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1.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872217

RESUMO

A pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) began in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and the number of newly reported cases continues to increase. More than 19.7 million cases have been reported globally and about 728,000 have died as of this writing (10 August 2020). Recently, it has been confirmed that the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) enzyme is responsible not only for viral reproduction but also impedes host immune responses. The Mpro provides a highly favorable pharmacological target for the discovery and design of inhibitors. Currently, no specific therapies are available, and investigations into the treatment of COVID-19 are lacking. Therefore, herein, we analyzed the bioactive phytocompounds isolated by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) from Tinospora crispa as potential COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors, using molecular docking study. Our analyses unveiled that the top nine hits might serve as potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 lead molecules, with three of them exerting biological activity and warranting further optimization and drug development to combat COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Tinospora/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Antivirais/classificação , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Domínio Catalítico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Cisteína Endopeptidases/genética , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Descoberta de Drogas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Pandemias , Compostos Fitoquímicos/classificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteases/classificação , Inibidores de Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Especificidade por Substrato , Termodinâmica , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
2.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842606

RESUMO

Presently, there are no approved drugs or vaccines to treat COVID-19, which has spread to over 200 countries and at the time of writing was responsible for over 650,000 deaths worldwide. Recent studies have shown that two human proteases, TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L, play a key role in host cell entry of SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, inhibitors of these proteases were shown to block SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we perform virtual screening of 14,011 phytochemicals produced by Indian medicinal plants to identify natural product inhibitors of TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L. AutoDock Vina was used to perform molecular docking of phytochemicals against TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L. Potential phytochemical inhibitors were filtered by comparing their docked binding energies with those of known inhibitors of TMPRSS2 and cathepsin L. Further, the ligand binding site residues and non-covalent interactions between protein and ligand were used as an additional filter to identify phytochemical inhibitors that either bind to or form interactions with residues important for the specificity of the target proteases. This led to the identification of 96 inhibitors of TMPRSS2 and 9 inhibitors of cathepsin L among phytochemicals of Indian medicinal plants. Further, we have performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to analyze the stability of the protein-ligand complexes for the three top inhibitors of TMPRSS2 namely, qingdainone, edgeworoside C and adlumidine, and of cathepsin L namely, ararobinol, (+)-oxoturkiyenine and 3α,17α-cinchophylline. Interestingly, several herbal sources of identified phytochemical inhibitors have antiviral or anti-inflammatory use in traditional medicine. Further in vitro and in vivo testing is needed before clinical trials of the promising phytochemical inhibitors identified here.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Catepsina L/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Receptores Virais/química , Serina Endopeptidases/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Sítios de Ligação , Catepsina L/antagonistas & inibidores , Catepsina L/genética , Catepsina L/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Índia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química , Monossacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Monossacarídeos/farmacologia , Pandemias , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inibidores de Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Quinazolinas/química , Quinazolinas/isolamento & purificação , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Receptores Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Termodinâmica , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(4): 871-897, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431180

RESUMO

Chrysanthemum indicum L. (C. indicum L.), a member of the Compositae family, is a perennial plant that has been used as a traditional medicine for more than 2000 years in China and is widely used for the treatment of Pemphigus, swelling, pain, and scrofula. To date, more than 190 chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from this plant, including flavonoids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and phenolic acids. Numerous modern studies have shown that extracts or monomeric compounds from C. indicum L. have several pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory anti-oxidation, antipathogenic microorganism, anticancer, immune regulation, and hepatoprotective effects. However, resource availability, the research on the mechanism, and quality control are still insufficient, which deserves further efforts. In this paper, the advances in botany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of C. indicum L were reviewed. We hope that this review can provide important information for traditional Chinese medicine, phytochemistry, synthetic and medicinal chemistry researchers for making full use of C. indicum L. resource.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Antioxidantes , Chrysanthemum/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Imunológicos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Propanóis/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
4.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(6): 635-642, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404544

RESUMO

In this study, we provide a method for obtaining essential oil from Mentha arvensis L. in large quantities. Three types of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes were investigated, namely cellulase A "Amano" 3, cellulase T "Amano" 4, and hemicellulase "Amano" 90. The optimum extraction conditions were the combined use of 2 wt% cellulase T and 2 wt% hemicellulase 90, and 3 h of incubation. Enzymeassisted extraction increased the amount of the essential oil from 2.2 mL to 3.0 mL, compared with the amount extracted without an enzyme.


