Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 281
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 59-66, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816240

RESUMO

Exposure of mature green "Takanotsume" chili fruit to blue and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was investigated. The red LED accelerated the red color development of chili as indicated by higher a* and chroma values, as well as lower hue angle and total chlorophyll compared to the blue LED and darkness (control). These were linked to increases in ß-carotene, free-capsanthin, and total carotenoids. The carotenoid biosynthesis-related genes, lycopene-ß-cyclase (Lcyb), ß-carotene hydroxylase (CrtZ), and capsanthin/capsolubin synthase (Ccs), were up-regulated by the red LED after 2 days of the experiment. The blue LED was more effective in increasing the expression of the phytoene synthase (Psy) gene at day 1 of experiment. The total phenolic, vitamin C content, and antioxidant capacity were also higher in the blue LED-treated chili. Results suggest that the responses of each carotenoid-related gene to the light wavelengths and the accumulation of phytochemicals are specific characteristics of this chili cultivar.


Assuntos
Capsicum/metabolismo , Capsicum/efeitos da radiação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cor , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Luz , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Xantofilas/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
2.
J Chem Ecol ; 46(1): 84-98, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858366

RESUMO

Non-nutritive phytochemicals (secondary metabolites and fibre) can influence plant resistance to herbivores and have ecological impacts on animal and plant population dynamics. A major hindrance to the ecological study of these phytochemicals is the uncertainty in the compounds one should measure, especially when limited by cost and expertise. With the underlying goal of identifying proxies of plant resistance to herbivores, we performed a systematic review of the effects of non-nutritive phytochemicals on consumption by leporids (rabbits and hares) and cervids (deer family). We identified 133 out of 1790 articles that fit our selection criteria (leporids = 33, cervids = 97, both herbivore types = 3). These articles cover 18 species of herbivores, on four continents. The most prevalent group of phytochemicals in the selected articles was phenolics, followed by terpenes for leporids and by fibre for cervids. In general, the results were variable but phenolic concentration seems linked with high resistance to both types of herbivores. Terpene concentration is also linked to high plant resistance; this relationship seems driven by total terpene content for cervids and specific terpenes for leporids. Tannins and fibre did not have a consistent positive effect on plant resistance. Because of the high variability in results reported and the synergistic effects of phytochemicals, we propose that the choice of chemical analyses must be tightly tailored to research objectives. While researchers pursuing ecological or evolutionary objectives should consider multiple specific analyses, researchers in applied studies could focus on a fewer number of specific analyses. An improved consideration of plant defence, based on meaningful chemical analyses, could improve studies of plant resistance and allow us to predict novel or changing plant-herbivore interactions.


Assuntos
Herbivoria/fisiologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Plantas/química , Animais , Cervos , Evolução Molecular , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Coelhos , Terpenos/metabolismo
3.
Phytochemistry ; 170: 112225, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855780

RESUMO

Sixteen previously undescribed lanostane-type triterpenoids (1-16), together with fourteen known compounds, were isolated from cultivated fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete Ganoderma casuarinicola, a recently described species. The structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data. Two of these compounds, 9 and 10, showed antimalarial activity with IC50 values of 9.7 and 9.2 µg/ml, respectively.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Ganoderma/química , Lanosterol/farmacologia , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/metabolismo , Antituberculosos/química , Antituberculosos/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Carpóforos/química , Carpóforos/metabolismo , Ganoderma/metabolismo , Lanosterol/análogos & derivados , Lanosterol/química , Lanosterol/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Conformação Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Células Vero , Madeira/química , Madeira/metabolismo
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1181: 107-134, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677141

RESUMO

Ganoderma, named lingzhi in China, has been used for centuries as drug and nutraceutical to treat diseases. Based on our research and other literatures, the chapter summarizes the progress of preparation, structural features and properties, bioactivities of Ganoderma polysaccharides. The aim is to provide a comprehensive source of information for researchers and consumers of Ganoderma, so they can better understand Ganoderma polysaccharides and their biological activities. In addition, more clinical studies should be carried out to meet the criteria for new drug development, and more convincing scientific data should be provided. In addition, on the basis of a large number of studies on Ganoderma polysaccharides, we suggest that more clinical studies should be carried out so that Ganoderma can be better recognized and applied all over the world.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Polissacarídeos , China , Ganoderma/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1168: 157-168, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713171

