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1.
J Chromatogr A ; 1628: 461434, 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822974

RESUMO

Differing sensitivity is the main obstacle for a direct combination of HPTLC with NMR spectroscopy. A sufficient amount of the isolated compound zone must be provided by HPTLC for subsequent offline NMR detection (HPTLC//NMR). To fill the gap, a straightforward procedure was developed using the same analytical HPTLC system for both bioprofiling and isolation of bioactive zones from multicomponent mixtures. The HPTLC-effect-directed analysis (EDA) revealed several bioactive compounds in five botanical extracts, i.e. Salvia officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare, all Lamiaceae, and peels of red and green apples (Jonagored and Granny Smith, respectively), both Rosaceae. A tricky case study was designed to show how to deal with potentially coeluting bioactive structural isomers, e.g., ursolic (UA), oleanolic (OA) and betulinic acids (all C30H48O3), which are most difficult to identify and assign. A multipotent bioactive HPTLC zone showed the same hRF value and mass signal in HPTLCHRMS, though containing the coeluting structural isomers UA and OA. After zone isolation from the HPTLC plate, first the 1H NMR spectrum allowed to distinguish distinct allylic H-18 protons, i.e. 2.20 ppm for UA and 2.85 ppm for OA, and at the same time, to quantify the two isomers by using the PUlse Length-based CONcentration methodology (HPTLC//1H qNMR-PULCON). In case of a partial overlap of the diagnostic signal with that of the matrix, results were corroborated with those obtained by using the 1H deconvoluted or 2D 1H-13C Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence spectra. The comparison of the quantitative results showed a good correlation (R2 = 0.9718) between the two orthogonal methods HPTLC-Vis and HPTLC//1H qNMR-PULCON. A sufficient zone isolation from the HPTLC plate (mean isolation rate of 82%) for both UA and OA (0.27 - 4.67 mM) was achieved for HPTLC//qNMR, comparing the isolated bioactive compound zone with the respective zone in the botanical extract via HPTLC-Vis densitometry. The HPTLC-EDA-Vis//1H qNMR-PULCON procedure for bioprofiling and quantification/identification/confirmation of bioactive compounds in botanical extracts is considered as straightforward, eco-friendly (only 16 mL solvent required), simple (NMR calibration used over weeks) and reliable new alternative to the status quo of bioactivity-guided fractionation.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Fracionamento Químico , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Lamiaceae/química , Ácido Oleanólico/análise , Ácido Oleanólico/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Padrões de Referência , Triterpenos/análise , Triterpenos/química
2.
Chem Biol Interact ; 330: 109198, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692981

RESUMO

Quercetin 3-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (isoquercetin) is one of the most frequent metabolites of the Passiflora ligularis Juss. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the aqueous extract and ethanol fraction from P. ligularis Juss leaves on glycaemia and the mechanism of action of isoquercetin on glucose uptake. In the glucose tolerance test, the aqueous extract and ethanol fraction from P. ligularis Juss (125 mg/kg to 500 mg/kg o. g.) reduced glycaemia and increased the hepatic and muscular glycogen content. Phytochemical analysis evidenced the dominant presence of isoquercetin in the extract and fraction from leaves of P. ligularis Juss. Isoquercetin mediates the stimulatory effect on glucose uptake independent of insulin receptor activation but, involve PI3K, MAPK, MEK/ERK pathways and de novo protein synthesis to GLUT-4 translocation. Overall findings revealed that isoquercetin and aqueous extract and ethanol fraction of P. ligularis Juss leaves might be a promising functional food or medicine for the treatment or prevention of diabetes.


Assuntos
Glucose/farmacocinética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Passiflora/química , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Quercetina/isolamento & purificação , Quercetina/farmacologia , Ratos
3.
Food Chem ; 332: 127393, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603921

RESUMO

Jambu [Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen] is an edible plant with a wide range of constituents of biological interest. In this study, the chemical composition of leaves, flowers and stems of jambu cultivated in hydroponic and conventional systems was investigated. In both crop systems, the leaves showed the highest total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and in vitro antioxidant capacity. The extracts were characterized by determining 45 compounds, including phenolic acids, glycosylated flavonoids, alkamides and fatty acids, by LC-MS analysis. Of these compounds, 31 are described for the first time in this species, five of which are reported for the first time in the literature. The PCA and cluster analysis results distinguished different anatomical parts (PC1 and PC2) and cultivation systems (PC3) into well-defined groups.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Asteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidroponia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Análise por Conglomerados , Espectrometria de Massas , Folhas de Planta/química , Análise de Componente Principal
4.
Food Chem ; 333: 127506, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679417

