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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1181: 59-106, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677140

RESUMO

So far, more than 20 species of Ganoderma (Lingzhi) fungi have been studied, including G. lucidum, G. sinense, G. japonicum, G. capense, G. australe, G. tsugae, G. applanatum, G. tropicus, G. boniense, G. duropora, G. resinaceum, G. theaecolum, G. cochlear, G. atrum, G. formosanum, G. boninense, G. colossum, G. concinna, G. amboinense, G. pfeifferi, and G. orbiforme. Over 600 compounds were isolated and identified from the genus Ganoderma. The components in Ganoderma contained triterpenes, meroterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and polysaccharides, in which triterpenes were the main compounds, and more than 300 triterpenes obtained from it. With the use of new technology of separation and purification, the other types of compounds, such as meroterpenoids, alkaloids, nucleosides, and polysaccharides were reported in recent years. Herein, the structural classifications and characteristics and separation methods were summarized.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , Técnicas de Química Analítica , Ganoderma/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
2.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104281, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381957

RESUMO

Veratrum californicum is a rich source of steroidal alkaloids, many of which have proven to be antagonists of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway that becomes aberrant in over twenty types of cancer. These alkaloids first became known in the 1950's due to their teratogenic properties, which resulted in newborn and fetal lambs developing cyclopia as a result of pregnant ewes consuming Veratrum californicum. It was discovered that the alkaloids in V. californicum were concentrated in the root and rhizome of the plant with much lower amounts of the most active alkaloid, cyclopamine, present in the aerial plant, especially in the late growth season. Inspired by the limitations in analytical instrumentation and methods available to researchers at the time of the original investigation, we have used state-of-the-art instrumentation and modern analytical methods to quantitate four steroidal alkaloids based on study parameters including plant part, harvest location, and growth stage. The results of the current inquiry detail differences in alkaloid composition based on the study parameters, provide a detailed assessment for alkaloids that have been characterized previously (cyclopamine, veratramine, muldamine and isorubijervine), and identify at least six alkaloids that have not been previously characterized. This study provides insight into optimal harvest time, plant growth stage, harvest location, and plant part required to isolate, yet to be characterized, alkaloids of interest for exploration as Hh pathway antagonists with desirable medicinal properties.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Esteroides/química , Veratrum/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Hedgehog/antagonistas & inibidores , Idaho , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Rizoma/química , Estações do Ano , Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides de Veratrum
4.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(10): e1900381, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403756

RESUMO

The variability in the phytochemical concentrations of Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum has not been extensively analyzed among wild populations and ecologic niches in its phylogeographic area. This study aimed to determine the variations in the phytochemical and antioxidant contents of the wild Piquin chili. The total flavonoid content of hydroalcoholic extracts (0.06 to 0.70 mg equivalent of quercetin per gram of dry weight (mg QE/g DW)), free radical-scavenging capacity for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. ) radicals (0.55 to 8.55 mm TE/g DW), amount of 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+ ) in aqueous extracts (18.13 to 107.6 mm TE/g DW) and pungency (21,760 to 88,476 Scoville heat units) were highly variable. By analyzing the spatial distribution using the first three principal components, correlations between the phytochemical content and the free radical-scavenging capacity (in both extracts) and flavonoid and phenolic contents (in the hydroalcoholic extract) were observed. Consistent with the statistical analysis, the spatial analysis showed intraregional differences in composition patterns, with an emphasis on central and coastal areas. Flavonoid contents, polyphenol contents and free radical-scavenging activity were the phytochemical components that mainly contributed to the diversity of the population.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Capsicum/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Tiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
5.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(10): e1900302, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415713

RESUMO

The present study was designed to assess the influence of geographical factors on essential oil (EO) composition, along with antiradical potential and phytochemical contents of Ferulago angulata (Schltdl.) Boiss (Apiaceae) extracts for the first time. The aerial parts were hydrodistilled by Clevenger apparatus and subjected to gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The EO yields were significantly different from populations 'Mongar' (south-slope, 3000 m) with 1.34±0.06 % and 'Male-Amiri' (north slope, 2600 m) with 0.18±0.05 % of total oil. Thirty-nine compounds were identified from the EOs of nine populations. α-Pinene was the predominant component ranging from 20.84 to 49.06 % in 'Gandomkar' (north-slope, 2500 m) and 'Mongar' (3000 m), respectively. The methanolic extract of 'Mongar' (north-slope at 2500 m) possessed the highest total phenolic contents. Also, this population logically exhibited potent antiradical activity using both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays with EC50 of 42.07±4.12 µg/mL and 8.34±0.21 mmol Trolox® equivalents/g, respectively. Due to its moderate free-radical scavenging potential and high α-pinene content, the population 'Mongar' might be considered as a perspective raw material in food and phytopharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Irã (Geográfico) , Óleos Voláteis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores
6.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(10): e1900398, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456316

