/MS system. The oil yields varied from 0.04% to 0.1%. A total of thirty-two compounds representing 67.6-97.7% of the oil were identified. The essential oil was found to be rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarpons (E)-α-bergamotene (17.5-86.9%) and (E)-ß-farnesene (0.5-21.4%). Of the total identified compounds, sesquiterpene hydrocarpons (36.1-89.7%) were included the greatest essential oil fraction in all the populations, followed by oxygenated monoterpenes (2.2-21.6%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (0.0-14.4%) and monoterepene hydrocarbons (0.0-9.5%). Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were used to distinguish any geographical variations, indicating that the clustering of populations is related to their geographic origin. According to the GC/MS analysis, two chemotypes consisting of (E)-α-bergamotene and (E)-α-bergamotene-(E)-ß-farnesene were identified in the populations.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/isolamento & purificação , Flores , Óleos Voláteis/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Teucrium/química , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Análise por Conglomerados , Flores/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Irã (Geográfico) , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Sesquiterpenos/análise
11.
J Appl Microbiol ; 126(2): 516-522, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431699

RESUMO

AIMS: The study was focused on the evaluation of antimicrobial activity in vitro of the essential oil (EO) of leaves from Schinus molle against bacteria and fungi of clinical importance in the search for the discovery of new active compounds. METHODS AND RESULTS: The chemical composition of the S. molle EO was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and its antimicrobial effect was verified by broth microdilution method. The major compounds found were ß-pinene (25·23%), epi-α-cadinol (21·29%), α-pinene (18·72%), myrcene (11·54%) and sabinene (5·02%). The EO showed significant antifungal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (39·06 µg ml-1 ), weak action against Cryptococcus neoformans (625 µg ml-1 ) and Trichophyton quinckeanum (625 µg ml-1 ) and was inactive against Candida sp. In the analysis of the antibacterial action, the micro-organisms tested did not show sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a promising result of S. molle volatiles against the fungus P. brasiliensis, which causes paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic mycosis of great clinical importance in Latin America. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The results found here are novel and encourage investigations of the compounds present in this EO, which represents a source of molecules with potential use in the treatment of PCM.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Alcenos/análise , Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Paracoccidioides/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Terpenos/análise , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 190(10): 607, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255206

RESUMO

This study reports the optimization of a binary dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the determination of iprodione, procymidone, and chlorflurenol by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The study was aimed at using two extraction solvents to increase the extraction efficiency of all analytes. The binary solvents recorded results higher than the mono-solvents. After examining the effects of main experimental parameters and their interactions by analysis of variance, 200 µL of binary mixture (dichloromethane and 1,2-dichloroethane), 2.5 mL of ethanol, and 15 s vortex were obtained as optimum parameters. The detection and quantification limits calculated for the analytes were found to be between 0.30-1.6 and 1.0-5.3 ng/mL, respectively. Enhancement in detection power calculated as a ratio of the binary extraction detection limit to the detection limit of direct GC-MS analysis was 105-, 214-, and 233-fold for chlorflurenol, iprodione, and procymidone, respectively. In order to check the accuracy of the developed method, recovery study was performed. Water sampled from a lake and two wastewater samples from treatment facilities were spiked at two concentrations, and the percent recovery calculated for the samples ranged between 87 and 116%. These results confirmed the suitability of the method to real samples for accurate determination of the analytes at trace levels.


Assuntos
Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/análogos & derivados , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluorenos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Hidantoínas/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Aminoimidazol Carboxamida/análise , Lagos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Solventes/química
13.
Chem Biodivers ; 15(12): e1800301, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240144

RESUMO

In order to determine the morphophysiological and phytochemical properties of various Ducrosia anethifolia populations, the plant samples were collected from 20 locations in native regions. Current study indicated significant differences in the morphophysiological and phytochemical characteristics of D. anethifolia populations collected from 20 locations in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran. The highest value of plant height and the number of lateral stems, node per plant, umbellate per umbel, seeds per umbellate and the roots fresh and dry weight were related to the location with relatively high rainfall (130-161 mm) and low altitude (up to 1165 m) compared with others. Based on the essential oil components, D. anethifolia populations were divided into five different chemotypes. Chemotypes I, II and III were characterized by high amounts of methyl chavicol, chrysanthenyl acetate and decanal, respectively. Moreover, the populations with high amounts of decanal, anethole and dodecanal were placed in chemotype IV. Chemotype V was attributed to the Naserabad population with 1-decanol as the major compound.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Anisóis/análise , Anisóis/isolamento & purificação , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/isolamento & purificação , Ecossistema , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Irã (Geográfico) , Monoterpenos/análise , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Componente Principal
14.
Chemosphere ; 193: 664-674, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172157

