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1.
mSphere ; 5(3)2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404512

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the respiratory infection known as COVID-19. From an immunopathological standpoint, coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2 induce increased levels of a variety of T-helper 1 (Th1) and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, CCL2 protein, and CXCL10 protein. In the absence of proven antiviral agents or an effective vaccine, substances with immunomodulatory activity may be able to inhibit inflammatory and Th1 cytokines and/or yield an anti-inflammatory and/or Th2 immune response to counteract COVID-19 symptoms and severity. This report briefly describes the following four unconventional but commercially accessible immunomodulatory agents that can be employed in clinical trials to evaluate their effectiveness at alleviating disease symptoms and severity: low-dose oral interferon alpha, microdose DNA, low-dose thimerosal, and phytocannabinoids.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , DNA/uso terapêutico , Imunomodulação , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Timerosal/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico
2.
Clin Chim Acta ; 505: 60-72, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017926

RESUMO

Cervical cancer is common among women with a recurrence rate of 35% despite surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Patients receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy routinely experience several side effects including toxicity, non-targeted damage of tissues, hair loss, neurotoxicity, multidrug resistance (MDR), nausea, anemia and neutropenia. Phytochemicals can interfere with almost every stage of carcinogenesis to prevent cancer development. Many natural compounds are known to activate/deactivate multiple redox-sensitive transcription factors that modulate tumor signaling pathways. Polyphenols have been found to be promising agents against cervical cancer. However, applications of phytochemicals as a therapeutic drug are limited due to low oral bioavailability, poor aqueous solubility and requirement of high doses. Nano-sized phytochemicals (NPCs) are promising anti-cancer agents as they are required in minute quantities which lowers overall treatment costs. Several phytochemicals, including quercetin, lycopene, leutin, curcumin, green tea polyphenols and others have been packaged as nanoparticles and proven to be useful in nano-chemoprevention and nano-chemotherapy. Nanoparticles have high biocompatibility, biodegradability and stability in biological environment. Nano-scale drug delivery systems are excellent source for enhanced drug specificity, improved absorption rates, reduced drug degradation and systemic toxicity. The present review discusses current knowledge in the involvement of phytochemical nanoparticles in cervical cancer therapy over conventional chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Disponibilidade Biológica , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem
3.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 615-646, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006377

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with symptoms ranging from lack of social interaction and communication deficits to rigid, repetitive, and stereotypic behavior. It has also been associated with comorbidities such as anxiety, aggression, epilepsy, deficit in sensory processing, as well as ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Apart from several behavioral and cognitive complications arising as a result of central nervous system dysfunction, there are various physiological comorbidities such as immune system deregulation, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and gastrointestinal complications which can worsen existing behavioral complications. There are no available treatments for these physiological comorbidities. The prevalence of gastrointestinal complications in ASD ranges from 9% to 70% and it correlates with behaviors consistent with the autistic endophenotype indicating that these are one of the major comorbidities associated with ASD. A strong connection of gut-brain cross talk occurs as a result of gut dysbiosis responsible for excessive production of short-chain fatty acids such as propanoic acid (PPA) by abnormal gut flora in ASD patients. This worsens behavioral, neurochemical, and mitochondrial dysfunction occurring in ASD. These physiological comorbidities are responsible for the generation of free radical species that cause immune system dysfunction leading to synthesis of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This in turn causes activation of microglia. Dietary phytochemicals are thought to be safer and useful as an alternative neurotherapeutic moiety. These compounds provide neuroprotection by modulating signaling pathways such as Nrf2, NF-κB, MAPK pathway or Sirtuin-FoxO pathway. There has been recent evidence in scientific literature regarding the modulation of gut-brain cross talk responsible for behavioral, biochemical, and mitochondrial dysfunction as well as cellular and behavioral sensory alterations by dietary phytochemicals such as curcumin, resveratrol, naringenin, and sulforaphane. These dietary phytochemicals can be formulated in novel brain-targeted delivery systems which overcome their limitation of low oral bioavailability and short half-life leading to prolonged action. Till date, not much work has been done on the development of brain-targeted neurotherapeutics for ASD. In this chapter we discuss plausible mechanisms and evidence from our own and other scientific research for the utilization of curcumin, resveratrol, naringenin, and sulforaphane as neurotherapeutics for ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/dietoterapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Humanos
4.
Phytochemistry ; 171: 112234, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901735