RESUMO

Phytotoxic natural products with either unique or various structures are one of the most abundant sources for the discovery of potential allelochemicals, natural herbicides, and plant growth regulators. Phytotoxic diterpenoids, a relatively large class of natural products, play an important role in the plant-plant or plant-microorganism interactions. This article argues that the phytotoxic diterpenoids isolated from the plants and microorganisms can either inhibit the seed germination and the growth of plant seedlings or lead to some disease symptoms on the tested plant tissues and plant seedlings.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas/química , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas/microbiologia
7.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(10): e1900341, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465610

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to investigate the enzyme inhibition, antioxidant activity, and phenolic compounds of Lecokia cretica (Lam.) DC. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and α-glycosidase enzymes were strongly inhibited by the L. cretica extracts. IC50 values for the three enzymes were found as 3.21 mg/mL, 2.1 mg/mL, and 2.07 mg/mL, respectively. Antioxidant activities were examined in both aqueous and ethanol (EtOH) extracts using CUPRAC, FRAP, and DPPH method. Also, the phenolic compounds of the endemic plant were identified and quantified by using HPLC/MS/MS. According to the results, the extracts have remarkable antioxidant activities. The most abundant phenolic acids of L. cretica in EtOH extract were determined as quinic acid (12.76 mg/kg of crude extract), chlorogenic acid (3.39 mg/kg), and malic acid (2.38 mg/kg).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Apiaceae/química , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/química , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180621, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411258

RESUMO

Aristolochia triangularis Cham., is one of the most frequently used medicinal plant in Southern Brazil. Preparations containing the leaves and/or stems are traditionally used as anti-inflammatory, diuretic, as well as antidote against snakebites. This study screened A. triangularis extracts, fractions and isolated compounds for different bioactivities. A weak antiproliferative activity against human lung cancer cell line (A549) was observed only for chloroform fraction obtained from stems (CFstems - CC50: 2.93 µg/mL). Also, a moderate antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus was detected just for chloroform fraction obtained from leaves (CFleaves -13-16 mm inhibition zone). Additionally, two semi-purified fractions (CFstems-4 and CFleaves-4) selectively inhibited HSV-1 replication (IC50 values of 0.40 and 2.61 µg/mL, respectively), while only CFleaves showed promising results against Leishmania amazonensis. Fractionation of extracts resulted in the isolation of one neolignan (-) cubebin and one lignan (+) galbacin. However, these compounds are not responsible for the in vitro bioactivities herein detected. The presence of aristolochic acid I and aristolochic acid II in the crude ethanol extract of stems (CEEstems) and leaves (CEEleaves) was also investigated. The HPLC analysis of these extracts did not display any peak with retention time or UV spectra comparable to aristolochic acids I and II.


Assuntos
Aristolochia/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/química , Brasil , Fracionamento Químico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(13): 2806-2812, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359694

RESUMO

A total of twelve compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate of the water extract of honey-fried Eriobotrya japonica through column chromatography over silica gel,Sephadex LH-20,RP-18,and preparative HPLC. Their structures were established by MS,1 D NMR and 2 D NMR data as japonicanoside A( 1),nerolidol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-( 1→2)-ß-D-glucopyranoside( 2),nerolidol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-( l→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-( 1 → 2)-[α-L-( 4-trans-feruloyl)-rhamnopyranosyl-( 1 → 6) ]-ß-D-glucopyranoside( 3),( +)-catechin( 4),(-)-epicatechin( 5),kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside( 6),quercitrin( 7),quercetin-3-O-ß-D-galactopyranoside( 8),quercetin-3-O-ß-glucopyranoside( 9),vanillin( 10),protocatechuic aldehyde( 11),and maltol( 12). Among them,1 is a new phenolic glycoside.


Assuntos
Eriobotrya/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Mel , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glicosídeos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(10): 1989-2008, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355552

RESUMO

Polygonatum plants are perennial plants of Liliaceae. There are about 60 species reported at home and abroad,32 species in China,mainly distributed in the north temperate zone. Their main chemical components are steroidal saponins,polysaccharides,flavonoids,alkaloids,etc. They have anti-aging,anti-tumor,immunomodulation,antibacterial,antiviral,hypoglycemic and blood lipid effects. With the development of health industry,Polygonati Rhizome used as medicine and food has attracted great attention in recent years,and has become a research hotspot. However,the material basis of its efficacy is unclear and the product quality is uneven,which seriously limited the rapid upgrading of the industry. This review summarizes Polygonatum plants system classification,the chemical composition and pharmacological activity to provide theoretical basis for the development and utilization of Polygonatum plants.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Polygonatum/química , China , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Rizoma/química
11.
Eur J Med Chem ; 179: 753-764, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284085

RESUMO

Over the latest years phytochemical consumption has been associated to a decreased risk of both the onset and the development of a number of pathological conditions. In this context indicaxanthin, a betalain pigment from Opuntia ficus-indica fruit, has been the object of sound research. Explored, at first, for its mere antioxidant potential, Indicaxanthin is now regarded as a redox-active compound able to exert significant poly-pharmacological effects against several targets in a number of experimental conditions both in vivo and in vitro. This paper aims to provide an overview on the therapeutical effects of indicaxanthin, ranging from the anti-inflammatory to the neuro-modulatory and anti-tumoral ones and favored by its high bioavailability. Moreover, biochemical and molecular modelling investigations are aimed to identify the pharmacological targets the compound is able to interact with and to address the challenging development in the future research.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Betaxantinas/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Betaxantinas/química , Betaxantinas/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Opuntia/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Piridinas/química , Piridinas/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(9): 1822-1828, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342708

RESUMO

The flower of Hibiscus syriacus has good ornamental and edible-medicinal values.In this study,four samples of two varieties,namely white multiple petals flower and pink multiple petals flower,were selected as test materials.And the optimum extraction conditions,relative molecular weight,monosaccharide composition and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides in flower were investigated.Through single factor experiment and response surface,the optimal extract conditions of polysaccharide were designed as follows:extraction temperature at 96.8℃,ratio of material to liquid of 43.5∶1 m L·g~(-1),extraction time of 3.1 h.Polysaccharides of H.syriacus flowers were analyzed by high performance gel chromatography.The average molecular masses of the 4 polysaccharide samples were1.49×10~5,1.25×10~5,1.01×10~5,1.37×10~5,respectively.Polysaccharides of H.syriacus flowers were mainly composed of glucose,mannose,galactose,rhamnose and arabinose by pre-column derivatization HPLC.The ratio of galactose was the highest in five monosaccharide,and the ratio of galactose to glucose was 1.656-4.496.In addition,crude polysaccharides of H.syriacus flowers showed potential antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical(DPPH)assay,total reducing capacity assay and ABTS assay in vitro,and its antioxidant effect showed a good dose-effect relationship with the concentration of crude polysaccharides.Among the tested varieties,polysaccharides of pink multiple petals flower and white multiple petals flower had the same molecular masses and monosaccharides composition,but the antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides of pink multiple petals flower was higher than that of the white flowers.The results of this study can provide a theoretical basis for the application of H.syriacus flower in the field of functional foods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hibiscus/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Flores/química , Monossacarídeos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pigmentação , Polissacarídeos/química
13.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(7): 648-653, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257320

RESUMO

Diabetic embryopathy is a diabetic complication, in which maternal hyperglycemia in early pregnancy causes birth defects in newborn infants. Under maternal diabetic conditions, hyperglycemia disturbs intracellular molecular activities and organelles functions. These include protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria, and high levels of nitric oxide (NO). The resultant ER, oxidative, and nitrosative stresses activate apoptotic machinery to cause cell death in the embryo, ultimately resulting in developmental malformations. Based on the basic research data, efforts have been made to develop interventional strategies to alleviate the stress conditions and to reduce embryonic malformations. One of the challenges in birth defect prevention is to identify effective and safe agents to be used in pregnancy. One approach is to search and characterize naturally occurring phytochemicals, including flavonoids, curcuminoids and stilbenoids, for use in prevention of diabetic embryopathy.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/prevenção & controle , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Gravidez em Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/farmacologia , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Gravidez , Estilbenos/química , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Estilbenos/uso terapêutico
14.
Phytochemistry ; 165: 112051, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234093