RESUMO

Artichoke floral stems (AFS) food waste by-products were examined for their phytochemical constituents and their in vitro and in vivo biological activities. Although that the highest total phenol content and total flavonoid content were found in ethyl acetate extract, methanol extract possessed the strongest DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, and showed the highest reducing ferric antioxidant power (FRAP). The anti-acetylcholinesterase activity was higher in butanol extract, whereas the ethyl acetate extract had the highest inhibitory effect on heat-induced protein denaturation. In alloxan-induced diabetic mice, the AFS methanol extract (AFSE) rich in caffeoylquinic acids and flavones reduced blood glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, and improved liver, and renal antioxidative status. Administration of AFSE to diabetic mice reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) suggesting its hypolipidemic action. Overall, AFS could be considered as attractive source of health-promoting ingredients.


Assuntos
Cynara scolymus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Alanina Transaminase , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/análise , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cynara scolymus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
5.
Food Chem ; 328: 126833, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480265

RESUMO

Raspberries are rich in polyphenols but the impact of organic versus conventional agricultural practices on their phytochemical composition is not well known. This study aimed to analyse and compare the polyphenol accumulation in raspberries grown under both agricultural practices in the same edaphoclimatic conditions. Two raspberry cultivars 'Kweli' and 'Tulameen' were used. Under organic agricultural practices, the polyphenols levels increased for the 'Kweli' cultivar but decreased for the 'Tulameen' cultivar. 'Tulameen' cultivar grown under conventional agricultural practices contained higher anthocyanins levels than grown under organic agricultural practices while for the 'Kweli' cultivar no significant differences were observed between the two agricultural practices. 'Kweli' cultivar presented a significantly higher amount of ellagitannins and ellagic acid derivatives when compared to the 'Tulameen' cultivar under both agricultural practices. The effect of the agricultural practices on the raspberries' chemical profile was dependent on the cultivar and cannot be generalised.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Rubus/química , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácido Elágico/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/química , Rubus/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 330: 127261, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540531

RESUMO

The first detailed phytochemical screening was performed on juices prepared from arils of wild pomegranate fruits taken from several locations in Montenegro with the aim of their future valorization. Particular attention is paid to the effect of pomegranate growth conditions on the juice quality. In addition to the basic parameters of pomegranate fruits and juices, nine primary metabolites (sugars, organic acids and vitamin C) were determined in the juices. Among 97 phenolic compounds, 23 anthocyanins and their derivatives, 33 ellagitannins and derivatives of ellagic acid, 12 flavanols, 4 flavonol glycosides, 1 flavone, 17 hydroxybenzoic acids and 7 hydroxycinnamic acids and their derivatives, were identified. Flavanols (1137-4424 mg/L) as well as ellagitannins and ellagic acid derivatives (1849-2991 mg/L) had the highest concentrations in pomegranate juices. Juices from the pomegranates grown on two soil types had total analyzed phenolics ranging from 4387 mg/L (Eutric Cambisol) up to 8461 mg/L (Terra Rossa).


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Romã (Fruta)/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Frutas/química , Genótipo , Montenegro , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Romã (Fruta)/genética
7.
Food Chem ; 331: 127293, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554311

RESUMO

Wild rice (Zizania spp.), an important aquatic cereal grain in North America and East Asia, has attracted interest worldwide because of its antioxidant activities and health-promoting effects. Wild rice is high in protein, minerals, and vitamins but is low in fat. The phytochemical content (phytosterols, γ-oryzanol, γ-aminobutyric acid, phenolic acids, and flavonoids) of wild rice warrants its development as a functional food. Phenolic acids, flavonoids, and other phytochemicals from Zizania plants have pronounced antioxidant properties, which are associated with prevention of chronic diseases. The health-promoting effects of Zizania plants include alleviation of insulin resistance and lipotoxicity, atherosclerosis prevention, and anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-hypertensive, and immunomodulatory effects. Here, we provide an overview of Zizania research up to April 2020, focusing on the nutritional constituents, phytochemicals, antioxidant activities, and health-promoting effects of Zizania plants. This review has important implications for further investigations and applications of Zizania plants in medicine and as functional foods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Saúde , Valor Nutritivo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Poaceae/química , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química
8.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(3): 289-299, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116296

RESUMO

Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi which belongs to the family Piperaceae, is a well-known medicinal plant possessing high medicinal and various therapeutic properties. It is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of asthma and rheumatic arthritis. Numerous studies on this species have also corroborated the significant anti-inflammatory potential of its extracts and secondary metabolites. The main chemical constituents which have been isolated and identified from P. kadsura are lignans and neolignans, which possess anti-inflammatory activities. The present article aims to provide a review of the studies done on the phytochemistry and antiinflammatory activities of P. kadsura. The scientific journals for this brief literature review were from electronic sources, such as Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science. This review is expected to draw the attention of the medical professionals and the general public towards P. kadsura and to open the door for detailed research in the future.


Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, perteneciente a la familia Piperaceae, es una planta medicinal conocida que posee importantes propiedades medicinales y diversas propiedades terapéuticas. Es ampliamente utilizada en la medicina tradicional china para el tratamiento del asma y la artritis reumática. Numerosos estudios sobre esta especie también han corroborado el destacado potencial antiinflamatorio de sus extractos y metabolitos secundarios. Los principales componentes químicos que se han aislado e identificado de P. kadsura son los lignanos y los neolignanos, que poseen actividades antiinflamatorias. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo proporcionar una revisión de los estudios realizados sobre las actividades fitoquímicas y antiinflamatorias de P. kadsura. Las revistas científicas para esta breve revisión de literatura fueron de fuentes electrónicas, como Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus y Web of Science. Se espera que esta revisión atraiga la atención de los profesionales médicos y el público en general respecto de P. kadsura y abra la puerta a una investigación detallada en el futuro.


Assuntos
Piper/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Plantas Medicinais , Óleos Voláteis/química , Lignanas/análise , Piperaceae/química , Kadsura , Alcaloides/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia
9.
Ceska Slov Farm ; 69(1): 48-51, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460510

RESUMO

The free and protein-bound amino acid composition of the herb and roots of Smallanthus sonchifolius was analyzed by HPLC method. Fourteen free and fifteen protein-bound amino acids were determined in yacon herb, and three free and fourteen protein-bound amino acids in the roots. Among the free amino acids, proline (0.44 µg/mg) and aspartic acid (0.12 µg/mg) were dominant in the herb and proline (0.28 µg/mg) in the roots. Among the protein-bound amino acids, aspartic acid (18.58 µg/mg), glutamic acid (16.33 µg/mg) and proline (14.52 µg/mg) prevailed in the herb, and proline (3.14 μg/mg) in the roots. Fructose, sucrose and arabinose were identified in free form in the herb of S. sonchifolius applying gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The polysaccharide complex was obtained from yacon herb, its yield was 5.13 ± 0.09%. Fructose (3.11 µg/mg) was the only monosaccharide identified in the hydrolysate of the obtained complex.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Asteraceae/química , Carboidratos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Extratos Vegetais
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20180793, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401835

RESUMO

The therapeutic effects from Citrus reticulata on painful inflammatory ailments are associated to its flavonoids constituent and phytochemical studies with Citrus genus affirm that the peels have important amounts of it. These bioactive compounds have been a considerable therapeutic source and evaluate potential application of the peel extract is significant. This research aims to investigate the influence of ethanolic crude extract from the peels of Citrus reticulata and its possible mechanism of action in different animal models of pain. The extract reduced hyperalgesia in the second phase of formalin test (vehicle: 501.5 ± 40.0 s; C. reticulata extract 300 mg/kg: 161.8 ± 41.1 s), in the carrageenan model (vehicle at 4th h: 82.5 ± 9.6 %; C. reticulata extract 300 mg/kg at 4th h: 47.5 ± 6.5 %) and in Complete Freund's Adjuvant model (vehicle: 501.5 ± 40.0 s; C. reticulata extract 300 mg/kg: 161.8 ± 41.1 s). The possible contribution of opioidergic and adenosinergic systems in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of C. reticulata extract was observed after treatment, with non-selective antagonists for both systems, which produced reversal effects. In conclusion, these properties of C. reticulata extract suggest a potential therapeutic benefit in treating painful conditions.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Citrus/química , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Carragenina , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Etanol , Masculino , Camundongos , Medição da Dor , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20190491, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401840

RESUMO

The Commelina erecta L. (C. erecta) also known as erva-de-santa-luzia is reported by local population to have medical properties against some pathological conditions. In this study, two extracts of C. erecta leaves (aqueous and ethanolic) were phytochemically analysed and evaluated for their in-vitro antioxidant activities by DPPH, TBARS, NO assays and cell viability assays. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of rutin and caffeic acid in aqueous and ethanolic extract. The total polyphenols in aqueous and ethanolic extracts found were 142.7 ± 3.0 and 123.1 ± 5.8 µg/mL of GAE, respectively. The ethanolic extract (5 mg/mL) inhibits TBARS by 33.8%, and the aqueous extract (5 mg/mL) exhibited scavenger property against nitric oxide derivatives to an extent of 77.8%. In cell culture, both extracts improved cell survivability under H2O2 induced oxidative stress. Thus, C. erecta extract is a good candidate to become a phytotherapic medicine.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácidos Cafeicos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Commelina/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rutina/análise , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacocinética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
12.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1742-1751, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449951

RESUMO

Coffee leaves contain various bioactive compounds that are beneficial for human health. However, there are very limited researches related to the extraction of the bioactive phytochemicals from coffee leaves. In the present study, the extraction conditions for bioactive components from coffee leaves were optimized using Taguchi design and response surface methodology (RSM). Taguchi design was used to screen significant factors that affected the yield of phytochemicals including trigonelline, caffeine, chlorogenic acids, mangiferin, and rutin, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Sequentially, a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the extraction conditions. Three factors including Liquid-to-solid (L:S) ratio, ethanol concentration, and extraction temperature that significantly affected most of the phytochemical yields and antioxidant activity were selected from the six variables using Taguchi design. The optimal extraction conditions obtained from RSM were 30.3:1 L:S ratio, 54.5% ethanol, and 80 °C when simultaneously considered four responses, including TPC, the yields of mangiferin and 5-CQA and DPPH scavenging capacity. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental results for the above four responses were 62.1 mg gallic acid/g, 4.1 mg/g, 11.4 mg/g, and 356.9 µmol Trolox/g, respectively, which were close to the predicted values. About 97% of phytochemicals can be extracted in the first two times of extraction. In conclusion, the combination of Taguchi design and response surface methodology can be successfully used to screen and optimize the significant factors that affected the bioactive components extracted from coffee leaves. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Coffee leaves, the byproducts of coffee plants, are considered no- or low-value although it has a long history for using them as tea-like beverage and ethnomedicine by locals in the coffee plant growing countries. Bioactive components extracted from coffee leaves can be used as ingredients in functional beverages, functional food, and natural health products. These applications will add values to coffee leaves as well as increase the incomes of coffee farmers and workers.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Ultrassom/métodos , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1393-1398, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281353

RESUMO

An UPLC method was established for the direct determination of six major bioactive isosteroidal alkaloids, namely peimisine, imperialine, sipeimine-3-D-glucoside, verticinone, verticine and hupehenine from the bulbus of Fritillaria(Beimu), a commonly used antitussive traditional Chinese medicinal(TCM) herb. An Acquity UPLC~(TM) CSH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 µm) was used for all analysis. The investigated six compounds were all separated with gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.02% diethylamine-water-methanol at a flow rate of 0.3 mL·min~(-1). The temperature of sample manager was set at 20 ℃. Drift tube temperature was 45 ℃, and spray parameter was 40% with injection volume of 1 µL. Then, the further quality assessment of Beimu was carried out by cluster analysis(CA) and principal component analysis(PCA). The investigated all had good linearity(r≥0.998 9) over the tested ranges. The method is simple, accurate and reproducible, and can be used for determining the content of six major bioactive isosteroidal alkaloids.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Fritillaria/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/química
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 596-601, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237518

RESUMO

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging(MALDI-MSI) is a novel technique for in-situ distribution of various substances in tissue without labeling. This technique is increasingly applied to the study of medicinal plants owing to its high spatial resolution and its potential of in-situ analysis in small molecules. In this study, the structural information and their fragmentation patterns of the midazole alkaloids(1,3-dibenzyl-4,5-dimethylimidazolium chloride and 1,3-dibenzyl-2,4,5-trimethylimi-dazolium chloride) and benzylglucosinolate in the medicinal plant Maca(Lepdium meyeni) root were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid phase combined with LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry(UHPLC-HR-MS). The localization of these active ingredients in the cross-sections of Maca root was performed by MALDI-MSI. These results demonstrated that the two types of imidazole alkaloids had a similar distributed pattern. They were located more in the cortex and the periderm than those in the medulla of a lateral root, while the localization of benzylglucosinolate was concentrated in the center of the root rather than in the cortex and the periderm. The precise spatial distribution of various secondary metabolites in tissue provides an important scientific basis for the accumulation of medicinal plant active ingredients in tissues. In addition, this imaging method is a promising technique for the rapid evaluation and identification of the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine in plant tissues, as well as assisting the research on the processing of medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Lepidium/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Plantas Medicinais/química , Metabolismo Secundário , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 1120-1127, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237455

RESUMO

To study the non-flavonoids chemical constituents in water extract of Spatholobi Caulis. Some purification and analysis techniques like silica gel, D101-macroporous adsorptive resins, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies as well as reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate and analyze the phenolic acid esters and other type compounds from Spatholobi Caulis integrally. The structures of these compounds were identified by spectroscopic techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and high resolution mass spectrometries. Twenty-seven compounds, including phenolic acid, coumarin, lignan, terpene, alkaloid, and steroid compounds, were isolated from ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions in water extract of Spatholobi Caulis, and they were identified as ß-sitosterol(1), feruli acid methyl ester(2), syringaresinol(3),(+)-medioresinol(4),(+)-epipinoresinol(5), p-acetylphenol(6), bolusanthin Ⅳ(7), evofolin B(8), salicylic acid(9), trans-p-hydroxy-cinnamic acid(10), abscisic acid(11), m-hydroxyphenol(12), C-veratroylglycol(13), p-hydroquinone(14), 8,9-dihydroxymegastigma-4,6-dien-3-one(15), p-hydroxybenzoic acid(16), 6,9-dihydroxymegastigma-4,7-dien-3-one(17), protocatechuic acid(18), protocatechuic acid methyl ester(19), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin(20), isolariciresinol(21), nicotinic acid(22), daucosterol(23),(+)-pinoresinol(24), stigmasterol(25), allantoin(26) and koaburaside(27), respectively. Furthermore, compounds 2-15, 19-22, 24 and 26 were isolated from genus Spatholobus for the first time.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Fabaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Ésteres/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 739-745, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237473

RESUMO

Study the growth and development process of rhizomes(bamboo-like part) of Notopterygium incisum and the changes of carbohydrate, endogenous hormones and secondary metabolites, and provide theoretical guidance for the formation of high-quality N. incisum medicinal commodities under artificial cultivation. The One-year-old seedlings were transplanted to the original habitat,and the growth and physiological characteristics of N. incisum were dynamically monitored. The results showed that: ① Seedlings transplanted to the original habitat in spring could form rhizomes(bamboo-like part) in the same year. ② After 60 days of transplantation, the root length and root diameter of underground part of N. incisum had increased rapidly, and carbohydrate content in roots and rhizomes had accumulated rapidly. After 120 days of transplantation, the roots and rhizomes of underground part had grown slowly, and starch content in roots and rhizomes increased continuously, while sucrose and total soluble sugar content decreased gradually. ③ The content of abscisic acid(ABA) in rhizomes decreased firstly and then increased, while the indole acetic acid(IAA) content stabilized firstly and then increased rapidly, and the contents of gibberellin(GA_3) and zeatin riboside(ZR) continued to increase. ④ The content of notopterol in rhizomes was higher than that in roots, while the content of isoimperatorin was lower than that in roots, but the total content of the both in rhizomes was higher than that in roots. Therefore, N. incisum can form rhizomes with high content of secondary metabolites under wild tending, and the growth and development of rhizomes are closely related to changes in carbohydrates and are regulated by related endogenous hormones.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Apiaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/química , Rizoma/química , Metabolismo Secundário , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 899-909, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237492