RESUMO

Cancer is a complex group of diseases where different signaling pathways have been found to be deregulated, mainly related to cell proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, evasion of apoptosis and insensitivity to anti-growth sings among others. Diet plays a fundamental role in the treatment of the oncological patients, we must be aware that food can interact with certain types of cancer therapy. On the other hand, cancer therapies sometimes affect the patient's sense of smell, taste, appetite, gastric capacity or nutrient absorption, which often results in malnutrition due to the lack of essential nutriments. In this chapter we will review the effect of different metabolic disorders in cancer and mechanisms of action of some phytochemicals found in different foods like resveratrol, EGCG, curcumin and lycopene.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Medicina de Precisão , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Medicina de Precisão/tendências
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12796-12805, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659898

RESUMO

Whole-grain dietary fiber is rich in bound-form phenolics, and the biological activity of this special structural feature has attracted increasing attention. In this study, rice bran dietary fiber (RBDF) was subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation to investigate the liberation of bound phenolics and their potential activities. Bound phenolics were released at a higher ratio during colonic fermentation (27.57%) than gastrointestinal digestion (2.68%). Nine phenolic compounds were detected from the fermentation supernatants. The released phenolics showed radical scavenging activity (DPPH and ABTS assays) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19.11 µg GAE/mL). Compared with phenolics-removed RBDF (PR-RBDF), RBDF had a significantly stronger prebiotic effect on the microbes associated with diabetes (Lactobacillus spp., Akkermansia muciniphila, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii). These findings indicate that bound phenolics may act as important functional components that could contribute to the health benefits of whole-grain dietary fiber.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Prebióticos/análise , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Oryza/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Biocontrol Sci ; 24(3): 137-144, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527344

RESUMO

Capsicum annuum L. is infected by Fusarium Wilt and causes significant yield losses in Pakistan. Biological control is an excellent and environment friendly way. Presently, the biocontrol assays were conducted in pot trials using methanolic leaf extract of Eucalyptus citriodora L. where spray of extract prior to infection provided better protection from pathogen with maximum disease control. Further, Native page electrophoresis was performed to find out difference in expression profile of enzyme which revealed that control and T2 (Plant sprayed with Eucalyptus extract) did not exhibit any difference in their isozyme profile signifying no extra load of biological control measure on plant for the production of defense elements until the pathogen arrived. While in case of T3 (Protective treatment) and T4 (Curative treatment) extra isozyme (PO1) was observed in T4 only, PPO1 and PPO5, and PAL 2 and PAL 3 were comprised in higher quantities in T3 and T4 over control exposing the expression of plant metabolism under pathogen attack. The study concludes that the organic extract of E. citriodora have the potential to restrain the disastrous effects of pathogenic fungi. It will lead to the different aspect of biocontrol to suppress the plant pathogenic fungi in a broad spectrum.


Assuntos
Capsicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsicum/imunologia , Eucalyptus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Imunidade Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paquistão , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6962-6972, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Through precise control of the nutrient solution (NS), closed soilless systems enable targeted manipulation of plant secondary metabolites, which constitute health-promoting components of the human daily diet. A nutrient film technique (NFT) system was employed to assess the effect of NS macronutrient-based concentration (full, half-, and quarter-strength corresponding to electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.5, 0.75, and 0.5 dS m-1 ) on the bioactive profile of red and green-pigmented Salanova® butterhead lettuce. RESULTS: Half-strength NS reduced fresh biomass of both cultivars by 14%, whereas quarter-strength NS reduced the fresh biomass of green and red Salanova by 24% and 38%, respectively. However, moderate nutrient stress (half-strength NS) boosted red Salanova total ascorbic acid, chlorogenic, chicoric, caffeoyl-meso-tartaric, total phenolic acids, and anthocyanins concentrations by 266%, 199%, 124%, 251%, 162%, and 380%, respectively compared with the control, full-strength NS. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional eustress and appropriate cultivar selection are effective means to increase phytochemical content and optimize year-round production of lettuce in closed soilless systems. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Alface/química , Alface/metabolismo , Nutrientes/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Hidroponia , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário
9.
Fitoterapia ; 138: 104293, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398447

RESUMO

Herbal medicines (HMs) have attracted widespread attention because of their significant contributions to the prevention and treatment of many human diseases. Recently, gut microbiota has become an important frontier to understand the therapeutic mechanisms of medicines. Gut microbiota-mediated transformation is a microbial metabolic form after oral administrations of HMs compounds. A great number of studies showed that gut microbiota could transform some HMs compounds by the variation of chemical structures into several active metabolites, which exerted better bioavailabilities and therapeutic activities than their parent compounds. Among these HMs compounds, alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols and terpenoids were the representative ones. However, there is no systemic review focusing on the potential improved therapeutic activities of these natural compounds caused by gut microbial transformation. Here, this review summarizes the therapeutic activities that are more potent in microbial transformed metabolites than in their parent compounds (alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols and terpenoids) from HMs. We hope this review will be conducive to deepening the understanding of the relationship between gut microbial transformation and therapeutic activities of HMs compounds.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Preparações de Plantas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Terpenos/farmacologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416118