RESUMO

Parmelia Acharius is one of the most representative genera within Parmeliaceae family which is the largest and the most widespread family of lichen-forming fungi. Parmelia lichens present a medium to large foliose thallus and they are distributed from the Artic to the Antartic continents, being more concentrated in temperate regions. According to its current description, the genus encompasses up to 41 different species and it is phylogenetically located within the Parmelioid clade (the largest group in the family). Interestingly, some of its species are among the most common epiphytic lichens in Europe such as Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Parmelia saxatilis (L.) Ach. The present work aims at providing a complete overview of the existing knowledge on the genus, from general concepts such as taxonomy and phylogeny, to their ecological relevance and biological interest for pharmaceutical uses. As reported, Parmelia lichens arise as valuable tools for biomonitoring environmental pollution due to their capacity to bioaccumulate metal elements and its response to acid rain. Moreover, they produce a wide array of specialized products/metabolites including depsides, depsidones, triterpenes and dibenzofurans, which have been suggested to exert promising pharmacological activities, mainly antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Herein, we discuss past and recent data regarding to the phytochemical characterization of more than 15 species. Even though the knowledge is still scarce in comparsion to other groups of organisms such as higher plants and other non-lichenized fungi. Reviewed works suggest that Parmelia lichens are worthy of further research for determining their actual possibilities as sources of bioactive compounds with potential therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Parmeliaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Filogenia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo
15.
Life Sci ; 231: 116519, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152813

RESUMO

Glechoma hederacea belongs to the Labiatae family and has many biological activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of a hot water extract of G. hederacea (HWG). Our results indicated that rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, genistin, and ferulic acid were the most abundant phytochemicals in HWG. The free radical scavenging capacity of HWG in cell-free systems was evaluated by using the α,α-diphenyl-ß-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ß-carotene bleaching assays. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of HWG were determined in vitro in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results demonstrated that DAPI staining, the comet assay, and DNA fragmentation showed that HWG prevented LPS-induced DNA damage in RAW264.7 macrophages, reduced the content of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), increased GSH levels, and regulated antioxidant enzyme activities. We also demonstrated that HWG significantly decreased the LPS-induced mRNA expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß in RAW264.7 macrophages, and reduced the LPS-induced protein expression of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW264.7 macrophages. These results show that HWG and its main components possess potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Lamiaceae/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Lamiaceae/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Células RAW 264.7/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
16.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104245, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226282

RESUMO

Five new homoadamantane polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs, 1-5) were isolated from the fruits of Garcinia multiflora. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses including NMR, HRESIMS and electronic circular dichroism (ECD). Compounds 1-3 possessed an unique core structure consisting of tetracyclo[7.3.1.13,11.03,7]tetradecane-2,12,14- trione. In comparison with those of 1-3, compound 4 had tricyclo[4.3.1.13,8]undecane- 2,9,11-trione with the loss of prenyl unit. Garcimultinone C (5) was the first example of seco-homoadamantane-type PPAPs with 5-oxatricyclo[7.3.1.03,7]tridecane skeleton derived from C(4)/C(5) carbon-carbon bond cleavage by retro-Claisen reaction.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Garcinia/química , Floroglucinol/química , Animais , China , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Floroglucinol/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7016-7024, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194907

RESUMO

Most of the previous in vitro digestion treatments were conducted directly to whole grains without extraction of free phenolics, thus the bioaccessible phenolics contained both free phenolics that survived the digestion and digested phenolics released by digestion. However, the profiles of digested phenolics released by digestion remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate the phytochemical contents, peroxyl radical scavenging capacities (PSCs), and cellular antioxidant activities (CAAs) of free, digested, and bound fractions of whole grains. Total phenolic contents of whole grains were highest in digested fraction, followed by free and bound fractions. The predominant phenolics were 12 phenolic acids and one flavonoid, which mostly existed in bound forms, then in digested and free forms. The digested phenolics bound to proteins were in conjugated form. The bound fractions had the highest PSCs, followed by free and digested fractions. CAAs were highest in bound fractions, followed by digested and free fractions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Grãos Integrais/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular , Digestão , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
18.
Chem Biol Interact ; 308: 294-303, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158333