RESUMO

Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium(CRP, Chinese name: Chenpi) is one of the most famous edible traditional Chinese medicines(TCMs). CRP was first recorded as top grade TCM in Shennong Bencao Jing attributing to the benefits such as regulating Qi, tonifying spleen, eliminating dampness and eliminating phlegm, and has been widely utilized for the treatments of abdominal fullness and distention, vomiting and diarrhea, as well as phlegm cough. CRP is also widely popular as spice in food industry. Because of the wide cultivation, a number of brands that exhibit extensive price range can be found in the market, resulting in a great challenge for grading. Herein, an attempt was made to in-depth chemome profiling for the sake of providing meaningful information of the universal quality control of CRP. A new core-shell column packed with adamantylethyl substituted silica gel particles was deployed for chromatographic separations and IT-TOF-MS that is advantageous at providing abundant high resolution molecular and fragment ions was employed for qualitative detection. A total of 62 components were observed and 61 ones were structurally annotated according to proposing mass fragmentation patterns, matching with reference compounds and relevant databases, and the chemical families included flavone, limonin, etc. In particular, ten compounds bearing 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarate substitute were detected from CRP for the first time. Above all, the chemical profile of CRP was characterized and the findings are meaningful for the in-depth quality assessment and efficacy material clarification of CRP.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 910-915, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237493

RESUMO

This work aims to establish an HPLC specific chromatogram and determine six components of Vernonia anthelmintica with chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, scutellarein and luteolin as index components. HPLC analysis was performed on a Waters Xbridge C_(18) column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 µm) with gradient elution of acetonitrile-0.05% trifluoroacetic acid solution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min~(-1). The detection wave length was 360 nm and the column temperature was 30 ℃. Chemometrics software Chempattern was employed to analyze the data. HPLC specific chromatogram of V. anthelmintica was established and six characteristic peaks were marked. Six characteristic peaks were simultaneously determined by HPLC within 50 min. The contents of the six components in 13 batch samples of V. anthelmintica were 0.14%-0.68%, 0.44%-0.74%, 0.63%-1.01%, 0.14%-0.71%, 0.15%-0.26% and 0.010%-0.030%, respectively. The HPLC specific chromatogram of V. anthelmintica, together with determination of six components showed strong specificity, and it can be used for the quality control of the crude drug.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Vernonia/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Controle de Qualidade
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(2): 347-351, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237317

RESUMO

Eight compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extraction of Prunus mume by column chromatography. On the basis of physicochemical properties and spectrum analysis, these compounds were identified as isoquercitrin-6″-O-benzoate(1), pinoresinol(2), naringin(3), ethyl-ß-D-glucopyranoside(4), astragalin(5), quercetin(6), hypericin(7), and rutin(8). Among them, compound 1 was a new natural product, and compounds 2-5 were isolated from this plant for the first time. In vitro study, compounds 1, 3, 5-8 could significantly increase the cell survival ratio.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prunus/química , Acetatos , Solventes
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(1): 59-64, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237411

RESUMO

In this paper, five field density treatments were set up in the field plot experiment, which were 2 500,3 000,5 000,6 660,8 000 plants/mu(1 mu≈667 m~2). The agronomic traits, economic traits, mineral element absorption and the content of effective components of Chrysanthemum morifolium under different densities were studied. The results showed that dense planting could significantly reduce the number of secondary branches of Ch. morifolium and the yield per plant, but significantly increase the population yield of Ch. morifolium. The yield of Ch. morifolium was the highest when the density was 8 000 plants/mu, but the effect of increasing yield would gradually decrease with the increase of planting density. With the increase of planting density, the N, P and Mg elements in flowers firstly increased and then decreased. The N element content in leaves increased gradually, which showed that increasing the planting density within a certain range could increase the absorption of N, P and Mg elements in flowers and leaves of Ch. morifolium. The contents of rutin, chlorogenic acid and 3,5-O-dicaffeoyl quinic acid in Ch. morifolium showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increase of planting density. When the planting density was 5 500,5 000,3 750 plants/mu, the content of chlorogenic acid, rutin and 3,5-O-dicaffeyl quinic acid had the maximum value. The content of luteolin in Ch. morifolium decreased gradually with the increase of planting density. When the planting density was 7 143 plants/mu, the content of luteolin was the minimum. Considering factors such as yield and active ingredient content, the cultivation density of 5 000 plants/mu(row spacing 40 cm×30 cm) can be selected for standard planting of Ch. morifolium.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/química , Chrysanthemum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Flores/química , Folhas de Planta/química
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