RESUMO

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important dietary source of bioactive phytochemicals and active breeding programs constantly produce new cultivars possessing superior and desirable traits. The phytopathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt, is a highly destructive bacterial disease with a high economic impact on tomato production. This study followed an untargeted metabolomic approach involving four tomato cultivars and aimed at the identification of secondary metabolites involved in plant defense after infection with R. solanacearum. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in combination with multivariate data analysis and chemometric modelling were utilized for the identification of discriminant secondary metabolites. The total of 81 statistically selected features were annotated belonging to the metabolite classes of amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, various derivatives of cinnamic acid and benzoic acids, flavonoids and steroidal glycoalkaloids. The results indicate that the phenylpropanoid pathway, represented by flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids, is of prime importance in the tomato defense response. The hydroxycinnamic acids esters of quinic acid, hexoses and glucaric acids were identified as signatory biomarkers, as well as the hydroxycinnamic acid amides to polyamines and tyramine. Interestingly, the rapid and differential accumulation of putrescine, dopamine, and tyramine derivatives, along with the presence of a newly documented metabolite, feruloyl serotonin, were documented in the infected plants. Metabolite concentration variability in the different cultivar tissues point to cultivar-specific variation in the speed and manner of resource redistribution between the host tissues. These metabolic phenotypes provide insights into the differential metabolic signatures underlying the defense metabolism of the four cultivars, defining their defensive capabilities to R. solanacearum.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ralstonia solanacearum/fisiologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo
11.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416184

RESUMO

Plants and animals are sources of various bioactive compounds that exhibit a broad spectrum of health-promoting effects. Scientists continue studies on the chemical composition of many products in search of foods with high nutritional value. The pumpkin (Cucurbita sp.) is unquestionably a source of valuable nutrients. This vegetable is well-known all over the world and it is appreciated due to its high content of carotenoids, but it is still not much used in the processing industry. The aim of present study was to compare the flesh of 15 pumpkin varieties belonging to the Cucurbita pepo and C. moschata species in terms of the bioactive compound content (carotenoids, phenolic acids, flavonols, minerals and vitamins) and to demonstrate whether the variety has an effect on the chemical composition. To date, no such extensive research has been carried out in this area. The research revealed that the pumpkin pulp had high content of carotenoids. In nearly all cases lutein was the most abundant carotenoid. Numerous phenolic acids and flavonols were also identified. All the cultivars contained gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin. The pumpkin pulp also contained alpha- and gamma-tocopherol. No beta- or delta-tocopherol was found. Potassium, calcium, and sodium were the most abundant minerals. The research also proved that the profile of bioactive compounds in the pumpkin pulp was considerably diversified and depended on the species and cultivar.


Assuntos
Cucurbita/química , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise por Conglomerados , Cucurbita/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Minerais/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Metabolismo Secundário
12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110758, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412289

RESUMO

Various phytochemicals have been reported to protect against oxidative stress. However, the mechanism underlying has not been systematically evaluated, which limited their application in disease treatment. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a central transcription factor in oxidative stress response related to numerous diseases, is activated after dissociating from the cytoskeleton-anchored Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1). The Keap1-Nrf2 protein-protein interaction has become an important drug target. This study was designed to clarify whether antioxidantive phytochemicals inhibit the Keap1-Nrf2 protein-protein interaction and activate the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway efficiently. Molecular docking and 3D-QSAR were applied to evaluate the interaction effects between 178 antioxidant phytochemicals and the Nrf2 binding site in Keap1. The Nrf2 activation effect was tested on a H2O2-induced oxidative-injured cell model. Results showed that the 178 phytochemicals could be divided into high-, medium-, and low-total-score groups depending on their binding affinity with Keap1, and the high-total-score group consisted of 24 compounds with abundant oxygen or glycosides. Meanwhile, these compounds could bind with key amino acids in the structure of the Keap1-Nrf2 interface. Compounds from high-total-score group show effective activation effects on Nrf2. In conclusion, phytochemicals showed high binding affinity with Keap1 are promising new Nrf2 activators.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/agonistas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Sítios de Ligação , Humanos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Ratos
13.
Fitoterapia ; 138: 104341, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470066