Assuntos
Celulase , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Mentha/química , Mentol/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo
5.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1742-1751, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449951

RESUMO

Coffee leaves contain various bioactive compounds that are beneficial for human health. However, there are very limited researches related to the extraction of the bioactive phytochemicals from coffee leaves. In the present study, the extraction conditions for bioactive components from coffee leaves were optimized using Taguchi design and response surface methodology (RSM). Taguchi design was used to screen significant factors that affected the yield of phytochemicals including trigonelline, caffeine, chlorogenic acids, mangiferin, and rutin, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Sequentially, a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the extraction conditions. Three factors including Liquid-to-solid (L:S) ratio, ethanol concentration, and extraction temperature that significantly affected most of the phytochemical yields and antioxidant activity were selected from the six variables using Taguchi design. The optimal extraction conditions obtained from RSM were 30.3:1 L:S ratio, 54.5% ethanol, and 80 °C when simultaneously considered four responses, including TPC, the yields of mangiferin and 5-CQA and DPPH scavenging capacity. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental results for the above four responses were 62.1 mg gallic acid/g, 4.1 mg/g, 11.4 mg/g, and 356.9 µmol Trolox/g, respectively, which were close to the predicted values. About 97% of phytochemicals can be extracted in the first two times of extraction. In conclusion, the combination of Taguchi design and response surface methodology can be successfully used to screen and optimize the significant factors that affected the bioactive components extracted from coffee leaves. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Coffee leaves, the byproducts of coffee plants, are considered no- or low-value although it has a long history for using them as tea-like beverage and ethnomedicine by locals in the coffee plant growing countries. Bioactive components extracted from coffee leaves can be used as ingredients in functional beverages, functional food, and natural health products. These applications will add values to coffee leaves as well as increase the incomes of coffee farmers and workers.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Ultrassom/métodos , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 896-898, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237491

RESUMO

A new isobenzoisofuran(1) has been isolated from the whole plant of Cassia pumila using various chromatographic techniques, including silica gel, Sephadex, MCI-gel resin, and RP-HPLC, and its structure was determined as 9-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2,2-dimethyl-2H-furo[3,4-g]chromen-6(8H)-one. This compound was also evaluated for its antibacterial activity. The results showed that it had prominent antibacterial activity with MIC_(90) value of(45.2±4.2) µg·mL~(-1) for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) strain. This value was closed to that of levofloxacin [with MIC_(90) value(48.5±4.3) µg·mL~(-1)].


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Cassia/química , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Benzofuranos/isolamento & purificação , Levofloxacino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 1076-1081, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237449

RESUMO

To prepare the herpetolide A nanosuspension lyophilized powder(HPA-NS-LP), in order to investigate its anti-hepatitis B virus(HBV) activity and the dissolution in vitro. Herpetolide A nanosuspension(HPA-NS) was prepared by ultrasonic precipitation method. The formulation and process of HPA-NS were optimized by the single factor experiment. Lyophilized powder(HPA-NS-LP) was prepared by freeze-drying method. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphology of HPA-NS-LP. Paddle method was used to determinate the dissolution of HPT-NS-LP in vitro. The anti-HBV activity of herpetolide A coarse suspension lyophilized powder(HPA-CS-LP) and HPA-NS-LP was evaluated by HepG2.2.15 cell model. The mean particle size of optimized HPA-NS was(173.46±4.36) nm, with a polydispersity index of 0.110±0.012. After redispersion, the mean particle size and the polydispersity index of HPA-NS-LP increased, with changes within a rational range. Scanning electron microscopy showed that HPA-NS-LP was spherical in shape. Cumulative dissolution rate of HPA-NS-LP was more than 90% in 2 hours, which was higher than that of HPA-CS-LP. Both HPA-CS-LP and HPA-NS-LP could effectively inhibit the secretion of HepG2.2.15 cell antigens(HBsAg and HBeAg), and the inhibitory effect of HPA-NS-LP was significantly higher than that of HPA CS-LP(P<0.05). HBV-DNA test showed that high, medium and low-dose HPA-NS-LP(50, 25, 12.5 mg·kg~(-1)) significantly decreased the level of HBV-DNA(P<0.05), and the effect was better than that of the same dose of HPA-CS-LP(P<0.05). The results revealed that HPA-NS-LP exhibited anti-HBV activity in vitro, and its effect was superior to that of HPA-CS-LP.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Cucurbitaceae/química , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade , Suspensões
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 579-583, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237516