RESUMO

Atmospheric nanoparticles have great impacts on human health and global climate change. The number concentrations and size distributions of nanoparticles in the size range of 5.5-350.4 nm were detected at a background site and a suburban site in Hong Kong from summer to winter in 2011 and in autumn of 2013, respectively. Significantly higher particle number concentrations in all modes were observed at the suburban site (p < 0.05) during the sampling periods, possibly due to stronger primary emissions/regional transport and more intensive new particle formation (NPF). Particle number concentrations were much enhanced under northerly winds at both sites, resulting from regional transport of Aitken and accumulation mode particles, enhanced local NPF and occasionally low condensation sink. NPF was mainly limited by the precursors of condensable vapors and oxidative capacity of the atmosphere at the background site and the suburban site, respectively. In most cases, the formation rate of 5.5 nm particles was a function of sulfuric acid vapor to the power of 1.32 ± 0.34 at the background site and 0.81 ± 0.31 at the suburban site, abiding by the cluster activation theory. However, ozonolysis of monoterpenes (particularly α-pinene) might also drive NPF, particularly in the afternoon. These reactions also contributed to the growth of nucleation mode particles, which was largely explained by sulfuric acid vapor (73.6 ± 10% at the background site and 60.4 ± 9.8% at the suburban site). In contrast, the oxidations of isoprene, ß-pinene and aromatics (particularly xylenes and trimethylbenzenes) were found to participate in the growth of Aitken mode particles.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Atmosfera/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Butadienos , Gases , Hemiterpenos , Hong Kong , Humanos , Monoterpenos/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Pentanos , Ácidos Sulfúricos , Vento , Xilenos
15.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(14): 1660-1668, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29072096

RESUMO

The volatile profiles (VOC) and the essential oil (EO) composition from the aerial parts of Salvia broussonetii were analysed. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons dominate the VOCs from leaves (95.7%) and flowers (67.6%), followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (2.6 and 29.7%, respectively). The main common compounds are germacrene D, ß-bourbonene, α-pinene, α-copaene and α-gurjunene, even if with divergent relative abundances. In the leaf EOs the sesquiterpenes prevail, even if not overwhelmingly (about 50.0%), followed by monoterpenes (23.0-35.0%) and by minor fractions of diterpene hydrocarbons and non-terpene derivates. The most abundant common compounds across the two sampling periods are α-pinene, ß-pinene, isobornyl acetate, α-gurjenene, germacrene D and bifloratriene. A morphological characterisation of the trichomes responsible for the productivity in terpenes was also performed. Four different morphotypes were observed on the above ground organs of S. brussonetii: peltates and capitates of type II and III resulted the only producers of volatile substances.


Assuntos
Odorantes/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Salvia/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Flores/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Salvia/citologia , Salvia/fisiologia , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/análise , Tricomas/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
16.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(5): 514-520, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28503948

RESUMO

Utilisation of Anagrus nilaparvatae is a promising and effective method for planthoppers manipulation. Twenty-seven components of remote lemongrass (Cymbopogon distans) oil were identified by GC/MS and nine volatiles were selected for behavioural experiments. In this study, we noted that the remote lemongrass oil was attractive to female A. nilaparvatae at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/L. α-Pinene, ß-pinene, eucalyptol, carveol and D-carvone attracted female wasps in the dose-dependent bioassays. Blend 1 (a mixture of eucalyptol, D-carvone, carveol, α-pinene, and ß-pinene with ratios of remote lemongrass oil volatiles of 625:80:11:5:3) attracted female wasps at 10 mg/L, while blend 2 (a mixture of the same five volatiles at the same loading ratio) attracted them at 0.1 and 1 mg/L. These results suggested that plant essential oils could be attractants for natural enemies to control pests. The ratios of volatiles in the mixtures affect the attractiveness of the synthetic mixtures.


Assuntos
Cymbopogon/química , Himenópteros/fisiologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Vespas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Cicloexanóis/análise , Cicloexanóis/farmacologia , Eucaliptol , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Monoterpenos/análise , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
17.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(7): 834-839, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28421828

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of jasmonic acid added to the culture medium on composition of Lavandula angustifolia essential oils. The chemical composition was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass detector (GC/MS). The experiment was conducted with the use of MS medium supplemented with increasing concentration of JA (0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5 mg∙dm-3). It was found that the analysed essential oils varied in terms of chemical composition depending on the content of JA in the medium. All obtained essential oils were characterised by a high content of σ-cadinene (17.06-29.64%), borneol (6.66-17.47%), caryophyllene oxide (8.30-14.01%), τ-cadinol (4.87-9.16%), beta-caryophyllene (3.54-6.57%), 1.8-cineole (1.94-5.87%), ß-pinene (1.48-3.05%), geranyl acetate (0.56-2.14%) and myrtenal (0.65-2.14%).