RESUMO

A total of fifteen grayanane diterpenoid glucosides including eight undescribed ones, pierisjaponosides A-H, were isolated from the leaves of Pieris japonica (Thunb.) D. Don ex G. Don (Ericaceae). Their structures were established by extensive spectros copic techniques including HRESIMS and NMR, as well as chemical methods. The absolute configurations of pierisjaponosides A, B, and D were finally established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction with Cu Kα radiation. This is the first time to report the crystal structure of a 5,9-epoxygrayanane diterpenoid glucoside. Pierisjaponoside E represents the first example of a 9ß-hydroxygrayan-1(10)-ene diterpenoid. All the isolated grayanane diterpenoid glucosides were evaluated for their analgesic activities in the acetic acid-induced writhing models in mice, and showed significant analgesic effects. Pierisjaponosides A and C-H, micranthanoside A, pieroside A, and craiobiosides A and B displayed significant analgesic effects with the writhe inhibition rates over 50% at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg. Pierisjaponoside E exhibited significant analgesic activities with the percentage inhibitions of 81.7%, 70.4%, and 52.1% at the doses of 5.0, 1.0, and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively. The preliminary structure-activity relationships of grayanane diterpenoid glucosides as potent analgesics were discussed, giving some clues to design novel analgesics.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , Ericaceae/química , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Acético , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Dor/induzido quimicamente , Medição da Dor , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
5.
Phytochemistry ; 170: 112222, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810054

RESUMO

Hypertension has become the leading risk factor for worldwide cardiovascular diseases. Conventional pharmacological treatment, after both dietary and lifestyle changes, is generally proposed. In this review, we present the antihypertensive properties of phytocomplexes from thirteen plants, long ago widely employed in ethnomedicines and, in recent years, increasingly evaluated for their activity in vitro and in vivo, also in humans, in comparison with synthetic drugs acting on the same systems. Here, we focus on the demonstrated or proposed mechanisms of action of such phytocomplexes and of their constituents proven to exert cardiovascular effects. Almost seventy phytochemicals are described and scientifically sound pertinent literature, published up to now, is summarized. The review emphasizes the therapeutic potential of these natural substances in the treatment of the 'high normal blood pressure' or 'stage 1 hypertension', so-named according to the most recent European and U.S. guidelines, and as a supplementation in more advanced stages of hypertension, however needing further validation by clinical trial intensification.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química
6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 186: 111903, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787360

RESUMO

Alteration of nutritional habits play an essential role on the risk of developing Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Several epidemiological studies have shown that assuming diets rich of foods included in the Mediterranean diet (MetDiet) pattern like, such as olive oil, nuts, fruit, fiber, vegetables, wine and grain cereals has protective effects on the different risk factors characterizing the MetS. The beneficial effects of the MetDiet in the MetS are mainly due to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the most abundant phytochemical components of such foods as polyphenols like resveratrol and oleuropein, allyl sulfides, ellagic acid, mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA), tocopherols and flavonoids like quercetin, which have shown positive results in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), with related risk factors, like hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and obesity. In this review, we highlighted the multi-target activities of the bioactive components contained in some foods typical of the Mediterranean area like olive oil, onion, liquorice, rosemary, oregano, hazelnut, pistachio, "Melannurca" apple, red wine, hot pepper, Citrus sp. fruits, saffron and garlic, with particular focus on their impact on health outcomes in relation to MetS main key factors, such as insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), endothelial dysfunctions, inflammatory response, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemic and hypercholesterolemic effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Dieta Mediterrânea , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Antioxidantes/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112050, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265887