RESUMO

The emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens is a global threat and has created problems in providing adequate treatment of many infectious diseases. Although the conventional antimicrobial agents are quite effective against several pathogens, yet there is a need for more effective antimicrobial agents against MDR pathogens. Herbal drugs and phytochemicals have been used for their effective antimicrobial activity from ancient times and there is an increasing trend for development of plant based natural products for the prevention and treatment of pathogenic diseases. One of the strategies for effective resistance modification is the use of antimicrobial agent-phytochemical combinations that will neutralize the resistance mechanism, enabling the drug to still be effective against resistant microbes. These phytochemicals can work by several strategies, such as inhibition of target modifying and drug degrading enzymes or as efflux pumps inhibitors. A plethora of herbal extracts, essential oils and isolated pure compounds have been reported to act synergistically with existing antibiotics, antifungals and chemotherapeutics and augment the activity of these drugs. Considerable increases in the susceptibility pattern of several microbes towards the natural antimicrobials and their combinations were observed as indicated by significant decline in minimum inhibitory concentrations. This review paper summarizes the current developments regarding synergistic interactions of plant extracts and isolated pure compounds in combination with existing antibacterial, antifungal agents and chemotherapeutics. The effect of these agents on the susceptibility patterns of these pathogens and possible mechanisms of action are described in detail. In conclusion, many phytochemicals in combination with existing drugs were found to act as resistance modifying agents and proper combinations may rescue the efficacy of important lifesaving antimicrobial agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/metabolismo , Vírus de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , beta-Lactamases/química , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
19.
Phytochemistry ; 165: 112049, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229788

RESUMO

Five undescribed phenolic compounds, inclusing a depsidone derivative, hyperwightin A, a flavone derivative, hyperwightin B, and three benzophenone glycosides, hyperwightins C-E, along with four known ones were isolated from the 95% EtOH extract of the whole plants of Hypericum wightianum. Structures of the obtained compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. The protective effects of the isolates against corticosterone-induced PC12 cell injury were assessed. Hyperwightin E, petiolin G and hyperxanthone exhibited noticeable neuroprotection at 10 µM.


Assuntos
Hypericum/química , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Corticosterona/antagonistas & inibidores , Corticosterona/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Células PC12 , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Ratos
20.
Mar Drugs ; 17(6)2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167455

RESUMO

Fucus vesiculosus is an edible brown macroalga, with health benefits associated with its consumption and also a source of bioactive molecules. It is acknowledged that the biochemical composition of macroalgae changes when exposed to different environmental conditions occurring on different habitats, such as the water temperature, and light intensity. In the present study, the polar lipidome of Fucus vesiculosus was characterized for the first time using modern high-resolution HILIC-MS, and MS/MS approaches, to evaluate the phenotypic variability in two seasons of the year, e.g., winter and spring. A total of 187 molecular species were identified over eighteen classes of glycolipids, phospholipids and betaine lipids. Principal component analysis (PCA) multivariate statistical analysis and cluster analysis of polar lipid classes, polar lipid species and total fatty acids (FA) datasets, showed clustering according to the seasonal groups. While the lipid profile of Fucus vesiculosus harvested in the winter and spring yielded the same molecular species, the relative abundance of these species was significantly different. In the winter, changes were mainly due to the increased relative abundance of some molecular species of glycolipids and phospholipids, bearing octadeca(poly)enoic (18:3, 18:4) and eicosa(poly)enoic (20:4, 20:5) FA and betaine lipids species with short saturated FA (14:0) and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). Importantly, glycolipids with n-3 PUFA and sulfolipids, have been reported to have important biological activities and therapeutic value. Overall, Fucus vesiculosus is a promising source of bioactive compounds that can be used as functional food or ingredients for human nutrition, feed, pharma, and cosmetic formulations. In this study, samples harvested in the winter season maximized yields of these bioactive components, when compared with samples harvested in the spring.


Assuntos
Fucus/química , Lipídeos/química , Estações do Ano , Fucus/metabolismo , Lipídeos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química
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