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Lavandula/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Acetatos/análise , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Meios de Cultura/química , Cicloexanóis/análise , Eucaliptol , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Lavandula/citologia , Lavandula/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Terpenos/análise
18.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(3): 316-321, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28670920

RESUMO

The chemical constituents identified in the essential oils hydrodistilled from the leaves of Amomum gagnepainii T.L.Wu, K.Larsen and Turland and Amomum repoense Pierre ex Gagnep (Zingiberaceae) of Vietnam origin are reported. The chemical analyses were performed by means of gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main compounds of A. gagnepainii were farnesyl acetate (18.5%), zerumbone (16.4%) and ß-caryophyllene (10.5%). On the other hand, Amomum repoense comprised of monoterpenes dominated by ß-pinene (33.5%), (E)-ß-ocimene (9.6%), γ-terpinene (9.1%) and α-pinene (8.4%). This is the first report on the essential oils of A. gagnepainii and A. repoense grown in Vietnam or elsewhere.


Assuntos
Amomum/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Terpenos/análise , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Alcenos/análise , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Vietnã , Zingiberaceae
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(30): 29880-29888, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28785944

RESUMO

The leafminer Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most important pests of tomato, reducing crop yields by up to 100% in greenhouses and fields, in several countries globally. Because synthetic insecticides lead to resistance and have adverse effects on natural enemies and the health of producers, alternative control methods are needed. In this study, we assessed the oviposition-deterring effect of basil plants, Ocimum gratissimum L. and O. basilicum L. (Lamiaceae), using dual-choice behavioural assays performed in flight tunnels. We found that both plants significantly reduced T. absoluta oviposition behaviour on a tomato plant located nearby. To evaluate the potential effect of basil volatile organic compounds, we formulated essential oils of both plant species in paraffin oil, and observed a similar oviposition-deterring effect. Gas chromatography analyses detected 18 constituents in these essential oils which the major constituents included thymol (33.3%), p-cymene (20.4%), γ-terpinene (16.9%), myrcene (3.9%) in O. gratissimum and estragol (73.8%), linalool (8.6%), ß-elemene (2.9%) and E-ß-ocimene (2.6%) in O. basilicum. Twenty and 33 compounds were identified of the volatiles collected on O. gratissimum and O. basilicum plants, respectively. The main components include the following: p-cymene (33.5%), γ-terpinene (23.6%), α-terpinene (7.2%), α-thujene (6.7%) and E-α-bergamotene (38.9%) in O. gratissimum, and methyl eugenol (26.1%), E-ß-ocimene (17.7%), and linalool (9.4%) in O. basilicum. Four compounds (α-pinene, ß-pinene, Myrcene, Limonene) were common in essential oils and plants. Our results suggest the valuable potential of basil and associated essential oils as a component of integrated management strategies against the tomato leafminer.


Assuntos
Lepidópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocimum/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Alcenos/análise , Alcenos/farmacologia , Animais , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Cimenos , Feminino , Lepidópteros/fisiologia , Monoterpenos/análise , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
20.
Molecules ; 22(11)2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29099075

RESUMO

The chemical composition, including the enantiomeric excess of the main terpenes, of essential oils from seeds and cones of Abies concolor was studied by chromatographic (GC) and spectroscopic methods (mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance), leading to the determination of 98 compounds. Essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The dominant volatiles of seed essential oil were: limonene (47 g/100 g, almost pure levorotary form) and α-pinene (40 g/100 g), while α-pinene (58 g/100 g), sabinene (11 g/100 g), and ß-pinene (4.5 g/100 g) were the predominant components of the cone oil. The seed and cone essential oils exhibited mild antibacterial activity, and the MIC ranged from 26 to 30 µL/mL against all of the tested bacterial standard strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The cytotoxic studies have demonstrated that tested essential oils were cytotoxic to human skin fibroblasts and human microvascular endothelial cells at concentrations much lower than the MIC. The essential oils from A. concolor seeds and cones had no toxic effect on human skin fibroblasts and human microvascular endothelial cells, when added to the cells at a low concentration (0-0.075 µL/mL) and (0-1.0 µL/mL), respectively, and cultured for 24 h.


Assuntos
Abies/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Antibacterianos/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes/análise , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicloexenos/análise , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Limoneno , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Terpenos/análise
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