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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361630

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to investigate the chemical components and biological activities of Musella lasiocarpa, a special flower that is edible and has functional properties. The crude methanol extract and its four fractions (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions) were tested for their total antioxidant capacity, followed by their α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Among the samples, the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were found in the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction (224.99 mg GAE/g DE) and crude methanol extract (187.81 mg QE/g DE), respectively. The EtOAc fraction of Musella lasiocarpa exhibited the strongest DPPH· scavenging ability, ABTS·+ scavenging ability, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 values of 22.17, 12.10, and 125.66 µg/mL, respectively. The EtOAc fraction also showed the strongest ferric reducing antioxidant power (1513.89 mg FeSO4/g DE) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity ability (524.11 mg Trolox/g DE), which were higher than those of the control BHT. In contrast, the aqueous fraction demonstrated the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 10.11 µg/mL), and the best xanthine oxidase inhibitory ability (IC50 = 5.23 µg/mL) was observed from the crude methanol extract as compared with allopurinol (24.85 µg/mL). The HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS analyses further revealed an impressive arsenal of compounds, including phenolic acids, fatty acids, esters, terpenoids, and flavonoids, in the most biologically active EtOAc fraction. Taken together, this is the first report indicating the potential of Musella lasiocarpa as an excellent natural source of antioxidants with possible therapeutic, nutraceutical, and functional food applications.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/química , Magnoliopsida , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Magnoliopsida/enzimologia
2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443322

RESUMO

The main aim of this study was to develop a method for the isolation and determination of polyphenols-in particular, flavonoids present in various morphological parts of plants belonging to the cabbage family (Brassicaceae). Therefore, a procedure consisting of maceration, acid hydrolysis and measurement of the total antioxidant capacity of plant extracts (using DPPH assay) was conducted. Qualitative analysis was performed employing thin-layer chromatography (TLC), which was presented to be a suitable methodology for the separation and determination of chemopreventive phytochemicals from plants belonging to the cabbage family. The study involved the analysis of 25 vegetal samples, including radish, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, kale, canola, kohlrabi, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, red cabbage, pak choi and cauliflower. In addition, selected flavonoids content in free form and bonded to glycosides was determined by using an RP-UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371971

RESUMO

Although physiologically pain has a protective function, in many diseases, it is one of the most prominent symptoms. Today, new trends are focused on finding more natural alternatives to conventional treatments to alleviate it. Thereby, the purpose of this investigation was to obtain preclinical data of the antinociceptive properties of a lyophilized obtained from a newly designed maqui-citrus beverage alone and added with different sweeteners. To achieve this objective, maqui berry and citrus pharmacological activity were studied separately, as well as the interaction of both ingredients. In addition, due to the controversy generated regarding the intake of sugars, related to different metabolic diseases, the influence of different sweeteners (stevia, sucralose, or sucrose) was studied to determine their possible influence on the bioactive compounds of this product. For the attainment of our goals, a pharmacological evaluation, using the 1% formalin test, a nociceptive pain model in mice, was performed by using a sub-efficacious dosage of Maqui (25 mg/kg, i.p.) alone and combined with citrus, and then compared with the effects obtained in the presence of the different sweeteners. As a result, the antinociceptive response of the maqui was synergized in the presence of citrus in the neurogenic and inflammatory phases of the formalin test. However, this response was partially or totally reduced in the presence of the sweeteners. Our study gives preclinical evidence that a combination of maqui and citrus might exert beneficial actions to relieve pain, whereas the presence of sweeteners could reduce or avoid it.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Citrus , Elaeocarpaceae , Frutas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Analgesia , Animais , Antocianinas/análise , Bebidas , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Flavanonas/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Stevia , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Sacarose/farmacologia
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443414

RESUMO

Natural antioxidants, especially those of plant origins, have shown a plethora of biological activities with substantial economic value, as they can be extracted from agro-wastes and/or under exploited plant species. The perennial hydrophyte, Potamogeton perfoliatus, has been used traditionally to treat several health disorders; however, little is known about its biological and its medicinal effects. Here, we used an integrated in vitro and in vivo framework to examine the potential effect of P. perfoliatus on oxidative stress, nociception, inflammatory models, and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. Our results suggested a consistent in vitro inhibition of three enzymes, namely 5-lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2), as well as a potent antioxidant effect. These results were confirmed in vivo where the studied extract attenuated carrageenan-induced paw edema, carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration into the peritoneal cavity by 25, 44 and 64% at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, p.o., respectively. Moreover, the extract decreased acetic acid-induced vascular permeability by 45% at 600 mg/kg, p.o., and chemical hyperalgesia in mice by 86% by 400 mg/kg, p.o., in acetic acid-induced writhing assay. The extract (400 mg/kg) showed a longer response latency at the 3 h time point (2.5 fold of the control) similar to the nalbuphine, the standard opioid analgesic. Additionally, pronounced antipyretic effects were observed at 600 mg/kg, comparable to paracetamol. Using LC-MS/MS, we identified 15 secondary metabolites that most likely contributed to the obtained biological activities. Altogether, our findings indicate that P. perfoliatus has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic and antipyretic effects, thus supporting its traditional use and promoting its valorization as a potential candidate in treating oxidative stress-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antipiréticos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Potamogetonaceae/química , Ácido Acético , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade Capilar/efeitos dos fármacos , Carragenina , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Edema/patologia , Febre/patologia , Glucosídeos Iridoides/farmacologia , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Cavidade Peritoneal/patologia , Fenilpropionatos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Ratos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
5.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444706

RESUMO

Cranberry is a fruit originally from New England and currently growing throughout the east and northeast parts of the USA and Canada. The supplementation of cranberry extracts as nutraceuticals showed to contribute to the prevention of urinary tract infections, and most likely it may help to prevent cardiovascular and gastroenteric diseases, as highlighted by several clinical trials. However, aiming to validate the efficacy and safety of clinical applications as long-term randomized clinical trials (RCTs), further investigations of the mechanisms of action are required. In addition, a real challenge for next years is the standardization of cranberry's polyphenolic fractions. In this context, the optimization of the extraction process and downstream processing represent a key point for a reliable active principle for the formulation of a food supplement. For this reason, new non-conventional extraction methods have been developed to improve the quality of the extracts and reduce the overall costs. The aim of this survey is to describe both technologies and processes for highly active cranberry extracts as well as the effects observed in clinical studies and the respective tolerability notes.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/dietoterapia , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis , Infecções Urinárias/dietoterapia , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química
6.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299418

RESUMO

The present review summarizes scientific reports from between 2010 and 2019 on the use of capillary electrophoresis to quantify active constituents (i.e., phenolic compounds, coumarins, protoberberines, curcuminoids, iridoid glycosides, alkaloids, triterpene acids) in medicinal plants and herbal formulations. The present literature review is founded on PRISMA guidelines and selection criteria were formulated on the basis of PICOS (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Study type). The scrutiny reveals capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection as the most frequently used capillary electromigration technique for the selective separation and quantification of bioactive compounds. For the purpose of improvement of resolution and sensitivity, other detection methods are used (including mass spectrometry), modifiers to the background electrolyte are introduced and different extraction as well as pre-concentration techniques are employed. In conclusion, capillary electrophoresis is a powerful tool and for given applications it is comparable to high performance liquid chromatography. Short time of execution, high efficiency, versatility in separation modes and low consumption of solvents and sample make capillary electrophoresis an attractive and eco-friendly alternative to more expensive methods for the quality control of drugs or raw plant material without any relevant decrease in sensitivity.


Assuntos
Eletroforese Capilar/métodos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Plantas Medicinais/química
7.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299388

RESUMO

In a project designed to investigate the specific and infraspecific taxa of Matthiola endemic to Sicily (Italy) as new potential sources of bioactive compounds in this work, the infraspecific taxa of Matthiola fruticulosa were studied, namely, subsp. fruticulosa and subsp. coronopifolia. HPLC-PDA/ESI-MS and SPME-GC/MS analyses of hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from the aerial parts of the two subspecies led to the detection of 51 phenolics and 61 volatile components, highlighting a quite different qualitative-quantitative profile. The antioxidant properties of the extracts were explored through in vitro methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power and Fe2+ chelating activity assays. The results of the antioxidant tests showed that the extracts possess a different antioxidant ability: particularly, the extract of M. fruticulosa subsp. fruticulosa exhibited higher radical scavenging activity than that of subsp. coronopifolia (IC50 = 1.25 ± 0.02 mg/mL and 2.86 ± 0.05 mg/mL), which in turn displayed better chelating properties (IC50 = 1.49 ± 0.01 mg/mL and 0.63 ± 0.01 mg/mL). Lastly, Artemia salina lethality bioassay was performed for toxicity assessment. The results of the bioassay showed lack of toxicity against brine shrimp larvae for both extracts. The data presented indicate the infraspecific taxa of M. fruticulosa as new and safe sources of antioxidant compounds.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Brassicaceae/química , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , Artemia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Sicília , Testes de Toxicidade
8.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299467

RESUMO

The phytochemical analysis of the butanolic extract from the leaves of date palm of Saudi origin resulted in the isolation of three major constituents, oleanolic acid (1), vanillyl alcohol (2), and ß-sitosterol-3-O-ß-d-glucoside (3), which had not been isolated from this plant or previously reported. Together, compounds 1 and 2 account for 1.0% of the butanol extract, which represents 0.4% of the mass of the dried leaves. The isolation of other known compounds for this plant such as fatty acids, lutein, and sucrose was also achieved in this study. The characterization and identification of the isolated compounds were conducted on the basis of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. The findings of the current study will definitely increase the knowledge about the contribution of the constituents of this plant to its well-known nutrition, corrosion inhibition, and antimicrobial properties.


Assuntos
Phoeniceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Arábia Saudita
9.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299472

RESUMO

The impact of the composition of natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) and extraction conditions on the simultaneous extraction of hydrophilic ascorbic acid (AA), phlorotannins (TPhC), and lipophilic fucoxanthin (FX) from Fucus vesiculosus was investigated for the first time. In biological tests, the NADES extracts showed the promising ability to scavenge DPPH radicals. A positive correlation was observed between DPPH scavenging activity and AA, TPhC, and FX contents. We calculate the synergistic effect of antioxidants extracted by NADES from F. vesiculosus based on the mixture effect (ME). The addition of 30% water to the NADES and the prolongation of sonication time from 20 min up to 60 min were favorable for the ME. The ME for extracts with the NADES was increased by two folds (ME > 2). In contrast, conventional extraction by maceration with steering at 60 °C does not lead to the synergistic effect (ME = 1). It is notable that the NADES provides high stability and preserves the antioxidant activity of the extracts from F. vesiculosus during storage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Fucus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise
10.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299441

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to conduct a histochemical analysis to localize lipids, terpenes, essential oil, and iridoids in the trichomes of the L. album subsp. album corolla. Morphometric examinations of individual trichome types were performed. Light and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to show the micromorphology and localization of lipophilic compounds and iridoids in secretory trichomes with the use of histochemical tests. Additionally, the content of essential oil and its components were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Qualitative analyses of triterpenes carried out using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with densitometric detection, and the iridoid content expressed as aucubin was examined with spectrophotometric techniques. We showed the presence of iridoids and different lipophilic compounds in papillae and glandular and non-glandular trichomes. On average, the flowers of L. album subsp. album yielded 0.04 mL/kg of essential oil, which was dominated by aldehydes, sesquiterpenes, and alkanes. The extract of the L. album subsp. album corolla contained 1.5 × 10-3 ± 4.3 × 10-4 mg/mL of iridoid aucubin and three triterpenes: oleanolic acid, ß-amyrin, and ß-amyrin acetate. Aucubin and ß-amyrin acetate were detected for the first time. We suggest the use of L. album subsp. album flowers as supplements in human nutrition.