RESUMO

The biotransformation of huperzine A (hupA), one of the characteristic bioactive constituents of the medicinal plant Huperzia serrata, by a fungal endophyte of the host plant was studied. Two previously undescribed compounds 1-2, along with a known analog 8α,15α-epoxyhuperzine A (3), were isolated and identified. The structures of all the isolates were established by spectroscopic methods including NMR, MS, IR, and UV spectra. In particular, the absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were elucidated by CD spectra comparison and theoretic NOE strength calculation. In the LPS-induced neuro-inflammation injury assay, 1-3 exhibited moderate neuroprotective activity by increasing the viability of U251 cell lines with EC50 values of 35.3 ±â€¯0.9, 32.1 ±â€¯0.9, and 50.3 ±â€¯0.8 nM, respectively.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Huperzia/microbiologia , Polyporales/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Endófitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Huperzia/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/microbiologia
14.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324047

RESUMO

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was known as the "golden grain" by the native Andean people in South America, and has been a source of valuable food over thousands of years. It can produce a variety of secondary metabolites with broad spectra of bioactivities. At least 193 secondary metabolites from quinoa have been identified in the past 40 years. They mainly include phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, and nitrogen-containing compounds. These metabolites exhibit many physiological functions, such as insecticidal, molluscicidal and antimicrobial activities, as well as various kinds of biological activities such as antioxidant, cytotoxic, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. This review focuses on our knowledge of the structures, biological activities and functions of quinoa secondary metabolites. Biosynthesis, development and utilization of the secondary metabolites especially from quinoa bran were prospected.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Metabolismo Secundário , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/metabolismo , Terpenos/farmacologia
15.
Food Chem ; 299: 125138, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302430

RESUMO

As an environmentally friendly approach for fruit quality improvement, the effect of preharvest UV-C on the physiology of strawberry fruit during postharvest storage remains to be assessed. Strawberry fruit developed with supplementary UV-C were stored at room temperature for 2 weeks. Preharvest UV-C attenuated fruit postharvest senescence and altered phytochemicals composition. Higher ester titer was found in the treated fruit at harvest, whereas higher terpene and furanone contents were detected after 72 h of storage. At harvest, polyphenolics accumulated to a higher level in UV-C group, but the difference disappeared after 24 h of storage. Meanwhile, the intrinsic level of abscisic acid and the expressions of FaPYR1, SnRK2, and FaASR in the UV-C-treated fruit was enhanced at harvest but returned to a lower level as storage proceeded. This study highlights the time-dependent effect of preharvest UV-C on strawberry fruit postharvest biochemical indexes and the possible involvement of abscisic acid signaling factors.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Fragaria/fisiologia , Frutas/fisiologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/genética , Fragaria/química , Fragaria/efeitos da radiação , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos da radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
16.
Food Chem ; 299: 125120, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288162

RESUMO

Although coffee beans have been widely studied, application of coffee flower (CF) has not been previously investigated. Here, we evaluated the use of CF for the production of bioactive compounds, melanoidins, and bio-sugars through the green process. Pressurized hot water extraction was found to be the most appropriate method for extracting bioactive compounds from CF, which contain high values of total phenolic content and have antioxidant properties. Caffeine and trigonelline were the main compounds in CF with yields of 1070.8 mg and 1092.8 mg/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively. Melanoidins were also identified and quantified in the CF extracts that is approximately 30.2% were efficiently recovered in the initial extracts of CF. Bio-sugar was also obtained from cellulase and pectinase at a 92.8% conversion rate. The aim of this study is to promote a novel approach using high amounts of CFs in the production of functional healthy foods and beverages.


Assuntos
Coffea/química , Flores/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Polímeros/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Alcaloides/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Cafeína/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Fenóis/análise
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(11): 2373-2378, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359666

RESUMO

The intestinal absorption properties of four main effective components(gallic acid, ocinolglucoside, ethyl gallate and penta-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucose) in Rhus chinensis extracts were investigated by in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model in rats. The liquid accumulation of perfusion was corrected by gravimetry. The HPLC method was established to determine the concentration of the four effective components in the intestinal perfusion. It showed significant differences(P<0.05) in absorption rate constant(K_a) and effective permeability(P_(eff)) among the three concentrations of components, and the absorption of the four effective components in different intestinal segments was saturated at high concentrations. At the same concentration, there were significant differences in K_a and P_(eff) of the four components in each intestinal segment(P<0.05). The order of K_a and P_(eff) of the four components in the intestine was penta-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucose>ethyl gallate>gallic acid>ocinolglucoside, with significant differences between them(P<0.05). In conclusion, gallic acid, orpheolglucoside, ethyl gallate and pentacyl-glucose could be absorbed in the whole intestine. Their absorption rate and permeation ability were related to the intestinal section and the perfusate concentration. These results indicated potential active transport or facilitated diffusion in the intestinal transport process of the four effective components.