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Si-Miao-Yong-An decoction (SMYAD) is a traditional Chinese herbal formulation. SMYAD first appeared in the Eastern Han Dynasty according to the "Shen Yi Mi Zhuan". Then the formula was recorded in the "Yan Fang Xin Bian" edited by medical scientist Bao Xiangao in the Qing Dynasty. This well-known prescription has been traditionally used for gangrene and vascular vasculitis. It is mainly used for cardiovascular and endocrine diseases in current clinical applications and research. AIM OF STUDY: In this study, the potential mechanisms of SMYAD against cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy in the ß-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline induced heart failure model were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The heart failure animal model was established via injected isoprenaline in rats. Echocardiography was used to detect the structure and function of the heart. HE staining and Masson's trichrome staining was performed to assess myocardial tissue morphology. The serum biochemical indexes were detected by dedicated biochemical kit. BNP was tested by ELISA kit. The levels of mRNA were detected by RT-qPCR. Cardiomyocyte morphology was assessed by immunofluorescence. Phosphorylated and total p38, Akt were analyzed by Western blot. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was tested by CM-H2DCFDA probe. Formula identification of chemical constituents of SMYAD in plasma was disclosed through ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS). RESULTS: SMYAD was able to improve the heart function in ISO induced heart failure rat model via protecting rat from developing cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. SMYAD also decreased plasma expression of these biochemical indexes. It was found that SMYAD could regulate cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis makers' mRNA levels in vitro and vivo. In addition, SMYAD inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 and Akt, which are key mediators in the pathological process of ISO-induced cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. It also showed that the components of SMYAD in rat plasma exerted myocardial cell protective activity. CONCLUSION: In summary, SMYAD may comprise more than one active ingredient to the pursuit of combination therapies instead of specifically target a single disease-causing molecule. These experimental results suggest that SMYAD may be a potential drug candidate in diseases of cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis caused by ß-adrenoceptor abnormalities.


Assuntos
Cardiomegalia/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Cardiomegalia/etiologia , Linhagem Celular , Doxorrubicina , Fibrose , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Isoproterenol , Masculino , Miocárdio/citologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112172, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442619

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sophora alopecuroides L., which is called Kudouzi in China, is a medicinal plant distributed in Western and Central Asia, especially in China, and has been used for decades to treat fever, bacterial infection, heart disease, rheumatism, and gastrointestinal diseases. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review aims to provide up-to-date information on S. alopecuroides, including its botanical characterization, medicinal resources, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research, and toxicology, in exploring future therapeutic and scientific potentials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information related to this article was systematically collected from the scientific literature databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, Springer, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, published books, PhD and MS dissertations, and other web sources, such as the official website of Flora of China and Yao Zhi website (https://db.yaozh.com/). RESULTS: A total of 128 compounds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, and polysaccharides, were isolated from S. alopecuroides. Among these compounds, the effects of alkaloids, such as matrine and oxymatrine, were extensively studied and developed into new drugs. S. alopecuroides and its active components had a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, analgesic, and neuroprotective functions, as well as protective properties against pulmonary fibrosis and cardiac fibroblast proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: As an important traditional Chinese medicine, modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that S. alopecuroides has prominent bioactivities, especially on gynecological inflammation and hepatitis B, and anticancer activities. These activities provide prospects for novel drug development for cancer and some chronic diseases. Nevertheless, the comprehensive evaluation, quality control, understanding of the multitarget network pharmacology, long-term in vivo toxicity, and clinical efficacy of S. alopecuroides require further detailed research.


Assuntos
Sophora , Agricultura , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade , Controle de Qualidade
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112204, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669442

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ficus hispida L.f. (Moraceae) has long been used as a traditional medicine in India, China, Sri Lanka, Australia, and Myanmar in the treatment of diarrhea, ulcer, anemia, diabetes, inflammation, and cancer. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This review provides a systematic comment on the botany, traditional uses, and phytochemical and pharmacological studies of F. hispida, with an aim to make critical update of the current knowledge and obtain opportunities for further therapeutic potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The information was derived from scientific literature databases including PubMed, Baidu Scholar, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Science Direct. Additional information was gathered from books, Ph.D. and M.Sc. dissertations, and unpublished materials. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: F. hispida is used especially in Chinese and Indian traditional medical systems as a remedy for skin disorders, respiratory diseases, and urinary diseases. Wound healing, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, sedative, antidiarrheal, antiulcer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antineoplastic, and antidiabetic activities have been reported for crude extracts and isolated metabolites, but the methodologies in these studies often have inadequate design and low technical quality. More than 76 compounds have been isolated from F.hispida, including sesquiterpenoids and triterpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, phenylpropionic acids, benzoic acid derivatives, alkaloids, steroids, other glycosides, and alkanes, but the method of bioassay-guided fractionation is seldom applied in the isolation from F. hispida. CONCLUSION: F. hispida is used widely in traditional medicines and has multiple pharmacological effects that could support traditional uses. However, pharmacological studies should be viewed with caution because of the inappropriate experimental design. More in vitro and in vivo research is urgently needed to study the molecular mechanisms and assess the effective and safe dose of F. hispida.


Assuntos
Ficus , Animais , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112208, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476443

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Melissa officinalis L., commonly known as lemon balm, is one of the most well known edible and medicinal plants of the Lamiaceae family. It is quoted in almost all known medical treatises, from Antiquity up to modern era, such as Corpus Hippocraticum, Dioscorides' De Materia Medica and later on in medieval medical manuscripts and Pharmacopoeias. Actually, it is widely used as herbal medicine for the relief of mild symptoms of mental stress, to aid sleep and for symptomatic treatment of mild gastrointestinal complaints including bloating and flatulence. In Greece, the empirical physicians "vikoyiatroi" recommended the decoction of dry flowers and leaves to treat tracheobronchitis, hysteria, epilepsy, heart arrhythmias, as hypnotic and against skin disorders. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was conducted to investigate the potential beneficial effects in psoriasis in mice of M. officinalis ssp. altissima and to carry out the chemical analysis in order to reveal its main bioactive secondary metabolites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Non polar and polar extracts of M. officinalis ssp. altissima aerial parts were prepared by using dichloromethane and methanol, successively; in addition a decoction was made upon oral information by local users in Crete, where the plant was collected. All three preparations were chemically analyzed in order to isolate their main constituents. Chemical structures of all isolated compounds were determined by 1D, 2D-NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Furthermore, the antioxidant potential of extracts and decoction was evaluated through DPPH radical scavenging capability. The in vivo in mice anti-psoriatic efficacy of all preparations was estimated through clinical and histopathological assessment and measurements of TEWL and hydration. RESULTS: The dichloromethane extract yielded ursolic acid, 2α-hydroxy-ursolic acid, pomolic acid, 3ß-stearyloxy-urs-12-ene, oleanolic acid, noropacursane and campesterol; the methanol extract afforded rosmarinic acid and methyl rosmarinate, while from the decoction caffeic acid, 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)lactic acid and rosmarinic acid were isolated. The psoriasis evaluation, based on PASI score, photodocumentation and histopathological estimation showed that the decoction primarily and the dichloromethane extract secondly could significantly contribute to psoriasis treatment. The decoction seems able to reestablish skin physiology by decreasing dryness and enhancing skin barrier function. Moreover, the decoction showed the best antioxidant activity, while the dichloromethane extract the weakest. CONCLUSIONS: The triterpene derivatives of the dichloromethane extract are likely to be responsible for its anti-psoriatic activity. The abundant polyphenolic load of the decoction contributes to its high antioxidant activity and the most effective results against psoriasis. The anti-psoriatic activity of the decoction confirmed the traditional use of this plant as antioxidant, wound healing and skin barrier repair agent.


Assuntos
Melissa , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais/química , Psoríase/patologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Triterpenos/análise , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112211, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533076

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nardostachys jatamansi (D.Don) DC. (family Caprifoliaceae) is prized in the Chinese, Tibetan, Nepalese, Bhutanese, Indian and Japanese systems of medicine. Its medicinal properties are well documented in ancient literature such as the Ayurvedic classics, the Old Testament, Ben-Cao- Shi-Yi, and Homer's Iliad. The plant is critically endangered and found in the alpine and sub-alpine regions of the Himalayas. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our study aims to show the challenges and opportunities of harnessing the untapped pharmaceutical resources of N. jatamansi. Another aim is to explore the possibilities of translating ethnobotanical information into health benefit applications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sources of information used in the study are government reports, dissertations, books, research articles and databases like Science-Direct, SciFinder, Web of Science, PubMed, Wiley Online Library, and ACS Publications on N. jatamansi. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In the study, we have examined and discussed reports on phytochemicals present in the plant, their structure, biological activity, pharmacological properties of extracts derived from plant parts, isolated compounds, and commercially available products from the plant. We have identified and discussed ambiguities and confusions about the plant's nomenclature and geographical distribution, and highlighted various studies that failed to discuss this issue. We analyzed the links between various reports on ethnobotanical information as well as studies on phytochemistry and pharmacologyconfirming the therapeutic properties of N. jatamansi. However, in many of these findings which had used dried samples, there was an uncanny resemblance between the phytochemical profiles and biological activities of N. jatamansi and Valeriana jatamansi Jones ex Roxb. (another genus from family, Caprifoliaceae). Since both the species share identical vernacular names, a possible reason could be that the samples may not have been of two separate species. Other limitations of different studies were the use of out-dated techniques for phytochemical profiling, absence of toxicology studies using animal models and clinical trials using human subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of various studies revealed a confusion about the botanical nomenclature of the plants and their geographical distributions. Absence of proper markers for identification of correct samples and improperly conducted studies on N. jatamansi were found to be the major hurdles to the use of ethnobotanical information and research findings into applications for human health. Development of markers using molecular, chemical and pharmacognosy based approaches for plant authentication and, in vitro propagation of authenticated material for easy availability of genuine plant material are the possible solutions to the problems identified.


Assuntos
Nardostachys , Fitoterapia , Animais , Ásia , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112206, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494199

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cedrela serrata Royle (C. serrata) is a medicinal plant not only used for constructions but also an important conventional medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as; diabetes, jaundice, liver diseases, diarrhea, fever, chronic infantile dysentery, intestinal worms, hypertension, skin and blood diseases. AIMS: This review article documents and critically assesses, for the first time; up to date categorized information about C. serrata including its reported pharmacological activities, cultural uses, active compounds, and botanical description. MATERIALS AND METHOD: s: All provided information about C. serrata was collected using the electronic databases (e.g. Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Springer Link), books (e.g. Trees of Pakistan and Herbalism, Phytochemistry, and Ethnopharmacology) and thesis. RESULTS: Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical studies on C. serrata revealed the presence of important chemical constituents such as; flavonoids, phenolic acids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and cardiac glycosides. The phytochemicals showed various in vitro activities like antioxidant, anti-infective, antiglycation, cytotoxic activities. Major areas of research conducted on C. serrata are its antioxidant and anti-infective activities. Few historical uses of C. serrata are supported by modern in vitro pharmacological studies such as; antidiarrheal, antidiabetic, and leishmanicidal activity. CONCLUSION: There were convincing evidence in in vitro studies supporting C. serrata antioxidant, anti-infective, anti-diabetic, anti-glycating, and cytotoxic activities. Nevertheless, all reported pharmacological activities were carried out in vitro and a gap in research i.e. preclinical and clinical investigation still exists. The authors emphasize the need for future in-depth research and clinical trials to investigate C. serrata pharmacological activity, clinical efficacy and safety. The potential chemical compounds with suggestive classes may need to be isolated and pharmacological activities must be established for these compounds. The plant has very limited information about pharmacological activities and the data available for supportive cultural uses needs proper validation.


Assuntos
Cedrela , Fitoterapia , Animais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Plantas/toxicidade
13.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533291

RESUMO

The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Bioactive phytochemicals in food supplements are a trending approach to facilitate dieting and to improve patients' adherence to reducing food and caloric intake. The aim of this systematic review was to assess efficacy and safety of the most commonly used bioactive phytochemicals with appetite/hunger-suppressing and/or satiety/fullness-increasing properties. To be eligible, studies needed to have included at least 10 patients per group aged 18 years or older with no serious health problems except for overweight or obesity. Of those studies, 32 met the inclusion criteria, in which 27 different plants were tested alone or as a combination, regarding their efficacy in suppressing appetite/hunger and/or increasing satiety/fullness. The plant extracts most tested were derived from Camellia sinensis (green tea), Capsicum annuum, and Coffea species. None of the plant extracts tested in several trials showed a consistent positive treatment effect. Furthermore, only a few adverse events were reported, but none serious. The findings revealed mostly inconclusive evidence that the tested bioactive phytochemicals are effective in suppressing appetite/hunger and/or increasing satiety/fullness. More systematic and high quality clinical studies are necessary to determine the benefits and safety of phytochemical complementary remedies for dampening the feeling of hunger during dieting.


Assuntos
Depressores do Apetite/uso terapêutico , Regulação do Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Resposta de Saciedade/efeitos dos fármacos , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressores do Apetite/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491986

RESUMO

Inflammation is one of the common events in the majority of acute as well as chronic debilitating diseases and represent a chief cause of morbidity in today's era of modern lifestyle. If unchecked, inflammation leads to development of rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and atherosclerosis along with pulmonary, autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Inflammation involves a complex network of many mediators, a variety of cells, and execution of multiple pathways. Current therapy for inflammatory diseases is limited to the steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. The chronic use of these drugs is reported to cause severe adverse effects like gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal abnormalities. There is a massive need to explore new anti-inflammatory agents with selective action and lesser toxicity. Plants and isolated phytoconstituents are promising and interesting sources of new anti-inflammatories. However, drug development from natural sources has been linked with hurdles like the complex nature of extracts, difficulties in isolation of pure phytoconstituents, and the yield of isolated compounds in minute quantities that is insufficient for subsequent lead development. Although various in-vivo and in-vitro models for anti-inflammatory drug development are available, judicious selection of appropriate animal models is a vital step in the early phase of drug development. Systematic evaluation of phytoconstituents can facilitate the identification and development of potential anti-inflammatory leads from natural sources. The present review describes various techniques of anti-inflammatory drug screening with its advantages and limitations, elaboration on biological targets of phytoconstituents in inflammation and biomarkers for the prediction of adverse effects of anti-inflammatory drugs. The systematic approach proposed through present article for anti-inflammatory drug screening can rationalize the identification of novel phytoconstituents at the initial stage of drug screening programs.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(8): 561-574, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472893

RESUMO

The shrub Microcos paniulata (MPL; Tiliaceae), distributed in south China, south and southeast Asia, yields a phytomedicine used to treat heat stroke, fever, dyspepsia, diarrhea, insect bites and jaundice. Phytochemical investigations on different parts of MPL indicate the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, triterpenoids and organic acids. The MPL leaves, fruits, barks and roots extracts showed antidiarrheal, antimicrobial and insecticidal, anti-inflammation, hepatoprotective, cardiovascular protective, blood lipids reducing, analgesic, jaundice-relieving and antipyretic activities, etc. The review aims to summary the traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacological bioactivity, quality control, toxicology and potential mechanisms of MPL. Additionally, this review will highlight the existing research gaps in knowledge and provide a foundation for further investigations on this plant.


Assuntos
Malvaceae , Medicina Tradicional , Animais , China , Etnofarmacologia , Humanos , Malvaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 118: 109338, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545238

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia is a key risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, which are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, despite the advancement of the treatment and prevention of dyslipidemia, medications used to treat dyslipidemia are limited to chemical drugs. Herbal medicine, as an alternative treatment, has a long history of usage and provides more treatment options, and related studies have revealed intervention targets for dyslipidemia. Four lipid-lowering mechanisms of herbal medicines have been proposed and are discussed in this paper. These mechanisms are the inhibition of cholesterol absorption in enterocytes, reduction of cholesterol synthesis, elevation of reverse cholesterol transport, and promotion of cholesterol excretion in the liver. This review elaborates on the underlying molecular pathways involved in plasma lipid balance via bioactive compounds from herbal medicines.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , Enterócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540128

RESUMO

Polyphenols are potent micronutrients that can be found in large quantities in various food sources and spices. These compounds, also known as phenolics due to their phenolic structure, play a vital nutrient-based role in the prevention of various diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, liver disease, and cancers. However, the function of polyphenols in disease prevention and therapy depends on their dietary consumption and biological properties. According to American Cancer Society statistics, there will be an expected rise of 23.6 million new cancer cases by 2030. Due to the severity of the increased risk, it is important to evaluate various preventive measures associated with cancer. Relatively recently, numerous studies have indicated that various dietary polyphenols and phytochemicals possess properties of modifying epigenetic mechanisms that modulate gene expression resulting in regulation of cancer. These polyphenols and phytochemicals, when administrated in a dose-dependent and combinatorial-based manner, can have an enhanced effect on epigenetic changes, which play a crucial role in cancer prevention and therapy. Hence, this review will focus on the mechanisms of combined polyphenols and phytochemicals that can impact various epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation and histone modifications as well as regulation of non-coding miRNAs expression for treatment and prevention of various types of cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Micronutrientes , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Phytother Res ; 33(12): 3064-3089, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515899

RESUMO

Naturally occurring phytochemicals or plant derivatives are now being explored extensively for their health's benefits and medicinal uses. The therapeutic effect of phytochemicals has been reported in several pathophysiological settings such as inflammatory disorders, metabolic disorders, liver dysfunction, neurodegenerative disorders, and nephropathies. However, the most warranted therapeutic effects of phytochemicals were mapped to their anticancerous and chemopreventive action. Moreover, combining phytochemicals with standard chemotherapy has shown promising results in cancer therapy with minimal side effects and better efficacy. Many phytochemicals, like curcumin, resveratrol, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate, have been extensively investigated for their chemopreventive as well as chemotherapeutic effects. However, poor bioavailability, low solubility, hydrophobicity, and obscure target specificity restrict their therapeutic applications in the clinic. There has been a continually increasing interest to formulate nanoformulations of phytochemicals by using various nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles, nanoemulsions, and nanoparticles, to improve their bioavailability and target specificity, thereby maximizing the therapeutic potential. In the present review, we have summarized chemopreventive as well as chemotherapeutic action of some common phytochemicals and their major limitations in clinical application. Also, we have given an overview of strategies that can improve the efficacy of phytochemicals for their chemotherapeutic value in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Resveratrol/uso terapêutico , Catequina/farmacologia , Catequina/uso terapêutico , Curcumina/farmacologia , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia
19.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416121

RESUMO

As our global population ages, the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases is critical to our society. In recent years, researchers have begun to study the role of biologically active chemicals from plants and herbs to gain new inspiration and develop new therapeutic drugs. Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.) is a famous Chinese herbal medicine with a variety of pharmacological activities. It has been used to treat various diseases since ancient times. Extensive research over the years has shown that ginseng has potential as a neuroprotective drug, and its neuroprotective effects can be used to treat and prevent neurological damage or pathologically related diseases (such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, depression symptoms, and strokes). Moreover, evidence for the medicinal and health benefits of ginsenoside, its main active ingredient, in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases is increasing, and current clinical results have not reported any serious adverse reactions to ginseng. Therefore, we briefly review the recent research and development on the beneficial effects and mechanisms of ginseng and its main active ingredient, ginsenoside, in the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, hoping to provide some ideas for the discovery and identification of ginseng neuroprotection.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Panax/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Estudos Clínicos como Assunto , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Ginsenosídeos/química , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 118: 109319, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404773

RESUMO

Clerodendrum petasites S. Moore has been prescribed in Thai traditional medicine for over 30 years for the treatment of ailments including asthma, inflammation, fever, cough, vomiting, and skin disorders. The phytochemicals from this plant have been identified as phenolic acids, flavones, flavone glycosides, glycosides, phenylpropanoid, and diterpenoid. The pharmacological activities both in vitro and in vivo have mostly been reported from crude extracts and not from pure compounds. This review, therefore, brings together information on the specific phytochemicals found in C. petasites in order to provide a guide to the natural bioactive compounds that are potentially used in medicines together with mechanisms underlying their pharmacological uses. All relevant information was searched for the terms of plant name, naturally-occurring compounds, and traditional uses from reliable databases, such as PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar, along with Thai traditional medicine textbooks. There was no specific timeline set for the search and this review selected to report only mechanisms studied by using standard compounds for their biological activities. Four dominant compounds comprising hispidulin, vanillic acid, verbascoside, and apigenin, have robust evidence to support their medical effects. Hispidulin was discovered to be possibly responsible for the treatment of cancer, osteolytic bone diseases, and neurological diseases. Other compounds were also found to tentatively support the uses in inflammation and neurological diseases. C. petasites extracts may provide an option as complimentary medicine, and or for the pharmacological development of new drugs derived from the phytochemicals found within.


Assuntos
Apigenina/uso terapêutico , Clerodendrum/química , Flavonas/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Vanílico/uso terapêutico , Animais , Apigenina/química , Flavonas/química , Glucosídeos/química , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Ácido Vanílico/química
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