RESUMO

This study is to investigate the chemical constituents from the whole plant Corydalis edulis. The chemical constituents were separated and purified by macroporous resin D101, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, ODS, and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were determined by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data. Four compounds were isolated from the dichloromethane and water extracts of the whole plant C. edulis, and identified as 6'-ß-D-xylosylicariside B2(1),(3S,5R,6S,7E)-5,6-epoxy-3-hydroxy-7-megastigmen-9-one(2), loliolide(3), and 5,5'-dimethoxybiphenyl-2,2'-diol(4), respectively. Compound 1 is a new compound, of which the absolute configuration was established by electronic circular dichroism(ECD) calculations. Compound 4 is obtained from the plants of Papaveraceae family for the first time. Compounds 2 and 3 are firstly isolated from the Corydalis genus.


Assuntos
Corydalis/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 584-595, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237517

RESUMO

A method was established for simultaneous determination of 21 active constituents including flavanols, isoflavones, flavonols, dihydroflavones, dihydroflavonols, chalcones, pterocarpan, anthocyanidins and phenolic acids in Spatholobi Caulis by ultra fast liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry(UFLC-QTRAP-MS/MS). Then, it was employed to analyze and evaluate the dynamic accumulation of multiple bioactive constituents in Spatholobi Caulis. The chromatographic separation was performed on a XBridge®C_(18)(4.6 mm×100 mm, 3.5 µm) at 30 ℃ with a gradient elution of 0.3% formic acid aqueous solution-methanol, and the flow rate was 0.8 mL·min~(-1), using multiple-reaction monitoring(MRM) mode. A comprehensive evaluation of the multiple bioactive constituents was carried out by gray correlation analysis(GRA). The 21 target components showed good linearity(r>0.999 0) in the range of the tested concentrations. The average recovery rates of the 21 components were from 97.46% to 103.6% with relative standard deviations less than 5.0%. There were differences in the contents of 21 components in Spatholobi Caulis at diffe-rent harvest periods. Spatholobi Caulis had high quality from early November to early December, which is consistent with the local tradi-tional harvest period. This study reveals the rule of the dynamic accumulation of 21 components in Spatholobi Caulis and provides basic information for the suitable harvest time. At the same time, it provides a new method reference for the comprehensive evaluation of the internal quality of Spatholobi Caulis.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Caules de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1374-1383, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281351

