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1.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872217

RESUMO

A pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) began in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and the number of newly reported cases continues to increase. More than 19.7 million cases have been reported globally and about 728,000 have died as of this writing (10 August 2020). Recently, it has been confirmed that the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) enzyme is responsible not only for viral reproduction but also impedes host immune responses. The Mpro provides a highly favorable pharmacological target for the discovery and design of inhibitors. Currently, no specific therapies are available, and investigations into the treatment of COVID-19 are lacking. Therefore, herein, we analyzed the bioactive phytocompounds isolated by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) from Tinospora crispa as potential COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors, using molecular docking study. Our analyses unveiled that the top nine hits might serve as potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 lead molecules, with three of them exerting biological activity and warranting further optimization and drug development to combat COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Tinospora/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Antivirais/classificação , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Domínio Catalítico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pandemias , Compostos Fitoquímicos/classificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteases/classificação , Inibidores de Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato , Termodinâmica , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
2.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842606

RESUMO

Presently, there are no approved drugs or vaccines to treat COVID-19, which has spread to over 200 countries and at the time of writing was responsible for over 650,000 deaths worldwide. Recent studies have shown that two human proteases, TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L, play a key role in host cell entry of SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, inhibitors of these proteases were shown to block SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we perform virtual screening of 14,011 phytochemicals produced by Indian medicinal plants to identify natural product inhibitors of TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L. AutoDock Vina was used to perform molecular docking of phytochemicals against TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L. Potential phytochemical inhibitors were filtered by comparing their docked binding energies with those of known inhibitors of TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L. Further, the ligand binding site residues and non-covalent interactions between protein and ligand were used as an additional filter to identify phytochemical inhibitors that either bind to or form interactions with residues important for the specificity of the target proteases. This led to the identification of 96 inhibitors of TMPRSS2 and 9 inhibitors of cathepsin L among phytochemicals of Indian medicinal plants. Further, we have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to analyze the stability of the protein-ligand complexes for the three top inhibitors of TMPRSS2 namely, qingdainone, edgeworoside C and adlumidine, and of cathepsin L namely, ararobinol, (+)-oxoturkiyenine and 3α,17α-cinchophylline. Interestingly, several herbal sources of identified phytochemical inhibitors have antiviral or anti-inflammatory use in traditional medicine. Further in vitro and in vivo testing is needed before clinical trials of the promising phytochemical inhibitors identified here.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Catepsina L/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Receptores Virais/química , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Sítios de Ligação , Catepsina L/antagonistas & inibidores , Catepsina L/genética , Catepsina L/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Índia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química , Monossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Monossacarídeos/farmacologia , Pandemias , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inibidores de Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Quinazolinas/química , Quinazolinas/isolamento & purificação , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Receptores Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237076, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750082

RESUMO

Drug resistant Salmonella species and shortcomings related to current drugs stress the urgent need to search for new antimicrobial agents to control salmonellosis. This study investigated the antisalmonellal and antioxidant potentials of methanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts of Garcinia kola and Alchornea cordifolia as potential sources of drugs to control Salmonella species and to reduce related oxidative stress. The antisalmonellal activity was assessed using the broth microdilution, membrane destabilization and time-kill kinetic assays. While, the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays were used for the determination of the antioxidant activities. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 125 to 1000 µg/mL, with the methanolic root extract of G. kola being the most active. The time kill kinetic assay revealed a concentration-dependent bacteriostatic activity for promising extracts. Potent extracts from G. kola showed the ability to destabilize S. typhi outer membrane, with the methanolic root extract presenting the highest activity; two-fold higher than those of polymyxin B tested as reference. In addition, this methanolic root extract of G. kola also provoked nucleotide leakage in a concentration-dependent manner. From the antioxidant assays, the hydro-ethanolic extract from the stem bark of A. cordifolia presented significant activities comparable to that of Vitamin C. The methanolic root extract of G. kola also presented appreciable antioxidant activities, though less than that of A. cordifolia. Overall, the phytochemical screening of active extracts revealed the presence of anthocyanins, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, tannins, triterpenoids and steroids. These results provide evidence of the antibacterial potential of G. kola and offer great perspectives in a possible standardisation of an antisalmonellal phytomedicine.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Euphorbiaceae/química , Garcinia kola/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Camarões , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Taninos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia
4.
Comput Biol Med ; 124: 103936, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738628

RESUMO

Virtual screening of phytochemicals was performed through molecular docking, simulations, in silico ADMET and drug-likeness prediction to identify the potential hits that can inhibit the effects of SARS-CoV-2. Considering the published literature on medicinal importance, 154 phytochemicals with analogous structure from limonoids and triterpenoids were selected to search potential inhibitors for the five therapeutic protein targets of SARS-CoV-2, i.e., 3CLpro (main protease), PLpro (papain-like protease), SGp-RBD (spike glycoprotein-receptor binding domain), RdRp (RNA dependent RNA polymerase) and ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). The in silico computational results revealed that the phytochemicals such as glycyrrhizic acid, limonin, 7-deacetyl-7-benzoylgedunin, maslinic acid, corosolic acid, obacunone and ursolic acid were found to be effective against the target proteins of SARS-CoV-2. The protein-ligand interaction study revealed that these phytochemicals bind with the amino acid residues at the active site of the target proteins. Therefore, the core structure of these potential hits can be used for further lead optimization to design drugs for SARS-CoV-2. Also, the medicinal plants containing these phytochemicals like licorice, neem, tulsi, citrus and olives can be used to formulate suitable therapeutic approaches in traditional medicines.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Limoninas/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacocinética , Sítios de Ligação , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Limoninas/química , Limoninas/farmacocinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacocinética , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , RNA Replicase/química , RNA Replicase/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/farmacocinética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238218, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845909

RESUMO

One of the most studied mechanisms involved in bacterial evolution and diversification is conjugative transfer (CT) of plasmids. Plasmids able to transfer by CT often encode beneficial traits for bacterial survival under specific environmental conditions. Rhizobium etli CFN42 is a Gram-negative bacterium of agricultural relevance due to its symbiotic association with Phaseolus vulgaris through the formation of Nitrogen-fixing nodules. The genome of R. etli CFN42 consists of one chromosome and six large plasmids. Among these, pRet42a has been identified as a conjugative plasmid. The expression of the transfer genes is regulated by a quorum sensing (QS) system that includes a traI gene, which encodes an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase and two transcriptional regulators (TraR and CinR). Recently, we have shown that pRet42a can perform CT on the root surface and inside nodules. The aim of this work was to determine the role of plant-related compounds in the CT of pRet42a. We found that bean root exudates or root and nodule extracts induce the CT of pRet42a in the plant rhizosphere. One possibility is that these compounds are used as nutrients, allowing the bacteria to increase their growth rate and reach the population density leading to the activation of the QS system in a shorter time. We tested if P. vulgaris compounds could substitute the bacterial AHL synthesized by TraI, to activate the conjugation machinery. The results showed that the transfer of pRet42a in the presence of the plant is dependent on the bacterial QS system, which cannot be substituted by plant compounds. Additionally, individual compounds of the plant exudates were evaluated; among these, some increased and others decreased the CT. With these results, we suggest that the plant could participate at different levels to modulate the CT, and that some compounds could be activating genes in the conjugation machinery.


Assuntos
Conjugação Genética/genética , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Rhizobium etli/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Phaseolus/química , Phaseolus/microbiologia , Percepção de Quorum/fisiologia , Rizosfera , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 333: 127506, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679417

RESUMO

Artichoke floral stems (AFS) food waste by-products were examined for their phytochemical constituents and their in vitro and in vivo biological activities. Although that the highest total phenol content and total flavonoid content were found in ethyl acetate extract, methanol extract possessed the strongest DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, and showed the highest reducing ferric antioxidant power (FRAP). The anti-acetylcholinesterase activity was higher in butanol extract, whereas the ethyl acetate extract had the highest inhibitory effect on heat-induced protein denaturation. In alloxan-induced diabetic mice, the AFS methanol extract (AFSE) rich in caffeoylquinic acids and flavones reduced blood glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, and improved liver, and renal antioxidative status. Administration of AFSE to diabetic mice reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) suggesting its hypolipidemic action. Overall, AFS could be considered as attractive source of health-promoting ingredients.


Assuntos
Cynara scolymus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Alanina Transaminase , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/análise , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cynara scolymus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236950, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730335

RESUMO

The use of natural products as feed additives in the poultry industry is increasing; however, most studies focus on performance and growth with little regard for determining mechanism. Our laboratory designed a chicken (Gallus gallus)-specific immunometabolic kinome peptide array. Using this tool to examine the active enzymes responsible for phosphorylation events (kinases) provides important information on host and cellular functions. The objective of this project was to determine if feeding a microencapsulated product comprised of a blend of organic acids and botanicals (AviPlus®P) impacts the intestinal kinome of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus). Day-of-hatch chicks were provided 0 or 500g/MT of the additive and jejunal and ileal segments collected for kinome analysis to determine the mode-of-action of the additive. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis was performed by uploading the statistically significant peptides to the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes database. As a whole, GO and KEGG analysis showed similar activities in the ileum and jejunum. However, there were a small number of KEGG pathways that were only activated in either the ileum or jejunum, but not both. Analysis of the adipocytokine and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways showed differences between ileal and jejunal activity that were controlled, in part, by AKT3. Additionally, cytokine/chemokine evaluation showed the ileum had higher IL1ß, IL6, IL10, TNFα, IFNγ, CXCL8, and CCL4 mRNA expression levels (P<0.05). As a whole, the data showed the addition of microencapsulated organic acids and botanicals to a broiler diet activated many of the same signaling pathways in the ileum and jejunum; however, distinctions were observed. Taken together, the findings of this study begin to define the mode-of-action that microencapsulated organic acids and botanicals have on two important intestinal segments responsible for nutrient digestion and absorption in chickens.


Assuntos
Ácidos/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Íleo/metabolismo , Jejuno/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/química , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Proteínas Quinases/genética
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561979

RESUMO

The exponential spread of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emphasizes the immediate need for effective antiviral drugs and vaccines that could control and prevent the spread of this pandemic. Several new and repurposed drugs are being tested for their effectiveness in the treatment regime, and the development of vaccines is underway. The availability of genome sequence information of the virus and the identification of potential targets to neutralize and eradicate the infection have enabled the search for novel as well as existing molecules to perform the desired function. However, the application of plants in the development of potential biomolecules, such as antibiotics and vaccines, is limited. Traditional medicines involving plant-based formulations have proven successful in boosting immunity and providing tolerance to virus infections. Still, in-depth studies are not available to explore the bioactive compounds of plant origin and their mechanism of action. Given this, the current opinion article conveys our thoughts and perspectives on the promising usage of plant-based biomolecules in circumventing SARS-CoV-2, and how these molecules can work synergistically with other potential drugs for treating SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Humanos , Imunidade , Pandemias , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia
9.
Food Chem ; 330: 127211, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540527

RESUMO

With the current agro-food industry demands for more environmentally-friendly production, the use of natural antifungal compounds extracted by emerging technologies led to a sustainable alternative to control microorganisms. Therefore, the present work aimed to: (i) determine antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium italicum of jackfruit leaf extracts obtained by different methods, and (ii) identify compounds by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. Microwave (MAE), high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and ultrasound (UAE) assisted extractions were tested, followed by fractionation with different polarity solvents. The concentration of total soluble phenols (TSP), tannins (TT) and flavonoids (TF) were determined. Differences not only in the amounts of extracted phytochemicals were found but in the antifungal properties (MAE against P. italicum and HHP against C. gloeosporioides at 5 mg/ml) as well as in the chemical composition determined by HPLC-MS. These results suggest the possible application of jackfruit leaf extracts as a suitable postharvest antifungal treatment.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/química , Artocarpus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Colletotrichum/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Penicillium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Taninos/química
10.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1856-1871, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476145

RESUMO

Brassica tournefortii is an annual herbaceous plant, native to the North Africa and Middle East. It is considered as an excellent medicinal plant due to its richness by antioxidant like isothiocyanates and polyphenols. The present study is the first phytochemical investigation on Brassica tournefortii organs (leaves, stems, and roots) in terms of nutraceutical, chemical composition, and bioactivity. Brassica tournefortii leaves exhibited the highest values of nutraceutical contents. Interestingly, gas chromatograph-y-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis enabled to identify three new isothiocyanates: iberverin nitrile and iberin detected only in roots, and iberin nitrile detected in all organs. HPLC chromatograms displayed different profiles depending on organic solvent and extracted organ. Icariin and 5,7-dihydroxy 4-propylcoumarin showed the highest concentrations with 2.3 and 1.3 mg/g of dr among other molecules identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Some phenolic compounds were identified in more than one organ extracts such as phenoxodiol and 4-hydroxy-3-propylbenzoic acid methyl ester. Brassica tournefortii extracts showed a moderate total phenolic contents and anti-15-LOX activity, while they exhibited a good anti-α-glucosidase activity ranging from 40% to 60%. Furthermore, leaves-MeOH and root-dichloromethane (DCM) extracts induced the highest cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cell lines, while roots-cyclohexane (CYHA) extract highlighted the highest inhibition activity against, both, HCT-116 and OVCAR cell lines.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Mostardeira/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia
11.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(8): 4529-4536, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-203994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Currently, Coronavirus COVID-19 is spreading worldwide very rapidly and its control is very difficult because there is no effective vaccine or drugs available in markets. This virus can infect both animals and people and cause illnesses of the respiratory tract. WHO has declared Coronavirus as pandemic and the whole world is fighting against Coronavirus. Globally, more than 199,478 people have been diagnosed with COVID-19. As of March 18, 2020, more than 167 countries have been affected and more than 8000 deaths have been reported. The main country being affected is China followed by Italy, Iran, Spain, France, and the USA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Since there are no effective drugs available against Coronavirus, we conducted virtual screening of phytochemicals to find novel compounds against this virus. Hence, we created a phytochemical library of 318 phytochemicals from 11 plants which have been reported as antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The phytochemical library was subjected to virtual screening against molecular targets; Main protease (Mpro) and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2). RESULTS: Top 10 compounds were selected from each target which had better and significantly low binding energy as compared to the reference molecule. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the binding energy score, we suggest that these compounds can be tested against Coronavirus and used to develop effective antiviral drugs.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Food Chem ; 327: 126970, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473414

RESUMO

The self-assembly of Tween 80 (T80) micelles loaded with plant-based oregano essential oil (OR) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA) was studied. The effect of different factors, including the surfactant to oil ratio, the presence of sodium chloride, thermal treatment, and dilution on their formation and physicochemical stability was evaluated. The creation of nano-cargos was confirmed by TEM. The self-associated structures had z-average droplet diameters of 92 to 337 nm without any energy input. Whereas addition of 10% (w/v) NaCl prevented the formation of oregano essential oil nano-assemblies of T80, swollen micelles containing TCA were successfully produced. Moreover, the OR or TCA loaded-micelles had only a slight droplet size variation upon thermal treatment. Ultimately, their antibacterial activity analysis against some food pathogens revealed that the encapsulation of OR and TCA within micelles crucially improved their antibacterial activity. These straightforward and cost-effective designed systems can be applicable in different products, including foods and agrochemicals.


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Origanum/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Polissorbatos/química , Acroleína/química , Acroleína/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Emulsões/química , Micelas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Vet Parasitol ; 281: 109121, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361524

RESUMO

The search of novel strategies for anthelmintic control is a crucial need considering the widespread increase in resistant parasitic populations in livestock. Bioactive phytochemicals may contribute to improve parasite control by enhancing the effect of existing anthelmintic drugs. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the in vivo and in vitro pharmaco-chemical interaction and the in vivo efficacy of the combination of albendazole (ABZ) with thymol (TML) in lambs naturally infected with resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Thirty (30) lambs were allocated into three experimental groups. Each group was treated orally with either ABZ (5 mg/kg), TML (150 mg/kg, twice every 24 h) or the co-administration of both compounds. Blood samples were collected between 0 and 51 h post-treatment and TML, ABZ and its metabolites were measured by HPLC. Individual faecal samples were collected at days -1 and 14 post-treatment to perform the faecal egg count reduction test. Additionally, the effect of TML on the sulphoreduction and sulphonation of ABZ sulphoxide was assessed in vitro using ruminal content and liver microsomes, respectively. The metabolism of TML in the ruminal content was very low and the monoterpene exhibited a low degree of association with the particulate phase of the ruminal content. No changes in the pharmacokinetic behavior of ABZ sulphoxide were observed in the presence of the natural product (TML). In contrast, the ABZ sulphone Cmax and AUC were lower (P 0.002 and 0.001 respectively) in the co-administered animals (0.16 ±â€¯0.07 µg/mL and 3.63 ±â€¯1.21 µg.h/mL) compared with those that received ABZ alone (0.45 ±â€¯0.15 µg/mL and 9.50 ±â€¯2.84 µg.h/mL). TML was detected in the bloodstream between 1 and 48 h post-treatment, which indicates the time of target nematodes being exposed to the bioactive monoterpene. However, the in vivo efficacy of TML was 0% and the presence of this terpene did not increase the efficacy of ABZ. The presence of TML significantly inhibited the ruminal sulphoreduction (P 0.001) and the hepatic sulphonation (P 0.001) of ABZ sulphoxide. These observations point out that in vivo pharmaco-parasitological studies are relevant to corroborate the adverse kinetic/metabolic interactions and the efficacy of bioactive natural products combined with synthetic anthelmintics.


Assuntos
Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Timol/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Gastroenteropatias/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20180793, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401835

RESUMO

The therapeutic effects from Citrus reticulata on painful inflammatory ailments are associated to its flavonoids constituent and phytochemical studies with Citrus genus affirm that the peels have important amounts of it. These bioactive compounds have been a considerable therapeutic source and evaluate potential application of the peel extract is significant. This research aims to investigate the influence of ethanolic crude extract from the peels of Citrus reticulata and its possible mechanism of action in different animal models of pain. The extract reduced hyperalgesia in the second phase of formalin test (vehicle: 501.5 ± 40.0 s; C. reticulata extract 300 mg/kg: 161.8 ± 41.1 s), in the carrageenan model (vehicle at 4th h: 82.5 ± 9.6 %; C. reticulata extract 300 mg/kg at 4th h: 47.5 ± 6.5 %) and in Complete Freund's Adjuvant model (vehicle: 501.5 ± 40.0 s; C. reticulata extract 300 mg/kg: 161.8 ± 41.1 s). The possible contribution of opioidergic and adenosinergic systems in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of C. reticulata extract was observed after treatment, with non-selective antagonists for both systems, which produced reversal effects. In conclusion, these properties of C. reticulata extract suggest a potential therapeutic benefit in treating painful conditions.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Citrus/química , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Carragenina , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Etanol , Masculino , Camundongos , Medição da Dor , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(8): 4529-4536, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373991

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Currently, Coronavirus COVID-19 is spreading worldwide very rapidly and its control is very difficult because there is no effective vaccine or drugs available in markets. This virus can infect both animals and people and cause illnesses of the respiratory tract. WHO has declared Coronavirus as pandemic and the whole world is fighting against Coronavirus. Globally, more than 199,478 people have been diagnosed with COVID-19. As of March 18, 2020, more than 167 countries have been affected and more than 8000 deaths have been reported. The main country being affected is China followed by Italy, Iran, Spain, France, and the USA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Since there are no effective drugs available against Coronavirus, we conducted virtual screening of phytochemicals to find novel compounds against this virus. Hence, we created a phytochemical library of 318 phytochemicals from 11 plants which have been reported as antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal activity. The phytochemical library was subjected to virtual screening against molecular targets; Main protease (Mpro) and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2). RESULTS: Top 10 compounds were selected from each target which had better and significantly low binding energy as compared to the reference molecule. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the binding energy score, we suggest that these compounds can be tested against Coronavirus and used to develop effective antiviral drugs.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Planta Med ; 86(15): 1080-1088, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316044

RESUMO

The balm of the Norway spruce (Picea abies) is a well-known traditional herbal medicine used to cure wounds. Even though clinical trials have confirmed its empirical use, the active constituents, their mode of action, and the exact composition of this natural product are still unknown. In this study, the balm was subjected to fractionated extraction and further purified employing flash chromatography, HPLC-PDA-ELSD, preparative and analytical TLC. Hydroxycinnamic acids ( 1: - 3: ), the lignan pinoresinol ( 4: ), four hydroxylated derivatives of dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) ( 5:  -  8: ), and dehydroabietic acid ( 9: ) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by LC-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR. Four extracts, two commercially available resin acids-pimaric acid ( 10: ) and isopimaric acid ( 11: )-and the isolated compounds were tested for increased re-epithelialization of cell-free areas in a human adult low calcium high temperature keratinocytes monolayer. Lysophosphatidic acid (10 µM) served as positive control and ranged between 100% and 150% rise in cell-covered area related to the vehicle control. Two extracts containing carboxylic acids and non-acidic apolar constituents, respectively, boosted wound closure by 47% and 36% at 10 and 3 µg/mL, respectively. Pinoresinol, DHAA, three of its hydroxylated derivatives, and pimaric and isopimaric acid as well as defined combinations of the hydroxylated DHAA derivatives led to a significantly enhanced wound closure by up to 90% at concentrations between 1 and 10 µM. Overall, lignans and diterpene resin acids, main constituents of Norway spruce balm, are able to increase migration or proliferation of keratinocytes in vitro. The presented data link the phytochemistry of this natural wound healing agent with boosted re-epithelialization.


Assuntos
Picea , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Noruega , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Reepitelização
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 816-824, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237481

RESUMO

Citrullus colocynthis is widely distributed in the desert regions of the world. C. colocynthis has shown to improve constipation, liver diseases, jaundice, typhoid fever, diabetes and asthma in traditional use. As a kind of exterritorialy medicinal material, C. colocynthis has been used in China and introduced successfully. The main active ingredients of C. colocynthis are cucurbitacin, flavonoids, alkaloids and phenolic acids, which have been proven to have antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-pathogenic microorganisms and anti-cancer activities in modern pharmacological research. This paper reviews the traditional application, chemical composition and pharmacological effects of C. colocynthis, and provides reference for the in-depth study for the efficacy and mechanism of different components of C. colocynthis.


Assuntos
Citrullus colocynthis/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 896-898, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237491

RESUMO

A new isobenzoisofuran(1) has been isolated from the whole plant of Cassia pumila using various chromatographic techniques, including silica gel, Sephadex, MCI-gel resin, and RP-HPLC, and its structure was determined as 9-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,2-dimethyl-2H-furo[3,4-g]chromen-6(8H)-one. This compound was also evaluated for its antibacterial activity. The results showed that it had prominent antibacterial activity with MIC_(90) value of(45.2±4.2) µg·mL~(-1) for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) strain. This value was closed to that of levofloxacin [with MIC_(90) value(48.5±4.3) µg·mL~(-1)].


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Cassia/química , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Benzofuranos/isolamento & purificação , Levofloxacino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 1076-1081, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237449

RESUMO

To prepare the herpetolide A nanosuspension lyophilized powder(HPA-NS-LP), in order to investigate its anti-hepatitis B virus(HBV) activity and the dissolution in vitro. Herpetolide A nanosuspension(HPA-NS) was prepared by ultrasonic precipitation method. The formulation and process of HPA-NS were optimized by the single factor experiment. Lyophilized powder(HPA-NS-LP) was prepared by freeze-drying method. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphology of HPA-NS-LP. Paddle method was used to determinate the dissolution of HPT-NS-LP in vitro. The anti-HBV activity of herpetolide A coarse suspension lyophilized powder(HPA-CS-LP) and HPA-NS-LP was evaluated by HepG2.2.15 cell model. The mean particle size of optimized HPA-NS was(173.46±4.36) nm, with a polydispersity index of 0.110±0.012. After redispersion, the mean particle size and the polydispersity index of HPA-NS-LP increased, with changes within a rational range. Scanning electron microscopy showed that HPA-NS-LP was spherical in shape. Cumulative dissolution rate of HPA-NS-LP was more than 90% in 2 hours, which was higher than that of HPA-CS-LP. Both HPA-CS-LP and HPA-NS-LP could effectively inhibit the secretion of HepG2.2.15 cell antigens(HBsAg and HBeAg), and the inhibitory effect of HPA-NS-LP was significantly higher than that of HPA CS-LP(P<0.05). HBV-DNA test showed that high, medium and low-dose HPA-NS-LP(50, 25, 12.5 mg·kg~(-1)) significantly decreased the level of HBV-DNA(P<0.05), and the effect was better than that of the same dose of HPA-CS-LP(P<0.05). The results revealed that HPA-NS-LP exhibited anti-HBV activity in vitro, and its effect was superior to that of HPA-CS-LP.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Cucurbitaceae/química , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade , Suspensões
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