Assuntos
Iridoides/química , Lamiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Triterpenos/química , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Flores/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Iridoides/análise , Lamiaceae/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Tricomas/química , Triterpenos/análise
11.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299444

RESUMO

We aimed to analyze the chemical compositions in Arabica coffee bean extracts, assess the relevant antioxidant and iron-chelating activities in coffee extracts and instant coffee, and evaluate the toxicity in roasted coffee. Coffee beans were extracted using boiling, drip-filtered and espresso brewing methods. Certain phenolics were investigated including trigonelline, caffeic acid and their derivatives, gallic acid, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid (CGA) and their derivatives, p-coumaroylquinic acid, p-coumaroyl glucoside, the rutin and syringic acid that exist in green and roasted coffee extracts, along with dimethoxycinnamic acid, caffeoylarbutin and cymaroside that may be present in green coffee bean extracts. Different phytochemicals were also detected in all of the coffee extracts. Roasted coffee extracts and instant coffees exhibited free-radical scavenging properties in a dose-dependent manner, for which drip coffee was observed to be the most effective (p < 0.05). All coffee extracts, instant coffee varieties and CGA could effectively bind ferric ion in a concentration-dependent manner resulting in an iron-bound complex. Roasted coffee extracts were neither toxic to normal mononuclear cells nor breast cancer cells. The findings indicate that phenolics, particularly CGA, could effectively contribute to the iron-chelating and free-radical scavenging properties observed in coffee brews. Thus, coffee may possess high pharmacological value and could be utilized as a health beverage.


Assuntos
Coffea/química , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/análise , Alcaloides , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Coffea/toxicidade , Café/química , Café/toxicidade , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química
12.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209934

RESUMO

Polygoni Multiflori Radix Praeparata (PMRP), as the processed product of tuberous roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., is one of the most famous traditional Chinese medicines, with a long history. However, in recent years, liver adverse reactions linked to PMRP have been frequently reported. Our work attempted to investigate the chemical constituents of PMRP for clinical research and safe medication. In this study, an effective and rapid method was established to separate and characterize the constituents in PMRP by combining ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap-MS). Based on the accurate mass measurements for molecular and characteristic fragment ions, a total of 103 compounds, including 24 anthraquinones, 21 stilbenes, 15 phenolic acids, 14 flavones, and 29 other compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Forty-eight compounds were tentatively characterized from PMRP for the first time, and their fragmentation behaviors were summarized. There were 101 components in PMRP ethanol extract (PMRPE) and 91 components in PMRP water extract (PMRPW). Simultaneously, the peak areas of several potential xenobiotic components were compared in the detection, which showed that PMRPE has a higher content of anthraquinones and stilbenes. The obtained results can be used in pharmacological and toxicological research and provided useful information for further in vitro and in vivo studies.


Assuntos
Fallopia multiflora/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química
13.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202568

RESUMO

Olea europaea germplasm is constituted by a huge number of cultivars, each one characterized by specific features. In this context, endemic cultivars evolved for a very long period in a precise local area, developing very specific traits. These characteristics include the production and accumulation of phytochemicals, many of which are also responsible for the nutraceutical value of the drupes and of the oils therefrom. With the aim of obtaining information on the phytochemical profile of drupes of autochthonous cultivars of Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni National Park, a metabolomics-based study was carried out on 19 selected cultivars. Multivariate data analysis of 1H-NMR data and 2D NMR analyses allowed the rapid identification of metabolites that were qualitatively and/or quantitatively varying among the cultivars. This study allowed to identify the cultivars Racioppella, Guglia, Pizzulella, Oliva amara, and Racioppa as the richest in health-promoting phenolic compounds. Furthermore, it showed a significant variability among the different cultivars, suggesting the possibility of using metabolic fingerprinting approaches for cultivar differentiation, once that further studies aimed at assessing the influence of growing conditions and environmental factors on the chemical profiles of single cultivars are carried out.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Olea/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Itália , Olea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Parques Recreativos
14.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206657

RESUMO

Invasive plant species (IAS), with their numerous negative ecological, health, and economic impacts, represent one of the greatest conservation challenges in the world. Reducing the negative impacts and potentially exploiting the biomass of these plant species can significantly contribute to sustainable management, protect biodiversity, and create a healthy environment. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional potential, phytochemical status, and antioxidant capacity of nine alien invasive plant species: Abutilon theophrasti, Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Datura stramonium, Erigeron annuus, Galinsoga ciliata, Reynoutria japonica, Solidago gigantea, and Sorghum halepense. Multivariate statistical methods such as cluster and PCA were performed to determine possible connections and correlations among selected IAS depending on the phytochemical content. According to the obtained results, R. japonica was notable with the highest content of vitamin C (38.46 mg/100 g FW); while E. annuus (1365.92 mg GAE/100 g FW) showed the highest values of total polyphenolic compounds. A. retroflexus was characterized by the highest content of total chlorophylls (0.26 mg/g) and antioxidant capacity (2221.97 µmol TE/kg). Therefore, it can be concluded that the selected IAS represent nutrient-rich plant material with significant potential for the recovering of bioactive compounds.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Espécies Introduzidas , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Plantas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química
15.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202412

RESUMO

Functional plant-based foods (such as fruits, vegetables, and berries) can improve health, have a preventive effect, and diminish the risk of different chronic diseases during in vivo and in vitro studies. Berries contain many phytochemicals, fibers, vitamins, and minerals. The primary phytochemicals in berry fruits are phenolic compounds including flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavonols, flavones, flavanols, flavanones, and isoflavonoids), tannins, and phenolic acids. Since berries have a high concentration of polyphenols, it is possible to use them for treating various diseases pharmacologically by acting on oxidative stress and inflammation, which are often the leading causes of diabetes, neurological, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. This review examines commonly consumed berries: blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, cranberries, raspberries, black raspberries, and strawberries and their polyphenols as potential medicinal foods (due to the presence of pharmacologically active compounds) in the treatment of diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and other diseases. Moreover, much attention is paid to the bioavailability of active berry components. Hence, this comprehensive review shows that berries and their bioactive compounds possess medicinal properties and have therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, future clinical trials are required to study and improve the bioavailability of berries' phenolic compounds and extend the evidence that the active compounds of berries can be used as medicinal foods against various diseases.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Alimento Funcional/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química
16.
Se Pu ; 39(6): 642-651, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227325

RESUMO

Ligustici Radix (Chinese name: maoqianhu) consists of the dried roots of Ligusticum brachylobum Franch., which is mainly distributed in the Yunnan and Sichuan provinces. This herbal medicine has been primarily used for the treatment of cough in traditional Chinese medicine. Ligustici Radix is rich in coumarin derivatives. Interestingly, enantiomers and diastereomers are widely used for these coumarins, thus posing a great challenge for in-depth chemical profile characterization. In the present study, a new analytical platform, achiral-chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (achiral-chiral LC-MS/MS) was configured to profile the chemical composition of Ligustici Radix. Because achiral and chiral columns were serially coupled, especially enantiomers, both chemically and enantiomerically selective separations could be accomplished simultaneously. The newly configured achiral-chiral LC-MS/MS platform did not require any electronic valve; hence, it could overcome the drawbacks of heart-cutting achiral-chiral two-dimensional LC, i. e., sophisticated instrumentation and limited reproducibility due to the use of electronic valve(s) and the undesired retention time shift across different analytical runs. Some available candidates for chemically selective or enantiomerically selective separation were assayed; then, Capcell core RP-C18 column that was packed with core-shell type particles, and AD-RH column embedding amylose coated particles were employed the achiral and the chiral columns, respectively. The narrow-bore core-shell RP-C18 column served as the front tool to achieve efficient chemoselective separation of coumarin analogs, and enantioselective enantiomers were obtained by using a wide-bore AD-RH chiral column. The predictive multiple reaction monitoring (predictive MRM) mode allowed for the sensitive detection of potential components, and an enhanced product ion (EPI) scan, which was a unique function of Qtrap-MS, was programmed to record the MS2 spectra for all captured signals and thus aid structural annotation. Online energy-resolved mass spectrometry (online ER-MS) was introduced to pursue the suitable collision energy for each compound; in particular, inferior collision energy instead of the optimal one was utilized to suppress the response of the primary components such as praeruptorin A, B and pteryxin. The criteria to judge enantiomers or not included identical quantitative and qualitative precursor-to-product ion transitions, identical quantitative versus qualitative responses, and longer retention times from achiral-chiral LC over single-column achiral LC. As a result, a total of sixty components were observed and structurally identified. In particular, enantiomerically selective separations were achieved for eight enantiomers, cis-khellactone (CKL), qianhucoumarin G (QC-G), pteryxin (Pte), praeruptorin A (PA), cis-3'-isovaleryl-4'-acetylkhellactone (IAK), praeruptorin B (PB), praeruptorin E (PE), and cis-3',4'-diisovalerylkhellactone (DIK). Notably, none of the enantiomers were present as racemates; instead, the proportion of one enantiomer in each pair was greater than the other. Achiral-chiral LC-predictive MRM is a feasible choice for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of Ligustici Radix as well as other herbal medicines characterized by enantiomers and diastereomers.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Ligusticum/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estereoisomerismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
Se Pu ; 39(7): 708-714, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227368

RESUMO

Lithospermum erythrorhizon has the functions of cooling blood, activating blood, as well as detoxifying and penetrating rash. Lithospermum oil extracted from Lithospermum erythrorhizon can prevent and treat diaper rash, skin ulceration, eczema, and other skin diseases. Supercritical fluid extraction is the optimal method for the extraction of active components from lithospermum. In this study, an analytical method was established for simultaneously determination of six active components in lithospermum oil with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the contents of the active components as the evaluation index were used to investigate several important factors in the preparation of lithospermum oil by supercritical fluid extraction. The optimized HPLC conditions were as follows: separation column, Diamonsil C18 (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 µm); mobile phases, acetonitrile containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid-0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution containing 5 mmol/L ammonium formate (75∶25, v/v); flow rate, 1 mL/min; injection volume, 15 µL; room temperature; photodiode array detector (PAD); detection wavelength, 275 nm. The supercritical fluid extraction was optimized for ensuring stability of the amounts of effective components and the reliability of the quality of lithospermum oil. This will serve as the basis for preparation and quality control processes. Three factors and three levels orthogonal tests were adopted to investigate the important factors, viz. the pressure, temperature and CO2 flow rate in the preparation of lithospermum oil. The results showed that the developed HPLC-PAD method can be used for the simultaneous determination of shikonin, acetylshikonin, ß-acetoxyisovaleryl akanin, isobutyryl shikonin, ß,ß-dimethylacryl shikonin, and 2-methylbutyryl shikonin in 30 min. The method has good precision, accuracy and repeatability. The contents of the active components were the highest when the extraction pressure, extraction temperature, and CO2 flow rate were 23 MPa, 40 ℃, and 27 L/h, respectively. The optimized conditions are suitable for the preparation and actual production of lithospermum oil. The HPLC-PAD method is simple, feasible, accurate, and reliable. It can be used for the preparation and quality control of lithospermum oil by supercritical fluid extraction. Thus, with this method, the stability of the contents of active ingredients and the reliability of the quality of lithospermum oil can be ensured; moreover, safe and effective drug use can be realized. The established method has obvious advantages over the traditional process and is a good candidate for widespread use.


Assuntos
Lithospermum , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Lithospermum/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura
18.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206931

RESUMO

Nowadays, much attention is paid to issues such as ecology and sustainability. Many consumers choose "green cosmetics", which are environmentally friendly creams, makeup, and beauty products, hoping that they are not harmful to health and reduce pollution. Moreover, the repeated mini-lock downs during the COVID-19 pandemic have fueled the awareness that body beauty is linked to well-being, both external and internal. As a result, consumer preferences for makeup have declined, while those for skincare products have increased. Nutricosmetics, which combines the benefits derived from food supplementation with the advantages of cosmetic treatments to improve the beauty of our body, respond to the new market demands. Food chemistry and cosmetic chemistry come together to promote both inside and outside well-being. A nutricosmetic optimizes the intake of nutritional microelements to meet the needs of the skin and skin appendages, improving their conditions and delaying aging, thus helping to protect the skin from the aging action of environmental factors. Numerous studies in the literature show a significant correlation between the adequate intake of these supplements, improved skin quality (both aesthetic and histological), and the acceleration of wound-healing. This review revised the main foods and bioactive molecules used in nutricosmetic formulations, their cosmetic effects, and the analytical techniques that allow the dosage of the active ingredients in the food.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Cosméticos/química , Cosméticos/uso terapêutico , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Química Verde/métodos , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitaminas/análise , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
19.
Phytomedicine ; 88: 153596, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. is an Indian medicinal plant with innumerable pharmacological properties. Studies have proven that the phytochemicals from neem possess remarkable contraceptive abilities with limited knowledge on its mechanism of action. PURPOSE: The present review aims to summarize the efficiency of A. indica treatment as a contraceptive. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used. Published scientific articles on antifertility, antispermatogenic, antiovulation, hormone altering, contraceptive, and abortifacient activities of A. indica were collected from reputed Journals from 1980 to 2020 using electronic databases. Specific keywords search was completed to collect numerous articles with unique experiment design and significant results. This was followed by the selection of the requisite articles based on the criteria designed by the authors. Data extraction was based on the common research elements included in the articles. RESULTS: A total of 27 studies were considered for reviewing, which included key pharmacological investigations. In the beginning, authors evaluated a number of publications on the contraceptive properties of A. indica, in which it was revealed that most of the publications were made between 2005 and 2009. All the collected articles were categorised and reviewed as antifertility, antispermatogenic, antiovulation, hormone altering, contraceptive, and abortifacient. Authors also assessed studies based on the plant parts used for pharmacological evaluations including leaves, seeds, stem-bark, and flowers. The article was primarily divided into different sections based on the previous works of authors on phytochemistry and pharmacological review articles. CONCLUSION: Although A. indica is not reported with the complete alleviation of reproductive system in both male and female animal models, studies have proven its efficacy as a contraceptive. Extracts and phytochemicals from neem neither reduced the libido nor retarded the growth of secondary sexual characters, thus indicating only a temporary and reversible contraceptive activity. However, there is a dearth for clinical studies to prove the efficacy of A. indica as a herbal contraceptive.


Assuntos
Azadirachta/química , Anticoncepcionais/farmacologia , Abortivos/química , Abortivos/farmacologia , Animais , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/química , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/farmacologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Flores/química , Humanos , Masculino , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Sementes/química , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Trop Biomed ; 38(2): 214-221, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172713

RESUMO

Corona virus SARS-CoV-2-induced viral disease (COVID-19) is a zoonotic disease that was initially transmitted from animals to humans. The virus surfaced towards the end of December 2019 in Wuhan, China where earlier SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) had also surfaced in 2003. Unlike SARS, SARS-CoV-2 (a close relative of the SARS virus) created a pandemic, and as of February 24 2021, caused 112,778,672 infections and 2,499,252 deaths world-wide. Despite the best efforts of scientists, no drugs against COVID-19 are yet in sight; five vaccines have received emergency approval in various countries, but it would be a difficult task to vaccinate twice the world population of 8 billion. The objective of the present study was to evaluate through in silico screening a number of phytochemicals in Allium cepa (onion) regarding their ability to bind to the main protease of COVID-19 known as the 3C-like protease or 3CLpro, (PDB ID: 6LU7), 3CLpro of SARS (PDB ID: 3M3V), and human angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2), [PDB ID: 1R42], which functions as a receptor for entry of the virus into humans. Molecular docking (blind docking, that is docking not only against any target pocket) were done with the help of AutoDockVina. It was observed that of the twenty-two phytochemicals screened, twelve showed good binding affinities to the main protease of SARS-CoV-2. Surprisingly, the compounds also demonstrated good binding affinities to ACE-2. It is therefore very likely that the binding affinities shown by these compounds against both 3CLpro and ACE-2 merit further study for their potential use as therapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Cebolas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
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