RESUMO

The present work is to establish an HPLC characteristic chromatograms of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum(AH) and A. sieboldii(AS), combined with cluster analysis for the identification of the two species, and predict their potential anti-inflammatory related targets by network pharmacological method. Eighty-nine samples(12 batches of AS and 77 batches of AH) were analyzed, and 11 characteristic peaks were identified by reference substances, UV spectrum and LC-MS. Cluster analysis showed that AS and AH were divided into two groups, and the ratio of characteristic peak areas can be used to distinguish them. When the ratio of characteristic peak sarisan to kakuol was greater than 5, it was AS, and when the ratio was less than 2, it was AH. The network pharmacological analysis of 119 constituents of Asari Radix et Rhizoma suggested that the anti-inflammatory effect of Asari Radix et Rhizoma might be related to COX-2, COX-1, iNOS, MAPK14, NR3 C1, PPARG and TNF. Among them, COX-2 is a relatively key target, which interacted with the characteristic constituents, asarinin, sesamin, safrole, methyleugenol and sarisan. The characteristic constituents asarinin and sesamin also interacted with the iNOS and MAPK14. Safrole and sarisan can also interact with iNOS, COX-1 and LAT4 H. Methyleugenol also showed interaction with COX-1 and LAT4 H. Since asarinin and sesamin interacted with three targets, COX-2, iNOS and MAPK14, it implied that they were the main active constituents for the anti-inflammatory activity of Asari Radix et Rhizoma. The COX-2 inhibitory activities of asarinin and sesamin were further studied by molecular docking and bioassay. The HPLC method established was simple, feasible and reliable, with predicted anti-inflammatory targets and anti-inflammatory constituents, which could provide a reference for improving the quality evaluation system of Asari Radix et Rhizoma.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Asarum/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Rizoma/química
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1384-1392, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281352

RESUMO

The chemical compounds in water extract of Spatholobi Caulis were further studied. The compounds were systematically isolated and purified by using various separation and analysis techniques including silica gel, macroporous adsorptive resins and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, as well as reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography(RP-HPLC). Twenty-three flavonoids and one chromone were identified by the spectroscopic analysis techniques combining their physicochemical properties, they were identified as isoduartin(1), sativan(2), 8-O-methylretusin(3), 7-hydroxydihydroflavone(4), odoratin(5), butesuperin A(6), biochanin A(7), 3'-methoxydaidzein(8), 7-hydroxychromone(9), calycosin(10), naringenin(11), dihydrocajanin(12),(6 aR,11 aR)-maackiain(13), 2'-hydroxygenistein(14),(6 aR,11 aR)-medicarpin-3-O-glucopyranoside(15),(-)-epiafzelechin(16),(-)-catechin(17),(-)-epicatechin(18), 4',8-dimethoxy-7-O-ß-D-glucopyranosylisoflavone(19), ononin(20),(-)-gallocatechin(21), rutin(22), daidzin(23) and sphaerobioside(24). Compounds 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14-16, 19 and 22-24 were isolated from Spatholobi Caulis for the first time.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Fabaceae/química , Flavonoides/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1393-1398, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281353

RESUMO

An UPLC method was established for the direct determination of six major bioactive isosteroidal alkaloids, namely peimisine, imperialine, sipeimine-3-D-glucoside, verticinone, verticine and hupehenine from the bulbus of Fritillaria(Beimu), a commonly used antitussive traditional Chinese medicinal(TCM) herb. An Acquity UPLC~(TM) CSH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 µm) was used for all analysis. The investigated six compounds were all separated with gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.02% diethylamine-water-methanol at a flow rate of 0.3 mL·min~(-1). The temperature of sample manager was set at 20 ℃. Drift tube temperature was 45 ℃, and spray parameter was 40% with injection volume of 1 µL. Then, the further quality assessment of Beimu was carried out by cluster analysis(CA) and principal component analysis(PCA). The investigated all had good linearity(r≥0.998 9) over the tested ranges. The method is simple, accurate and reproducible, and can be used for determining the content of six major bioactive isosteroidal alkaloids.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Fritillaria/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/química
13.
Food Chem ; 318: 126484, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151923

RESUMO

The phytochemical contents, peroxyl radical scavenging capacities (PSCs) and cellular antioxidant activities (CAAs) of free and bound fractions of rice were reported. Black rice had the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content in free and bound fractions, followed by red rice, brown rice, and polished rice. Black rice contained much more free phenolic compounds than other rice samples, such as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, protocatechuic acid, and vanillic acid. Tocopherols and tocotrienols contents were highest in red rice, then in black rice, brown rice, and polished rice. PSCs and CAAs of free and bound fractions were in the order: black rice > red rice > brown rice > polished rice, except that bound CAA of red rice was higher than that of black rice. The cellular uptake rate of free phenolics was highest in red rice, while cellular uptake rates of bound phenolics were highest in brown rice and polished rice.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/análise , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Oryza/química , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Amidinas/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxidos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Tocoferóis/análise , Tocotrienóis/análise
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 244, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198545

RESUMO

The information available on microalgae-sourced compounds, especially antibiotics and other bioactive compounds, and their potential commercial applications is still insufficient. In this study, antibacterial activity, metabolites, and molecular characterization of Phormidium autumnale, which was isolated from samples collected from different natural freshwater sources in Ankara, Turkey, were investigated. Sequencing results of 16s rDNA confirmed the molecular identification of P. autumnale by 99%. It was determined that the peak values of some phenolic compounds and cyclic peptides were consistent with the 1653-1389 cm-1 band regions in the FTIR spectra of the species. The antibacterial activities of P. autumnale cyanobacteria (CBA) extracts that were obtained by using different solvents were tested on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant (MR) Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Enterococcus faecalis by using a disc diffusion method. Also, the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and antimicrobial indexes of all extracts were determined. It was found that P. autumnale methanol extracts showed antibacterial activity on all test bacteria, whereas acetone extracts showed effects only on E. coli. For the inhibition of MR S. aureus, the control methanol extract was found to give very similar results to those exhibited by the control antibiotics, and the antimicrobial index results were determined to be 58.7-67.5%. According to the results of the analysis of methanol extract, gentisic acid, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, and catechin (especially phenolic compounds) were determined to be the active compounds. It can be concluded that P. autumnale is an alternative to current commercial applications as an antibacterial agent in phytotherapy.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Escherichia coli , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cianobactérias/química , Cianobactérias/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Água Doce , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Turquia
15.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(3): 273-287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115535

RESUMO

Phytochemical analysis of the whole Helleborus foetidus plants identified 28 steroidal glycosides (1-28), including 20 novel spirostanol glycosides (1-20) and a novel furostanol glycoside (21). The structures of the newly identified compounds were elucidated by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and hydrolytic cleavage. Compounds 12, 13, and 15 were determined to be spirostanol trisdesmosides bearing sugar moieties at the C-1, -21, and -24 hydroxy groups of the aglycone unit. The isolated compounds were subsequently evaluated for cytotoxic activity against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells and A549 human lung carcinoma cells. In particular, 7 showed cytotoxic activity against the HL-60 and A549 cells, with IC50 values of 5.9 and 6.6 µM, respectively, whereas 19 was selectively cytotoxic to A549 cells with an IC50 value of 5.5 µM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Helleborus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Esteroides/farmacologia , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Conformação Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Esteroides/química , Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
Genome ; 63(3): 169-177, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031004

RESUMO

Genomic DNA polymorphism and variation in biologically active components of Moringa oleifera were investigated by two different techniques: RAPD-PCR and HPLC analysis. The concentrations of phenolic compounds (cinnamic, caffeic, ferulic, and coumaric acids) and the content of flavonoids (rutin) were quantified by HPLC analysis. Among 20 RAPD primers, 13 were selected to generate polymorphic amplicons producing an average of 5028 bands, of which 83.7% were found to be polymorphic among 57 accessions of M. oleifera (MO 1 to MO 57) and one outgroup (ACB 58) from Banasthali region, India. In total, 57 accessions were clustered into five major groups within the dendrogram. The results of this analysis were further confirmed by principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). There was also high diversity in the concentration of active compounds in the collected samples as revealed by HPLC analysis. The data revealed that the content of polyphenolic compounds varied between 0.06 (sample KVKB) and 210.5 mg/kg (sample BG). The results suggest that there is a strong correlation between phytochemical variables and DNA polymorphism. The study concludes that the results of the genetic, morphological, and phytochemical diversity could be used to select the best accessions of M. oleifera for agricultural cultivation and breeding.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera/classificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Índia , Moringa oleifera/química , Moringa oleifera/genética , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo Genético , Análise de Componente Principal , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico
17.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936683

RESUMO

Stenocereus thurberi is an endemic species in northwestern Mexico. It produces colorful fruits called pitayas that have an edible pulp. They have phytochemical compounds associated with biological activities. Ultrafiltration is a widely used method for the clarification of fruit juices and the recovery of phytochemicals. However, its effect has not been extensively studied in extracts. Therefore, the objective of this work is to study the effect of the ultrafiltration of pitaya extract (Stenocereus thurberi) on its phytochemical content, antioxidant capacity, and identification of phenolic compounds by UPLC-DAD-MS, providing greater knowledge about the pitaya. In this study, two extracts were analyzed, the unclarified extract (UE) and the clarified extract (CE). The antioxidant capacity was higher in the CE with 15.93 ± 0.42 mM TE/g, DPPH and 18.37 ± 0.016 mM TE/g, ABTS. The UPLC-MS analysis indicated the decrease in phenolic compounds in the CE and the presence of gallic acid and resorcinol, compounds that had not been identified in other species of Stenocereus spp. The correlation analysis indicated that all the phytochemicals present in the pitaya contribute significantly to the antioxidant capacity. The ultrafiltration process could be a viable option to improve the biological activity of the natural extracts.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Cactaceae/química , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Frutas , México , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ultrafiltração
18.
Molecules ; 25(2)2020 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940923

RESUMO

Continuously growing demand for plant derived therapeutic molecules obtained in a sustainable and eco-friendly manner favors biotechnological production and development of innovative extraction techniques to obtain phytoconstituents. What is more, improving and optimization of alternative techniques for the isolation of high value natural compounds are issues having both social and economic importance. In this critical review, the aspects regarding plant biotechnology and green downstream processing, leading to the production and extraction of increased levels of fine chemicals from both plant cell, tissue, and organ culture or fresh plant materials and the remaining by-products, are discussed.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Cromatografia/métodos , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Apiaceae/química , Asteraceae/química , Biotecnologia/instrumentação , Biotecnologia/tendências , Cromatografia/instrumentação , Fabaceae/química , Humanos , Lamiaceae/química , Micro-Ondas , Myrtaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Células Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais , Sonicação/métodos
19.
Phytochemistry ; 171: 112231, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901473

RESUMO

Daphne giraldii Nitsche., a member of the genus Daphne (Thymelaeaceae), is a deciduous shrub with mild toxicity. Its rhizome bark, generally called 'Zushima' in Chinese, has many medicinal folkloric uses and good therapeutic effects. Previous studies investigating the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of D. giraldii have focused on several major classes of compounds, such as coumarins, lignans and flavonoids, especially the interesting enantiomeric flavans. Extracts and pure compounds of D. giraldii were found to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, cytotoxicity, antimalarial, immunomodulating, sedative and hypnotic effects. They have also been reported to influence the cardiovascular functions and blood activities. This comprehensive review will describe the advances in the phytochemistry, pharmacology, medicinal uses and clinical applications of D. giraldii and its formulations covering the literature published from 1970 to 2018. Almost half of the reviewed studies were originally published in non-English languages (mainly in Chinese). Collectively, the aim of this article is to open new avenues for further in-depth pharmacological studies on D. giraldii.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Thymelaeaceae/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Fármacos Antiobesidade/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/isolamento & purificação , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/química , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/isolamento & purificação , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
20.
Phytochemistry ; 171: 112229, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901474

RESUMO

Seven undescribed cycloartane triterpenoids, pseudolarnoids A-G, together with ten known ones, were isolated from the seeds of Pseudolarix amabilis (J. Nelson) Rehder. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, X-ray crystallography, and ECD data. Pseudolarnoids A-C are cycloartane triterpenoids with a unique 16S, 23R-spirolactone moiety. Pseudolarnoids F, G, and pseudolarolide C demonstrated potent antiviral effects on HSV-1 in vitro.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Pinaceae/química , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
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