Assuntos
Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal , Rhus/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Perfusão , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Ratos
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7016-7024, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194907

RESUMO

Most of the previous in vitro digestion treatments were conducted directly to whole grains without extraction of free phenolics, thus the bioaccessible phenolics contained both free phenolics that survived the digestion and digested phenolics released by digestion. However, the profiles of digested phenolics released by digestion remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate the phytochemical contents, peroxyl radical scavenging capacities (PSCs), and cellular antioxidant activities (CAAs) of free, digested, and bound fractions of whole grains. Total phenolic contents of whole grains were highest in digested fraction, followed by free and bound fractions. The predominant phenolics were 12 phenolic acids and one flavonoid, which mostly existed in bound forms, then in digested and free forms. The digested phenolics bound to proteins were in conjugated form. The bound fractions had the highest PSCs, followed by free and digested fractions. CAAs were highest in bound fractions, followed by digested and free fractions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Grãos Integrais/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular , Digestão , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
19.
Chem Biol Interact ; 308: 294-303, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158333

RESUMO

The emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens is a global threat and has created problems in providing adequate treatment of many infectious diseases. Although the conventional antimicrobial agents are quite effective against several pathogens, yet there is a need for more effective antimicrobial agents against MDR pathogens. Herbal drugs and phytochemicals have been used for their effective antimicrobial activity from ancient times and there is an increasing trend for development of plant based natural products for the prevention and treatment of pathogenic diseases. One of the strategies for effective resistance modification is the use of antimicrobial agent-phytochemical combinations that will neutralize the resistance mechanism, enabling the drug to still be effective against resistant microbes. These phytochemicals can work by several strategies, such as inhibition of target modifying and drug degrading enzymes or as efflux pumps inhibitors. A plethora of herbal extracts, essential oils and isolated pure compounds have been reported to act synergistically with existing antibiotics, antifungals and chemotherapeutics and augment the activity of these drugs. Considerable increases in the susceptibility pattern of several microbes towards the natural antimicrobials and their combinations were observed as indicated by significant decline in minimum inhibitory concentrations. This review paper summarizes the current developments regarding synergistic interactions of plant extracts and isolated pure compounds in combination with existing antibacterial, antifungal agents and chemotherapeutics. The effect of these agents on the susceptibility patterns of these pathogens and possible mechanisms of action are described in detail. In conclusion, many phytochemicals in combination with existing drugs were found to act as resistance modifying agents and proper combinations may rescue the efficacy of important lifesaving antimicrobial agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Vírus de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , beta-Lactamases/química , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
20.
Mar Drugs ; 17(6)2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159359

RESUMO

Seaweeds are an underexploited and potentially sustainable crop which offer a rich source of bioactive compounds, including novel complex polysaccharides, polyphenols, fatty acids, and carotenoids. The purported efficacies of these phytochemicals have led to potential functional food and nutraceutical applications which aim to protect against cardiometabolic and inflammatory risk factors associated with non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and some cancers. Concurrent understanding that perturbations of gut microbial composition and metabolic function manifest throughout health and disease has led to dietary strategies, such as prebiotics, which exploit the diet-host-microbe paradigm to modulate the gut microbiota, such that host health is maintained or improved. The prebiotic definition was recently updated to "a substrate that is selectively utilised by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit", which, given that previous discussion regarding seaweed prebiotics has focused upon saccharolytic fermentation, an opportunity is presented to explore how non-complex polysaccharide components from seaweeds may be metabolised by host microbial populations to benefit host health. Thus, this review provides an innovative approach to consider how the gut microbiota may utilise seaweed phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and carotenoids, and provides an updated discussion regarding the catabolism of seaweed-derived complex polysaccharides with potential prebiotic activity. Additional in vitro screening studies and in vivo animal studies are needed to identify potential prebiotics from seaweeds, alongside untargeted metabolomics to decipher microbial-derived metabolites from seaweeds. Furthermore, controlled human intervention studies with health-related end points to elucidate prebiotic efficacy are required.


Assuntos
Prebióticos , Alga Marinha/química , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA