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1.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 219, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pears have been world-widely used as a sweet and nutritious food and a folk medicine for more than two millennia. METHODS: We conducted a review from ancient literatures to current reports to extract evidence-based functions of pears. RESULTS: We found that pears have many active compounds, e.g., flavonoids, triterpenoids, and phenolic acids including arbutin, chlorogenic acid, malaxinic acid, etc. Most of researchers agree that the beneficial compounds are concentrated in the peels. From various in vitro, in vivo, and human studies, the medicinal functions of pears can be summarized as anti-diabetic,-obese, -hyperlipidemic, -inflammatory, -mutagenic, and -carcinogenic effects, detoxification of xenobiotics, respiratory and cardio-protective effects, and skin whitening effects. Therefore, pears seem to be even effective for prevention from Covid-19 or PM2.5 among high susceptible people with multiple underlying diseases. CONCLUSION: For the current or post Covid-19 era, pears have potential for functional food or medicine for both of communicable and non-communicable disease.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Alimento Funcional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pyrus/química , COVID-19 , Flavonoides , Humanos , Fenóis , Triterpenos
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(15): 3789-3796, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472251

RESUMO

The genus Chloranthus has 13 species and 5 varieties in China, which can be found in the southwest and northeast regions. Phytochemical studies on Chloranthus plants have reported a large amount of terpenoids, such as diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and sesquiterpenoid dimers. Their anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, antifungal, antivirus, and neuroprotection activities have been confirmed by previous pharmacological research. Herein, research on the chemical constituents from Chloranthus plants and their biological activities over the five years was summarized to provide scientific basis for the further development and utilization of Chloranthus plants.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Sesquiterpenos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Terpenos
3.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500592

RESUMO

Lippia graveolens is a traditional crop and a rich source of bioactive compounds with various properties (e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, UV defense, anti-glycemic, and cytotoxicity) that is primarily cultivated for essential oil recovery. The isolated bioactive compounds could be useful as additives in the functional food, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Carvacrol, thymol, ß-caryophyllene, and p-cymene are terpene compounds contained in oregano essential oil (OEO); flavonoids such as quercetin O-hexoside, pinocembrin, and galangin are flavonoids found in oregano extracts. Furthermore, thermoresistant compounds that remain in the plant matrix following a thermal process can be priced in terms of the circular economy. By using better and more selective extraction conditions, the bioactive compounds present in Mexican oregano can be studied as potential inhibitors of COVID-19. Also, research on extraction technologies should continue to ensure a higher quality of bioactive compounds while preventing an undesired chemical shift (e.g., hydrolysis). The oregano fractions can be used in the food, health, and agricultural industries.


Assuntos
Lippia/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Cosméticos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20200443, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495202

RESUMO

Phytochemical studies of Cespedesia spathulata (Ochnaceae) leaves using 1H, 13C NMR, and GC-MS have led to the isolation of some metabolites identified for the first time in these species such as cathechin, epicatechin, vitexin, orientin, 6''-O-acetyl-vitexin, sitosterol, stigmasterol, phytol, 4,5-dihydrovomifoliol and a mixture of aliphatic methyl esters, together with ochnaflavone, which was previously isolated from this plant. The modulating activity of some fractions and compounds from Cespedesia spathulata towards tyrosinase enzyme was assayed by spectroscopic and theoretical means/experiments. The dichloromethane fraction (133 µg mL-1) and ochnaflavone (333 µM) inhibited tyrosinase activity by 20 % and 2.0 %, respectively, whereas the ethyl acetate fraction (666 µg mL-1) and ±catechins (catechin and epicatechin - 800 µM) activated it by 104 % and 384 %, respectively. Quantum chemical calculations suggested that catechin and epicatechin are better activators than L-DOPA by interacting with Cu (II) ions. Molecular docking results suggested that hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions are the main binding forces between each tyrosinase activator and the amino acid residues inside the active protein binding pocket.


Assuntos
Ochnaceae , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
5.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110526, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399504

RESUMO

Sorbus aucuparia L. is a source of edible fruits appreciated for their nutritional and medicinal properties. In this work some bioactivity mechanisms were evaluated, which might be connected with the traditional application of rowanberries in cardiovascular complications of diabetes. With the use of a panel of chemical and biological in vitro models the rowanberry extracts were proved to significantly inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products, neutralise multiple oxidants generated in vivo, increase the non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity of human plasma and protect plasma components (proteins and lipids) against oxidative/nitrative damage at in vivo-relevant levels (1-5 µg/mL). Moreover, the extracts were found safe in cytotoxicity tests on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The comprehensive phytochemical profiling of the extracts (RP/HILIC-UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS3, HPLC-PDA, and UV-spectrophotometric methods) led to the identification of 51 phenolics, including caffeic and ferulic acids pseudodepsides (34 compounds, prevailing isomers of chlorogenic acid and cynarin, total content up to 269.4 mg/g), flavonols (mostly quercetin glycosides, up to 5.8 mg/g), flavan-3-ol derivatives (proanthocyanidin oligomers and polymers, up to 17.0 mg/g), and simple phenolic acids. The experiments on model constituents of the extracts and correlation studies were used to evaluate contribution of polyphenols to the observed effects. Taking into account the possible additive and synergistic effects, the co-occurrence of various compounds was indicated as partly responsible for biological activity of the fruits. Considering both the composition and activity parameters, the methanol-water (1:1, v/v) extract and its concentrated phenolic fractions appeared to be the most advantageous for biological application.


Assuntos
Sorbus , Frutas , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Estresse Oxidativo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360871

RESUMO

The root of Pueraria lobata (Willd.) is a widely used herbal medicine worldwide, whereas the stem of the plant is discarded or used as feed for livestock. To reuse and exploit the stem of P. lobata as a resource, we investigated its potential as a skin-whitening agent. We found that the developed, enriched P. lobata stem (PLS) extract significantly inhibited melanin production in the 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine-induced B16/F10 cells at a concentration of 50 µg/mL. To further confirm the mechanism of the antimelanogenic effect of the enriched PLS extracts, we examined the mRNA expression of tyrosinase, which was suppressed by the extracts. To standardize and implement effective quality control of the enriched PLS extracts, its major chemical constituents were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In total, 12 constituents were identified. In silico analysis showed that the main constituents, puerarin and daidzin, had excellent binding affinities for human tyrosinase. Collectively, our results suggest that the PLS extracts could be used as anti-pigmentation agents.


Assuntos
Melaninas/biossíntese , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Pueraria/química , Preparações Clareadoras de Pele/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Melanoma Experimental , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360887

RESUMO

The fruits of the mulberry tree (Morus alba L.), known as white mulberry, have been consumed in various forms, including tea, beverages, and desserts, worldwide. As part of an ongoing study to discover bioactive compounds from M. alba fruits, the anti-inflammatory effect of compounds from M. alba were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract of the M. alba fruits led to the isolation of 22 compounds. Among the isolated compounds, to the best of our knowledge, compounds 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 12, and 14-22 were identified from M. alba fruits for the first time in this study. Inhibitory effects of 22 compounds on the production of the nitric oxide (NO) known as a proinflammatory mediator in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were evaluated using NO assays. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of cyclo(L-Pro-L-Val) (5). We evaluated whether the anti-inflammatory effects of cyclo(L-Pro-L-Val) (5) following LPS stimulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages occurred because of phosphorylation of IκB kinase alpha (IKKα), IκB kinase beta (IKKß), inhibitor of kappa B alpha (IκBα), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activations of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Cyclo(L-Pro-L-Val) (5) significantly suppressed phosphorylations of IKKα, IKKß, IκBα, and NF-κB and activations of iNOS and COX-2 in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicate that cyclo(L-Pro-L-Val) (5) can be considered a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammation-associated disorders.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Morus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361563

RESUMO

The consumption of plant-based food is important for health promotion, especially regarding the prevention and management of chronic diseases such as diabetes. We investigated the effects of a lemon extract (LE), containing ≥20.0% total flavanones and ≥1.0% total hydroxycinnamic acids, on insulin signaling in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with TNF-α, which was used to mimic in vitro the insulin resistance condition that characterizes diabetes mellitus. Our results showed LE increased PPARγ, GLUT4 and DGAT-1 levels, demonstrating the potential of this lemon extract in the management of insulin resistance conditions associated with TNF-α pathway activation. LE treatment further decreased the release of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and restored triglyceride synthesis, which is the main feature of a healthy adipocyte.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Citrus/química , Resistência à Insulina , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos adversos , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
9.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439920

RESUMO

In 2019, COVID-19 emerged as a severe respiratory disease that is caused by the novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease has been associated with high mortality rate, especially in patients with comorbidities such as diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney diseases. This could be attributed to dysregulated immune responses and severe systemic inflammation in COVID-19 patients. The use of effective antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 and modulation of the immune responses could be a potential therapeutic strategy for COVID-19. Studies have shown that natural phenolic compounds have several pharmacological properties, including anticoronavirus and immunomodulatory activities. Therefore, this review discusses the dual action of these natural products from the perspective of applicability at COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445514

RESUMO

Oxaliplatin, a well-known chemotherapeutic agent, can induce severe neuropathic pain, which can seriously decrease the quality of life of patients. JI017 is an herb mixture composed of Aconitum carmichaelii, Angelica gigas, and Zingiber officinale. Its anti-tumor effect has been reported; however, the efficacy of JI017 against oxaliplatin-induced allodynia has never been explored. Single oxaliplatin injection [6 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, (i.p.)] induced both cold and mechanical allodynia, and oral administration of JI017 (500 mg/kg) alleviated cold but not mechanical allodynia in mice. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis demonstrated that the upregulation of mRNA of spinal transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and astrocytes following oxaliplatin injection was downregulated after JI017 treatment. Moreover, TRPV1 expression and the activation of astrocytes were intensely increased in the superficial area of the spinal dorsal horn after oxaliplatin treatment, whereas JI017 suppressed both. The administration of TRPV1 antagonist [capsazepine, intrathecal (i.t.), 10 µg] attenuated the activation of astrocytes in the dorsal horn, demonstrating that the functions of spinal TRPV1 and astrocytes are closely related in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain. Altogether, these results suggest that JI017 may be a potent candidate for the management of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy as it decreases pain, spinal TRPV1, and astrocyte activation.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Aconitum/química , Administração Oral , Angelica/química , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Baixa , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Gengibre/química , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperalgesia/genética , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Coluna Vertebral/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445518

RESUMO

From all types of cancer, cervical cancer manages to be in top four most frequent types, with a 6.5% rate of occurrence. The infectious vector that induces the disease, the high-risk Human papillomavirus (HPV), which is a sexually transmitted virus, is capable of transforming the host cell by modulating some of the principal signaling pathways responsible for cell cycle arrest, proliferation, and survival. Fortunately, like other cancer types, cervical cancer can be treated by chirurgical interventions or chemoradiotherapy, but these methods are not exactly the lucky clover of modern medicine because of the adverse effects they have. That is the reason why in the last years the emphasis has been on alternative medicine, more specifically on phytochemicals, as a substantial number of studies showed that diet contributes to cancer prevention and treatment. All these studies are trying to find new chemopreventive agents with less toxicity but high effectiveness both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this review is to evaluate the literature in order to underline the advantages and disadvantages of polyphenols, a class of dietary compounds, as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. This review also aims to present polyphenols from different perspectives, starting with mechanisms of action and ending with their toxicity. The bigger picture illustrates that polyphenols have great potential in cervical cancer prevention, with strong effects on gene modulation.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Terapias Complementares , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética
12.
Comput Biol Med ; 136: 104758, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411900

RESUMO

Covid-19 is an emerging infectious disease caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Due to the rapid rise in deaths resulted from this infection all around the world, the identification of drugs against this new coronavirus is an important requirement. Among the drugs that can fight this type of infection; natural products are substances that serve as sources of beneficial chemical molecules for the development of effective therapies. In this study, Camphor, Artemisinin and 14 Sumac phytochemicals were docked in the active site of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (PDB code: 6LU7). We have also performed molecular dynamic simulation at 100 ns with MM-GBSA/PBSA analysis for the structures with the best affinity in the binding site of the studied enzyme (Hinokiflavone and Myricetin) after docking calculations to consider parameters like RMSD, covariance, PCA, radius of gyration, potential energy, temperature and pressure. The result indicates that Hinokiflavone and Myricetin are the structures with best affinity and stability in the binding site of the studied enzyme and they respect the conditions mentioned in Lipinski's rule and have acceptable ADMET proprieties; so, these compounds have important pharmacokinetic properties and bioavailability, and they could have more potent antiviral treatment of COVID-19 than the other studied compounds.


Assuntos
Artemisininas , COVID-19 , Rhus , Cânfora , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443669

RESUMO

The need to produce an ever-increasing quantity of material products and food resulting from the planet globalization process has contributed to the spread of modern agriculture based on a linear production resulting in the generation of tons of waste. This huge amount of waste is generally accumulated in landfills, causing different environmental problems. Hence, researchers moved on to study the processes used to recover agro-industrial by-products within a circular and sustainable bio-economy concept. A systematic quest on Scopus and PubMed databases was performed to identify the data available to date on recycling agro-industrial by-products of Olea europaea L. This systematic review summarizes the knowledge regarding the use of olive trees by-products for producing animal feed, biocomposites, bioethanol, cellulose pulp, activated carbon, and as a fuel source for energy production. Furthermore, the data regarding the potential biological activity of extracts from olive roots, wood, bark, and pruning were analyzed. Olive trees by-products are, indeed, rich in molecules with antioxidant, antimicrobial, cardioprotective, and anticancer activity, representing a promising candidate for treat several human diseases.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Olea/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Árvores/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Geografia , Viés de Publicação , Risco
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445619

RESUMO

The year 2020 became the year of the outbreak of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which escalated into a worldwide pandemic and continued into 2021. One of the unique symptoms of the SARS-CoV-2 disease, COVID-19, is the loss of chemical senses, i.e., smell and taste. Smell training is one of the methods used in facilitating recovery of the olfactory sense, and it uses essential oils of lemon, rose, clove, and eucalyptus. These essential oils were not selected based on their chemical constituents. Although scientific studies have shown that they improve recovery, there may be better combinations for facilitating recovery. Many phytochemicals have bioactive properties with anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects. In this review, we describe the chemical compounds with anti- inflammatory and anti-viral effects, and we list the plants that contain these chemical compounds. We expand the review from terpenes to the less volatile flavonoids in order to propose a combination of essential oils and diets that can be used to develop a new taste training method, as there has been no taste training so far. Finally, we discuss the possible use of these in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Ageusia/tratamento farmacológico , Ageusia/virologia , Anosmia/tratamento farmacológico , Anosmia/virologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Ageusia/metabolismo , Anosmia/diagnóstico , Anosmia/metabolismo , COVID-19/complicações , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
15.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 122(9): 670-679, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predominant molecules in Peganum harmala leaves were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Based on the results of this analysis, most alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids in found P. harmala was compiled from the literature in order to develop and lead the production of effective inhibitor drugs for ACE2, main protease, and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is today's most contagious and deadly disease. AIM: By comparing FDA-approved drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19, we aimed to determine whether the molecules in P. harmala are effective against SARS CoV-2 in silico. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: P. harmala molecules were selected as drug candidates from the PubChem web tool. Afterwards, molecular docking calculations of these inhibitor molecules were made with Maestro Molecular modeling program by Schrödinger. The comparison of molecules with high inhibitory activities with FDA-approved drugs was made. With molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) calculations, docking calculations of molecules that have high inhibitory activity, were tried to be verified by calculations in the range of 0-100 nanoseconds (Tab. 4, Fig. 6, Ref. 53).


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Peganum , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides/farmacologia , COVID-19 , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peganum/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
16.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 76(3): 340-346, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342789

RESUMO

Brassica vegetables are common in cuisines worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiglycation, methylglyoxal (MG)-trapping action and antioxidant activity of Brassica vegetable extract (BVE) from cabbage, cauliflower and Chinese cabbage. The results showed that cauliflower had the highest phenolic content with the strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Seven phenolic acids and three flavonoids were identified by ESI-Q-TOF-MS analysis. The common phenolic compounds in all BVE were sinapic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. The BVE (0.5 mg/mL) showed significant inhibitory activity against glucose-induced fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation (34 - 67%) and preserved the amount of protein thiol group (30 - 35%). In addition, all extracts (0.125 - 4 mg/mL) also had the ability to trap MG, a reactive glycating agent. Total phenolic content of BVE exhibited a positive correlation with DPPH radical scavenging activity (r = 0.524) and % inhibition of AGE formation (r = 0.570) and % MG-trapping capacity (r = 0.786). These findings suggest that the BVE possesses antioxidant and antiglycating activity that may help to protect against protein glycation and oxidation mediated by glycation reaction.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Brassica , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aldeído Pirúvico , Verduras
17.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443474

RESUMO

Numerous plant compounds and their metal-ion complexes exert antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and other beneficial effects. This review highlights the different bioactivities of flavonoids, chromones, and coumarins and their metal-ions complexes due to different structural characteristics. In addition to insight into the most studied antioxidative properties of these compounds, the first part of the review provides a comprehensive overview of exogenous and endogenous sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, oxidative stress-mediated damages of lipids and proteins, and on protective roles of antioxidant defense systems, including plant-derived antioxidants. Additionally, the review covers the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of flavonoids, chromones, coumarins and their metal-ion complexes which support its application in medicine, pharmacy, and cosmetology.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Íons/química , Metais/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Plantas/química
18.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443483

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle atrophy is the decrease in muscle mass and strength caused by reduced protein synthesis/accelerated protein degradation. Various conditions, such as denervation, disuse, aging, chronic diseases, heart disease, obstructive lung disease, diabetes, renal failure, AIDS, sepsis, cancer, and steroidal medications, can cause muscle atrophy. Mechanistically, inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction are among the major contributors to muscle atrophy, by modulating signaling pathways that regulate muscle homeostasis. To prevent muscle catabolism and enhance muscle anabolism, several natural and synthetic compounds have been investigated. Recently, polyphenols (i.e., natural phytochemicals) have received extensive attention regarding their effect on muscle atrophy because of their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have reported polyphenols as strongly effective bioactive molecules that attenuate muscle atrophy and enhance muscle health. This review describes polyphenols as promising bioactive molecules that impede muscle atrophy induced by various proatrophic factors. The effects of each class/subclass of polyphenolic compounds regarding protection against the muscle disorders induced by various pathological/physiological factors are summarized in tabular form and discussed. Although considerable variations in antiatrophic potencies and mechanisms were observed among structurally diverse polyphenolic compounds, they are vital factors to be considered in muscle atrophy prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Atrofia Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/efeitos adversos , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Fitoterapia ; 153: 104986, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252512

RESUMO

It has been shown that a lipophilic CO2-extract prepared from the leaves of Petasites hybridus (Ze 339) inhibited leukotriene synthesis in vitro and ex vivo. The inhibition of the leukotriene synthesis was solely attributed to the sum of the petasins, namely petasin and its isomers isopetasin and neopetasin. To further investigate the influence of the extract matrix on leukotriene synthesis inhibition, we compared twelve selected batches of Ze 339 that differed significantly in the composition of the extract matrix. Quantitative analysis of the twelve extract batches revealed high contents of petasins [28.8-41.9%], fatty acids [17.1-27.2%] and crude oil and fat [17.7-44.2%]. The amount of sterols ranged between 3.0 and 4.9% and that of essential oils between 1.3 and 10.5%. Based on the quantitative analysis, 97-100% of the extract mass could be attributed to the above mentioned groups of ingredients. Despite significant differences in extract matrix composition, only the content of petasins was critical for the dose-dependent inhibition of leukotriene synthesis. However, at equal concentrations of petasins, no significant differences in 5-LOX, LTC4 synthase and LTA4 hydrolase inhibition were detected between the selected extract batches, despite differences in the composition of the petasin isomers. Our data suggest that the extract matrix of Ze 339 has no effect on leukotriene inhibitory effects of the petasins.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/farmacologia , Petasites/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Cobaias , Humanos , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/isolamento & purificação , Leucotrienos , Óleos Voláteis , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação
20.
Fitoterapia ; 153: 104989, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252513

RESUMO

Ten new nortriterpenes, euphorbiumrins A-J (1-10), together with three known analogues (11-13) were isolated from the latex of Euphorbia resinifera. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses (IR, UV, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). Their inhibitions on tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) were evaluated and compound 5 exhibited significant anti-TYLCV activity with an inhibition rate of 71.7% at concentration of 40 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Begomovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Euphorbia/química , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Triterpenos/farmacologia , China , Látex/química , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Tabaco/virologia , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
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